Articles | Volume 15, issue 19
© Author(s) 2022. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
© Author(s) 2022. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Thermal modeling of three lakes within the continuous permafrost zone in Alaska using the LAKE 2.0 model
Elchin E. Jafarov
Earth and Environmental Sciences Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM, USA
Woodwell Climate Research Center, Falmouth, MA, USA
Ken D. Tape
Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK, USA
Benjamin M. Jones
Institute of Northern Engineering, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK, USA
Research Computing Center, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia
Moscow Center for Fundamental and Applied Mathematics, Moscow, Russia
No articles found.
Mauricio Arboleda-Zapata, Michael Angelopoulos, Pier Paul Overduin, Guido Grosse, Benjamin M. Jones, and Jens Tronicke
The Cryosphere, 16, 4423–4445,Short summary
We demonstrate how we can reliably estimate the thawed–frozen permafrost interface with its associated uncertainties in subsea permafrost environments using 2D electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) data. In addition, we show how further analyses considering 1D inversion and sensitivity assessments can help quantify and better understand 2D ERT inversion results. Our results illustrate the capabilities of the ERT method to get insights into the development of the subsea permafrost.
M. R. Udawalpola, C. Witharana, A. Hasan, A. Liljedahl, M. Ward Jones, and B. Jones
Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., XLVI-M-2-2022, 203–208,
Victor Lomov, Victor Stepanenko, Maria Grechushnikova, and Irina Repina
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
We present the first mechanistic model LAKE2.3 for prediction of methane emissions from artificial reservoirs. Estimates of CH4 emissions from the Mozhaysk reservoir (Moscow region) provided by the model are demonstrated. Methane annual emissions through diffusion, ebullition and downstream degassing according to in situ measurements and model simulations are presented. The experiments with the model allowed to determine the most sensitive model parameters for calibration of methane fluxes.
Noriaki Ohara, Benjamin M. Jones, Andrew D. Parsekian, Kenneth M. Hinkel, Katsu Yamatani, Mikhail Kanevskiy, Rodrigo C. Rangel, Amy L. Breen, and Helena Bergstedt
The Cryosphere, 16, 1247–1264,Short summary
New variational principle suggests that a semi-ellipsoid talik shape (3D Stefan equation) is optimum for incoming energy. However, the lake bathymetry tends to be less ellipsoidal due to the ice-rich layers near the surface. Wind wave erosion is likely responsible for the elongation of lakes, while thaw subsidence slows the wave effect and stabilizes the thermokarst lakes. The derived 3D Stefan equation was compared to the field-observed talik thickness data using geophysical methods.
Elchin E. Jafarov, Daniil Svyatsky, Brent Newman, Dylan Harp, David Moulton, and Cathy Wilson
The Cryosphere, 16, 851–862,Short summary
Recent research indicates the importance of lateral transport of dissolved carbon in the polygonal tundra, suggesting that the freeze-up period could further promote lateral carbon transport. We conducted subsurface tracer simulations on high-, flat-, and low-centered polygons to test the importance of the freeze–thaw cycle and freeze-up time for tracer mobility. Our findings illustrate the impact of hydraulic and thermal gradients on tracer mobility, as well as of the freeze-up time.
Dylan R. Harp, Vitaly Zlotnik, Charles J. Abolt, Bob Busey, Sofia T. Avendaño, Brent D. Newman, Adam L. Atchley, Elchin Jafarov, Cathy J. Wilson, and Katrina E. Bennett
The Cryosphere, 15, 4005–4029,Short summary
Polygon-shaped landforms present in relatively flat Arctic tundra result in complex landscape-scale water drainage. The drainage pathways and the time to transition from inundated conditions to drained have important implications for heat and carbon transport. Using fundamental hydrologic principles, we investigate the drainage pathways and timing of individual polygons, providing insights into the effects of polygon geometry and preferential flow direction on drainage pathways and timing.
Lydia Stolpmann, Caroline Coch, Anne Morgenstern, Julia Boike, Michael Fritz, Ulrike Herzschuh, Kathleen Stoof-Leichsenring, Yury Dvornikov, Birgit Heim, Josefine Lenz, Amy Larsen, Katey Walter Anthony, Benjamin Jones, Karen Frey, and Guido Grosse
Biogeosciences, 18, 3917–3936,Short summary
Our new database summarizes DOC concentrations of 2167 water samples from 1833 lakes in permafrost regions across the Arctic to provide insights into linkages between DOC and environment. We found increasing lake DOC concentration with decreasing permafrost extent and higher DOC concentrations in boreal permafrost sites compared to tundra sites. Our study shows that DOC concentration depends on the environmental properties of a lake, especially permafrost extent, ecoregion, and vegetation.
Claire E. Simpson, Christopher D. Arp, Yongwei Sheng, Mark L. Carroll, Benjamin M. Jones, and Laurence C. Smith
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 1135–1150,Short summary
Sonar depth point measurements collected at 17 lakes on the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska are used to train and validate models to map lake bathymetry. These models predict depth from remotely sensed lake color and are able to explain 58.5–97.6 % of depth variability. To calculate water volumes, we integrate this modeled bathymetry with lake surface area. Knowledge of Alaskan lake bathymetries and volumes is crucial to better understanding water storage, energy balance, and ecological habitat.
Ingmar Nitze, Sarah W. Cooley, Claude R. Duguay, Benjamin M. Jones, and Guido Grosse
The Cryosphere, 14, 4279–4297,Short summary
In summer 2018, northwestern Alaska was affected by widespread lake drainage which strongly exceeded previous observations. We analyzed the spatial and temporal patterns with remote sensing observations, weather data and lake-ice simulations. The preceding fall and winter season was the second warmest and wettest on record, causing the destabilization of permafrost and elevated water levels which likely led to widespread and rapid lake drainage during or right after ice breakup.
Maksim Iakunin, Victor Stepanenko, Rui Salgado, Miguel Potes, Alexandra Penha, Maria Helena Novais, and Gonçalo Rodrigues
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 3475–3488,Short summary
The Alqueva reservoir, located in the southeast of Portugal, is the largest artificial reservoir in western Europe. It was established in 2002 to provide water and electrical resources to meet regional needs. Complex research of this reservoir is an essential scientific task in the scope of meteorology, hydrology, biology, and ecology. Two numerical models (namely, LAKE 2.0 and FLake) were used to assess the thermodynamic and biogeochemical regimes of the reservoir over 2 years of observations.
Dylan R. Harp, Vitaly Zlotnik, Charles J. Abolt, Brent D. Newman, Adam L. Atchley, Elchin Jafarov, and Cathy J. Wilson
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Manuscript not accepted for further reviewShort summary
Polygon shaped land forms present in relatively flat Arctic tundra result in complex landscape scale water drainage. The drainage pathways and the time to transition from inundated conditions to drained have important implications for heat and carbon transport. Using fundamental hydrologic principles, we investigate the drainage pathways and timing of individual polygons providing insights into the effects of polygon geometry and preferential flow direction on drainage pathways and timing.
Sofya Guseva, Tobias Bleninger, Klaus Jöhnk, Bruna Arcie Polli, Zeli Tan, Wim Thiery, Qianlai Zhuang, James Anthony Rusak, Huaxia Yao, Andreas Lorke, and Victor Stepanenko
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 697–715,Short summary
We compare lake models with different complexity focusing on the key factors (e.g., eddy diffusivity) which can have an influence on the distribution of the dissolved gases in water. For the first time, we compare the biogeochemical modules in the ALBM and LAKE models. The result showed a good agreement with observed data (O2), but not for CO2. It indicates the need to improve the representation of physical and biogeochemical processes in lake models.
Christian G. Andresen, David M. Lawrence, Cathy J. Wilson, A. David McGuire, Charles Koven, Kevin Schaefer, Elchin Jafarov, Shushi Peng, Xiaodong Chen, Isabelle Gouttevin, Eleanor Burke, Sarah Chadburn, Duoying Ji, Guangsheng Chen, Daniel Hayes, and Wenxin Zhang
The Cryosphere, 14, 445–459,Short summary
Widely-used land models project near-surface drying of the terrestrial Arctic despite increases in the net water balance driven by climate change. Drying was generally associated with increases of active-layer depth and permafrost thaw in a warming climate. However, models lack important mechanisms such as thermokarst and soil subsidence that will change the hydrological regime and add to the large uncertainty in the future Arctic hydrological state and the associated permafrost carbon feedback.
Elchin E. Jafarov, Dylan R. Harp, Ethan T. Coon, Baptiste Dafflon, Anh Phuong Tran, Adam L. Atchley, Youzuo Lin, and Cathy J. Wilson
The Cryosphere, 14, 77–91,Short summary
Improved subsurface parameterization and benchmarking data are needed to reduce current uncertainty in predicting permafrost response to a warming climate. We developed a subsurface parameter estimation framework that can be used to estimate soil properties where subsurface data are available. We utilize diverse geophysical datasets such as electrical resistance data, soil moisture data, and soil temperature data to recover soil porosity and soil thermal conductivity.
Kang Wang, Elchin Jafarov, Irina Overeem, Vladimir Romanovsky, Kevin Schaefer, Gary Clow, Frank Urban, William Cable, Mark Piper, Christopher Schwalm, Tingjun Zhang, Alexander Kholodov, Pamela Sousanes, Michael Loso, and Kenneth Hill
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 2311–2328,Short summary
Ground thermal and moisture data are important indicators of the rapid permafrost changes in the Arctic. To better understand the changes, we need a comprehensive dataset across various sites. We synthesize permafrost-related data in the state of Alaska. It should be a valuable permafrost dataset that is worth maintaining in the future. On a wider level, it also provides a prototype of basic data collection and management for permafrost regions in general.
Kevin Schaefer and Elchin Jafarov
Biogeosciences, 13, 1991–2001,Short summary
Respiration in frozen soils is limited to within the thin water films surrounding soil particles. We parameterize volumetric water content (VWC) in frozen soil to represent the fraction of thawed carbon to simulate substrate availability. Simulated VWC and respiration match in situ and soil incubation data. The parameterization is most applicable when simulating carbon dynamics in permafrost for time scales of 100 years or greater.
Elchin Jafarov and Kevin Schaefer
The Cryosphere, 10, 465–475,Short summary
To improve the uncertainty in modeling of the permafrost carbon emission associated with the predicted climate warming, it is important to improve the simulation of the current permafrost carbon stock. This work shows how simulation of the frozen carbon in land system models can be improved by better addressing the coupling between plant photosynthesis, soil biogeochemistry, and soil thermodynamics.
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Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 7099–7120,Short summary
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Robert Chlumsky, James R. Craig, Simon G. M. Lin, Sarah Grass, Leland Scantlebury, Genevieve Brown, and Rezgar Arabzadeh
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 7017–7030,Short summary
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Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 6957–6984,Short summary
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Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 6935–6956,Short summary
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Ji Li, Daoxian Yuan, Fuxi Zhang, Jiao Liu, and Mingguo Ma
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 6581–6600,Short summary
A new karst hydrological model (the QMG model) is developed to simulate and predict the floods in karst trough valley basins. Unlike the complex structure and parameters of current karst groundwater models, this model has a simple double-layered structure with few parameters and decreases the demand for modeling data in karst areas. The flood simulation results based on the QMG model of the Qingmuguan karst trough valley basin are satisfactory, indicating the suitability of the model simulation.
Luca Trotter, Wouter J. M. Knoben, Keirnan J. A. Fowler, Margarita Saft, and Murray C. Peel
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 6359–6369,Short summary
MARRMoT is a piece of software that emulates 47 common models for hydrological simulations. It can be used to run and calibrate these models within a common environment as well as to easily modify them. We restructured and recoded MARRMoT in order to make the models run faster and to simplify their use, while also providing some new features. This new MARRMoT version runs models on average 3.6 times faster while maintaining very strong consistency in their outputs to the previous version.
Zhi Li, Shang Gao, Mengye Chen, Jonathan Gourley, Naoki Mizukami, and Yang Hong
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 6181–6196,Short summary
Operational streamflow prediction at a continental scale is critical for national water resources management. However, limited computational resources often impede such processes, with streamflow routing being one of the most time-consuming parts. This study presents a recent development of a hydrologic system that incorporates a vector-based routing scheme with a lake module that markedly speeds up streamflow prediction. Moreover, accuracy is improved and flood false alarms are mitigated.
Suyeon Choi and Yeonjoo Kim
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 5967–5985,Short summary
Here we present the cGAN-based precipitation nowcasting model, named Rad-cGAN, trained to predict a radar reflectivity map with a lead time of 10 min. Rad-cGAN showed superior performance at a lead time of up to 90 min compared with the reference models. Furthermore, we demonstrate the successful implementation of the transfer learning strategies using pre-trained Rad-cGAN to develop the models for different dam domains.
Rolf Hut, Niels Drost, Nick van de Giesen, Ben van Werkhoven, Banafsheh Abdollahi, Jerom Aerts, Thomas Albers, Fakhereh Alidoost, Bouwe Andela, Jaro Camphuijsen, Yifat Dzigan, Ronald van Haren, Eric Hutton, Peter Kalverla, Maarten van Meersbergen, Gijs van den Oord, Inti Pelupessy, Stef Smeets, Stefan Verhoeven, Martine de Vos, and Berend Weel
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 5371–5390,Short summary
With the eWaterCycle platform, we are providing the hydrological community with a platform to conduct their research that is fully compatible with the principles of both open science and FAIR science. The eWatercyle platform gives easy access to well-known hydrological models, big datasets and example experiments. Using eWaterCycle hydrologists can easily compare the results from different models, couple models and do more complex hydrological computational research.
Hsi-Kai Chou, Ana Maria Heuminski de Avila, and Michaela Bray
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 5233–5240,Short summary
Land surface models allow us to understand and investigate the cause and effect of environmental process changes. Therefore, this type of model is increasingly used for hydrological assessments. Here we explore the possibility of this approach using a case study in the Atibaia River basin, which serves as a major water supply for the metropolitan regions of Campinas and São Paulo, Brazil. We evaluated the model performance and use the model to simulate the basin hydrology.
Malgorzata Golub, Wim Thiery, Rafael Marcé, Don Pierson, Inne Vanderkelen, Daniel Mercado-Bettin, R. Iestyn Woolway, Luke Grant, Eleanor Jennings, Benjamin M. Kraemer, Jacob Schewe, Fang Zhao, Katja Frieler, Matthias Mengel, Vasiliy Y. Bogomolov, Damien Bouffard, Marianne Côté, Raoul-Marie Couture, Andrey V. Debolskiy, Bram Droppers, Gideon Gal, Mingyang Guo, Annette B. G. Janssen, Georgiy Kirillin, Robert Ladwig, Madeline Magee, Tadhg Moore, Marjorie Perroud, Sebastiano Piccolroaz, Love Raaman Vinnaa, Martin Schmid, Tom Shatwell, Victor M. Stepanenko, Zeli Tan, Bronwyn Woodward, Huaxia Yao, Rita Adrian, Mathew Allan, Orlane Anneville, Lauri Arvola, Karen Atkins, Leon Boegman, Cayelan Carey, Kyle Christianson, Elvira de Eyto, Curtis DeGasperi, Maria Grechushnikova, Josef Hejzlar, Klaus Joehnk, Ian D. Jones, Alo Laas, Eleanor B. Mackay, Ivan Mammarella, Hampus Markensten, Chris McBride, Deniz Özkundakci, Miguel Potes, Karsten Rinke, Dale Robertson, James A. Rusak, Rui Salgado, Leon van der Linden, Piet Verburg, Danielle Wain, Nicole K. Ward, Sabine Wollrab, and Galina Zdorovennova
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 4597–4623,Short summary
Lakes and reservoirs are warming across the globe. To better understand how lakes are changing and to project their future behavior amidst various sources of uncertainty, simulations with a range of lake models are required. This in turn requires international coordination across different lake modelling teams worldwide. Here we present a protocol for and results from coordinated simulations of climate change impacts on lakes worldwide.
Verena Bessenbacher, Sonia Isabelle Seneviratne, and Lukas Gudmundsson
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 4569–4596,Short summary
Earth observations have many missing values. They are often filled using information from spatial and temporal contexts that mostly ignore information from related observed variables. We propose the gap-filling method CLIMFILL that additionally uses information from related variables. We test CLIMFILL using gap-free reanalysis data of variables related to soil–moisture climate interactions. CLIMFILL creates estimates for the missing values that recover the original dependence structure.
Anthony Bernus and Catherine Ottlé
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 4275–4295,Short summary
The lake model FLake was coupled to the ORCHIDEE land surface model to simulate lake energy balance at global scale with a multi-tile approach. Several simulations were performed with various atmospheric reanalyses and different lake depth parameterizations. The simulated lake surface temperature showed good agreement with observations (RMSEs of the order of 3 °C). We showed the large impact of the atmospheric forcing on lake temperature. We highlighted systematic errors on ice cover phenology.
Inne Vanderkelen, Shervan Gharari, Naoki Mizukami, Martyn P. Clark, David M. Lawrence, Sean Swenson, Yadu Pokhrel, Naota Hanasaki, Ann van Griensven, and Wim Thiery
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 4163–4192,Short summary
Human-controlled reservoirs have a large influence on the global water cycle. However, dam operations are rarely represented in Earth system models. We implement and evaluate a widely used reservoir parametrization in a global river-routing model. Using observations of individual reservoirs, the reservoir scheme outperforms the natural lake scheme. However, both schemes show a similar performance due to biases in runoff timing and magnitude when using simulated runoff.
Jiming Jin, Lei Wang, Jie Yang, Bingcheng Si, and Guo-Yue Niu
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 3405–3416,Short summary
This study aimed to improve runoff simulations and explore deep soil hydrological processes for a highly varying soil depth and complex terrain watershed in the Loess Plateau, China. The actual soil depths and river channels were incorporated into the model to better simulate the runoff in this watershed. The soil evaporation scheme was modified to better describe the evaporation processes. Our results showed that the model significantly improved the runoff simulations.
Sebastian Müller, Lennart Schüler, Alraune Zech, and Falk Heße
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 3161–3182,Short summary
The GSTools package provides a Python-based platform for geoostatistical applications. Salient features of GSTools are its random field generation, its kriging capabilities and its versatile covariance model. It is furthermore integrated with other Python packages, like PyKrige, ogs5py or scikit-gstat, and provides interfaces to meshio and PyVista. Four presented workflows showcase the abilities of GSTools.
Ather Abbas, Laurie Boithias, Yakov Pachepsky, Kyunghyun Kim, Jong Ahn Chun, and Kyung Hwa Cho
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 3021–3039,Short summary
The field of artificial intelligence has shown promising results in a wide variety of fields including hydrological modeling. However, developing and testing hydrological models with artificial intelligence techniques require expertise from diverse fields. In this study, we developed an open-source framework based upon the python programming language to simplify the process of the development of hydrological models of time series data using machine learning.
Yunxiang Chen, Jie Bao, Yilin Fang, William A. Perkins, Huiying Ren, Xuehang Song, Zhuoran Duan, Zhangshuan Hou, Xiaoliang He, and Timothy D. Scheibe
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 2917–2947,Short summary
Climate change affects river discharge variations that alter streamflow. By integrating multi-type survey data with a computational fluid dynamics tool, OpenFOAM, we show a workflow that enables accurate and efficient streamflow modeling at 30 km and 5-year scales. The model accuracy for water stage and depth average velocity is −16–9 cm and 0.71–0.83 in terms of mean error and correlation coefficients. This accuracy indicates the model's reliability for evaluating climate impact on rivers.
Marcela Silva, Ashley M. Matheny, Valentijn R. N. Pauwels, Dimetre Triadis, Justine E. Missik, Gil Bohrer, and Edoardo Daly
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 2619–2634,Short summary
Our study introduces FETCH3, a ready-to-use, open-access model that simulates the water fluxes across the soil, roots, and stem. To test the model capabilities, we tested it against exact solutions and a case study. The model presented considerably small errors when compared to the exact solutions and was able to correctly represent transpiration patterns when compared to experimental data. The results show that FETCH3 can correctly simulate above- and below-ground water transport.
Mayra Ishikawa, Wendy Gonzalez, Orides Golyjeswski, Gabriela Sales, J. Andreza Rigotti, Tobias Bleninger, Michael Mannich, and Andreas Lorke
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 2197–2220,Short summary
Reservoir hydrodynamics is often described in numerical models differing in dimensionality. 1D and 2D models assume homogeneity along the unresolved dimension. We compare the performance of models with 1 to 3 dimensions. All models presented reasonable results for seasonal temperature dynamics. Neglecting longitudinal transport resulted in the largest deviations in temperature. Flow velocity could only be reproduced by the 3D model. Results support the selection of models and their assessment.
Sandra Hellmers and Peter Fröhle
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 1061–1077,Short summary
A hydrological method to compute backwater effects in surface water streams and on adjacent lowlands caused by mostly complex flow control systems is presented. It enables transfer of discharges to water levels and calculation of backwater volume routing along streams and lowland areas by balancing water level slopes. The developed, implemented and evaluated method extends the application range of hydrological models significantly for flood-routing simulation in backwater-affected catchments.
Mathias Bavay, Michael Reisecker, Thomas Egger, and Daniela Korhammer
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 365–378,Short summary
Most users struggle with the configuration of numerical models. This can be improved by relying on a GUI, but this requires a significant investment and a specific skill set and does not fit with the daily duties of model developers, leading to major maintenance burdens. Inishell generates a GUI on the fly based on an XML description of the required configuration elements, making maintenance very simple. This concept has been shown to work very well in our context.
Vladimir Mirlas, Yaakov Anker, Asher Aizenkod, and Naftali Goldshleger
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 129–143,Short summary
Salinization owing to irrigation water quality causes soil degradation and soil fertility reduction that with poor drainage conditions impede plant development and manifest in economic damage. This study provided a soil salting process evaluation procedure through a combination of soil salinity monitoring, field experiments, remote sensing, and unsaturated soil profile saline water movement modeling. The modeling results validated the soil salinization danger from using brackish irrigation.
Niccolò Tubini and Riccardo Rigon
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 75–104,Short summary
This paper presents WHETGEO and its 1D deployment: a new physically based model simulating the water and energy budgets in a soil column. WHETGEO-1D is intended to be the first building block of a new customisable land-surface model that is integrated with process-based hydrology. WHETGEO is developed as an open-source code and is fully integrated into the GEOframe/OMS3 system, allowing the use of the many ancillary tools it provides.
Tobias Stacke and Stefan Hagemann
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 7795–7816,Short summary
HydroPy is a new version of an established global hydrology model. It was rewritten from scratch and adapted to a modern object-oriented infrastructure to facilitate its future development and application. With this study, we provide a thorough documentation and evaluation of our new model. At the same time, we open our code base and publish the model's source code in a public software repository. In this way, we aim to contribute to increasing transparency and reproducibility in science.
Emilie Rouzies, Claire Lauvernet, Bruno Sudret, and Arthur Vidard
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for GMDShort summary
Water and pesticide transfer models are complex and should be simplified to be used in decision support. Indeed, these models simulate many spatial processes in interaction, involving a large number of parameters. Sensitivity analysis allows selecting the most influential input parameters but it has to be adapted to spatial modelling. This study will (i) identify relevant methods that can be transposed to any hydrological and water quality models, (ii) improve the fate of pesticides knowledge.
Tom Gleeson, Thorsten Wagener, Petra Döll, Samuel C. Zipper, Charles West, Yoshihide Wada, Richard Taylor, Bridget Scanlon, Rafael Rosolem, Shams Rahman, Nurudeen Oshinlaja, Reed Maxwell, Min-Hui Lo, Hyungjun Kim, Mary Hill, Andreas Hartmann, Graham Fogg, James S. Famiglietti, Agnès Ducharne, Inge de Graaf, Mark Cuthbert, Laura Condon, Etienne Bresciani, and Marc F. P. Bierkens
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 7545–7571,Short summary
Groundwater is increasingly being included in large-scale (continental to global) land surface and hydrologic simulations. However, it is challenging to evaluate these simulations because groundwater is
hiddenunderground and thus hard to measure. We suggest using multiple complementary strategies to assess the performance of a model (
Marco Toffolon, Luca Cortese, and Damien Bouffard
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 7527–7543,Short summary
The time when lakes freeze varies considerably from year to year. A common way to predict it is to use negative degree days, i.e., the sum of air temperatures below 0 °C, a proxy for the heat lost to the atmosphere. Here, we show that this is insufficient as the mixing of the surface layer induced by wind tends to delay the formation of ice. To do so, we developed a minimal model based on a simplified energy balance, which can be used both for large-scale analyses and short-term predictions.
Marco De Lucia, Michael Kühn, Alexander Lindemann, Max Lübke, and Bettina Schnor
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 7391–7409,Short summary
POET is a parallel reactive transport simulator which implements a mechanism to store and reuse previous results of geochemical simulations through distributed hash tables. POET parallelizes chemistry using a master/worker design with noncontiguous grid partitions to maximize its efficiency and load balance on shared-memory machines and compute clusters.
Mary M. F. O'Neill, Danielle T. Tijerina, Laura E. Condon, and Reed M. Maxwell
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 7223–7254,Short summary
Modeling the hydrologic cycle at high resolution and at large spatial scales is an incredible opportunity and challenge for hydrologists. In this paper, we present the results of a high-resolution hydrologic simulation configured over the contiguous United States. We discuss simulated water fluxes through groundwater, soil, plants, and over land, and we compare model results to in situ observations and satellite products in order to build confidence and guide future model development.
Daniel Power, Miguel Angel Rico-Ramirez, Sharon Desilets, Darin Desilets, and Rafael Rosolem
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 7287–7307,Short summary
Cosmic-ray neutron sensors estimate root-zone soil moisture at sub-kilometre scales. There are national-scale networks of these sensors across the globe; however, methods for converting neutron signals to soil moisture values are inconsistent. This paper describes our open-source Python tool that processes raw sensor data into soil moisture estimates. The aim is to allow a user to ensure they have a harmonized data set, along with informative metadata, to facilitate both research and teaching.
Marco Dal Molin, Dmitri Kavetski, and Fabrizio Fenicia
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 7047–7072,Short summary
This paper introduces SuperflexPy, an open-source Python framework for building flexible conceptual hydrological models. SuperflexPy is available as open-source code and can be used by the hydrological community to investigate improved process representations, for model comparison, and for operational work.
E. Andrés Quichimbo, Michael Bliss Singer, Katerina Michaelides, Daniel E. J. Hobley, Rafael Rosolem, and Mark O. Cuthbert
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 6893–6917,Short summary
Understanding and quantifying water partitioning in dryland regions are of key importance to anticipate the future impacts of climate change in water resources and dryland ecosystems. Here, we have developed a simple hydrological model (DRYP) that incorporates the key processes of water partitioning in drylands. DRYP is a modular, versatile, and parsimonious model that can be used to anticipate and plan for climatic and anthropogenic changes to water fluxes and storage in dryland regions.
Nathaniel W. Chaney, Laura Torres-Rojas, Noemi Vergopolan, and Colby K. Fisher
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 6813–6832,Short summary
Although there have been significant advances in river routing and sub-grid heterogeneity (i.e., tiling) schemes in Earth system models over the past decades, there has yet to be a concerted effort to couple these two concepts. This paper aims to bridge this gap through the development of a two-way coupling between tiling schemes and river networks in the HydroBlocks land surface model. The scheme is implemented and tested over a 1 arc degree domain in Oklahoma, United States.
Dejian Zhang, Bingqing Lin, Jiefeng Wu, and Qiaoying Lin
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 5915–5925,Short summary
GP-SWAT is a two-layer model parallelization tool for a SWAT model based on the graph-parallel Pregel algorithm. It can be employed to perform both individual and iterative model parallelization, endowing it with a range of possible applications and great flexibility in maximizing performance. As a flexible and scalable tool, it can run in diverse environments, ranging from a commodity computer with a Microsoft Windows, Mac or Linux OS to a Spark cluster consisting of a large number of nodes.
Daisuke Tokuda, Hyungjun Kim, Dai Yamazaki, and Taikan Oki
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 5669–5693,Short summary
We developed TCHOIR, a hydrologic simulation framework, to solve fluvial- and thermodynamics of the river–lake continuum. This provides an algorithm for upscaling high-resolution topography as well, which enables the representation of those interactions at the global scale. Validation against in situ and satellite observations shows that the coupled mode outperforms river- or lake-only modes. TCHOIR will contribute to elucidating the role of surface hydrology in Earth’s energy and water cycle.
Marko Kallio, Joseph H. A. Guillaume, Vili Virkki, Matti Kummu, and Kirsi Virrantaus
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 5155–5181,Short summary
Different runoff and streamflow products are freely available but may come with unsuitable spatial units. On the other hand, starting a new modelling exercise may require considerable resources. Hydrostreamer improves the usability of existing runoff products, allowing runoff and streamflow estimates at the desired spatial units with minimal data requirements and intuitive workflow. The case study shows that Hydrostreamer performs well compared to benchmark products and observation data.
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Clark, J. A. and Jafarov, E. E.: LAKE 2.0_processing-scripts and data, Zenodo [code and data set], https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5593754, 2021.
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Creighton, A. L., Parsekian, A. D., Angelopoulos, M., Jones, B. M., Bondurant, A., Engram, M., Lenz, J., Overduin, P. P., Grosse, G., Babcock, E., and Arp, C. D.: Transient Electromagnetic Surveys for the Determination of Talik Depth and Geometry Beneath Thermokarst Lakes, J. Geophys. Res.-Sol. Ea., 123, 9310–9323, https://doi.org/10.1029/2018JB016121, 2018.
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Grant, L., Vanderkelen, I., Gudmundsson, L., Tan, Z., Perroud, M., Stepanenko, V. M., Debolskiy, A. V., Droppers, B., Janssen, A. B. G., Woolway, R. I., Choulga, M., Balsamo, G., Kirillin, G., Schewe, J., Zhao, F., del Valle, I. V., Golub, M., Pierson, D., Marcé, R., Seneviratne, S. I., and Thiery, W.: Attribution of global lake systems change to anthropogenic forcing, Nat. Geosci., 14, 849–854, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41561-021-00833-x, 2021.
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Guo, M., Zhuang, Q., Yao, H., Golub, M., Leung, L. R., Pierson, D., and Tan, Z.: Validation and Sensitivity Analysis of a 1-D Lake Model Across Global Lakes, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 126, e2020JD033417, https://doi.org/10.1029/2020JD033417, 2021.
Hinkel, K., Lenters, J., Arp, C., and Frey, K.: Collaborative Research: Toward a Circumarctic Lakes Observation Network (CALON) – Multiscale observations of lacustrine systems, Arctic Data Center [data set], https://doi.org/10.18739/A2VM42Z1H, 2012.
Iakunin, M., Stepanenko, V., Salgado, R., Potes, M., Penha, A., Novais, M. H., and Rodrigues, G.: Numerical study of the seasonal thermal and gas regimes of the largest artificial reservoir in western Europe using the LAKE 2.0 model, Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 3475–3488, https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-13-3475-2020, 2020.
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Jones, B., Grosse, G., and Clark, J.: Fox Den Lake bed water temperature, Northwest Seward Peninsula, Alaska, 2009–2013, Arctic Data Center [data set], https://doi.org/10.18739/A2W37KX02, 2021.
Jorgenson, M. T., Yoshikawa, K., Kanevskiy, M., Shur, Y., Romanovsky, V., Marchenko, S., Grosse, G., Brown, J., and Jones, B.: Permafrost Characteristics of Alaska, in: Proceedings of the ninth international conference on permafrost, Fairbanks, AK, University of Alaska, 29 June 2008, 3, 121–122, 2008.
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Rutan, D. A., Kato, S., Doelling, D. R., Rose, F. G., Nguyen, L. T., Caldwell, T. E., and Loeb, N. G.: CERES Synoptic Product: Methodology and Validation of Surface Radiant Flux, J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech., 32, 1121–1143, https://doi.org/10.1175/JTECH-D-14-00165.1, 2015.
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Stepanenko, V.: LAKE (Version 2.0), Zenodo [code], https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6353238, 2022.
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Lakes in the Arctic are important reservoirs of heat. Under climate warming scenarios, we expect Arctic lakes to warm the surrounding frozen ground. We simulate water temperatures in three Arctic lakes in northern Alaska over several years. Our results show that snow depth and lake ice strongly affect water temperatures during the frozen season and that more heat storage by lakes would enhance thawing of frozen ground.
Lakes in the Arctic are important reservoirs of heat. Under climate warming scenarios, we expect...