Articles | Volume 15, issue 22
© Author(s) 2022. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
© Author(s) 2022. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
SIMO v1.0: simplified model of the vertical temperature profile in a small, warm, monomictic lake
Gekom Geophys & Ecol Modelling Ltd, Zagreb, 10000, Croatia
Zvjezdana B. Klaić
Department of Geophysics, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, 10000, Croatia
No articles found.
Zvjezdana B. Klaić, Karmen Babić, and Mirko Orlić
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 3399–3416,Short summary
Fine-resolution lake temperature measurements (2 min, 15 depths) show different lake responses to atmospheric forcings: (1) continuous diurnal oscillations in the temperature in the first 5 m of the lake, (2) occasional diurnal oscillations in the temperature at depths from 7 to 20 m, and (3) occasional surface and internal seiches. Due to the sloped lake bottom, surface seiches produced the high-frequency oscillations in the lake temperatures with periods of 9 min at depths from 9 to 17 m.
Related subject area
HydrologySERGHEI (SERGHEI-SWE) v1.0: a performance-portable high-performance parallel-computing shallow-water solver for hydrology and environmental hydraulicsA simple, efficient, mass-conservative approach to solving Richards' equation (openRE, v1.0)Customized deep learning for precipitation bias correction and downscalingImplementation and sensitivity analysis of the Dam-Reservoir OPeration model (DROP v1.0) over SpainRegional coupled surface–subsurface hydrological model fitting based on a spatially distributed minimalist reduction of frequency domain discharge dataOperational water forecast ability of the HRRR-iSnobal combination: an evaluation to adapt into production environmentsPrediction of algal blooms via data-driven machine learning models: an evaluation using data from a well-monitored mesotrophic lakeUniFHy v0.1.1: a community modelling framework for the terrestrial water cycle in PythonBasin-scale gyres and mesoscale eddies in large lakes: a novel procedure for their detection and characterization, assessed in Lake GenevaThermal modeling of three lakes within the continuous permafrost zone in Alaska using the LAKE 2.0 modelWater balance model (WBM) v.1.0.0: a scalable gridded global hydrologic model with water-tracking functionalityEvaluating a Global Soil Moisture dataset from a Multitask Model (GSM3 v1.0) for current and emerging threats to cropsCoupling a large-scale hydrological model (CWatM v1.1) with a high-resolution groundwater flow model (MODFLOW 6) to assess the impact of irrigation at regional scaleRavenR v2.1.4: an open-source R package to support flexible hydrologic modellingDeveloping a parsimonious canopy model (PCM v1.0) to predict forest gross primary productivity and leaf area index of deciduous broad-leaved forestSynergy between satellite observations of soil moisture and water storage anomalies for runoff estimationA physically based distributed karst hydrological model (QMG model-V1.0) for flood simulationsModular Assessment of Rainfall–Runoff Models Toolbox (MARRMoT) v2.1: an object-oriented implementation of 47 established hydrological models for improved speed and readabilityCREST-VEC: a framework towards more accurate and realistic flood simulation across scalesRad-cGAN v1.0: Radar-based precipitation nowcasting model with conditional generative adversarial networks for multiple dam domainsThe eWaterCycle platform for open and FAIR hydrological collaborationEvaluating the Atibaia River hydrology using JULES6.1Continental-scale evaluation of a fully distributed coupled land surface and groundwater model ParFlow-CLM (v3.6.0) over EuropeA framework for ensemble modelling of climate change impacts on lakes worldwide: the ISIMIP Lake SectorCLIMFILL v0.9: a framework for intelligently gap filling Earth observationsModeling subgrid lake energy balance in ORCHIDEE terrestrial scheme using the FLake lake modelEvaluating a reservoir parametrization in the vector-based global routing model mizuRoute (v2.0.1) for Earth system model couplingImproved runoff simulations for a highly varying soil depth and complex terrain watershed in the Loess Plateau with the Community Land Model version 5GSTools v1.3: a toolbox for geostatistical modelling in PythonAI4Water v1.0: an open-source python package for modeling hydrological time series using data-driven methodsModeling of streamflow in a 30 km long reach spanning 5 years using OpenFOAM 5.xTree hydrodynamic modelling of the soil–plant–atmosphere continuum using FETCH3Effects of dimensionality on the performance of hydrodynamic models for stratified lakes and reservoirsComputation of backwater effects in surface waters of lowland catchments including control structures – an efficient and re-usable method implemented in the hydrological open-source model Kalypso-NA (4.0)Inishell 2.0: semantically driven automatic GUI generation for scientific modelsIrrigation quality and management determine salinization in Israeli olive orchardsImplementing the Water, HEat and Transport model in GEOframe (WHETGEO-1D v.1.0): algorithms, informatics, design patterns, open science features, and 1D deploymentHydroPy (v1.0): a new global hydrology model written in PythonGMD perspective: The quest to improve the evaluation of groundwater representation in continental- to global-scale modelsSELF v1.0: a minimal physical model for predicting time of freeze-up in lakesPOET (v0.1): speedup of many-core parallel reactive transport simulations with fast DHT lookupsAssessment of the ParFlow–CLM CONUS 1.0 integrated hydrologic model: evaluation of hyper-resolution water balance components across the contiguous United StatesCosmic-Ray neutron Sensor PYthon tool (crspy 1.2.1): an open-source tool for the processing of cosmic-ray neutron and soil moisture dataSuperflexPy 1.3.0: an open-source Python framework for building, testing, and improving conceptual hydrological modelsDRYP 1.0: a parsimonious hydrological model of DRYland Partitioning of the water balanceHydroBlocks v0.2: enabling a field-scale two-way coupling between the land surface and river networks in Earth system modelsGP-SWAT (v1.0): a two-level graph-based parallel simulation tool for the SWAT modelDevelopment of a coupled simulation framework representing the lake and river continuum of mass and energy (TCHOIR v1.0)Hydrostreamer v1.0 – improved streamflow predictions for local applications from an ensemble of downscaled global runoff productsModel cascade from meteorological drivers to river flood hazard: flood-cascade v1.0
Daniel Caviedes-Voullième, Mario Morales-Hernández, Matthew R. Norman, and Ilhan Özgen-Xian
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 977–1008,Short summary
This paper introduces the SERGHEI framework and a solver for shallow-water problems. Such models, often used for surface flow and flood modelling, are computationally intense. In recent years the trends to increase computational power have changed, requiring models to adapt to new hardware and new software paradigms. SERGHEI addresses these challenges, allowing surface flow simulation to be enabled on the newest and upcoming consumer hardware and supercomputers very efficiently.
Andrew M. Ireson, Raymond J. Spiteri, Martyn P. Clark, and Simon A. Mathias
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 659–677,Short summary
Richards' equation (RE) is used to describe the movement and storage of water in a soil profile and is a component of many hydrological and earth-system models. Solving RE numerically is challenging due to the non-linearities in the properties. Here, we present a simple but effective and mass-conservative solution to solving RE, which is ideal for teaching/learning purposes but also useful in prototype models that are used to explore alternative process representations.
Fang Wang, Di Tian, and Mark Carroll
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 535–556,Short summary
Gridded precipitation datasets suffer from biases and coarse resolutions. We developed a customized deep learning (DL) model to bias-correct and downscale gridded precipitation data using radar observations. The results showed that the customized DL model can generate improved precipitation at fine resolutions where regular DL and statistical methods experience challenges. The new model can be used to improve precipitation estimates, especially for capturing extremes at smaller scales.
Malak Sadki, Simon Munier, Aaron Boone, and Sophie Ricci
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 427–448,Short summary
Predicting water resource evolution is a key challenge for the coming century. Anthropogenic impacts on water resources, and particularly the effects of dams and reservoirs on river flows, are still poorly known and generally neglected in global hydrological studies. A parameterized reservoir model is reproduced to compute monthly releases in Spanish anthropized river basins. For global application, an exhaustive sensitivity analysis of the model parameters is performed on flows and volumes.
Nicolas Flipo, Nicolas Gallois, and Jonathan Schuite
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 353–381,Short summary
A new approach is proposed to fit hydrological or land surface models, which suffer from large uncertainties in terms of water partitioning between fast runoff and slow infiltration from small watersheds to regional or continental river basins. It is based on the analysis of hydrosystem behavior in the frequency domain, which serves as a basis for estimating water flows in the time domain with a physically based model. It opens the way to significant breakthroughs in hydrological modeling.
Joachim Meyer, John Horel, Patrick Kormos, Andrew Hedrick, Ernesto Trujillo, and S. McKenzie Skiles
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 233–250,Short summary
Freshwater resupply from seasonal snow in the mountains is changing. Current water prediction methods from snow rely on historical data excluding the change and can lead to errors. This work presented and evaluated an alternative snow-physics-based approach. The results in a test watershed were promising, and future improvements were identified. Adaptation to current forecast environments would improve resilience to the seasonal snow changes and helps ensure the accuracy of resupply forecasts.
Shuqi Lin, Donald C. Pierson, and Jorrit P. Mesman
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 35–46,Short summary
The risks brought by the proliferation of algal blooms motivate the improvement of bloom forecasting tools, but algal blooms are complexly controlled and difficult to predict. Given rapid growth of monitoring data and advances in computation, machine learning offers an alternative prediction methodology. This study tested various machine learning workflows in a dimictic mesotrophic lake and gave promising predictions of the seasonal variations and the timing of algal blooms.
Thibault Hallouin, Richard J. Ellis, Douglas B. Clark, Simon J. Dadson, Andrew G. Hughes, Bryan N. Lawrence, Grenville M. S. Lister, and Jan Polcher
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 9177–9196,Short summary
A new framework for modelling the water cycle in the land system has been implemented. It considers the hydrological cycle as three interconnected components, bringing flexibility in the choice of the physical processes and their spatio-temporal resolutions. It is designed to foster collaborations between land surface, hydrological, and groundwater modelling communities to develop the next-generation of land system models for integration in Earth system models.
Seyed Mahmood Hamze-Ziabari, Ulrich Lemmin, Frédéric Soulignac, Mehrshad Foroughan, and David Andrew Barry
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 8785–8807,Short summary
A procedure combining numerical simulations, remote sensing, and statistical analyses is developed to detect large-scale current systems in large lakes. By applying this novel procedure in Lake Geneva, strategies for detailed transect field studies of the gyres and eddies were developed. Unambiguous field evidence of 3D gyre/eddy structures in full agreement with predictions confirmed the robustness of the proposed procedure.
Jason A. Clark, Elchin E. Jafarov, Ken D. Tape, Benjamin M. Jones, and Victor Stepanenko
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 7421–7448,Short summary
Lakes in the Arctic are important reservoirs of heat. Under climate warming scenarios, we expect Arctic lakes to warm the surrounding frozen ground. We simulate water temperatures in three Arctic lakes in northern Alaska over several years. Our results show that snow depth and lake ice strongly affect water temperatures during the frozen season and that more heat storage by lakes would enhance thawing of frozen ground.
Danielle S. Grogan, Shan Zuidema, Alex Prusevich, Wilfred M. Wollheim, Stanley Glidden, and Richard B. Lammers
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 7287–7323,Short summary
This paper describes the University of New Hampshire's water balance model (WBM). This model simulates the land surface components of the global water cycle and includes water extractions for use by humans for agricultural, domestic, and industrial purposes. A new feature is described that permits water source tracking through the water cycle, which has implications for water resource management. This paper was written to describe a long-used model and presents its first open-source version.
Jiangtao Liu, David Hughes, Farshid Rahmani, Kathryn Lawson, and Chaopeng Shen
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for GMDShort summary
Under-monitored regions like Africa need high-quality soil moisture predictions to help with food production, but it is not clear if soil moisture processes are similar enough around the world for data-driven models to maintain accuracy. We present a deep-learning-based soil moisture model that learns from both in-situ data and satellite data and performs better than satellite products at the global scale. These results help us apply our model globally while better understanding its limitations.
Luca Guillaumot, Mikhail Smilovic, Peter Burek, Jens de Bruijn, Peter Greve, Taher Kahil, and Yoshihide Wada
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 7099–7120,Short summary
We develop and test the first large-scale hydrological model at regional scale with a very high spatial resolution that includes a water management and groundwater flow model. This study infers the impact of surface and groundwater-based irrigation on groundwater recharge and on evapotranspiration in both irrigated and non-irrigated areas. We argue that water table recorded in boreholes can be used as validation data if water management is well implemented and spatial resolution is ≤ 100 m.
Robert Chlumsky, James R. Craig, Simon G. M. Lin, Sarah Grass, Leland Scantlebury, Genevieve Brown, and Rezgar Arabzadeh
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 7017–7030,Short summary
We introduce the open-source RavenR package, which has been built to support the use of the hydrologic modelling framework Raven. The R package contains many functions that may be useful in each step of the model-building process, including preparing model input files, running the model, and analyzing the outputs. We present six reproducible use cases of the RavenR package for the Liard River basin in Canada to demonstrate how it may be deployed.
Bahar Bahrami, Anke Hildebrandt, Stephan Thober, Corinna Rebmann, Rico Fischer, Luis Samaniego, Oldrich Rakovec, and Rohini Kumar
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 6957–6984,Short summary
Leaf area index (LAI) and gross primary productivity (GPP) are crucial components to carbon cycle, and are closely linked to water cycle in many ways. We develop a Parsimonious Canopy Model (PCM) to simulate GPP and LAI at stand scale, and show its applicability over a diverse range of deciduous broad-leaved forest biomes. With its modular structure, the PCM is able to adapt with existing data requirements, and run in either a stand-alone mode or as an interface linked to hydrologic models.
Stefania Camici, Gabriele Giuliani, Luca Brocca, Christian Massari, Angelica Tarpanelli, Hassan Hashemi Farahani, Nico Sneeuw, Marco Restano, and Jérôme Benveniste
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 6935–6956,Short summary
This paper presents an innovative approach, STREAM (SaTellite-based Runoff Evaluation And Mapping), to derive daily river discharge and runoff estimates from satellite observations of soil moisture, precipitation, and terrestrial total water storage anomalies. Potentially useful for multiple operational and scientific applications, the added value of the STREAM approach is the ability to increase knowledge on the natural processes, human activities, and their interactions on the land.
Ji Li, Daoxian Yuan, Fuxi Zhang, Jiao Liu, and Mingguo Ma
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 6581–6600,Short summary
A new karst hydrological model (the QMG model) is developed to simulate and predict the floods in karst trough valley basins. Unlike the complex structure and parameters of current karst groundwater models, this model has a simple double-layered structure with few parameters and decreases the demand for modeling data in karst areas. The flood simulation results based on the QMG model of the Qingmuguan karst trough valley basin are satisfactory, indicating the suitability of the model simulation.
Luca Trotter, Wouter J. M. Knoben, Keirnan J. A. Fowler, Margarita Saft, and Murray C. Peel
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 6359–6369,Short summary
MARRMoT is a piece of software that emulates 47 common models for hydrological simulations. It can be used to run and calibrate these models within a common environment as well as to easily modify them. We restructured and recoded MARRMoT in order to make the models run faster and to simplify their use, while also providing some new features. This new MARRMoT version runs models on average 3.6 times faster while maintaining very strong consistency in their outputs to the previous version.
Zhi Li, Shang Gao, Mengye Chen, Jonathan Gourley, Naoki Mizukami, and Yang Hong
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 6181–6196,Short summary
Operational streamflow prediction at a continental scale is critical for national water resources management. However, limited computational resources often impede such processes, with streamflow routing being one of the most time-consuming parts. This study presents a recent development of a hydrologic system that incorporates a vector-based routing scheme with a lake module that markedly speeds up streamflow prediction. Moreover, accuracy is improved and flood false alarms are mitigated.
Suyeon Choi and Yeonjoo Kim
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 5967–5985,Short summary
Here we present the cGAN-based precipitation nowcasting model, named Rad-cGAN, trained to predict a radar reflectivity map with a lead time of 10 min. Rad-cGAN showed superior performance at a lead time of up to 90 min compared with the reference models. Furthermore, we demonstrate the successful implementation of the transfer learning strategies using pre-trained Rad-cGAN to develop the models for different dam domains.
Rolf Hut, Niels Drost, Nick van de Giesen, Ben van Werkhoven, Banafsheh Abdollahi, Jerom Aerts, Thomas Albers, Fakhereh Alidoost, Bouwe Andela, Jaro Camphuijsen, Yifat Dzigan, Ronald van Haren, Eric Hutton, Peter Kalverla, Maarten van Meersbergen, Gijs van den Oord, Inti Pelupessy, Stef Smeets, Stefan Verhoeven, Martine de Vos, and Berend Weel
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 5371–5390,Short summary
With the eWaterCycle platform, we are providing the hydrological community with a platform to conduct their research that is fully compatible with the principles of both open science and FAIR science. The eWatercyle platform gives easy access to well-known hydrological models, big datasets and example experiments. Using eWaterCycle hydrologists can easily compare the results from different models, couple models and do more complex hydrological computational research.
Hsi-Kai Chou, Ana Maria Heuminski de Avila, and Michaela Bray
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 5233–5240,Short summary
Land surface models allow us to understand and investigate the cause and effect of environmental process changes. Therefore, this type of model is increasingly used for hydrological assessments. Here we explore the possibility of this approach using a case study in the Atibaia River basin, which serves as a major water supply for the metropolitan regions of Campinas and São Paulo, Brazil. We evaluated the model performance and use the model to simulate the basin hydrology.
Bibi S. Naz, Wendy Sharples, Yueling Ma, Klaus Goergen, and Stefan Kollet
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for GMDShort summary
It is challenging to apply a high-resolution integrated land surface and groundwater model over large spatial scales. In this paper, we demonstrate the application of such a model over a pan-European domain at 3 km resolution and perform an extensive evaluation of simulated water states and fluxes by comparing with in-situ and satellite data. This study can serve as a benchmark and baseline for future studies of climate change impact projections and for hydrological forecasting.
Malgorzata Golub, Wim Thiery, Rafael Marcé, Don Pierson, Inne Vanderkelen, Daniel Mercado-Bettin, R. Iestyn Woolway, Luke Grant, Eleanor Jennings, Benjamin M. Kraemer, Jacob Schewe, Fang Zhao, Katja Frieler, Matthias Mengel, Vasiliy Y. Bogomolov, Damien Bouffard, Marianne Côté, Raoul-Marie Couture, Andrey V. Debolskiy, Bram Droppers, Gideon Gal, Mingyang Guo, Annette B. G. Janssen, Georgiy Kirillin, Robert Ladwig, Madeline Magee, Tadhg Moore, Marjorie Perroud, Sebastiano Piccolroaz, Love Raaman Vinnaa, Martin Schmid, Tom Shatwell, Victor M. Stepanenko, Zeli Tan, Bronwyn Woodward, Huaxia Yao, Rita Adrian, Mathew Allan, Orlane Anneville, Lauri Arvola, Karen Atkins, Leon Boegman, Cayelan Carey, Kyle Christianson, Elvira de Eyto, Curtis DeGasperi, Maria Grechushnikova, Josef Hejzlar, Klaus Joehnk, Ian D. Jones, Alo Laas, Eleanor B. Mackay, Ivan Mammarella, Hampus Markensten, Chris McBride, Deniz Özkundakci, Miguel Potes, Karsten Rinke, Dale Robertson, James A. Rusak, Rui Salgado, Leon van der Linden, Piet Verburg, Danielle Wain, Nicole K. Ward, Sabine Wollrab, and Galina Zdorovennova
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 4597–4623,Short summary
Lakes and reservoirs are warming across the globe. To better understand how lakes are changing and to project their future behavior amidst various sources of uncertainty, simulations with a range of lake models are required. This in turn requires international coordination across different lake modelling teams worldwide. Here we present a protocol for and results from coordinated simulations of climate change impacts on lakes worldwide.
Verena Bessenbacher, Sonia Isabelle Seneviratne, and Lukas Gudmundsson
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 4569–4596,Short summary
Earth observations have many missing values. They are often filled using information from spatial and temporal contexts that mostly ignore information from related observed variables. We propose the gap-filling method CLIMFILL that additionally uses information from related variables. We test CLIMFILL using gap-free reanalysis data of variables related to soil–moisture climate interactions. CLIMFILL creates estimates for the missing values that recover the original dependence structure.
Anthony Bernus and Catherine Ottlé
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 4275–4295,Short summary
The lake model FLake was coupled to the ORCHIDEE land surface model to simulate lake energy balance at global scale with a multi-tile approach. Several simulations were performed with various atmospheric reanalyses and different lake depth parameterizations. The simulated lake surface temperature showed good agreement with observations (RMSEs of the order of 3 °C). We showed the large impact of the atmospheric forcing on lake temperature. We highlighted systematic errors on ice cover phenology.
Inne Vanderkelen, Shervan Gharari, Naoki Mizukami, Martyn P. Clark, David M. Lawrence, Sean Swenson, Yadu Pokhrel, Naota Hanasaki, Ann van Griensven, and Wim Thiery
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 4163–4192,Short summary
Human-controlled reservoirs have a large influence on the global water cycle. However, dam operations are rarely represented in Earth system models. We implement and evaluate a widely used reservoir parametrization in a global river-routing model. Using observations of individual reservoirs, the reservoir scheme outperforms the natural lake scheme. However, both schemes show a similar performance due to biases in runoff timing and magnitude when using simulated runoff.
Jiming Jin, Lei Wang, Jie Yang, Bingcheng Si, and Guo-Yue Niu
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 3405–3416,Short summary
This study aimed to improve runoff simulations and explore deep soil hydrological processes for a highly varying soil depth and complex terrain watershed in the Loess Plateau, China. The actual soil depths and river channels were incorporated into the model to better simulate the runoff in this watershed. The soil evaporation scheme was modified to better describe the evaporation processes. Our results showed that the model significantly improved the runoff simulations.
Sebastian Müller, Lennart Schüler, Alraune Zech, and Falk Heße
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 3161–3182,Short summary
The GSTools package provides a Python-based platform for geoostatistical applications. Salient features of GSTools are its random field generation, its kriging capabilities and its versatile covariance model. It is furthermore integrated with other Python packages, like PyKrige, ogs5py or scikit-gstat, and provides interfaces to meshio and PyVista. Four presented workflows showcase the abilities of GSTools.
Ather Abbas, Laurie Boithias, Yakov Pachepsky, Kyunghyun Kim, Jong Ahn Chun, and Kyung Hwa Cho
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 3021–3039,Short summary
The field of artificial intelligence has shown promising results in a wide variety of fields including hydrological modeling. However, developing and testing hydrological models with artificial intelligence techniques require expertise from diverse fields. In this study, we developed an open-source framework based upon the python programming language to simplify the process of the development of hydrological models of time series data using machine learning.
Yunxiang Chen, Jie Bao, Yilin Fang, William A. Perkins, Huiying Ren, Xuehang Song, Zhuoran Duan, Zhangshuan Hou, Xiaoliang He, and Timothy D. Scheibe
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 2917–2947,Short summary
Climate change affects river discharge variations that alter streamflow. By integrating multi-type survey data with a computational fluid dynamics tool, OpenFOAM, we show a workflow that enables accurate and efficient streamflow modeling at 30 km and 5-year scales. The model accuracy for water stage and depth average velocity is −16–9 cm and 0.71–0.83 in terms of mean error and correlation coefficients. This accuracy indicates the model's reliability for evaluating climate impact on rivers.
Marcela Silva, Ashley M. Matheny, Valentijn R. N. Pauwels, Dimetre Triadis, Justine E. Missik, Gil Bohrer, and Edoardo Daly
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 2619–2634,Short summary
Our study introduces FETCH3, a ready-to-use, open-access model that simulates the water fluxes across the soil, roots, and stem. To test the model capabilities, we tested it against exact solutions and a case study. The model presented considerably small errors when compared to the exact solutions and was able to correctly represent transpiration patterns when compared to experimental data. The results show that FETCH3 can correctly simulate above- and below-ground water transport.
Mayra Ishikawa, Wendy Gonzalez, Orides Golyjeswski, Gabriela Sales, J. Andreza Rigotti, Tobias Bleninger, Michael Mannich, and Andreas Lorke
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 2197–2220,Short summary
Reservoir hydrodynamics is often described in numerical models differing in dimensionality. 1D and 2D models assume homogeneity along the unresolved dimension. We compare the performance of models with 1 to 3 dimensions. All models presented reasonable results for seasonal temperature dynamics. Neglecting longitudinal transport resulted in the largest deviations in temperature. Flow velocity could only be reproduced by the 3D model. Results support the selection of models and their assessment.
Sandra Hellmers and Peter Fröhle
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 1061–1077,Short summary
A hydrological method to compute backwater effects in surface water streams and on adjacent lowlands caused by mostly complex flow control systems is presented. It enables transfer of discharges to water levels and calculation of backwater volume routing along streams and lowland areas by balancing water level slopes. The developed, implemented and evaluated method extends the application range of hydrological models significantly for flood-routing simulation in backwater-affected catchments.
Mathias Bavay, Michael Reisecker, Thomas Egger, and Daniela Korhammer
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 365–378,Short summary
Most users struggle with the configuration of numerical models. This can be improved by relying on a GUI, but this requires a significant investment and a specific skill set and does not fit with the daily duties of model developers, leading to major maintenance burdens. Inishell generates a GUI on the fly based on an XML description of the required configuration elements, making maintenance very simple. This concept has been shown to work very well in our context.
Vladimir Mirlas, Yaakov Anker, Asher Aizenkod, and Naftali Goldshleger
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 129–143,Short summary
Salinization owing to irrigation water quality causes soil degradation and soil fertility reduction that with poor drainage conditions impede plant development and manifest in economic damage. This study provided a soil salting process evaluation procedure through a combination of soil salinity monitoring, field experiments, remote sensing, and unsaturated soil profile saline water movement modeling. The modeling results validated the soil salinization danger from using brackish irrigation.
Niccolò Tubini and Riccardo Rigon
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 75–104,Short summary
This paper presents WHETGEO and its 1D deployment: a new physically based model simulating the water and energy budgets in a soil column. WHETGEO-1D is intended to be the first building block of a new customisable land-surface model that is integrated with process-based hydrology. WHETGEO is developed as an open-source code and is fully integrated into the GEOframe/OMS3 system, allowing the use of the many ancillary tools it provides.
Tobias Stacke and Stefan Hagemann
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 7795–7816,Short summary
HydroPy is a new version of an established global hydrology model. It was rewritten from scratch and adapted to a modern object-oriented infrastructure to facilitate its future development and application. With this study, we provide a thorough documentation and evaluation of our new model. At the same time, we open our code base and publish the model's source code in a public software repository. In this way, we aim to contribute to increasing transparency and reproducibility in science.
Tom Gleeson, Thorsten Wagener, Petra Döll, Samuel C. Zipper, Charles West, Yoshihide Wada, Richard Taylor, Bridget Scanlon, Rafael Rosolem, Shams Rahman, Nurudeen Oshinlaja, Reed Maxwell, Min-Hui Lo, Hyungjun Kim, Mary Hill, Andreas Hartmann, Graham Fogg, James S. Famiglietti, Agnès Ducharne, Inge de Graaf, Mark Cuthbert, Laura Condon, Etienne Bresciani, and Marc F. P. Bierkens
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 7545–7571,Short summary
Groundwater is increasingly being included in large-scale (continental to global) land surface and hydrologic simulations. However, it is challenging to evaluate these simulations because groundwater is
hiddenunderground and thus hard to measure. We suggest using multiple complementary strategies to assess the performance of a model (
Marco Toffolon, Luca Cortese, and Damien Bouffard
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 7527–7543,Short summary
The time when lakes freeze varies considerably from year to year. A common way to predict it is to use negative degree days, i.e., the sum of air temperatures below 0 °C, a proxy for the heat lost to the atmosphere. Here, we show that this is insufficient as the mixing of the surface layer induced by wind tends to delay the formation of ice. To do so, we developed a minimal model based on a simplified energy balance, which can be used both for large-scale analyses and short-term predictions.
Marco De Lucia, Michael Kühn, Alexander Lindemann, Max Lübke, and Bettina Schnor
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 7391–7409,Short summary
POET is a parallel reactive transport simulator which implements a mechanism to store and reuse previous results of geochemical simulations through distributed hash tables. POET parallelizes chemistry using a master/worker design with noncontiguous grid partitions to maximize its efficiency and load balance on shared-memory machines and compute clusters.
Mary M. F. O'Neill, Danielle T. Tijerina, Laura E. Condon, and Reed M. Maxwell
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 7223–7254,Short summary
Modeling the hydrologic cycle at high resolution and at large spatial scales is an incredible opportunity and challenge for hydrologists. In this paper, we present the results of a high-resolution hydrologic simulation configured over the contiguous United States. We discuss simulated water fluxes through groundwater, soil, plants, and over land, and we compare model results to in situ observations and satellite products in order to build confidence and guide future model development.
Daniel Power, Miguel Angel Rico-Ramirez, Sharon Desilets, Darin Desilets, and Rafael Rosolem
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 7287–7307,Short summary
Cosmic-ray neutron sensors estimate root-zone soil moisture at sub-kilometre scales. There are national-scale networks of these sensors across the globe; however, methods for converting neutron signals to soil moisture values are inconsistent. This paper describes our open-source Python tool that processes raw sensor data into soil moisture estimates. The aim is to allow a user to ensure they have a harmonized data set, along with informative metadata, to facilitate both research and teaching.
Marco Dal Molin, Dmitri Kavetski, and Fabrizio Fenicia
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 7047–7072,Short summary
This paper introduces SuperflexPy, an open-source Python framework for building flexible conceptual hydrological models. SuperflexPy is available as open-source code and can be used by the hydrological community to investigate improved process representations, for model comparison, and for operational work.
E. Andrés Quichimbo, Michael Bliss Singer, Katerina Michaelides, Daniel E. J. Hobley, Rafael Rosolem, and Mark O. Cuthbert
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 6893–6917,Short summary
Understanding and quantifying water partitioning in dryland regions are of key importance to anticipate the future impacts of climate change in water resources and dryland ecosystems. Here, we have developed a simple hydrological model (DRYP) that incorporates the key processes of water partitioning in drylands. DRYP is a modular, versatile, and parsimonious model that can be used to anticipate and plan for climatic and anthropogenic changes to water fluxes and storage in dryland regions.
Nathaniel W. Chaney, Laura Torres-Rojas, Noemi Vergopolan, and Colby K. Fisher
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 6813–6832,Short summary
Although there have been significant advances in river routing and sub-grid heterogeneity (i.e., tiling) schemes in Earth system models over the past decades, there has yet to be a concerted effort to couple these two concepts. This paper aims to bridge this gap through the development of a two-way coupling between tiling schemes and river networks in the HydroBlocks land surface model. The scheme is implemented and tested over a 1 arc degree domain in Oklahoma, United States.
Dejian Zhang, Bingqing Lin, Jiefeng Wu, and Qiaoying Lin
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 5915–5925,Short summary
GP-SWAT is a two-layer model parallelization tool for a SWAT model based on the graph-parallel Pregel algorithm. It can be employed to perform both individual and iterative model parallelization, endowing it with a range of possible applications and great flexibility in maximizing performance. As a flexible and scalable tool, it can run in diverse environments, ranging from a commodity computer with a Microsoft Windows, Mac or Linux OS to a Spark cluster consisting of a large number of nodes.
Daisuke Tokuda, Hyungjun Kim, Dai Yamazaki, and Taikan Oki
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 5669–5693,Short summary
We developed TCHOIR, a hydrologic simulation framework, to solve fluvial- and thermodynamics of the river–lake continuum. This provides an algorithm for upscaling high-resolution topography as well, which enables the representation of those interactions at the global scale. Validation against in situ and satellite observations shows that the coupled mode outperforms river- or lake-only modes. TCHOIR will contribute to elucidating the role of surface hydrology in Earth’s energy and water cycle.
Marko Kallio, Joseph H. A. Guillaume, Vili Virkki, Matti Kummu, and Kirsi Virrantaus
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 5155–5181,Short summary
Different runoff and streamflow products are freely available but may come with unsuitable spatial units. On the other hand, starting a new modelling exercise may require considerable resources. Hydrostreamer improves the usability of existing runoff products, allowing runoff and streamflow estimates at the desired spatial units with minimal data requirements and intuitive workflow. The case study shows that Hydrostreamer performs well compared to benchmark products and observation data.
Peter Uhe, Daniel Mitchell, Paul D. Bates, Nans Addor, Jeff Neal, and Hylke E. Beck
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 4865–4890,Short summary
We present a cascade of models to compute high-resolution river flooding. This takes meteorological inputs, e.g., rainfall and temperature from observations or climate models, and takes them through a series of modeling steps. This is relevant to evaluating current day and future flood risk and impacts. The model framework uses global data sets, allowing it to be applied anywhere in the world.
Andersen, T. K., Bolding, K., Nielsen, A., Bruggeman, J., Jeppesen, E., and Trolle, D.: How morphology shapes the parameter sensitivity of lake ecosystem models, Environ. Model. Softw., 136, 104945, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsoft.2020.104945, 2021.
Bahr, A., Evans, C., Martinoli, A., Huwald, H., Higgins, C., and Parlange, M.: Measuring sensible heat flux with high spatial density, in 2012 IEEE Sensors Applications Symposium Proceedings, SAS 2012, Brescia, Italy, 7–9 February 2012, 255–260, https://doi.org/10.1109/SAS.2012.6166293, 2012.
Bell, V. A., George, D. G., Moore, R. J., and Parker, J.: Using a 1-D mixing model to simulate the vertical flux of heat and oxygen in a lake subject to episodic mixing, Ecol. Modell., 190, 41–54, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2005.02.025, 2006.
Benson, B. B. and Krause Jr., D.: The concentration and isotopic fractionation of gases dissolved in freshwater in equilibrium with the atmosphere. 1. Oxigen, Limnol. Oceanogr., 25, 662–671, https://doi.org/10.4319/lo.1980.25.4.0662, 1980.
Bristow, K. L. and Campbell, G. S.: On the relationship between incoming solar radiation and daily maximum and minimum temperature, Agric. For. Meteorol., 31, 159–166, https://doi.org/10.1016/0168-1923(84)90017-0, 1984.
Bruce, L. C., Frassl, M. A., Arhonditsis, G. B., Gal, G., Hamilton, D. P., Hanson, P. C., Hetherington, A. L., Melack, J. M., Read, J. S., Rinke, K., Rigosi, A., Trolle, D., Winslow, L., Adrian, R., Ayala, A. I., Bocaniov, S. A., Boehrer, B., Boon, C., Brookes, J. D., Bueche, T., Busch, B. D., Copetti, D., Cortés, A., de Eyto, E., Elliott, J. A., Gallina, N., Gilboa, Y., Guyennon, N., Huang, L., Kerimoglu, O., Lenters, J. D., MacIntyre, S., Makler-Pick, V., McBride, C. G., Moreira, S., Özkundakci, D., Pilotti, M., Rueda, F. J., Rusak, J. A., Samal, N. R., Schmid, M., Shatwell, T., Snorthheim, C., Soulignac, F., Valerio, G., van der Linden, L., Vetter, M., Vinçon-Leite, B., Wang, J., Weber, M., Wickramaratne, C., Woolway, R. I., Yao, H., and Hipsey, M. R.: A multi-lake comparative analysis of the General Lake Model (GLM): Stress-testing across a global observatory network, Environ. Model. Softw., 102, 274–291, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsoft.2017.11.016, 2018.
Bruggeman, J. and Bolding, K.: A general framework for aquatic biogeochemical models, Environ. Model. Softw., 61, 249–265, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsoft.2014.04.002, 2014.
Brunel, J. P.: Estimation of sensible heat flux from measurements of surface radiative temperature and air temperature at two meters: Application to determine actual evaporation rate, Agric. For. Meteorol., 46, 179–191, https://doi.org/10.1016/0168-1923(89)90063-4, 1989.
Brutsaert, W.: On a Derivable Formula for Long-Wave Radiation From Clear Skies, Water Resour. Res., 11, 742–744, https://doi.org/10.1029/wr011i005p00742, 1975.
Bryan, A. M., Steiner, A. L., and Posselt, D. J.: Regional modeling of surface-atmosphere interactions and their impact on Great Lakes hydroclimate, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 120, 1044–1064, https://doi.org/10.1002/2014JD022316, 2015.
Bubalo, M., Janeković, I., and Orlić, M.: Chrystal and Proudman resonances simulated with three numerical models, Ocean Dynam., 68, 97–507, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10236-018-1146-8, 2018.
Burchard, H., Bolding, K., and Villarreal, M. R.: GOTM, a general ocean turbulence model. Theory, implementation and test cases, European Commission, Space Applications Institute, 103 pp., https://op.europa.eu/en/publication-detail/-/publication/5b512e12-367d-11ea-ba6e-01aa75ed71a1/language-en/format-PDF/source-272420379 (last access: 30 August 2021), 1999.
Burchard, H., Schulz, E., and Schuttelaars, H. M.: Impact of estuarine convergence on residual circulation in tidally energetic estuaries and inlets, Geophys. Res. Lett., 41, 913–919, https://doi.org/10.1002/2013GL058494, 2014.
Burić, M., Grgurić, S., Mikulčić, H., and Wang, X.: A numerical investigation of tidal current energy resource potential in a sea strait, Energy, 234, 121241, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2021.121241, 2021.
Chen, C. A. and Millero, F. J.: Thermodynamic Properties for Natural Waters Covering Only the Limnological Range, Limnol. Oceanogr., 31, 657–662, https://doi.org/10.4319/lo.1986.31.3.0657, 1986.
Ciglenečki, I., Janeković, I., Marguš, M., Bura-Nakić, E., Carić, M., Ljubešić, Z., Batistić, M., Hrustić, E., Dupčić, J., and Garić, R.: Impacts of extreme weather events on highly eutrophic marine ecosystem (Rogoznica Lake, Adriatic coast), Cont. Shelf Res., 108, 144–155, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.csr.2015.05.007, 2015.
Crawford, T. M. and Duchon, C. E.: An improved parameterization for estimating effective atmospheric emissivity for use in calculating daytime downwelling longwave radiation, J. Appl. Meteorol., 38, 474–480, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0450(1999)038<0474:AIPFEE>2.0.CO;2, 1999.
Forcat, F., Roget, E., Figueroa, M., and Sánchez, X.: Earth rotation effects on the internal wave field in a stratified small lake: Numerical simulations, Limnetica, 30, 27–42, https://doi.org/10.23818/limn.30.04, 2011.
Frishfelds, V., Sennikovs, J., Bethers, U., Murawski, J., and Timuhins, A.: Modeling transit flow through port gates and connecting channel in Baltic Sea-Liepaja Port-Liepaja Lake system, Front. Mar. Sci., 8, 657721, https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2021.657721, 2021.
Goudsmit, G.-H., Burchard, H., Peeters, F., and Wüest, A.: Application of k-ε turbulence models to enclosed basins: The role of internal seiches, J. Geophys. Res., 107, 3230, https://doi.org/10.1029/2001jc000954, 2002.
Henderson-Sellers, B.: New formulation of eddy diffusion thermocline models, Appl. Math. Model., 9, 441–446, https://doi.org/10.1016/0307-904X(85)90110-6, 1985.
Henderson-Sellers, B.: Calculating the surface energy balance for lake and reservoir modeling: A review, Rev. Geophys., 24, 625–649, https://doi.org/10.1029/RG024i003p00625, 1986.
Hipsey, M. R., Bruce, L. C., Boon, C., Busch, B., Carey, C. C., Hamilton, D. P., Hanson, P. C., Read, J. S., de Sousa, E., Weber, M., and Winslow, L. A.: A General Lake Model (GLM 3.0) for linking with high-frequency sensor data from the Global Lake Ecological Observatory Network (GLEON), Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 473–523, https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-12-473-2019, 2019.
Hostetler, S. W. and Bartlein, P. J.: Simulation of lake evaporation with application to modeling lake level variations of Harney-Malheur Lake, Oregon, Water Resour. Res., 26, 2603–2612, https://doi.org/10.1029/WR026i010p02603, 1990.
Jacob, B., Stanev, E. V., and Zhang, Y. J.: Local and remote response of the North Sea dynamics to morphodynamic changes in theWadden Sea, Ocean Dynam., 66, 671–690, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10236-016-0949-8, 2016.
Jassby, A. and Powell, T.: Vertical patterns of eddy diffusion during stratification in Castle Lake, California, Limnol. Oceanogr., 20, 530–543, https://doi.org/10.4319/lo.1975.20.4.0530, 1975.
Klaić, Z. B. and Kvakić, M.: Modeling the impacts of the man-made lake on the meteorological conditions of the surrounding areas, J. Appl. Meteorol. Climatol, 53, 1121–1142, https://doi.org/10.1175/JAMC-D-13-0163.1, 2014.
Klaić, Z. B., Rubinić, J., and Kapelj, S.: Review of research on Plitvice Lakes, Croatia in the fields of meteorology, climatology, hydrology, hydrogeochemistry and physical limnology, Geofizika, 35, 189–278, https://doi.org/10.15233/gfz.2018.35.9, 2018.
Klaić, Z. B., Babić, K., and Mareković, T.: Internal seiches in a karstic mesotrophic lake (Prošće, Plitvice Lakes, Croatia), Geofizika, 37, 157–179, https://doi.org/10.15233/gfz.2020.37.11, 2020a.
Klaić, Z. B., Babić, K., and Orlić, M.: Evolution and dynamics of the vertical temperature profile in an oligotrophic lake, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 3399–3416, https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-24-3399-2020, 2020b.
Kristovich, D. R., Clark, R. D., Frame, J., Geerts, B., Knupp, K. R., Kosiba, K. A., Laird, N. F., Metz, N. D., Minder, J. R., Sikora, T. D., Steenburgh, W. J., Steiger, S. M., Wurman, J., and Young, G. S.: The Ontario winter lake-effect systems field campaign: Scientific and educational adventures to further our knowledge and prediction of lake-effect storms, B. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 98, 315–332, https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-15-00034.1, 2017.
Krumgalz, B. S.: Temperature Dependence of Mineral Solubility in Water. Part 3. Alkaline and Alkaline Earth Sulfates, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 47, 023101, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5031951, 2018.
Kudish, A. I. and Evseev, E.: Statistical relationships between solar UVB and UVA radiation and global radiation measurements at two sites in Israel, Int. J. Climatol., 20, 759–770, https://doi.org/10.1002/1097-0088(20000615)20:7<759::AID-JOC494>3.0.CO;2-K, 2000.
Kudish, A. I., Lyubansky, V., Evseev, E. G., and Ianetz, A.: Inter-comparison of the solar UVB, UVA and global radiation clearness and UV indices for Beer Sheva and Neve Zohar (Dead Sea), Israel, Energy, 30, 1623–1641, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2004.04.033, 2005.
Ladwig, R., Hanson, P. C., Dugan, H. A., Carey, C. C., Zhang, Y., Shu, L., Duffy, C. J., and Cobourn, K. M.: Lake thermal structure drives interannual variability in summer anoxia dynamics in a eutrophic lake over 37 years, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 1009–1032, https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-25-1009-2021, 2021.
Li, Q., Bruggeman, J., Burchard, H., Klingbeil, K., Umlauf, L., and Bolding, K.: Integrating CVMix into GOTM (v6.0): a consistent framework for testing, comparing, and applying ocean mixing schemes, Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 4261–4282, https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-14-4261-2021, 2021.
Liston, G. E. and Hall, D. K.: An energy-balance model of lake-ice evolution, J. Glaciol., 41, 373–382, https://doi.org/10.3189/S0022143000016245, 1995.
MacKay, M. D.: A process-oriented small lake scheme for coupled climate modeling applications, J. Hydrometeorol., 13, 1911–1924, https://doi.org/10.1175/JHM-D-11-0116.1, 2012.
MacKay, M. D., Verseghy, D. L., Fortin, V., and Rennie, M. D.: Wintertime simulations of a boreal lake with the Canadian Small Lake Model, J. Hydrometeorol., 18, 2143–2160, https://doi.org/10.1175/JHM-D-16-0268.1, 2017.
Martynov, A., Sushama, L., and Laprise, R.: Simulation of temperate freezing lakes by one-dimensional lake models: performance assessment for interactive coupling with regional climate models, Boreal Env. Res, 15, 143–164, 2010.
Mironov, D., Heise, E., Kourzeneva, E., Ritter, B., Schneider, N., and Terzhevik, A.: Implementation of the lake parameterisation scheme FLake into the numerical weather prediction model COSMO, Boreal Environ. Res., 15, 218–230, 2010.
Monin, A. S. and Obukhov, A. M.: Basic laws of turbulent mixing in the surfacelayer of the atmosphere, Tr. Akad. Nauk SSSR Geophiz. Inst., 151, 163–187, 1954.
Moore, T. N., Mesman, J. P., Ladwig, R., Feldbauer, J., Olsson, F., Pilla, R. M., Shatwell, T., Venkiteswaran, J. J., Delany, A. D., Dugan, H., Rose, K. C., and Read, J. S.: LakeEnsemblR: An R package that facilitates ensemble modelling of lakes, Environ. Model. Softw., 143, 105101, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsoft.2021.105101, 2021.
National Park Plitvička Jezera (NPPL): Historical overview, https://np-plitvicka-jezera.hr/en/scientific-research/historical-overview/, last access: 24 January 2021.
Nielsen, A., Hu, F. R. S., Schnedler-Meyer, N. A., Bolding, K., Andersen, T. K., and Trolle, D.: Introducing QWET – A QGIS-plugin for application, evaluation and experimentation with the WET model Environmental Modelling and Software, Environ. Modell. Softw., 135, 104886, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsoft.2020.104886, 2021.
NIWA: Latent and sensible heat fluxes from lake water surfaces, https://niwa.co.nz/our-services/software/heat-fluxes-from-lakes/, last access: 28 January 2021.
Pashiardis, S., Kalogirou, S., and Pelengaris, A.: Statistical Analysis and Inter- Comparison of Solar UVB and Global Radiation for Athalassa and Larnaca, Cyprus, SM J. Biometrics Biostat., 2, 1012, https://doi.org/10.36876/smjbb.1006, 2017.
Podstawczynska, A.: UV and global solar radiation in Łódź, Central Poland, Int. J. Climatol., 30, 1–10, https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.1864, 2009.
Pokhrel, R. P. and Bhattarai, B. K.: Relation between Global Solar Radiation and Solar Ultraviolet Radiation in Different Parts of Nepal, J. Inst. Eng., 8, 169–175, https://doi.org/10.3126/jie.v8i3.5942, 2012.
Quay, P. D., Broecker, W. S., Hesslein, R. H., and Schindler, D. W.: Vertical diffusion rates determined by tritium tracer experiments in the thermocline and hypolimnion of two lakes, Limnol. Ocean., 25, 201–218, 1980.
Rasconi, S., Winter, K., and Kainz, M. J.: Temperature increase and fluctuation induce phytoplankton biodiversity loss – Evidence from a multi-seasonal mesocosm experiment, Ecol. Evol., 7, 2936–2946, https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.2889, 2017.
Read, J. S., Winslow, L. A., Hansen, G. J. A., Van Den Hoek, J., Hanson, P. C., Bruce, L. C., and Markfort, C. D.: Simulating 2368 temperate lakes reveals weak coherence in stratification phenology, Ecol. Modell., 291, 142–150, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2014.07.029, 2014.
Rodi, W.: Turbulence models and their application in hydraulics – A state of the art review, State-of-the-Art Paper/International Association for Hydraulic Research, Delft, The Netherlands, OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 1069725439, 104 pp., 1984.
Šarović, K. and Klaić, Z.: SIMO v1.0: Simplified model of the vertical temperature profile in a small warm monomictic lake (v1.0), Zenodo [code and data set], https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6367810, 2021.
Skamarock, W. C. and Klemp, J. B: A time-split nonhydrostatic atmospheric model for weather research and forecasting applications. J. Comput. Phys. 227, 3465–3485, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcp.2007.01.037, 2008.
Song, Y. and Haidvogel, D.: A semi-implicit ocean circulation model using a generalized topography-following coordinate system, J. Comput. Phys., 115, 228–244, https://doi.org/10.1006/jcph.1994.1189, 1994.
Stefan, H. G., Fang, X., and Hondzo, M.: Simulated climate change effects on year-round water temperatures in temperate zone lakes, Climatic Change, 40, 547–576, https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1005371600527, 1998.
Stepanenko, V. M., Machulskaya, E. E., Glagolev, M. V., and Lykossov, V. N.: Numerical modeling of methane emissions from lakes in the Permafrost Zone, Izv. – Atmos. Ocean Phys., 47, 252–264, https://doi.org/10.1134/S0001433811020113, 2011.
Stepanenko, V. M., Martynov, A., Jöhnk, K. D., Subin, Z. M., Perroud, M., Fang, X., Beyrich, F., Mironov, D., and Goyette, S.: A one-dimensional model intercomparison study of thermal regime of a shallow, turbid midlatitude lake, Geosci. Model Dev., 6, 1337–1352, https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-6-1337-2013, 2013.
Stepanenko, V., Jöhnk, K. D., Machulskaya, E., Perroud, M., Subin, Z., Nordbo, A., Mammarella, I., and Mironov, D.: Simulation of surface energy fluxes and stratification of a small boreal lake by a set of one-dimensional models, Tellus A: Dynamic Meteorology and Oceanography, 66, p. 21389, https://doi.org/10.3402/tellusa.v66.21389, 2014.
Stepanenko, V., Mammarella, I., Ojala, A., Miettinen, H., Lykosov, V., and Vesala, T.: LAKE 2.0: a model for temperature, methane, carbon dioxide and oxygen dynamics in lakes, Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 1977–2006, https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-9-1977-2016, 2016.
Sun, S., Yan, J., Xia, N., and Sun, C.: Development of a Model for Water and Heat Exchange Between the Atmosphere and a Water Body, Adv. Atmos. Sci., 24, 927–938, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00376-007-0927-7, 2007.
Thiery, W., Martynov, A., Darchambeau, F., Descy, J.-P., Plisnier, P.-D., Sushama, L., and van Lipzig, N. P. M.: Understanding the performance of the FLake model over two African Great Lakes, Geosci. Model Dev., 7, 317–337, https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-7-317-2014, 2014.
Vachon, D., Langenegger, T., Donis, D., and McGinnis, D. F.: Influence of water column stratification and mixing patterns on the fate of methane produced in deep sediments of a small eutrophic lake, Limnol. Oceanogr., 64, 2114–2128, https://doi.org/10.1002/lno.11172, 2019.
Verburg, P. and Antenucci, J. P.: Persistent unstable atmospheric boundary layer enhances sensible and latent heat loss in a tropical great lake: Lake Tanganyika, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 115, D11109, https://doi.org/10.1029/2009JD012839, 2010.
Råman Vinnå, L., Medhaug, I., Schmid, M., and Bouffard, D.: The vulnerability of lakes to climate change along an altitudinal gradient, Commun. Earth Environ., 2, 35, https://doi.org/10.1038/s43247-021-00106-w, 2021.
Wald, L.: Basics in Solar radiation at Earth's surface, Lecture Notes, 1st edn., MINES ParisTech, PSL Research University O.I.E. – Observation, Impacts, Energy Center Sophia Antipolis, France, hal-02164311, https://hal-mines-paristech.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02164311 (last access: 24 January 2021), 2019.
Wang, K. and Dickinson, R. E.: Global Atmospheric Downward Longwave Radiation at the Surface From Ground-Based Observations, Satellite Retrievals, and Reanalyses, Rev. Geophys., 51, 150–185, https://doi.org/10.1002/rog.20009, 2013.
Willmott, C. J. and Matsuura, K.: Advantages of the mean absolute error (MAE) over the root mean square error (RMSE) in assessing average model performance, Clim. Res., 30, 79–82, https://doi.org/10.3354/cr030079, 2005.
Willmott, C. J., Robeson, S. M., and Matsuura, K.: A refined index of model performance, Int. J. Climatol., 32, 2088–2094, https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.2419, 2012.
Winslow, J. C., Hunt, E. R., and Piper, S. C.: A globally applicable model of daily solar irradiance estimated from air temperature and precipitation data, Ecol. Modell., 143, 227–243, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-3800(01)00341-6, 2001.
Wu, Y., Huang, A., Yang, B., Dong, G., Wen, L., Lazhu, Zhang, Z., Fu, Z., Zhu, X., Zhang, X., and Cai, S.: Numerical study on the climatic effect of the lake clusters over Tibetan Plateau in summer, Clim. Dynam., 53, 5215–5236, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-019-04856-4, 2019.
Wu, Y., Huang, A., Lazhu, Yang, X., Qiu, B., Wen, L., Zhang, Z., Fu, Z., Zhu, X., Zhang, X., Cai, S., and Tang, Y.: Improvements of the coupled WRF-Lake model over Lake Nam Co, Central Tibetan Plateau, Clim. Dynam., 55, 2703–2724, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-020-05402-3, 2020.
Zhang, Y. J., Ye, F., Stanev, E.V., and Grashorn, S.: Seamless cross-scale modeling with SCHISM, Ocean Model., 102, 64–81, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocemod.2016.05.002, 2016.
Zhang, Y. J., Ye, F., Yu, H., Sun, W., Moghimi, S., Myers, E., Nunez, K., Zhang, R., Wang, H., Roland, A., Du, J., and Liu, Z.: Simulating compound flooding events in a hurricane, Ocean Dynam., 70, 621–640, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10236-020-01351-x, 2020.
We develop a simple 1-D model for the prediction of the vertical temperature profiles in small, warm lakes. The model uses routinely measured meteorological variables as well as UVB radiation and yearly mean temperature data. It can be used for the assessment of the onset and duration of lake stratification periods when water temperature data are unavailable, which can be useful for various lake studies performed in other scientific fields, such as biology, geochemistry, and sedimentology.
We develop a simple 1-D model for the prediction of the vertical temperature profiles in small,...