Articles | Volume 8, issue 8
Development and technical paper
04 Aug 2015
Development and technical paper |  | 04 Aug 2015

A two-layer canopy model with thermal inertia for an improved snowpack energy balance below needleleaf forest (model SNOWPACK, version 3.2.1, revision 741)

I. Gouttevin, M. Lehning, T. Jonas, D. Gustafsson, and M. Mölder

Related authors

The High-resolution Intermediate Complexity Atmospheric Research (HICAR v1.1) model enables fast dynamic downscaling to the hectometer scale
Dylan Reynolds, Ethan Gutmann, Bert Kruyt, Michael Haugeneder, Tobias Jonas, Franziska Gerber, Michael Lehning, and Rebecca Mott
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 5049–5068,,, 2023
Short summary
How does a warm and low-snow winter impact the snow cover dynamics in a humid and discontinuous boreal forest? An observational study in eastern Canada
Benjamin Bouchard, Daniel F. Nadeau, Florent Domine, François Anctil, Tobias Jonas, and Étienne Tremblay
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,,, 2023
Preprint under review for HESS
Short summary
An empirical model to calculate snow depth from daily snow water equivalent: SWE2HS 1.0
Johannes Aschauer, Adrien Michel, Tobias Jonas, and Christoph Marty
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 4063–4081,,, 2023
Short summary
Microclimate mapping using novel radiative transfer modelling
Florian Zellweger, Eric Sulmoni, Johanna T. Malle, Andri Baltensweiler, Tobias Jonas, Niklaus E. Zimmermann, Christian Ginzler, Dirk N. Karger, Pieter De Frenne, David Frey, and Clare Webster
EGUsphere,,, 2023
Short summary
Vertical distribution of sources and sinks of volatile organic compounds within a boreal forest canopy
Ross Petersen, Thomas Holst, Meelis Mölder, Natascha Kljun, and Janne Rinne
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 7839–7858,,, 2023
Short summary

Related subject area

Automatic snow type classification of snow micropenetrometer profiles with machine learning algorithms
Julia Kaltenborn, Amy R. Macfarlane, Viviane Clay, and Martin Schneebeli
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 4521–4550,,, 2023
Short summary
An empirical model to calculate snow depth from daily snow water equivalent: SWE2HS 1.0
Johannes Aschauer, Adrien Michel, Tobias Jonas, and Christoph Marty
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 4063–4081,,, 2023
Short summary
A wind-driven snow redistribution module for Alpine3D v3.3.0: adaptations designed for downscaling ice sheet surface mass balance
Eric Keenan, Nander Wever, Jan T. M. Lenaerts, and Brooke Medley
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 3203–3219,,, 2023
Short summary
The CryoGrid community model (version 1.0) – a multi-physics toolbox for climate-driven simulations in the terrestrial cryosphere
Sebastian Westermann, Thomas Ingeman-Nielsen, Johanna Scheer, Kristoffer Aalstad, Juditha Aga, Nitin Chaudhary, Bernd Etzelmüller, Simon Filhol, Andreas Kääb, Cas Renette, Louise Steffensen Schmidt, Thomas Vikhamar Schuler, Robin B. Zweigel, Léo Martin, Sarah Morard, Matan Ben-Asher, Michael Angelopoulos, Julia Boike, Brian Groenke, Frederieke Miesner, Jan Nitzbon, Paul Overduin, Simone M. Stuenzi, and Moritz Langer
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 2607–2647,,, 2023
Short summary
Glacier Energy and Mass Balance (GEMB): a model of firn processes for cryosphere research
Alex S. Gardner, Nicole-Jeanne Schlegel, and Eric Larour
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 2277–2302,,, 2023
Short summary

Cited articles

ACIA: Arctic Climate Impact Assessment, Cambridge University Press, available at: (last access: 27 July 2015), 2005.
Adams, R., Spittlehouse, D., and Winkler, R.: The effect of a canopy on the snowmelt energy balance, in: Proceedings of the 64th Annual Meeting Western Snow Conference, 171–174, 1996.
Axelsson, B. and Ågren, G.: Tree growth model (PT 1) a development paper, Swedish Coniferous Forest Project Internal Report, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, 1976.
Bartelt, P. and Lehning, M.: A physical SNOWPACK model for the Swiss avalanche warning: Part I: numerical model, Cold Reg. Sci. Technol., 35, 123–145, 2002.
Bavay, M. and Egger, T.: MeteoIO 2.4.2: a preprocessing library for meteorological data, Geosci. Model Dev., 7, 3135–3151,, 2014.
Short summary
We improve the canopy module of a very detailed snow model, SNOWPACK, with a view of a more consistent representation of the sub-canopy energy balance with regard to the snowpack. We show that adding a formulation of (i) the canopy heat capacity and (ii) a lowermost canopy layer (alike trunk + solar shaded leaves) yields significant improvement in the representation of sub-canopy incoming long-wave radiations, especially at nighttime. This energy is an important contributor to snowmelt.