Articles | Volume 15, issue 12
Model description paper
27 Jun 2022
Model description paper |  | 27 Jun 2022

Snow Multidata Mapping and Modeling (S3M) 5.1: a distributed cryospheric model with dry and wet snow, data assimilation, glacier mass balance, and debris-driven melt

Francesco Avanzi, Simone Gabellani, Fabio Delogu, Francesco Silvestro, Edoardo Cremonese, Umberto Morra di Cella, Sara Ratto, and Hervé Stevenin

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Cited articles

Andreadis, K. M. and Lettenmaier, D. P.: Assimilating remotely sensed snow observations into a macroscale hydrology model, Adv. Water Resour., 29, 872–886,, 2006. a
Anghileri, D., Voisin, N., Castelletti, A., Pianosi, F., Nijssen, B., and Lettenmaier, D. P.: Value of long-term streamflow forecasts to reservoir operations for water supply in snow-dominated river catchments, Water Resour. Res., 52, 4209–4225,, 2016. a
Avanzi, F. and Delogu, F.: c-hydro/s3m-dev: (v5.1.0), Zenodo [code],, 2021. a
Avanzi, F., Yamaguchi, S., Hirashima, H., and De Michele, C.: Bulk volumetric liquid water content in a seasonal snowpack: modeling its dynamics in different climatic conditions, Adv. Water Resour., 86, 1–13,, 2015. a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i
Avanzi, F., De Michele, C., Morin, S., Carmagnola, C. M., Ghezzi, A., and Lejeune, Y.: Model complexity and data requirements in snow hydrology: seeking a balance in practical applications, Hydrol. Process., 30, 2106–2118, 2016. a, b, c, d
Short summary
Knowing in real time how much snow and glacier ice has accumulated across the landscape has significant implications for water-resource management and flood control. This paper presents a computer model – S3M – allowing scientists and decision makers to predict snow and ice accumulation during winter and the subsequent melt during spring and summer. S3M has been employed for real-world flood forecasting since the early 2000s but is here being made open source for the first time.