Articles | Volume 14, issue 6
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 3185–3214, 2021

Special issue: The PALM model system 6.0 for atmospheric and oceanic boundary-layer...

Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 3185–3214, 2021

Development and technical paper 03 Jun 2021

Development and technical paper | 03 Jun 2021

A nested multi-scale system implemented in the large-eddy simulation model PALM model system 6.0

Antti Hellsten et al.

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Cited articles

Ahmad, N. H., Inagaki, A., Kanda, M., Onodera, N., and Aoki, T.: Large-eddy simulation of the gust index in an urban area using the lattice Boltzmann method, Bound.-Lay. Meteorol., 163, 447–467, 2017. a
Aidun, C. K. and Clausen, J. R.: Lattice-Boltzmann method for complex flows, Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech., 42, 439–472, 2010. a
Auvinen, M., Boi, S., Hellsten, A., Tanhuanpää, T., and Järvi, L.: Study of Realistic Urban Boundary Layer Turbulence with High-Resolution Large-Eddy Simulation, Atmosphere, 11, 201,, 2020a. a, b, c
Auvinen, M., Karttunen, S., and Kurppa, M.: P4UL: Pre- and Post-Processing Python Library for Urban LES Simulations, Zenodo,, 2020b. a
Bou-Zeid, E., Overney, J., Rogers, B. D., and Parlange, M. B.: The Effects of Building Representation and Clustering in Large-Eddy Simulations of Flows in Urban Canopies, Bound.-Lay. Meteorol., 132, 415–436,, 2009. a
Short summary
Large-eddy simulation (LES) of the urban atmospheric boundary layer involves a large separation of turbulent scales, leading to prohibitive computational costs. An online LES–LES nesting scheme is implemented into the PALM model system 6.0 to overcome this problem. Test results show that the accuracy within the high-resolution nest domains approach the non-nested high-resolution reference results. The nesting can reduce the CPU by time up to 80 % compared to the fine-resolution reference runs.