Articles | Volume 15, issue 12
Model description paper
27 Jun 2022
Model description paper |  | 27 Jun 2022

Snow Multidata Mapping and Modeling (S3M) 5.1: a distributed cryospheric model with dry and wet snow, data assimilation, glacier mass balance, and debris-driven melt

Francesco Avanzi, Simone Gabellani, Fabio Delogu, Francesco Silvestro, Edoardo Cremonese, Umberto Morra di Cella, Sara Ratto, and Hervé Stevenin

Related authors

Water and Us: tales and hands-on laboratories to educate about sustainable and nonconflictual water resources management
Francesca Munerol, Francesco Avanzi, Eleonora Panizza, Marco Altamura, Simone Gabellani, Lara Polo, Marina Mantini, Barbara Alessandri, and Luca Ferraris
Geosci. Commun., 7, 1–15,,, 2024
Short summary
A random forest approach to quality-checking automatic snow-depth sensor measurements
Giulia Blandini, Francesco Avanzi, Simone Gabellani, Denise Ponziani, Hervé Stevenin, Sara Ratto, Luca Ferraris, and Alberto Viglione
The Cryosphere, 17, 5317–5333,,, 2023
Short summary
IT-SNOW: a snow reanalysis for Italy blending modeling, in situ data, and satellite observations (2010–2021)
Francesco Avanzi, Simone Gabellani, Fabio Delogu, Francesco Silvestro, Flavio Pignone, Giulia Bruno, Luca Pulvirenti, Giuseppe Squicciarino, Elisabetta Fiori, Lauro Rossi, Silvia Puca, Alexander Toniazzo, Pietro Giordano, Marco Falzacappa, Sara Ratto, Hervè Stevenin, Antonio Cardillo, Matteo Fioletti, Orietta Cazzuli, Edoardo Cremonese, Umberto Morra di Cella, and Luca Ferraris
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 15, 639–660,,, 2023
Short summary
Parameter transferability of a distributed hydrological model to droughts
Giulia Bruno, Doris Duethmann, Francesco Avanzi, Lorenzo Alfieri, Andrea Libertino, and Simone Gabellani
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,,, 2022
Manuscript not accepted for further review
Short summary
High-resolution satellite products improve hydrological modeling in northern Italy
Lorenzo Alfieri, Francesco Avanzi, Fabio Delogu, Simone Gabellani, Giulia Bruno, Lorenzo Campo, Andrea Libertino, Christian Massari, Angelica Tarpanelli, Dominik Rains, Diego G. Miralles, Raphael Quast, Mariette Vreugdenhil, Huan Wu, and Luca Brocca
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 3921–3939,,, 2022
Short summary

Related subject area

A novel numerical implementation for the surface energy budget of melting snowpacks and glaciers
Kévin Fourteau, Julien Brondex, Fanny Brun, and Marie Dumont
Geosci. Model Dev., 17, 1903–1929,,, 2024
Short summary
SnowPappus v1.0, a blowing-snow model for large-scale applications of the Crocus snow scheme
Matthieu Baron, Ange Haddjeri, Matthieu Lafaysse, Louis Le Toumelin, Vincent Vionnet, and Mathieu Fructus
Geosci. Model Dev., 17, 1297–1326,,, 2024
Short summary
A stochastic parameterization of ice sheet surface mass balance for the Stochastic Ice-Sheet and Sea-Level System Model (StISSM v1.0)
Lizz Ultee, Alexander A. Robel, and Stefano Castruccio
Geosci. Model Dev., 17, 1041–1057,,, 2024
Short summary
Graphics-processing-unit-accelerated ice flow solver for unstructured meshes using the Shallow-Shelf Approximation (FastIceFlo v1.0.1)
Anjali Sandip, Ludovic Räss, and Mathieu Morlighem
Geosci. Model Dev., 17, 899–909,,, 2024
Short summary
A new 3D full-Stokes calving algorithm within Elmer/Ice (v9.0)
Iain Wheel, Douglas I. Benn, Anna J. Crawford, Joe A. Todd, and Thomas Zwinger
EGUsphere,,, 2024
Short summary

Cited articles

Andreadis, K. M. and Lettenmaier, D. P.: Assimilating remotely sensed snow observations into a macroscale hydrology model, Adv. Water Resour., 29, 872–886,, 2006. a
Anghileri, D., Voisin, N., Castelletti, A., Pianosi, F., Nijssen, B., and Lettenmaier, D. P.: Value of long-term streamflow forecasts to reservoir operations for water supply in snow-dominated river catchments, Water Resour. Res., 52, 4209–4225,, 2016. a
Avanzi, F. and Delogu, F.: c-hydro/s3m-dev: (v5.1.0), Zenodo [code],, 2021. a
Avanzi, F., Yamaguchi, S., Hirashima, H., and De Michele, C.: Bulk volumetric liquid water content in a seasonal snowpack: modeling its dynamics in different climatic conditions, Adv. Water Resour., 86, 1–13,, 2015. a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i
Avanzi, F., De Michele, C., Morin, S., Carmagnola, C. M., Ghezzi, A., and Lejeune, Y.: Model complexity and data requirements in snow hydrology: seeking a balance in practical applications, Hydrol. Process., 30, 2106–2118, 2016. a, b, c, d
Short summary
Knowing in real time how much snow and glacier ice has accumulated across the landscape has significant implications for water-resource management and flood control. This paper presents a computer model – S3M – allowing scientists and decision makers to predict snow and ice accumulation during winter and the subsequent melt during spring and summer. S3M has been employed for real-world flood forecasting since the early 2000s but is here being made open source for the first time.