Articles | Volume 9, issue 4
Development and technical paper 14 Apr 2016
Development and technical paper | 14 Apr 2016
Global-scale modelling of melting and isotopic evolution of Earth's mantle: melting modules for TERRA
Hein J. van Heck et al.
No articles found.
Martin Wolstencroft and J. Huw Davies
Solid Earth, 8, 817–825,Short summary
A key aspect of plate tectonics is the periodic assembly and subsequent break-up of supercontinents. There is strong evidence that this has happened repeatedly over geological history, but exactly how a supercontinent breaks up is still debated. In this paper, we use computer modelling of Earth's interior to show that the force needed to break a supercontinent should always arise from a combination of global-scale passive
pulling apartand active
pushing apartforces driven by the mantle.
D. R. Davies, J. H. Davies, P. C. Bollada, O. Hassan, K. Morgan, and P. Nithiarasu
Geosci. Model Dev., 6, 1095–1107,
Related subject area
Solid EarthHydrothermalFoam v1.0: a 3-D hydrothermal transport model for natural submarine hydrothermal systemsSynthetic seismicity distribution in Guerrero–Oaxaca subduction zone, Mexico, and its implications on the role of asperities in Gutenberg–Richter lawPLUME-MoM-TSM 1.0.0: A volcanic columns and umbrella cloud spreading modelTowards a model for structured mass movements: the OpenLISEM Hazard model 2.0aA new open-source viscoelastic solid earth deformation module implemented in Elmer (v8.4)CobWeb 1.0: machine learning toolbox for tomographic imagingpygeodyn 1.1.0: a Python package for geomagnetic data assimilationIMEX_SfloW2D 1.0: a depth-averaged numerical flow model for pyroclastic avalanchesA multilayer approach and its application to model a local gravimetric quasi-geoid model over the North Sea: QGNSea V1.0Development of an automatic delineation of cliff top and toe on very irregular planform coastlines (CliffMetrics v1.0)Bayesian inference of earthquake rupture models using polynomial chaos expansionGeodynamic diagnostics, scientific visualisation and StagLab 3.0SaLEM (v1.0) – the Soil and Landscape Evolution Model (SaLEM) for simulation of regolith depth in periglacial environmentsSILLi 1.0: a 1-D numerical tool quantifying the thermal effects of sill intrusionsThe SPACE 1.0 model: a Landlab component for 2-D calculation of sediment transport, bedrock erosion, and landscape evolutionEllipsoids (v1.0): 3-D magnetic modelling of ellipsoidal bodiespynoddy 1.0: an experimental platform for automated 3-D kinematic and potential field modellingOpen-source modular solutions for flexural isostasy: gFlex v1.0FPLUME-1.0: An integral volcanic plume model accounting for ash aggregationPyXRD v0.6.7: a free and open-source program to quantify disordered phyllosilicates using multi-specimen X-ray diffraction profile fittingr.randomwalk v1, a multi-functional conceptual tool for mass movement routingImproving the global applicability of the RUSLE model – adjustment of the topographical and rainfall erosivity factorsPLUME-MoM 1.0: A new integral model of volcanic plumes based on the method of momentsThermo-hydro-mechanical processes in fractured rock formations during a glacial advanceOn the sensitivity of 3-D thermal convection codes to numerical discretization: a model intercomparisonVerification of an ADER-DG method for complex dynamic rupture problemsA semi-implicit, second-order-accurate numerical model for multiphase underexpanded volcanic jetsNumerical model of crustal accretion and cooling rates of fast-spreading mid-ocean ridgesA hierarchical mesh refinement technique for global 3-D spherical mantle convection modelling
Zhikui Guo, Lars Rüpke, and Chunhui Tao
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 6547–6565,Short summary
We present the 3-D hydro-thermo-transport model HydrothermalFoam v1.0, which we designed to provide the marine geosciences community with an easy-to-use and state-of-the-art tool for simulating mass and energy transport in submarine hydrothermal systems. HydrothermalFoam is based on the popular open-source platform OpenFOAM, comes with a number of tutorials, and is published under the GNU General Public License v3.0.
Marisol Monterrubio-Velasco, F. Ramón Zúñiga, Quetzalcoatl Rodríguez-Pérez, Otilio Rojas, Armando Aguilar-Meléndez, and Josep de la Puente
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 6361–6381,Short summary
The Mexican subduction zone along the Pacific coast is one of the most active seismic zones in the world, where every year larger-magnitude earthquakes shake huge inland cities such as Mexico City. In this work, we use TREMOL (sThochastic Rupture Earthquake ModeL) to simulate the seismicity observed in this zone. Our numerical results reinforce the hypothesis that in some subduction regions single asperities are responsible for producing the observed seismicity.
Mattia de' Michieli Vitturi and Federica Pardini
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for GMDShort summary
We here present PLUME-MoM-TSM, a volcanic plume model allowing to quantify the formation of aggregates during the rise of the plume, to model the phase change of water, and including the possibility to simulate the initial spreading of the tephra umbrella cloud intruding from the volcanic column into the atmosphere. The model is applied first to the 2015 Calbuco eruption (Chile), and provides an analytical relationship between the upwind spreading and some characteristic of the volcanic column.
Bastian van den Bout, Theo W. J. van Asch, Wei Hu, Chenxiao Tang, Olga Mavrouli, Victor G. Jetten, and Cees J. van Westen
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for GMDShort summary
Landslides, debris flows and other types of dense gravity-driven flows threaten livelihoods around the globe. Understanding the mechanics of these flows can be crucial for predicting their behavior and reducing disaster risk. Numerical models assume that the solids and fluids of which the flow exists are unstructured. In the presented model captures the internal structure during movement. This important step might lead to more accurate predictions of landslide movement.
Thomas Zwinger, Grace A. Nield, Juha Ruokolainen, and Matt A. King
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 1155–1164,Short summary
We present a newly developed flat-earth model, Elmer/Earth, for viscoelastic treatment of solid earth deformation under ice loads. Unlike many previous approaches with proprietary software, this model is based on the open-source FEM code Elmer, with the advantage for scientists to apply and alter the model without license constraints. The new-generation full-stress ice-sheet model Elmer/Ice shares the same code base, enabling future coupled ice-sheet–glacial-isostatic-adjustment simulations.
Swarup Chauhan, Kathleen Sell, Wolfram Rühaak, Thorsten Wille, and Ingo Sass
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 315–334,Short summary
We present CobWeb 1.0, a graphical user interface for analysing tomographic images of geomaterials. CobWeb offers different machine learning techniques for accurate multiphase image segmentation and visualizing material specific parameters such as pore size distribution, relative porosity and volume fraction. We demonstrate a novel approach of dual filtration and dual segmentation to eliminate edge enhancement artefact in synchrotron-tomographic datasets and provide the computational code.
Loïc Huder, Nicolas Gillet, and Franck Thollard
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 3795–3803,Short summary
The pygeodyn package is a geomagnetic data assimilation tool written in Python. It gives access to the Earth's core flow dynamics, controlled by geomagnetic observations, by means of a reduced numerical model anchored to geodynamo simulation statistics. It aims to provide the community with a user-friendly and tunable data assimilation algorithm. It can be used for education, geomagnetic model production or tests in conjunction with webgeodyn, a set of visualization tools for geomagnetic models.
Mattia de' Michieli Vitturi, Tomaso Esposti Ongaro, Giacomo Lari, and Alvaro Aravena
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 581–595,Short summary
Pyroclastic avalanches are a type of granular flow generated at active volcanoes by different mechanisms, including the collapse of steep pyroclastic deposits (e.g., scoria and ash cones) and fountaining during moderately explosive eruptions. We present IMEX_SfloW2D, a depth-averaged flow model describing the granular mixture as a single-phase granular fluid. Benchmark cases and preliminary application to the simulation of the 11 February pyroclastic avalanche at Mt. Etna (Italy) are shown.
Yihao Wu, Zhicai Luo, Bo Zhong, and Chuang Xu
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 4797–4815,Short summary
A multilayer approach is parameterized for model development, and the multiple layers are located at different depths beneath the Earth’s surface. This method may be beneficial for gravity/manget field modeling, which may outperform the traditional single-layer approach.
Andres Payo, Bismarck Jigena Antelo, Martin Hurst, Monica Palaseanu-Lovejoy, Chris Williams, Gareth Jenkins, Kathryn Lee, David Favis-Mortlock, Andrew Barkwith, and Michael A. Ellis
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 4317–4337,Short summary
We describe a new algorithm that automatically delineates the cliff top and toe of a cliffed coastline from a digital elevation model (DEM). The algorithm builds upon existing methods but is specifically designed to resolve very irregular planform coastlines with many bays and capes, such as parts of the coastline of Great Britain.
Hugo Cruz-Jiménez, Guotu Li, Paul Martin Mai, Ibrahim Hoteit, and Omar M. Knio
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 3071–3088,Short summary
One of the most important challenges seismologists and earthquake engineers face is reliably estimating ground motion in an area prone to large damaging earthquakes. This study aimed at better understanding the relationship between characteristics of geological faults (e.g., hypocenter location, rupture size/location, etc.) and resulting ground motion, via statistical analysis of a rupture simulation model. This study provides important insight on ground-motion responses to geological faults.
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 2541–2562,Short summary
Firstly, this study acts as a compilation of key geodynamic diagnostics and describes how to automatise them for a more efficient scientific procedure. Secondly, it outlines today's key pitfalls of scientific visualisation and provides means to circumvent them with, for example, a novel set of fully scientific colour maps. Thirdly, it introduces StagLab 3.0, a software that applies such fully automated diagnostics and state-of-the-art visualisation in the blink of an eye.
Michael Bock, Olaf Conrad, Andreas Günther, Ernst Gehrt, Rainer Baritz, and Jürgen Böhner
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 1641–1652,Short summary
We introduce the Soil and Landscape Evolution Model (SaLEM) for the prediction of soil parent material evolution following a lithologically differentiated approach. The GIS tool is working within the software framework SAGA GIS. Weathering, erosion and transport functions are calibrated using extrinsic and intrinsic parameter data. First results indicate that our approach shows evidence for the spatiotemporal prediction of soil parental material properties.
Karthik Iyer, Henrik Svensen, and Daniel W. Schmid
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 43–60,Short summary
Igneous intrusions in sedimentary basins have a profound effect on the thermal structure of the hosting sedimentary rocks. In this paper, we present a user-friendly 1-D FEM-based tool, SILLi, that calculates the thermal effects of sill intrusions on the enclosing sedimentary stratigraphy. The motivation is to make a standardized numerical toolkit openly available that can be widely used by scientists with different backgrounds to test the effects of magmatic bodies in a wide variety of settings.
Charles M. Shobe, Gregory E. Tucker, and Katherine R. Barnhart
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 4577–4604,Short summary
Rivers control the movement of sediment and nutrients across Earth's surface. Understanding how rivers change through time is important for mitigating natural hazards and predicting Earth's response to climate change. We develop a new computer model for predicting how rivers cut through sediment and rock. Our model is designed to be joined with models of flooding, landslides, vegetation change, and other factors to provide a comprehensive toolbox for predicting changes to the landscape.
Diego Takahashi and Vanderlei C. Oliveira Jr.
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 3591–3608,Short summary
Ellipsoids are the only bodies for which the self-demagnetization can be treated analytically. This property is useful for modelling compact orebodies having high susceptibility. We present a review of the magnetic modelling of ellipsoids, propose a way of determining the isotropic susceptibility above which the self-demagnetization must be considered, and discuss the ambiguity between confocal ellipsoids, as well as provide a set of routines to model the magnetic field produced by ellipsoids.
J. Florian Wellmann, Sam T. Thiele, Mark D. Lindsay, and Mark W. Jessell
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 1019–1035,Short summary
We often obtain knowledge about the subsurface in the form of structural geological models, as a basis for subsurface usage or resource extraction. Here, we provide a modelling code to construct such models on the basis of significant deformational events in geological history, encapsulated in kinematic equations. Our methods simplify complex dynamic processes, but enable us to evaluate how events interact, and finally how certain we are about predictions of structures in the subsurface.
A. D. Wickert
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 997–1017,Short summary
Earth's lithosphere bends beneath surface loads, such as ice, sediments, and mountain belts. The pattern of this bending, or flexural isostatic response, is a function of both the loads and the spatially variable strength of the lithosphere. gFlex is an easy-to-use program to calculate flexural isostastic response, and may be used to better understand how ice sheets, glaciers, large lakes, sedimentary basins, volcanoes, and other surface loads interact with the solid Earth.
A. Folch, A. Costa, and G. Macedonio
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 431–450,Short summary
We present FPLUME-1.0, a steady-state 1-D cross-section-averaged eruption column model based on the buoyant plume theory (BPT). The model accounts for plume bending by wind, entrainment of ambient moisture, effects of water phase changes, particle fallout and re-entrainment, a new parameterization for the air entrainment coefficients and a model for wet aggregation of ash particles in presence of liquid water or ice.
M. Dumon and E. Van Ranst
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 41–57,Short summary
This paper presents a FOSS model called PyXRD used to improve the quantification of complex mixed-layer phyllosilicate assemblages using X-ray diffraction. The novelty of this model is the ab initio incorporation of the multi-specimen method, making it possible to share phases and their parameters across multiple specimens. We present results from a comparison of PyXRD with Sybilla v2.2.2 and a number of theoretical experiments illustrating the use of the multi-specimen set-up.
M. Mergili, J. Krenn, and H.-J. Chu
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 4027–4043,Short summary
r.randomwalk is a flexible and multi-functional open-source GIS tool for simulating the propagation of mass movements. Mass points are routed from given release pixels through a digital elevation model until a defined break criterion is reached. In contrast to existing tools, r.randomwalk includes functionalities to account for parameter uncertainties, and it offers built-in functions for validation and visualization. We show the key functionalities of r.randomwalk for three test areas.
V. Naipal, C. Reick, J. Pongratz, and K. Van Oost
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 2893–2913,Short summary
We adjusted the topographical and rainfall erosivity factors that are the triggers of erosion in the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) model to make the model better applicable at coarse resolution on a global scale. The adjusted RUSLE model compares much better to current high resolution estimates of soil erosion in the USA and Europe. It therefore provides a basis for estimating past and future global impacts of soil erosion on climate with the use of Earth system models.
M. de' Michieli Vitturi, A. Neri, and S. Barsotti
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 2447–2463,Short summary
In this paper a new mathematical model of volcanic plume, named Plume-MoM, is presented. The model is based on the method of moments and it is able to describe the continuous variability in the grain size distribution (GSD) of the pyroclastic mixture ejected at the vent, crucial to characterize the source conditions of ash dispersal models. Results show that the GSD at the top of the plume is similar to that at the base and that plume height is weakly affected by the parameters of the GSD.
A. P. S. Selvadurai, A. P. Suvorov, and P. A. Selvadurai
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 2167–2185,Short summary
The paper examines the coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) processes that develop in a fractured rock region within a fluid-saturated rock mass due to loads imposed by an advancing glacier. This scenario needs to be examined in order to assess the suitability of potential sites for the location of deep geologic repositories for the storage of high-level nuclear waste. The THM processes are examined using a computational multiphysics approach.
P.-A Arrial, N. Flyer, G. B. Wright, and L. H. Kellogg
Geosci. Model Dev., 7, 2065–2076,
C. Pelties, A.-A. Gabriel, and J.-P. Ampuero
Geosci. Model Dev., 7, 847–866,
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Geosci. Model Dev., 6, 1659–1672,
D. R. Davies, J. H. Davies, P. C. Bollada, O. Hassan, K. Morgan, and P. Nithiarasu
Geosci. Model Dev., 6, 1095–1107,
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Currently, extensive geochemical databases of surface observations exist, but satisfying explanations of underlying mantle processes are lacking. We have implemented a new way to track both bulk compositions and concentrations of trace elements in a mantle convection code. In our model, chemical fractionation happens at evolving melting zones. We compare our results to a semi-analytical theory relating observed arrays of correlated Pb isotope compositions to melting age distributions.
Currently, extensive geochemical databases of surface observations exist, but satisfying...