Articles | Volume 8, issue 8
Development and technical paper
04 Aug 2015
Development and technical paper |  | 04 Aug 2015

A two-layer canopy model with thermal inertia for an improved snowpack energy balance below needleleaf forest (model SNOWPACK, version 3.2.1, revision 741)

I. Gouttevin, M. Lehning, T. Jonas, D. Gustafsson, and M. Mölder

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Cited articles

ACIA: Arctic Climate Impact Assessment, Cambridge University Press, available at: (last access: 27 July 2015), 2005.
Adams, R., Spittlehouse, D., and Winkler, R.: The effect of a canopy on the snowmelt energy balance, in: Proceedings of the 64th Annual Meeting Western Snow Conference, 171–174, 1996.
Axelsson, B. and Ågren, G.: Tree growth model (PT 1) a development paper, Swedish Coniferous Forest Project Internal Report, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, 1976.
Bartelt, P. and Lehning, M.: A physical SNOWPACK model for the Swiss avalanche warning: Part I: numerical model, Cold Reg. Sci. Technol., 35, 123–145, 2002.
Bavay, M. and Egger, T.: MeteoIO 2.4.2: a preprocessing library for meteorological data, Geosci. Model Dev., 7, 3135–3151,, 2014.
Short summary
We improve the canopy module of a very detailed snow model, SNOWPACK, with a view of a more consistent representation of the sub-canopy energy balance with regard to the snowpack. We show that adding a formulation of (i) the canopy heat capacity and (ii) a lowermost canopy layer (alike trunk + solar shaded leaves) yields significant improvement in the representation of sub-canopy incoming long-wave radiations, especially at nighttime. This energy is an important contributor to snowmelt.