Articles | Volume 15, issue 4
© Author(s) 2022. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
© Author(s) 2022. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
A three-dimensional variational data assimilation system for aerosol optical properties based on WRF-Chem v4.0: design, development, and application of assimilating Himawari-8 aerosol observations
College of Meteorology and Oceanography, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha, 410005, China
College of Meteorology and Oceanography, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha, 410005, China
College of Meteorology and Oceanography, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha, 410005, China
School of Atmospheric Physics, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Nanjing, 211101, China
No articles found.
Liwen Wang, Qian Li, Qi Lv, Xuan Peng, and Wei You
Our research presents a novel deep learning approach called "TemDeep" for downscaling atmospheric variables at arbitrary time resolutions based on temporal coherence. Results show that our method can accurately recover evolution details superior to other methods, reaching 53.7 % in the restoration rate. Our findings are important for advancing weather forecasting models, enabling more precise and reliable predictions to support disaster preparedness, agriculture, and sustainable development.
Yiwen Hu, Zengliang Zang, Xiaoyan Ma, Yi Li, Yanfei Liang, Wei You, Xiaobin Pan, and Zhijin Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13183–13200,Short summary
This study developed a four-dimensional variational assimilation (4DVAR) system based on WRF–Chem to optimise SO2 emissions. The 4DVAR system was applied to obtain the SO2 emissions during the early period of the COVID-19 pandemic over China. The results showed that the 4DVAR system effectively optimised emissions to describe the actual changes in SO2 emissions related to the COVID lockdown, and it can thus be used to improve the accuracy of forecasts.
Xinghong Cheng, Zilong Hao, Zengliang Zang, Zhiquan Liu, Xiangde Xu, Shuisheng Wang, Yuelin Liu, Yiwen Hu, and Xiaodan Ma
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13747–13761,Short summary
We develop a new inversion method of emission sources based on sensitivity analysis and the three-dimension variational technique. The novel explicit observation operator matrix between emission sources and the receptor’s concentrations is established. Then this method is applied to a typical heavy haze episode in North China, and spatiotemporal variations of SO2, NO2, and O3 concentrations simulated using a posterior emission sources are compared with results using an a priori inventory.
Yanfei Liang, Zengliang Zang, Dong Liu, Peng Yan, Yiwen Hu, Yan Zhou, and Wei You
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 6285–6301,
Y. Liang, Z. Zang, and W. You
Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., XLII-3, 999–1002,
Z. Zang, X. Pan, W. You, and Y. Liang
Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., XLII-3, 2215–2218,
Zengliang Zang, Zilong Hao, Yi Li, Xiaobin Pan, Wei You, Zhijin Li, and Dan Chen
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 2623–2638,Short summary
The aerosol data assimilation and forecasts can be improved by adopting balance constraints that spread observation information across variables, thus producing balanced initial distributions. Surface and aircraft aerosol observations were assimilated to demonstrate the impact of the balance constraints. The results showed that the forecasting experiment with balance constraints is more skillful and durable than the experiment without balance constraints.
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Numerical methodsA comparison of Eulerian and Lagrangian methods for vertical particle transport in the water columnAutoQS v1: automatic parametrization of QuickSampling based on training images analysisImplementation and application of ensemble optimal interpolation on an operational chemistry weather model for improving PM2.5 and visibility predictionsA dynamical core based on a discontinuous Galerkin method for higher-order finite-element sea ice modelingGStatSim V1.0: a Python package for geostatistical interpolation and conditional simulationLeveraging Google's Tensor Processing Units for tsunami-risk mitigation planning in the Pacific Northwest and beyondAn improved subgrid channel model with upwind-form artificial diffusion for river hydrodynamics and floodplain inundation simulationA model instability issue in the National Centers for Environmental Prediction Global Forecast System version 16 and potential solutionsA comparison of 3-D spherical shell thermal convection results 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Tor Nordam, Ruben Kristiansen, Raymond Nepstad, Erik van Sebille, and Andy M. Booth
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 5339–5363,Short summary
We describe and compare two common methods, Eulerian and Lagrangian models, used to simulate the vertical transport of material in the ocean. They both solve the same transport problems but use different approaches for representing the underlying equations on the computer. The main focus of our study is on the numerical accuracy of the two approaches. Our results should be useful for other researchers creating or using these types of transport models.
Mathieu Gravey and Grégoire Mariethoz
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 5265–5279,Short summary
Multiple‐point geostatistics are widely used to simulate complex spatial structures based on a training image. The use of these methods relies on the possibility of finding optimal training images and parametrization of the simulation algorithms. Here, we propose finding an optimal set of parameters using only the training image as input. The main advantage of our approach is to remove the risk of overfitting an objective function.
Siting Li, Ping Wang, Hong Wang, Yue Peng, Zhaodong Liu, Wenjie Zhang, Hongli Liu, Yaqiang Wang, Huizheng Che, and Xiaoye Zhang
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 4171–4191,Short summary
Optimizing the initial state of atmospheric chemistry model input is one of the most essential methods to improve forecast accuracy. Considering the large computational load of the model, we introduce an ensemble optimal interpolation scheme (EnOI) for operational use and efficient updating of the initial fields of chemical components. The results suggest that EnOI provides a practical and cost-effective technique for improving the accuracy of chemical weather numerical forecasts.
Thomas Richter, Véronique Dansereau, Christian Lessig, and Piotr Minakowski
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 3907–3926,Short summary
Sea ice covers not only the pole regions but affects the weather and climate globally. For example, its white surface reflects more sunlight than land. The oceans around the poles are therefore kept cool, which affects the circulation in the oceans worldwide. Simulating the behavior and changes in sea ice on a computer is, however, very difficult. We propose a new computer simulation that better models how cracks in the ice change over time and show this by comparing to other simulations.
Emma J. MacKie, Michael Field, Lijing Wang, Zhen Yin, Nathan Schoedl, Matthew Hibbs, and Allan Zhang
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 3765–3783,Short summary
Earth scientists often have to fill in spatial gaps in measurements. This gap-filling or interpolation can be accomplished with geostatistical methods, where the statistical relationships between measurements are used to inform how these gaps should be filled. Despite the broad utility of these methods, there are few freely available geostatistical software applications. We present GStatSim, a Python package for performing different geostatistical interpolation methods.
Ian Madden, Simone Marras, and Jenny Suckale
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 3479–3500,Short summary
To aid risk managers who may wish to rapidly assess tsunami risk but may lack high-performance computing infrastructure, we provide an accessible software package able to rapidly model tsunami inundation over real topography by leveraging Google's Tensor Processing Unit, a high-performance hardware. Minimally trained users can take advantage of the rapid modeling abilities provided by this package via a web browser thanks to the ease of use of Google Cloud Platform.
Youtong Rong, Paul Bates, and Jeffrey Neal
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 3291–3311,Short summary
A novel subgrid channel (SGC) model is developed for river–floodplain modelling, allowing utilization of subgrid-scale bathymetric information while performing computations on relatively coarse grids. By including adaptive artificial diffusion, potential numerical instability, which the original SGC solver had, in low-friction regions such as urban areas is addressed. Evaluation of the new SGC model through structured tests confirmed that the accuracy and stability have improved.
Xiaqiong Zhou and Hann-Ming Henry Juang
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 3263–3274,Short summary
The National Centers for Environmental Prediction Global Forecast System version 16 experienced model instability failures in real-time runs resolved by increasing the minimum thickness depth parameter. Further investigation revealed that the issue was caused by the advection of geopotential heights at the model's layer interfaces. By replacing high-order boundary conditions with zero-gradient boundary conditions for interface-wind reconstruction, the instability was effectively addressed.
Grant T. Euen, Shangxin Liu, Rene Gassmöller, Timo Heister, and Scott D. King
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 3221–3239,Short summary
Due to the increasing availability of high-performance computing over the past few decades, numerical models have become an important tool for research. Here we test two geodynamic codes that produce such models: ASPECT, a newer code, and CitcomS, an older one. We show that they produce solutions that are extremely close. As methods and codes become more complex over time, showing reproducibility allows us to seamlessly link previously known information to modern methodologies.
Mohammad Kazem Sharifian, Georges Kesserwani, Alovya Ahmed Chowdhury, Jeffrey Neal, and Paul Bates
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 2391–2413,Short summary
This paper describes a new release of the LISFLOOD-FP model for fast and efficient flood simulations. It features a new non-uniform grid generator that uses multiwavelet analyses to sensibly coarsens the resolutions where the local topographic variations are smooth. Moreover, the model is parallelised on the graphical processing units (GPUs) to further boost computational efficiency. The performance of the model is assessed for five real-world case studies, noting its potential applications.
Bruno K. Zürcher
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 1697–1711,Short summary
We present a novel algorithm to efficiently compute Barnes interpolation, which is a method for transforming data values recorded at irregularly spaced points into a corresponding regular grid. In contrast to naive implementations with an algorithmic complexity that depends on the product of the number of sample points and the number of grid points, our approach reduces this dependency to their sum.
David H. Marsico and Paul A. Ullrich
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 1537–1551,Short summary
Climate models involve several different components, such as the atmosphere, ocean, and land models. Information needs to be exchanged, or remapped, between these models, and devising algorithms for performing this exchange is important for ensuring the accuracy of climate simulations. In this paper, we examine the efficacy of several traditional and novel approaches to remapping on the sphere and demonstrate where our approaches offer improvement.
Michael Hillier, Florian Wellmann, Eric de Kemp, Ernst Schetselaar, Boyan Brodaric, and Karine Bédard
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for GMDShort summary
Neural networks can be used effectively to model three-dimensional geological structures from point data, sampling geological interfaces, units, and orientations of structural features. Existing neural network approaches for this type of modelling are advanced by the efficient incorporation of unconformities, new knowledge inputs, and new techniques to improve data fitting. These advances permit the modelling of large scale geological structures with low fitting error using noisy datasets.
Moritz Liebl, Jörg Robl, Stefan Hergarten, David Lundbek Egholm, and Kurt Stüwe
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 1315–1343,Short summary
In this study, we benchmark a topography-based model for glacier erosion (OpenLEM) with a well-established process-based model (iSOSIA). Our experiments show that large-scale erosion patterns and particularly the transformation of valley length geometry from fluvial to glacial conditions are very similar in both models. This finding enables the application of OpenLEM to study the influence of climate and tectonics on glaciated mountains with reasonable computational effort on standard PCs.
James Kent, Thomas Melvin, and Golo Albert Wimmer
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 1265–1276,Short summary
This paper introduces the Met Office's new shallow water model. The shallow water model is a building block towards the Met Office's new atmospheric dynamical core. The shallow water model is tested on a number of standard spherical shallow water test cases, including flow over mountains and unstable jets. Results show that the model produces similar results to other shallow water models in the literature.
Anthony Gruber, Max Gunzburger, Lili Ju, Rihui Lan, and Zhu Wang
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 1213–1229,Short summary
This work applies a novel technical tool, multifidelity Monte Carlo (MFMC) estimation, to three climate-related benchmark experiments involving oceanic, atmospheric, and glacial modeling. By considering useful quantities such as maximum sea height and total (kinetic) energy, we show that MFMC leads to predictions which are more accurate and less costly than those obtained by standard methods. This suggests MFMC as a potential drop-in replacement for estimation in realistic climate models.
Piyoosh Jaysaval, Glenn E. Hammond, and Timothy C. Johnson
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 961–976,Short summary
We present a robust and highly scalable implementation of numerical forward modeling and inversion algorithms for geophysical electrical resistivity tomography data. The implementation is publicly available and developed within the framework of PFLOTRAN (http://www.pflotran.org), an open-source, state-of-the-art massively parallel subsurface flow and transport simulation code. The paper details all the theoretical and implementation aspects of the new capabilities along with test examples.
Lucas Schauer, Michael J. Schmidt, Nicholas B. Engdahl, Stephen D. Pankavich, David A. Benson, and Diogo Bolster
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 833–849,Short summary
We develop a multi-dimensional, parallelized domain decomposition strategy for mass-transfer particle tracking methods in two and three dimensions, investigate different procedures for decomposing the domain, and prescribe an optimal tiling based on physical problem parameters and the number of available CPU cores. For an optimally subdivided diffusion problem, the parallelized algorithm achieves nearly perfect linear speedup in comparison with the serial run-up to thousands of cores.
John Mern and Jef Caers
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 289–313,Short summary
In this work, we formulate the sequential geoscientific data acquisition problem as a problem that is similar to playing chess against nature, except the pieces are not fully observed. Solutions to these problems are given in AI and rarely used in geoscientific data planning. We illustrate our approach to a simple 2D problem of mineral exploration.
Ziqi Gao, Yifeng Wang, Petros Vasilakos, Cesunica E. Ivey, Khanh Do, and Armistead G. Russell
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 9015–9029,Short summary
While the national ambient air quality standard of ozone is based on the 3-year average of the fourth highest 8 h maximum (MDA8) ozone concentrations, these predicted extreme values using numerical methods are always biased low. We built four computational models (GAM, MARS, random forest and SVR) to predict the fourth highest MDA8 ozone in Southern California using precursor emissions, meteorology and climatological patterns. All models presented acceptable performance, with GAM being the best.
Zhihao Wang, Jason Goetz, and Alexander Brenning
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 8765–8784,Short summary
A lack of inventory data can be a limiting factor in developing landslide predictive models, which are crucial for supporting hazard policy and decision-making. We show how case-based reasoning and domain adaptation (transfer-learning techniques) can effectively retrieve similar landslide modeling situations for prediction in new data-scarce areas. Using cases in Italy, Austria, and Ecuador, our findings support the application of transfer learning for areas that require rapid model development.
Till Sachau, Haibin Yang, Justin Lang, Paul D. Bons, and Louis Moresi
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 8749–8764,Short summary
Knowledge of the internal structures of the major continental ice sheets is improving, thanks to new investigative techniques. These structures are an essential indication of the flow behavior and dynamics of ice transport, which in turn is important for understanding the actual impact of the vast amounts of water trapped in continental ice sheets on global sea-level rise. The software studied here is specifically designed to simulate such structures and their evolution.
Keith J. Roberts, Alexandre Olender, Lucas Franceschini, Robert C. Kirby, Rafael S. Gioria, and Bruno S. Carmo
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 8639–8667,Short summary
Finite-element methods (FEMs) permit the use of more flexible unstructured meshes but are rarely used in full waveform inversions (FWIs), an iterative process that reconstructs velocity models of earth’s subsurface, due to computational and memory storage costs. To reduce those costs, novel software is presented allowing the use of high-order mass-lumped FEMs on triangular meshes, together with a material-property mesh-adaptation performance-enhancing strategy, enabling its use in FWIs.
Konstantinos Papadakis, Yann Pfau-Kempf, Urs Ganse, Markus Battarbee, Markku Alho, Maxime Grandin, Maxime Dubart, Lucile Turc, Hongyang Zhou, Konstantinos Horaites, Ivan Zaitsev, Giulia Cozzani, Maarja Bussov, Evgeny Gordeev, Fasil Tesema, Harriet George, Jonas Suni, Vertti Tarvus, and Minna Palmroth
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 7903–7912,Short summary
Vlasiator is a plasma simulation code that simulates the entire near-Earth space at a global scale. As 6D simulations require enormous amounts of computational resources, Vlasiator uses adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) to lighten the computational burden. However, due to Vlasiator’s grid topology, AMR simulations suffer from grid aliasing artifacts that affect the global results. In this work, we present and evaluate the performance of a mechanism for alleviating those artifacts.
Artur Safin, Damien Bouffard, Firat Ozdemir, Cintia L. Ramón, James Runnalls, Fotis Georgatos, Camille Minaudo, and Jonas Šukys
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 7715–7730,Short summary
Reconciling the differences between numerical model predictions and observational data is always a challenge. In this paper, we investigate the viability of a novel approach to the calibration of a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model of Lake Geneva, where the target parameters are inferred in terms of distributions. We employ a filtering technique that generates physically consistent model trajectories and implement a neural network to enable bulk-to-skin temperature conversion.
Colin Grudzien and Marc Bocquet
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 7641–7681,Short summary
Iterative optimization techniques, the state of the art in data assimilation, have largely focused on extending forecast accuracy to moderate- to long-range forecast systems. However, current methodology may not be cost-effective in reducing forecast errors in online, short-range forecast systems. We propose a novel optimization of these techniques for online, short-range forecast cycles, simultaneously providing an improvement in forecast accuracy and a reduction in the computational cost.
Yangyang Yu, Shaoqing Zhang, Haohuan Fu, Lixin Wu, Dexun Chen, Yang Gao, Zhiqiang Wei, Dongning Jia, and Xiaopei Lin
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 6695–6708,Short summary
To understand the scientific consequence of perturbations caused by slave cores in heterogeneous computing environments, we examine the influence of perturbation amplitudes on the determination of the cloud bottom and cloud top and compute the probability density function (PDF) of generated clouds. A series of comparisons of the PDFs between homogeneous and heterogeneous systems show consistently acceptable error tolerances when using slave cores in heterogeneous computing environments.
Vijay S. Mahadevan, Jorge E. Guerra, Xiangmin Jiao, Paul Kuberry, Yipeng Li, Paul Ullrich, David Marsico, Robert Jacob, Pavel Bochev, and Philip Jones
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 6601–6635,Short summary
Coupled Earth system models require transfer of field data between multiple components with varying spatial resolutions to determine the correct climate behavior. We present the Metrics for Intercomparison of Remapping Algorithms (MIRA) protocol to evaluate the accuracy, conservation properties, monotonicity, and local feature preservation of four different remapper algorithms for various unstructured mesh problems of interest. Future extensions to more practical use cases are also discussed.
Yilin Fang, L. Ruby Leung, Ryan Knox, Charlie Koven, and Ben Bond-Lamberty
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 6385–6398,Short summary
Accounting for water movement in the soil and water transport within the plant is important for plant growth in Earth system modeling. We implemented different numerical approaches for a plant hydrodynamic model and compared their impacts on the simulated aboveground biomass (AGB) at single points and globally. We found care should be taken when discretizing the number of soil layers for numerical simulations as it can significantly affect AGB if accuracy and computational costs are of concern.
Andrew M. Bradley, Peter A. Bosler, and Oksana Guba
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 6285–6310,Short summary
Tracer transport in atmosphere models can be computationally expensive. We describe a flexible and efficient interpolation semi-Lagrangian method, the Islet method. It permits using up to three grids that share an element grid: a dynamics grid for computing quantities such as the wind velocity; a physics parameterizations grid; and a tracer grid. The Islet method performs well on a number of verification problems and achieves high performance in the E3SM Atmosphere Model version 2.
Léo Pujol, Pierre-André Garambois, and Jérôme Monnier
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 6085–6113,Short summary
This contribution presents a new numerical model for representing hydraulic–hydrological quantities at the basin scale. It allows modeling large areas at a low computational cost, with fine zooms where needed. It allows the integration of local and satellite measurements, via data assimilation methods, to improve the model's match to observations. Using this capability, good matches to in situ observations are obtained on a model of the complex Adour river network with fine zooms on floodplains.
Ludovic Räss, Ivan Utkin, Thibault Duretz, Samuel Omlin, and Yuri Y. Podladchikov
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 5757–5786,Short summary
Continuum mechanics-based modelling of physical processes at large scale requires huge computational resources provided by massively parallel hardware such as graphical processing units. We present a suite of numerical algorithms, implemented using the Julia language, that efficiently leverages the parallelism. We demonstrate that our implementation is efficient, scalable and robust and showcase applications to various geophysical problems.
Meriem Krouma, Pascal Yiou, Céline Déandreis, and Soulivanh Thao
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 4941–4958,Short summary
We evaluated the skill of a stochastic weather generator (SWG) to forecast precipitation at different time scales and in different areas of western Europe from analogs of Z500 hPa. The SWG has the skill to simulate precipitation for 5 and 10 d. We found that forecast weaknesses can be associated with specific weather patterns. The comparison with ECMWF forecasts confirms the skill of our model. This work is important because it provides information about weather forecasts over specific areas.
Piotr Dziekan and Piotr Zmijewski
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 4489–4501,Short summary
Detailed computer simulations of clouds are important for understanding Earth's atmosphere and climate. The paper describes how the UWLCM has been adapted to work on supercomputers. A distinctive feature of UWLCM is that air flow is calculated by processors at the same time as cloud droplets are modeled by graphics cards. Thanks to this, use of computing resources is maximized and the time to complete simulations of large domains is not affected by communications between supercomputer nodes.
Hynek Bednář and Holger Kantz
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 4147–4161,Short summary
A scale-dependent error growth described by a power law or by a quadratic hypothesis is studied in Lorenz’s system with three spatiotemporal levels. The validity of power law is extended by including a saturation effect. The quadratic hypothesis can only serve as a first guess. In addition, we study the initial error growth for the ECMWF forecast system. Fitting the parameters, we conclude that there is an intrinsic limit of predictability after 22 days.
Michael A. Olesik, Jakub Banaśkiewicz, Piotr Bartman, Manuel Baumgartner, Simon Unterstrasser, and Sylwester Arabas
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 3879–3899,Short summary
In systems such as atmospheric clouds, droplets undergo growth through condensation of vapor. The broadness of the resultant size spectrum of droplets influences precipitation likelihood and the radiative properties of clouds. One of the inherent limitations of simulations of the problem is the so-called numerical diffusion causing overestimation of the spectrum width, hence the term numerical broadening. In the paper, we take a closer look at one of the algorithms used in this context: MPDATA.
Navjot Kukreja, Jan Hückelheim, Mathias Louboutin, John Washbourne, Paul H. J. Kelly, and Gerard J. Gorman
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 3815–3829,Short summary
Full waveform inversion (FWI) is a partial-differential equation (PDE)-constrained optimization problem that is notorious for its high computational load and memory footprint. In this paper we present a method that combines recomputation with lossy compression to accelerate the computation with minimal loss of precision in the results. We show this using experiments running FWI with a variety of compression settings on a popular academic dataset.
Richard Scalzo, Mark Lindsay, Mark Jessell, Guillaume Pirot, Jeremie Giraud, Edward Cripps, and Sally Cripps
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 3641–3662,Short summary
This paper addresses numerical challenges in reasoning about geological models constrained by sensor data, especially models that describe the history of an area in terms of a sequence of events. Our method ensures that small changes in simulated geological features, such as the position of a boundary between two rock layers, do not result in unrealistically large changes to resulting sensor measurements, as occur presently using several popular modeling packages.
Romit Maulik, Vishwas Rao, Jiali Wang, Gianmarco Mengaldo, Emil Constantinescu, Bethany Lusch, Prasanna Balaprakash, Ian Foster, and Rao Kotamarthi
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 3433–3445,Short summary
In numerical weather prediction, data assimilation is frequently utilized to enhance the accuracy of forecasts from equation-based models. In this work we use a machine learning framework that approximates a complex dynamical system given by the geopotential height. Instead of using an equation-based model, we utilize this machine-learned alternative to dramatically accelerate both the forecast and the assimilation of data, thereby reducing need for large computational resources.
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 2561–2597,Short summary
This paper proposes a new double Fourier series (DFS) method on a sphere that improves the numerical stability of a model compared with conventional DFS methods. The shallow-water model and the advection model using the new DFS method give stable results without the appearance of high-wavenumber noise near the poles. The model using the new DFS method is faster than the model using spherical harmonics (especially at high resolutions) and gives almost the same results.
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 2505–2532,Short summary
I preset SciKit-GStat, a well-documented and tested Python package for variogram estimation. The variogram is the core means of geostatistics, which almost all other methods rely on. Geostatistical interpolation and field generation are widely spread in geoscience, i.e., for data assimilation or modeling. While SciKit-GStat focuses on effective and intuitive variogram estimation, it can interface with other prominent packages and make its variograms available for a multitude of methods.
Christopher J. L. D'Amboise, Michael Neuhauser, Michaela Teich, Andreas Huber, Andreas Kofler, Frank Perzl, Reinhard Fromm, Karl Kleemayr, and Jan-Thomas Fischer
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 2423–2439,Short summary
The term gravitational mass flow (GMF) covers various natural hazard processes such as snow avalanches, rockfall, landslides, and debris flows. Here we present the open-source GMF simulation tool Flow-Py. The model equations are based on simple geometrical relations in three-dimensional terrain. We show that Flow-Py is an educational, innovative GMF simulation tool with three computational experiments: 1. validation of implementation, 2. performance, and 3. expandability.
Evan Baker, Anna B. Harper, Daniel Williamson, and Peter Challenor
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 1913–1929,Short summary
We have adapted machine learning techniques to build a model of the land surface in Great Britain. The model was trained using data from a very complex land surface model called JULES. Our model is faster at producing simulations and predictions and can investigate many different scenarios, which can be used to improve our understanding of the climate and could also be used to help make local decisions.
Kevin Bulthuis and Eric Larour
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 1195–1217,Short summary
We present and implement a stochastic solver to sample spatially and temporal varying uncertain input parameters in the Ice-sheet and Sea-level System Model, such as ice thickness or surface mass balance. We represent these sources of uncertainty using Gaussian random fields with Matérn covariance function. We generate random samples of this random field using an efficient computational approach based on solving a stochastic partial differential equation.
Urmas Raudsepp and Ilja Maljutenko
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 535–551,Short summary
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This paper presents a 3D variational data assimilation system for aerosol optical properties, including aerosol optical thickness (AOT) retrievals and lidar-based aerosol profiles, which was developed for a size-resolved sectional model in WRF-Chem. To directly assimilate aerosol optical properties, an observation operator based on the Mie scattering theory was designed. The results show that Himawari-8 AOT assimilation can significantly improve model aerosol analyses and forecasts.
This paper presents a 3D variational data assimilation system for aerosol optical properties,...