Articles | Volume 14, issue 1
Model evaluation paper 25 Jan 2021
Model evaluation paper | 25 Jan 2021
Performance of offline passive tracer advection in the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS; v3.6, revision 904)
Kristen M. Thyng et al.
Related subject area
OceanographyImplementation and assessment of a carbonate system model (Eco3M-CarbOx v1.1) in a highly dynamic Mediterranean coastal site (Bay of Marseille, France)Numerical integrators for Lagrangian oceanographyMulti-grid algorithm for passive tracer transport in the NEMO ocean circulation model: a case study with the NEMO OGCM (version 3.6)Introducing LAB60: A 1∕60° NEMO 3.6 numerical simulation of the Labrador SeaDevelopment of an atmosphere–ocean coupled operational forecast model for the Maritime Continent: Part 1 – Evaluation of ocean forecastsImpact of horizontal resolution on global ocean–sea ice model simulations based on the experimental protocols of the Ocean Model Intercomparison Project phase 2 (OMIP-2)CSIRO Environmental Modelling Suite (EMS): scientific description of the optical and biogeochemical models (vB3p0)Constraining the response of phytoplankton to zooplankton grazing and photo-acclimation in a temperate shelf sea with a 1-D model – towards S2P3 v8.0Advanced parallel implementation of the coupled ocean-ice model FEMAO with load balancingThe Regional Ice Ocean Prediction System v2: a pan-Canadian ocean analysis systemDoppio – a ROMS (v3.6)-based circulation model for the Mid-Atlantic Bight and Gulf of Maine: configuration and comparison to integrated coastal observing network observationsEvaluation of global ocean–sea-ice model simulations based on the experimental protocols of the Ocean Model Intercomparison Project phase 2 (OMIP-2)A Meridionally Averaged Model of Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems (MAMEBUSv1.0)A simplified atmospheric boundary layer model for an improved representation of air-sea interactions in eddying oceanic models: implementation and first evaluation in NEMO (4.0)Representation of the Denmark Strait overflow in a z-coordinate eddying configuration of the NEMO (v3.6) ocean model: resolution and parameter impactsA global eddying hindcast ocean simulation with OFES2Model-driven optimization of coastal sea observatories through data assimilation in a finite element hydrodynamic model (SHYFEM v.7_5_65)Tracking water masses using passive-tracer transport in NEMO v3.4 with NEMOTAM: application to North Atlantic Deep Water and North Atlantic Subtropical Mode WaterSensitivity study on the main tidal constituents of the Gulf of Tonkin by using the frequency-domain tidal solver in T-UGOmDINCAE 1.0: a convolutional neural network with error estimates to reconstruct sea surface temperature satellite observationsMitigation of model bias influences on wave data assimilation with multiple assimilation systems using WaveWatch III v5.16 and SWAN v41.20MOMSO 1.0 – an eddying Southern Ocean model configuration with fairly equilibrated natural carbonSimulating barrier island response to sea level rise with the barrier island and inlet environment (BRIE) model v1.0Dealing with discontinuous meteorological forcing in operational ocean modelling: a case study using ECMWF-IFS and GETM (v2.5)The Parcels v2.0 Lagrangian framework: new field interpolation schemesThe INALT family – a set of high-resolution nests for the Agulhas Current system within global NEMO ocean/sea-ice configurationsSensitivity of deep ocean biases to horizontal resolution in prototype CMIP6 simulations with AWI-CM1.0OceanMesh2D 1.0: MATLAB-based software for two-dimensional unstructured mesh generation in coastal ocean modelingOcean carbon and nitrogen isotopes in CSIRO Mk3L-COAL version 1.0: a tool for palaeoceanographic researchA high-resolution biogeochemical model (ROMS 3.4 + bio_Fennel) of the East Australian Current systemNemo-Nordic 1.0: a NEMO-based ocean model for the Baltic and North seas – research and operational applicationsEcological ReGional Ocean Model with vertically resolved sediments (ERGOM SED 1.0): coupling benthic and pelagic biogeochemistry of the south-western Baltic SeaReanalysis of the PacIOOS Hawaiian Island Ocean Forecast System, an implementation of the Regional Ocean Modeling System v3.6Thetis coastal ocean model: discontinuous Galerkin discretization for the three-dimensional hydrostatic equationsData assimilation cycle length and observation impact in mesoscale ocean forecastingVerification of the mixed layer depth in the OceanMAPS operational forecast model for Austral autumnA global scavenging and circulation ocean model of thorium-230 and protactinium-231 with improved particle dynamics (NEMO–ProThorP 0.1)Veros v0.1 – a fast and versatile ocean simulator in pure PythonCohesive and mixed sediment in the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS v3.6) implemented in the Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere–Wave–Sediment Transport Modeling System (COAWST r1234)OpenDrift v1.0: a generic framework for trajectory modellingA 4.5 km resolution Arctic Ocean simulation with the global multi-resolution model FESOM 1.4AMM15: a new high-resolution NEMO configuration for operational simulation of the European north-west shelfSedFoam-2.0: a 3-D two-phase flow numerical model for sediment transportParcels v0.9: prototyping a Lagrangian ocean analysis framework for the petascale ageThe Oceanographic Multipurpose Software Environment (OMUSE v1.0)The CO5 configuration of the 7 km Atlantic Margin Model: large-scale biases and sensitivity to forcing, physics options and vertical resolutionExplicit representation and parametrised impacts of under ice shelf seas in the z∗ coordinate ocean model NEMO 3.6“Climate response functions” for the Arctic Ocean: a proposed coordinated modelling experimentThe iFlow modelling framework v2.4: a modular idealized process-based model for flow and transport in estuariesDevelopment of BFMCOUPLER (v1.0), the coupling scheme that links the MITgcm and BFM models for ocean biogeochemistry simulations
Katixa Lajaunie-Salla, Frédéric Diaz, Cathy Wimart-Rousseau, Thibaut Wagener, Dominique Lefèvre, Christophe Yohia, Irène Xueref-Remy, Brian Nathan, Alexandre Armengaud, and Christel Pinazo
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 295–321,Short summary
A biogeochemical model of planktonic food webs including a carbonate balance module is applied in the Bay of Marseille (France) to represent the carbon marine cycle expected to change in the future owing to significant increases in anthropogenic emissions of CO2. The model correctly simulates the ranges and seasonal dynamics of most variables of the carbonate system (pH). This study shows that external physical forcings have an important impact on the carbonate equilibrium in this coastal area.
Tor Nordam and Rodrigo Duran
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 5935–5957,Short summary
In applied oceanography, a common task is to calculate the trajectory of objects floating at the sea surface or submerged in the water. We have investigated different numerical methods for doing such calculations and discuss the benefits and challenges of some common methods. We then propose a small change to some common methods that make them more efficient for this particular application. This will allow researchers to obtain more accurate answers with fewer computer resources.
Clément Bricaud, Julien Le Sommer, Gurvan Madec, Christophe Calone, Julie Deshayes, Christian Ethe, Jérôme Chanut, and Marina Levy
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 5465–5483,Short summary
In order to reduce the cost of ocean biogeochemical models, a multi-grid approach where ocean dynamics and tracer transport are computed with different spatial resolution has been developed in the NEMO v3.6 OGCM. Different experiments confirm that the spatial resolution of hydrodynamical fields can be coarsened without significantly affecting the resolved passive tracer fields. This approach leads to a factor of 7 reduction of the overhead associated with running a full biogeochemical model.
Clark Pennelly and Paul G. Myers
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 4959–4975,Short summary
A high-resolution ocean simulation was carried out within the Labrador Sea, a region that low-resolution climate simulations may misrepresent. We show that small-scale eddies and their associated transport are better resolved at higher resolution than at lower resolution. These eddies transport important properties to the interior of the Labrador Sea, impacting the stratification and reducing the convection extent so that it is far more accurate when compared to what observations suggest.
Bijoy Thompson, Claudio Sanchez, Boon Chong Peter Heng, Rajesh Kumar, Jianyu Liu, Xiang-Yu Huang, and Pavel Tkalich
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for GMDShort summary
This article describes the development and ocean forecast evaluation of an atmosphere-ocean coupled prediction system for the Maritime Continent domain, which includes the eastern Indian and western Pacific Oceans. The coupled system comprises regional configurations of the atmospheric model MetUM and ocean model NEMO, coupled using the OASIS3-MCT libraries. The model forecast deviation of selected fields relative to observation is within acceptable error limits of operational forecast models.
Eric P. Chassignet, Stephen G. Yeager, Baylor Fox-Kemper, Alexandra Bozec, Frederic Castruccio, Gokhan Danabasoglu, Christopher Horvat, Who M. Kim, Nikolay Koldunov, Yiwen Li, Pengfei Lin, Hailong Liu, Dmitry V. Sein, Dmitry Sidorenko, Qiang Wang, and Xiaobiao Xu
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 4595–4637,Short summary
This paper presents global comparisons of fundamental global climate variables from a suite of four pairs of matched low- and high-resolution ocean and sea ice simulations to assess the robustness of climate-relevant improvements in ocean simulations associated with moving from coarse (∼1°) to eddy-resolving (∼0.1°) horizontal resolutions. Despite significant improvements, greatly enhanced horizontal resolution does not deliver unambiguous bias reduction in all regions for all models.
Mark E. Baird, Karen A. Wild-Allen, John Parslow, Mathieu Mongin, Barbara Robson, Jennifer Skerratt, Farhan Rizwi, Monika Soja-Woźniak, Emlyn Jones, Mike Herzfeld, Nugzar Margvelashvili, John Andrewartha, Clothilde Langlais, Matthew P. Adams, Nagur Cherukuru, Malin Gustafsson, Scott Hadley, Peter J. Ralph, Uwe Rosebrock, Thomas Schroeder, Leonardo Laiolo, Daniel Harrison, and Andrew D. L. Steven
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 4503–4553,Short summary
For 20+ years, the Commonwealth Science Industry and Research Organisation (CSIRO) has been developing a biogeochemical (BGC) model for coupling with a hydrodynamic and sediment model for application in estuaries, coastal waters and shelf seas. This paper provides a full mathematical description (equations, parameters), model evaluation and access to the numerical code. The model is particularly suited to applications in shallow waters where benthic processes are critical to ecosystem function.
Angela A. Bahamondes Dominguez, Anna E. Hickman, Robert Marsh, and C. Mark Moore
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 4019–4040,Short summary
The central Celtic Sea has previously been studied with a 1-D model called S2P3, showing discrepancies between observations and the model results due to poor representation of some processes. Therefore, the S2P3 model was developed to include zooplankton and phytoplankton cells' adaptation to changes in irradiance. Results demonstrate that better agreement with biological observations can be achieved when the model includes these processes and is adequately constrained.
Pavel Perezhogin, Ilya Chernov, and Nikolay Iakovlev
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for GMDShort summary
We describe the parallel implementation of the FEMAO model of an ice-covered sea with 2D Hilbert-curve domain decomposition. Load-balancing is crucial because performance depends on the local depth. We propose, compare, and discuss four approaches to load balancing. The parallel library allowed to modify the original sequential algorithm as little as possible. The performance increases almost linearly (tested up to 996 CPU cores) for the model of the shallow White Sea.
Gregory C. Smith, Yimin Liu, Mounir Benkiran, Kamel Chikhar, Dorina Surcel Colan, Charles-Emmanuel Testut, Frederic Dupont, Ji Lei, François Roy, Jean-Francois Lemieux, and Fraser Davidson
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for GMDShort summary
Canada's coastlines include a diversity of ocean environments. In response to the strong need to support marine activities and security, we present the first pan-Canadian operational regional ocean analysis system. A novel online tidal harmonic analysis method is introduced that uses a sliding-window approach. Innovations are compared those from the Canadian global analysis system. Particular improvements are found near the Gulf Stream due to the higher model grid-resolution.
Alexander G. López, John L. Wilkin, and Julia C. Levin
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 3709–3729,Short summary
This article describes a regional circulation model, Doppio, for the Mid-Atlantic Bight and the Gulf of Maine. The model demonstrates useful skill in comparison to a comprehensive suite of observations. Development focused on achieving a model configuration that allows decadal-scale simulations of physical ocean circulation that can underpin studies of ecosystems and biogeochemistry. Doppio captures the temperature and salinity stratification well, along with the large-scale mean circulation.
Hiroyuki Tsujino, L. Shogo Urakawa, Stephen M. Griffies, Gokhan Danabasoglu, Alistair J. Adcroft, Arthur E. Amaral, Thomas Arsouze, Mats Bentsen, Raffaele Bernardello, Claus W. Böning, Alexandra Bozec, Eric P. Chassignet, Sergey Danilov, Raphael Dussin, Eleftheria Exarchou, Pier Giuseppe Fogli, Baylor Fox-Kemper, Chuncheng Guo, Mehmet Ilicak, Doroteaciro Iovino, Who M. Kim, Nikolay Koldunov, Vladimir Lapin, Yiwen Li, Pengfei Lin, Keith Lindsay, Hailong Liu, Matthew C. Long, Yoshiki Komuro, Simon J. Marsland, Simona Masina, Aleksi Nummelin, Jan Klaus Rieck, Yohan Ruprich-Robert, Markus Scheinert, Valentina Sicardi, Dmitry Sidorenko, Tatsuo Suzuki, Hiroaki Tatebe, Qiang Wang, Stephen G. Yeager, and Zipeng Yu
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 3643–3708,Short summary
The OMIP-2 framework for global ocean–sea-ice model simulations is assessed by comparing multi-model means from 11 CMIP6-class global ocean–sea-ice models calculated separately for the OMIP-1 and OMIP-2 simulations. Many features are very similar between OMIP-1 and OMIP-2 simulations, and yet key improvements in transitioning from OMIP-1 to OMIP-2 are also identified. Thus, the present assessment justifies that future ocean–sea-ice model development and analysis studies use the OMIP-2 framework.
Jordyn E. Moscoso, Andrew L. Stewart, Daniele Bianchi, and James C. McWilliams
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for GMDShort summary
This project was created to understand the across-shore distribution of plankton in the California Current System. To complete this study, we used a quasi-2D dynamical model coupled to an ecosystem model. This paper is a preliminary study to test and validate the model against data collected by The California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations (CalCOFI). We show the solution of our model solution compares well to the data and discuss our model as a tool for further model development.
Florian Lemarié, Guillaume Samson, Jean-Luc Redelsperger, Hervé Giordani, Théo Brivoal, and Gurvan Madec
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for GMDShort summary
A simplified model of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL) of intermediate complexity between a bulk parameterization and a full three-dimensional atmospheric model has been developed and integrated to the NEMO ocean model. An objective in the derivation of such simplified model is to reach an apt representation in ocean-only numerical simulations of some of the key processes associated to air/sea interactions at the characteristic scales of the oceanic mesoscale.
Pedro Colombo, Bernard Barnier, Thierry Penduff, Jérôme Chanut, Julie Deshayes, Jean-Marc Molines, Julien Le Sommer, Polina Verezemskaya, Sergey Gulev, and Anne-Marie Treguier
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 3347–3371,Short summary
In the ocean circulation model NEMO, the representation of the overflow of dense Arctic waters through the Denmark Strait is investigated. In this z-coordinate context, sensitivity tests show that the mixing parameterizations preferably act along the model grid slope. Thus, the representation of the overflow is more sensitive to resolution than to parameterization and is best when the numerical grid matches the local topographic slope.
Hideharu Sasaki, Shinichiro Kida, Ryo Furue, Hidenori Aiki, Nobumasa Komori, Yukio Masumoto, Toru Miyama, Masami Nonaka, Yoshikazu Sasai, and Bunmei Taguchi
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 3319–3336,Short summary
A quasi-global eddying ocean hindcast simulation using a new version of our model, called OFES2, was conducted to overcome several issues in its previous version. OFES2 simulated oceanic fields from 1958 to 2016 with improved global sea surface temperature and salinity, water mass properties in the Indonesian and Arabian seas, and Niño3.4 and Indian Ocean Dipole indexes. The output from OFES2 will be useful in studying various oceanic phenomena with broad spatiotemporal scales.
Christian Ferrarin, Marco Bajo, and Georg Umgiesser
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for GMDShort summary
The problem of the optimization of ocean monitoring networks is tackled throughout the implementation of data assimilation techniques in a numerical model. The methodology has been applied and tested to the tide gauge network in the Lagoon of Venice (Italy). The data assimilation methods allow identifying the minimum number of stations and their distribution that correctly represent the lagoon’s dynamics. With the help of the numerical model, two-thirds of the monitoring network can be dismissed.
Dafydd Stephenson, Simon A. Müller, and Florian Sévellec
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 2031–2050,Short summary
Different water types are created at the sea surface with a signature based on the local conditions of the atmosphere. They then take these conditions with them into the deeper ocean, and so their journey is an important climate process to understand. In this study, we modify and repurpose a specialised model which simulates the ocean forward and backward in time to determine where new ocean water goes, where at the surface existing water comes from, and how old it is, by tracking it as a dye.
Violaine Piton, Marine Herrmann, Florent Lyard, Patrick Marsaleix, Thomas Duhaut, Damien Allain, and Sylvain Ouillon
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 1583–1607,Short summary
Consequences of tidal dynamics on hydro-sedimentary processes are a recurrent issue in estuarine and coastal processes studies, and accurate tidal solutions are a prerequisite for modeling sediment transport. This study presents the implementation and optimization of a model configuration in terms of bathymetry and bottom friction and assess the influence of these parameters on tidal solutions, in a macro-tidal environment: the Gulf of Tonkin (Vietnam).
Alexander Barth, Aida Alvera-Azcárate, Matjaz Licer, and Jean-Marie Beckers
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 1609–1622,Short summary
DINCAE is a method for reconstructing missing data in satellite datasets using a neural network. Satellite observations working in the optical and infrared bands are affected by clouds, which obscure part of the ocean underneath. In this paper, a neural network with the structure of a convolutional auto-encoder is developed to reconstruct the missing data based on the available cloud-free pixels in satellite images.
Jiangyu Li and Shaoqing Zhang
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 1035–1054,Short summary
Two assimilation systems developed using two nearly independent wave models are used to study the influences of various error sources including mode bias on wave data assimilation; a statistical method is explored to make full use of the merits of individual assimilation systems for bias correction, thus improving wave analysis greatly. This study opens a door to further our understanding of physical processes in waves and associated air–sea interactions for improving wave modeling.
Heiner Dietze, Ulrike Löptien, and Julia Getzlaff
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 71–97,Short summary
We present a new near-global coupled biogeochemical ocean-circulation model configuration of the Southern Ocean. The configuration features both a relatively equilibrated oceanic carbon inventory and an explicit representation of mesoscale eddies. In this paper, we document the model configuration and showcase its potential to tackle research questions such as the Southern Ocean carbon uptake dynamics on decadal timescales.
Jaap H. Nienhuis and Jorge Lorenzo-Trueba
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 4013–4030,Short summary
The response of barrier islands to sea level rise depends on their ability to move landward through the transport of sediment from the beach to the back barrier. The BRIE model simulates these processes and the resulting landward movement of barrier islands. The novelty of the BRIE model is the incorporation of tidal inlets (gaps between barrier islands) that can transport sediment landward and therefore help keep barrier islands above sea level.
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 3915–3922,Short summary
Operational forecasting of the ocean state – e.g. used for ship route planning, sea rescue, and oil spill drift models – relies on data (forcing) obtained from weather forecasting. Unfortunately, the so-called meteorological analysis step introduces a discontinuity, which affects the ocean models adversely. In the present paper, a straightforward method to deal with the issue is introduced. Practical examples are given to illuminate the scale of the problem.
Philippe Delandmeter and Erik van Sebille
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 3571–3584,Short summary
Parcels is a framework to compute how ocean currents transport
stuffsuch as plankton and plastic around. In the latest version 2.0 of Parcels, we focus on more accurate interpolation schemes and implement methods to seamlessly combine data from different sources (such as winds and currents, possibly in different regions). We show that this framework is very efficient for tracking how microplastic is transported through the North Sea into the Arctic.
Franziska U. Schwarzkopf, Arne Biastoch, Claus W. Böning, Jérôme Chanut, Jonathan V. Durgadoo, Klaus Getzlaff, Jan Harlaß, Jan K. Rieck, Christina Roth, Markus M. Scheinert, and René Schubert
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 3329–3355,Short summary
A family of nested global ocean general circulation model configurations, the INALT family, has been established with resolutions of 1/10°, 1/20° and 1/60° in the South Atlantic and western Indian oceans, covering the greater Agulhas Current (AC) system. The INALT family provides a consistent set of configurations that allows to address eddy dynamics in the AC system and their impact on the large-scale ocean circulation.
Thomas Rackow, Dmitry V. Sein, Tido Semmler, Sergey Danilov, Nikolay V. Koldunov, Dmitry Sidorenko, Qiang Wang, and Thomas Jung
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 2635–2656,Short summary
Current climate models show errors in the deep ocean that are larger than the level of natural variability and the response to enhanced greenhouse gas concentrations. These errors are larger than the signals we aim to predict. With the AWI Climate Model, we show that increasing resolution to resolve eddies can lead to major reductions in deep ocean errors. AWI's next-generation (CMIP6) model configuration will thus use locally eddy-resolving computational grids for projecting climate change.
Keith J. Roberts, William J. Pringle, and Joannes J. Westerink
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 1847–1868,Short summary
Computer simulations can be used to reproduce the dynamics of the ocean near the coast. These simulations often use a mesh of triangles to represent the domain since they can be orientated and disparately sized in such a way to accurately fit the coastline shape. This paper describes a software package (OceanMesh2D v1.0) that has been developed in order to automatically and objectively design triangular meshes based on geospatial data inputs that represent the coastline and ocean depths.
Pearse J. Buchanan, Richard J. Matear, Zanna Chase, Steven J. Phipps, and Nathan L. Bindoff
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 1491–1523,Short summary
Oceanic sediment cores are commonly used to understand past climates. The composition of the sediments changes with the ocean above it. An understanding of oceanographic conditions that existed many thousands of years ago, in some cases many millions of years ago, can therefore be extracted from sediment cores. We simulate two chemical signatures (13C and 15N) of sediment cores in a model. This study assesses the model before it is applied to reinterpret the sedimentary record.
Carlos Rocha, Christopher A. Edwards, Moninya Roughan, Paulina Cetina-Heredia, and Colette Kerry
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 441–456,Short summary
Off southeast Australia, the East Australian Current (EAC) moves warm nutrient-poor waters towards the pole. In this region, the EAC and a large number of vortices pinching off it strongly affect phytoplankton’s access to nutrients and light. To study these dynamics, we created a numerical model that is able to solve the ocean conditions and how they modulate the foundation of the region’s ecosystem. We validated model results against available data and this showed that the model performs well.
Robinson Hordoir, Lars Axell, Anders Höglund, Christian Dieterich, Filippa Fransner, Matthias Gröger, Ye Liu, Per Pemberton, Semjon Schimanke, Helen Andersson, Patrik Ljungemyr, Petter Nygren, Saeed Falahat, Adam Nord, Anette Jönsson, Iréne Lake, Kristofer Döös, Magnus Hieronymus, Heiner Dietze, Ulrike Löptien, Ivan Kuznetsov, Antti Westerlund, Laura Tuomi, and Jari Haapala
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 363–386,Short summary
Nemo-Nordic is a regional ocean model based on a community code (NEMO). It covers the Baltic and the North Sea area and is used as a forecast model by the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute. It is also used as a research tool by scientists of several countries to study, for example, the effects of climate change on the Baltic and North seas. Using such a model permits us to understand key processes in this coastal ecosystem and how such processes will change in a future climate.
Hagen Radtke, Marko Lipka, Dennis Bunke, Claudia Morys, Jana Woelfel, Bronwyn Cahill, Michael E. Böttcher, Stefan Forster, Thomas Leipe, Gregor Rehder, and Thomas Neumann
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 275–320,Short summary
This paper describes a coupled benthic–pelagic biogeochemical model, ERGOM-SED. We demonstrate its use in a one-dimensional physical model, which is horizontally integrated and vertically resolved. We describe the application of the model to seven stations in the south-western Baltic Sea. The model was calibrated using pore water profiles from these stations. We compare the model results to these and to measured sediment compositions, benthopelagic fluxes and bioturbation intensities.
Dale Partridge, Tobias Friedrich, and Brian S. Powell
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 195–213,Short summary
This paper demonstrates the improvements made to an operational ocean forecast model around the Hawaiian Islands by performing a reanalysis of the model over a 10-year period. Using a number of different measurements we show the role a variety of observations play in producing the forecast, in particular the contribution of high-frequency radar.
Tuomas Kärnä, Stephan C. Kramer, Lawrence Mitchell, David A. Ham, Matthew D. Piggott, and António M. Baptista
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 4359–4382,Short summary
Unstructured meshes are attractive for coastal ocean modeling, as they allow more accurate representation of complex coastal topography. Unstructured mesh models are, however, often perceived as slow and inaccurate. We present a novel discontinuous Galerkin ocean model: Thetis. We demonstrate that the model is able to simulate baroclinic ocean flows with high accuracy on a triangular prismatic mesh. This work paves the way for highly accurate and efficient three-dimensional coastal ocean models.
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 4011–4019,Short summary
This article compares global mesoscale ocean forecasts with different data assimilation cycle lengths. Mean absolute increment is used to quantify differences in the overall impact of observations. Greater observation impact does not necessarily improve a forecast system. Experiments show a 1-day cycle generates improved 7-day forecasts when compared to a 3-day cycle. Cycle length is an important choice that influences system bias and predictability.
Daniel Boettger, Robin Robertson, and Gary B. Brassington
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 3795–3805,Short summary
This study focuses on the impact of the model vertical mixing parameterisation on the representation of the mixed layer depth (MLD) in ocean forecast models. We compare data from two recent versions of the OceanMAPS forecast system, and find that while there were large improvements in the later version of the model, the skill of each parameterisation varies with spatial location.
Marco van Hulten, Jean-Claude Dutay, and Matthieu Roy-Barman
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 3537–3556,Short summary
We present an ocean model of the natural radioactive isotopes thorium-230 and protactinium-231. These isotopes are often used to investigate past ocean circulation and particle transport. They are removed by particles produced by plankton and from uplifted desert dust that is deposited into the ocean. We approach observed dissolved and adsorbed Th-230 and Pa-231 activities. The Pa-231 / Th-230 sedimentation ratio is reproduced as well; this quantity can be used as a proxy for ocean circulation.
Dion Häfner, René Løwe Jacobsen, Carsten Eden, Mads R. B. Kristensen, Markus Jochum, Roman Nuterman, and Brian Vinter
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 3299–3312,Short summary
Well-performing, easy-to-use ocean models are a central ingredient to further the understanding of our Earth and climate. Veros, the versatile ocean simulator, is the first full-blown ocean model entirely written in the high-level programming language Python. It is considerably more approachable than traditional Fortran models and leverages modern best practices; at the same time, thanks to the Bohrium framework, Veros is about half as fast as a reference implementation in Fortran 90.
Christopher R. Sherwood, Alfredo L. Aretxabaleta, Courtney K. Harris, J. Paul Rinehimer, Romaric Verney, and Bénédicte Ferré
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 1849–1871,Short summary
Cohesive sediment (mud) is ubiquitous in the world's coastal regions, but its behavior is complicated and often oversimplified by computer models. This paper describes extensions to a widely used open-source coastal ocean model that allow users to simulate important components of cohesive sediment transport.
Knut-Frode Dagestad, Johannes Röhrs, Øyvind Breivik, and Bjørn Ådlandsvik
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 1405–1420,Short summary
We have developed a computer code with ability to predict how various substances and objects drift in the ocean. This may be used to, e.g. predict the drift of oil to aid cleanup operations, the drift of man-over-board or lifeboats to aid search and rescue operations, or the drift of fish eggs and larvae to understand and manage fish stocks. This new code merges all such applications into one software tool, allowing to optimise and channel any available resources and developments.
Qiang Wang, Claudia Wekerle, Sergey Danilov, Xuezhu Wang, and Thomas Jung
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 1229–1255,Short summary
For developing a system for Arctic research, we evaluate the Arctic Ocean simulated by FESOM. We use two global meshes differing in the horizontal resolution only in the Arctic Ocean (24 vs. 4.5 km). The high resolution significantly improves the model's representation of the Arctic Ocean. The most pronounced improvement is in the Arctic intermediate layer. The high resolution also improves the ocean surface circulation, mainly through a better representation of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.
Jennifer A. Graham, Enda O'Dea, Jason Holt, Jeff Polton, Helene T. Hewitt, Rachel Furner, Karen Guihou, Ashley Brereton, Alex Arnold, Sarah Wakelin, Juan Manuel Castillo Sanchez, and C. Gabriela Mayorga Adame
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 681–696,Short summary
This paper describes the next-generation ocean forecast model for the European NW shelf, AMM15 (Atlantic Margin Model, 1.5 km resolution). The current forecast system has a resolution of 7 km. While this is sufficient to represent large-scale circulation, many dynamical features (such as eddies, frontal jets, and internal tides) can only begin to be resolved at 0–1 km resolution. Here we introduce AMM15 and demonstrate its ability to represent the mean state and variability of the region.
Julien Chauchat, Zhen Cheng, Tim Nagel, Cyrille Bonamy, and Tian-Jian Hsu
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 4367–4392,Short summary
This manuscript presents the development and validation of a two-phase flow Eulerian-Eulerian model based on OpenFOAM for sediment transport applications. The mathematical and numerical models are described in detail. The numerical implementation is demonstrated on four test cases: sedimentation of suspended particles, laminar bed load, sheet flow, and scour at an apron. These test cases illustrate the capabilities of SedFoam to deal with complex turbulent sediment transport problems.
Michael Lange and Erik van Sebille
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 4175–4186,Short summary
Here, we present version 0.9 of Parcels (Probably A Really Computationally Efficient Lagrangian Simulator). Parcels is an experimental prototype code aimed at exploring novel approaches for Lagrangian tracking of virtual ocean particles in the petascale age. The modularity, flexibility and scalability will allow the code to be used to track water, nutrients, microbes, plankton, plastic and even fish.
Inti Pelupessy, Ben van Werkhoven, Arjen van Elteren, Jan Viebahn, Adam Candy, Simon Portegies Zwart, and Henk Dijkstra
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 3167–3187,Short summary
Researchers from the Netherlands present OMUSE, a software package developed from core technology originating in the astrophysical community. Using OMUSE, oceanographic and climate researchers can develop numerical models of the ocean and the interactions between different parts of the ocean and the atmosphere. This provides a novel way to investigate, for example, the local effects of climate change on the ocean. OMUSE is freely available as open-source software.
Enda O'Dea, Rachel Furner, Sarah Wakelin, John Siddorn, James While, Peter Sykes, Robert King, Jason Holt, and Helene Hewitt
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 2947–2969,Short summary
An update to an ocean modelling configuration for the European North West Shelf is described. It is assessed against observations and climatologies for 1981–2012. Sensitivities in the model configuration updates are assessed to understand changes in the model system. The model improves upon an existing model of the region, although there remain some areas with significant biases. The paper highlights the dependence upon the quality of the river inputs.
Pierre Mathiot, Adrian Jenkins, Christopher Harris, and Gurvan Madec
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 2849–2874,
John Marshall, Jeffery Scott, and Andrey Proshutinsky
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 2833–2848,Short summary
A coordinated set of Arctic modeling experiments is proposed which explores how the Arctic responds to abrupt changes in external forcing by computing
climate response functions(CRFs). We illustrate the approach in the context of a coarse-resolution model of the Arctic and conclude by encouraging other modeling groups to compute CRFs with their own models so that we might begin to document how robust they are to model formulation, resolution, and parameterization.
Yoeri M. Dijkstra, Ronald L. Brouwer, Henk M. Schuttelaars, and George P. Schramkowski
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 2691–2713,
Gianpiero Cossarini, Stefano Querin, Cosimo Solidoro, Gianmaria Sannino, Paolo Lazzari, Valeria Di Biagio, and Giorgio Bolzon
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 1423–1445,Short summary
The BFMCOUPLER (v1.0) is a coupling scheme that links the MITgcm and BFM models for ocean biogeochemistry simulations. The online coupling is based on an open-source code characterizd by a modular structure. Modularity preserves the potentials of the two models, allowing for a sustainable programming effort to handle future evolutions in the two codes. The BFMCOUPLER code is released along with an idealized problem (a cyclonic gyre in a mid-latitude closed basin).
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We modified the ROMS model to run in offline mode so that previously run fields of sea surface height and velocity fields are input to calculate tracer advection without running the full model with a larger time step; thus, it is faster. The code was tested with two advection schemes, and both are robust with over 99 % accuracy of the offline to online run after 14 simulation days. This allows for ROMS users to maximize use of new or existing output to quickly run additional tracer simulations.
We modified the ROMS model to run in offline mode so that previously run fields of sea surface...