Articles | Volume 15, issue 3
Model description paper
04 Feb 2022
Model description paper |  | 04 Feb 2022

Computation of backwater effects in surface waters of lowland catchments including control structures – an efficient and re-usable method implemented in the hydrological open-source model Kalypso-NA (4.0)

Sandra Hellmers and Peter Fröhle

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Cited articles

Brauer, C. C., Teuling, A. J., Torfs, P. J. J. F., and Uijlenhoet, R.: The Wageningen Lowland Runoff Simulator (WALRUS): a lumped rainfall–runoff model for catchments with shallow groundwater, Geosci. Model Dev., 7, 2313–2332,, 2014. 
Cunge, J. A.: On The Subject Of A Flood Propagation Computation Method (Muskingum Method), J. Hydraul. Res., 7, 205–230,, 1969. 
Dorp, M., Loch, E., and Rothe, B.: Modellierung von Rückstau, Fließrichtungswechsel und Abflussaufteilung, Hydrotec, available at:, last access: 16 December 2018, 2017. 
Euler, G.: Ein hydrologisches Näherungsverfahren für die Berechnung des Wellenablaufs in Kreisrohren, Wasser und Boden, 2, 85–88, 1983. 
Fröhle, P. and Hellmers, S.: Hydrologie und Flächenmanagement–Kapitel 5, in: Abschlussbericht 2015–2019 StucK: Sicherstellung der Entwässerung küstennaher, urbaner Räume unter Berücksichtigung des Klimawandels – das BMBF-Forschungsprojekt StucK, edited by: LSBG, Hamburg, Germany, 103–146, 2020. 
Short summary
A hydrological method to compute backwater effects in surface water streams and on adjacent lowlands caused by mostly complex flow control systems is presented. It enables transfer of discharges to water levels and calculation of backwater volume routing along streams and lowland areas by balancing water level slopes. The developed, implemented and evaluated method extends the application range of hydrological models significantly for flood-routing simulation in backwater-affected catchments.