Articles | Volume 13, issue 7
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 3067–3090, 2020
© Author(s) 2020. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Special issue: Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean - NEMO
Development and technical paper
10 Jul 2020
Development and technical paper | 10 Jul 2020
Development of a two-way-coupled ocean–wave model: assessment on a global NEMO(v3.6)–WW3(v6.02) coupled configuration
Xavier Couvelard et al.
No articles found.
Matias Alday, Fabrice Ardhuin, Guillaume Dodet, and Mickael Accensi
Obtaining accurate results from wave models in coastal regions is typically more difficult. This is due to the complex interactions between waves and the local environment characteristics like complex shorelines, sea bottom topography, the presence of strong currents and other processes that include waves’ growth and decay. In the present study we analyze which elements can be adjusted and/or included in order to reduce errors in the modeled output.
M. Al Najar, Y. El Bennioui, G. Thoumyre, R. Almar, E. W. J. Bergsma, R. Benshila, J.-M. Delvit, and D. G. Wilson
Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., XLIII-B3-2022, 9–16,
Joris Pianezze, Jonathan Beuvier, Cindy Lebeaupin Brossier, Guillaume Samson, Ghislain Faure, and Gilles Garric
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 1301–1324,Short summary
Most numerical weather and oceanic prediction systems do not consider ocean–atmosphere feedback during forecast, and this can lead to significant forecast errors, notably in cases of severe situations. A new high-resolution coupled ocean–atmosphere system is presented in this paper. This forecast-oriented system, based on current regional operational systems and evaluated using satellite and in situ observations, shows that the coupling improves both atmospheric and oceanic forecasts.
Nicholas Keville-Reynolds Kevlahan and Florian Lemarié
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for GMDShort summary
WAVETRISK-2.1 is an innovative climate model for the world's oceans. It uses state-of-the-art techniques to change the model's resolution locally, from O(100 km) to O(5 km), as the ocean changes. This dynamic adaptivity makes optimal use of available supercomputer resources, and allows two-dimensional global scales and three-dimensional submesoscales to be captured in the same simulation. WAVETRISK-2.1 is designed to be coupled its companion global atmosphere model, WAVETRISK-1.x.
Julien Jouanno, Rachid Benshila, Léo Berline, Antonin Soulié, Marie-Hélène Radenac, Guillaume Morvan, Frédéric Diaz, Julio Sheinbaum, Cristele Chevalier, Thierry Thibaut, Thomas Changeux, Frédéric Menard, Sarah Berthet, Olivier Aumont, Christian Ethé, Pierre Nabat, and Marc Mallet
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 4069–4086,Short summary
The tropical Atlantic has been facing a massive proliferation of Sargassum since 2011, with severe environmental and socioeconomic impacts. We developed a modeling framework based on the NEMO ocean model, which integrates transport by currents and waves, and physiology of Sargassum with varying internal nutrient quota, and considers stranding at the coast. Results demonstrate the ability of the model to reproduce and forecast the seasonal cycle and large-scale distribution of Sargassum biomass.
Achim Wirth and Florian Lemarié
Earth Syst. Dynam., 12, 689–708,Short summary
We show that modern concepts of non-equilibrium statistical mechanics can be applied to large-scale environmental fluid dynamics, where fluctuations are not thermal but come from turbulence. The work theorems developed by Jarzynski and Crooks are applied to air–sea interaction. Rather than looking at the average values of thermodynamic variables, their probability density functions are considered, which allows us to replace the inequalities of equilibrium statistical mechanics with equalities.
Olivier Marti, Sébastien Nguyen, Pascale Braconnot, Sophie Valcke, Florian Lemarié, and Eric Blayo
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 2959–2975,Short summary
State-of-the-art Earth system models, like the ones used in CMIP6, suffer from temporal inconsistencies at the ocean–atmosphere interface. In this study, a mathematically consistent iterative Schwarz method is used as a reference. Its tremendous computational cost makes it unusable for production runs, but it allows us to evaluate the error made when using legacy coupling schemes. The impact on the climate at longer timescales of days to decades is not evaluated.
Florian Lemarié, Guillaume Samson, Jean-Luc Redelsperger, Hervé Giordani, Théo Brivoal, and Gurvan Madec
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 543–572,Short summary
A simplified model of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) of intermediate complexity between a bulk parameterization and a full three-dimensional atmospheric model has been developed and integrated to the NEMO ocean model. An objective in the derivation of such a simplified model is to reach an apt representation of ocean-only numerical simulations of some of the key processes associated with air–sea interactions at the characteristic scales of the oceanic mesoscale.
Louis Marié, Fabrice Collard, Frédéric Nouguier, Lucia Pineau-Guillou, Danièle Hauser, François Boy, Stéphane Méric, Peter Sutherland, Charles Peureux, Goulven Monnier, Bertrand Chapron, Adrien Martin, Pierre Dubois, Craig Donlon, Tania Casal, and Fabrice Ardhuin
Ocean Sci., 16, 1399–1429,Short summary
With present-day techniques, ocean surface currents are poorly known near the Equator and globally for spatial scales under 200 km and timescales under 30 d. Wide-swath radar Doppler measurements are an alternative technique. Such direct surface current measurements are, however, affected by platform motions and waves. These contributions are analyzed in data collected during the DRIFT4SKIM airborne and in situ experiment, demonstrating the possibility of measuring currents from space globally.
Théo Brivoal, Guillaume Samson, Hervé Giordani, Romain Bourdallé-Badie, Florian Lemarié, and Gurvan Madec
Ocean Sci. Discuss.,
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
We investigate the interactions between near-surface winds and oceanic surface currents on the north-east atlantic region using a simplified lower atmosphere model coupled with an ocean model. we show that the upper ocean kinetic energy is significantly reduced due to these interactions, but in a smaller amplitude than if the wind feedback is ignored. We also show that wind-current interactions affect the deeper ocean by modifying its vertical structure and consequently the pressure field.
Guillaume Boutin, Camille Lique, Fabrice Ardhuin, Clément Rousset, Claude Talandier, Mickael Accensi, and Fanny Girard-Ardhuin
The Cryosphere, 14, 709–735,Short summary
We investigate the interactions of surface ocean waves with sea ice taking place at the interface between the compact sea ice cover and the open ocean. We use a newly developed coupling framework between a wave and an ocean–sea ice numerical model. Our results show how the push on sea ice exerted by waves changes the amount and the location of sea ice melting, with a strong impact on the ocean surface properties close to the ice edge.
Thomas Holding, Ian G. Ashton, Jamie D. Shutler, Peter E. Land, Philip D. Nightingale, Andrew P. Rees, Ian Brown, Jean-Francois Piolle, Annette Kock, Hermann W. Bange, David K. Woolf, Lonneke Goddijn-Murphy, Ryan Pereira, Frederic Paul, Fanny Girard-Ardhuin, Bertrand Chapron, Gregor Rehder, Fabrice Ardhuin, and Craig J. Donlon
Ocean Sci., 15, 1707–1728,Short summary
FluxEngine is an open-source software toolbox designed to allow for the easy and accurate calculation of air–sea gas fluxes. This article describes new functionality and capabilities, which include the ability to calculate fluxes for nitrous oxide and methane, optimisation for running FluxEngine on a stand-alone desktop computer, and extensive new features to support the in situ measurement community. Four research case studies are used to demonstrate these new features.
Marion Lebrun, Martin Vancoppenolle, Gurvan Madec, and François Massonnet
The Cryosphere, 13, 79–96,Short summary
The present analysis shows that the increase in the Arctic ice-free season duration will be asymmetrical, with later autumn freeze-up contributing about twice as much as earlier spring retreat. This feature is robustly found in a hierarchy of climate models and is consistent with a simple mechanism: solar energy is absorbed more efficiently than it can be released in non-solar form and should emerge out of variability within the next few decades.
Pedro Veras Guimarães, Fabrice Ardhuin, Peter Sutherland, Mickael Accensi, Michel Hamon, Yves Pérignon, Jim Thomson, Alvise Benetazzo, and Pierre Ferrant
Ocean Sci., 14, 1449–1460,Short summary
This paper introduces a new design of drifting buoy. The "surface kinematics buoy'' (SKIB) is particularly optimized for measuring wave–current interactions, including relatively short wave components, from 0.09 to 1 Hz, that are important for air–sea interactions and remote-sensing applications. The capability of this instrument is compared to other sensors, and the ability to measure current-induced wave variations is illustrated with data acquired in a macro-tidal coastal environment.
Christine Lac, Jean-Pierre Chaboureau, Valéry Masson, Jean-Pierre Pinty, Pierre Tulet, Juan Escobar, Maud Leriche, Christelle Barthe, Benjamin Aouizerats, Clotilde Augros, Pierre Aumond, Franck Auguste, Peter Bechtold, Sarah Berthet, Soline Bielli, Frédéric Bosseur, Olivier Caumont, Jean-Martial Cohard, Jeanne Colin, Fleur Couvreux, Joan Cuxart, Gaëlle Delautier, Thibaut Dauhut, Véronique Ducrocq, Jean-Baptiste Filippi, Didier Gazen, Olivier Geoffroy, François Gheusi, Rachel Honnert, Jean-Philippe Lafore, Cindy Lebeaupin Brossier, Quentin Libois, Thibaut Lunet, Céline Mari, Tomislav Maric, Patrick Mascart, Maxime Mogé, Gilles Molinié, Olivier Nuissier, Florian Pantillon, Philippe Peyrillé, Julien Pergaud, Emilie Perraud, Joris Pianezze, Jean-Luc Redelsperger, Didier Ricard, Evelyne Richard, Sébastien Riette, Quentin Rodier, Robert Schoetter, Léo Seyfried, Joël Stein, Karsten Suhre, Marie Taufour, Odile Thouron, Sandra Turner, Antoine Verrelle, Benoît Vié, Florian Visentin, Vincent Vionnet, and Philippe Wautelet
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 1929–1969,Short summary
This paper presents the Meso-NH model version 5.4, which is an atmospheric non-hydrostatic research model that is applied on synoptic to turbulent scales. The model includes advanced numerical techniques and state-of-the-art physics parameterization schemes. It has been expanded to provide capabilities for a range of Earth system prediction applications such as chemistry and aerosols, electricity and lightning, hydrology, wildland fires, volcanic eruptions, and cyclones with ocean coupling.
Fabrice Ardhuin, Yevgueny Aksenov, Alvise Benetazzo, Laurent Bertino, Peter Brandt, Eric Caubet, Bertrand Chapron, Fabrice Collard, Sophie Cravatte, Jean-Marc Delouis, Frederic Dias, Gérald Dibarboure, Lucile Gaultier, Johnny Johannessen, Anton Korosov, Georgy Manucharyan, Dimitris Menemenlis, Melisa Menendez, Goulven Monnier, Alexis Mouche, Frédéric Nouguier, George Nurser, Pierre Rampal, Ad Reniers, Ernesto Rodriguez, Justin Stopa, Céline Tison, Clément Ubelmann, Erik van Sebille, and Jiping Xie
Ocean Sci., 14, 337–354,Short summary
The Sea surface KInematics Multiscale (SKIM) monitoring mission is a proposal for a future satellite that is designed to measure ocean currents and waves. Using a Doppler radar, the accurate measurement of currents requires the removal of the mean velocity due to ocean wave motions. This paper describes the main processing steps needed to produce currents and wave data from the radar measurements. With this technique, SKIM can provide unprecedented coverage and resolution, over the global ocean.
Charles Peureux, Alvise Benetazzo, and Fabrice Ardhuin
Ocean Sci., 14, 41–52,Short summary
Little is known on the short ocean wave (1 to 20 m wave length typically) directional distribution. It has been measured from a platform in the Adriatic Sea using a three-dimensional reconstruction technique, used for the first time for this purpose. In this record, while longer waves propagate along the wind direction, shorter waves have been found to propagate mainly along two oblique directions, more and more separated towards smaller scales.
Aurore Voldoire, Bertrand Decharme, Joris Pianezze, Cindy Lebeaupin Brossier, Florence Sevault, Léo Seyfried, Valérie Garnier, Soline Bielli, Sophie Valcke, Antoinette Alias, Mickael Accensi, Fabrice Ardhuin, Marie-Noëlle Bouin, Véronique Ducrocq, Stéphanie Faroux, Hervé Giordani, Fabien Léger, Patrick Marsaleix, Romain Rainaud, Jean-Luc Redelsperger, Evelyne Richard, and Sébastien Riette
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 4207–4227,Short summary
This study presents the principles of the new coupling interface based on the SURFEX multi-surface model and the OASIS3-MCT coupler. As SURFEX can be plugged into several atmospheric models, it can be used in a wide range of applications. The objective of this development is to build and share a common structure for the atmosphere–surface coupling of all these applications, involving on the one hand atmospheric models and on the other hand ocean, ice, hydrology, and wave models.
Anton Beljaars, Emanuel Dutra, Gianpaolo Balsamo, and Florian Lemarié
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 977–989,Short summary
Coupling an atmospheric model with snow and sea ice modules presents numerical stability challenges in integrations with long time steps as commonly used for weather prediction and climate simulations. Explicit flux coupling is often applied for simplicity. In this paper a simple method is presented to stabilize the coupling without having to introduce fully implicit coupling. A formal stability analysis confirms that the method is unconditionally stable.
Justin E. Stopa, Fabrice Ardhuin, and Fanny Girard-Ardhuin
The Cryosphere, 10, 1605–1629,Short summary
Satellite observations show the Arctic sea ice has decreased the last 30 years. From our wave model hindcast and satellite altimeter datasets we observe profound increasing wave heights, which are caused by the loss of sea ice and not the driving winds. If ice-free conditions persist later into fall, then regions like the Beaufort–Chukchi Sea will be prone to developing larger waves since the driving winds are strong this time of year.
Related subject area
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Ludovic Räss, Ivan Utkin, Thibault Duretz, Samuel Omlin, and Yuri Y. Podladchikov
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 5757–5786,Short summary
Continuum mechanics-based modelling of physical processes at large scale requires huge computational resources provided by massively parallel hardware such as graphical processing units. We present a suite of numerical algorithms, implemented using the Julia language, that efficiently leverages the parallelism. We demonstrate that our implementation is efficient, scalable and robust and showcase applications to various geophysical problems.
Meriem Krouma, Pascal Yiou, Céline Déandreis, and Soulivanh Thao
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 4941–4958,Short summary
We evaluated the skill of a stochastic weather generator (SWG) to forecast precipitation at different time scales and in different areas of western Europe from analogs of Z500 hPa. The SWG has the skill to simulate precipitation for 5 and 10 d. We found that forecast weaknesses can be associated with specific weather patterns. The comparison with ECMWF forecasts confirms the skill of our model. This work is important because it provides information about weather forecasts over specific areas.
Piotr Dziekan and Piotr Zmijewski
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 4489–4501,Short summary
Detailed computer simulations of clouds are important for understanding Earth's atmosphere and climate. The paper describes how the UWLCM has been adapted to work on supercomputers. A distinctive feature of UWLCM is that air flow is calculated by processors at the same time as cloud droplets are modeled by graphics cards. Thanks to this, use of computing resources is maximized and the time to complete simulations of large domains is not affected by communications between supercomputer nodes.
Hynek Bednář and Holger Kantz
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 4147–4161,Short summary
A scale-dependent error growth described by a power law or by a quadratic hypothesis is studied in Lorenz’s system with three spatiotemporal levels. The validity of power law is extended by including a saturation effect. The quadratic hypothesis can only serve as a first guess. In addition, we study the initial error growth for the ECMWF forecast system. Fitting the parameters, we conclude that there is an intrinsic limit of predictability after 22 days.
Michael A. Olesik, Jakub Banaśkiewicz, Piotr Bartman, Manuel Baumgartner, Simon Unterstrasser, and Sylwester Arabas
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 3879–3899,Short summary
In systems such as atmospheric clouds, droplets undergo growth through condensation of vapor. The broadness of the resultant size spectrum of droplets influences precipitation likelihood and the radiative properties of clouds. One of the inherent limitations of simulations of the problem is the so-called numerical diffusion causing overestimation of the spectrum width, hence the term numerical broadening. In the paper, we take a closer look at one of the algorithms used in this context: MPDATA.
Navjot Kukreja, Jan Hückelheim, Mathias Louboutin, John Washbourne, Paul H. J. Kelly, and Gerard J. Gorman
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 3815–3829,Short summary
Full waveform inversion (FWI) is a partial-differential equation (PDE)-constrained optimization problem that is notorious for its high computational load and memory footprint. In this paper we present a method that combines recomputation with lossy compression to accelerate the computation with minimal loss of precision in the results. We show this using experiments running FWI with a variety of compression settings on a popular academic dataset.
Richard Scalzo, Mark Lindsay, Mark Jessell, Guillaume Pirot, Jeremie Giraud, Edward Cripps, and Sally Cripps
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 3641–3662,Short summary
This paper addresses numerical challenges in reasoning about geological models constrained by sensor data, especially models that describe the history of an area in terms of a sequence of events. Our method ensures that small changes in simulated geological features, such as the position of a boundary between two rock layers, do not result in unrealistically large changes to resulting sensor measurements, as occur presently using several popular modeling packages.
Romit Maulik, Vishwas Rao, Jiali Wang, Gianmarco Mengaldo, Emil Constantinescu, Bethany Lusch, Prasanna Balaprakash, Ian Foster, and Rao Kotamarthi
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 3433–3445,Short summary
In numerical weather prediction, data assimilation is frequently utilized to enhance the accuracy of forecasts from equation-based models. In this work we use a machine learning framework that approximates a complex dynamical system given by the geopotential height. Instead of using an equation-based model, we utilize this machine-learned alternative to dramatically accelerate both the forecast and the assimilation of data, thereby reducing need for large computational resources.
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 2561–2597,Short summary
This paper proposes a new double Fourier series (DFS) method on a sphere that improves the numerical stability of a model compared with conventional DFS methods. The shallow-water model and the advection model using the new DFS method give stable results without the appearance of high-wavenumber noise near the poles. The model using the new DFS method is faster than the model using spherical harmonics (especially at high resolutions) and gives almost the same results.
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 2505–2532,Short summary
I preset SciKit-GStat, a well-documented and tested Python package for variogram estimation. The variogram is the core means of geostatistics, which almost all other methods rely on. Geostatistical interpolation and field generation are widely spread in geoscience, i.e., for data assimilation or modeling. While SciKit-GStat focuses on effective and intuitive variogram estimation, it can interface with other prominent packages and make its variograms available for a multitude of methods.
Christopher J. L. D'Amboise, Michael Neuhauser, Michaela Teich, Andreas Huber, Andreas Kofler, Frank Perzl, Reinhard Fromm, Karl Kleemayr, and Jan-Thomas Fischer
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 2423–2439,Short summary
The term gravitational mass flow (GMF) covers various natural hazard processes such as snow avalanches, rockfall, landslides, and debris flows. Here we present the open-source GMF simulation tool Flow-Py. The model equations are based on simple geometrical relations in three-dimensional terrain. We show that Flow-Py is an educational, innovative GMF simulation tool with three computational experiments: 1. validation of implementation, 2. performance, and 3. expandability.
Léo Pujol, Pierre-André Garambois, and Jérôme Monnier
This contribution presents a new numerical model for representing hydraulic-hydrological quantities at the basin scale. It allows modeling large areas at a low computational cost, with fine zooms where needed. It allows the integration of local and satellite measurements, via data assimilation methods, to improve the model's match to observations. Using this capability, good matches to in situ observations are obtained on a model of the complex Adour river network with fine zooms on floodplains.
Evan Baker, Anna B. Harper, Daniel Williamson, and Peter Challenor
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 1913–1929,Short summary
We have adapted machine learning techniques to build a model of the land surface in Great Britain. The model was trained using data from a very complex land surface model called JULES. Our model is faster at producing simulations and predictions and can investigate many different scenarios, which can be used to improve our understanding of the climate and could also be used to help make local decisions.
Daichun Wang, Wei You, Zengliang Zang, Xiaobin Pan, Yiwen Hu, and Yanfei Liang
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 1821–1840,Short summary
This paper presents a 3D variational data assimilation system for aerosol optical properties, including aerosol optical thickness (AOT) retrievals and lidar-based aerosol profiles, which was developed for a size-resolved sectional model in WRF-Chem. To directly assimilate aerosol optical properties, an observation operator based on the Mie scattering theory was designed. The results show that Himawari-8 AOT assimilation can significantly improve model aerosol analyses and forecasts.
Kevin Bulthuis and Eric Larour
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 1195–1217,Short summary
We present and implement a stochastic solver to sample spatially and temporal varying uncertain input parameters in the Ice-sheet and Sea-level System Model, such as ice thickness or surface mass balance. We represent these sources of uncertainty using Gaussian random fields with Matérn covariance function. We generate random samples of this random field using an efficient computational approach based on solving a stochastic partial differential equation.
Urmas Raudsepp and Ilja Maljutenko
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 535–551,Short summary
A model's ability to reproduce the state of a simulated object is always a subject of discussion. A new method for the multivariate assessment of numerical model skills uses the K-means algorithm for clustering model errors. All available data that fall into the model domain and simulation period are incorporated into the skill assessment. The clustered errors are used for spatial and temporal analysis of the model accuracy. The method can be applied to different types of geoscientific models.
Emmanuel Wyser, Yury Alkhimenkov, Michel Jaboyedoff, and Yury Y. Podladchikov
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 7749–7774,Short summary
We propose an implementation of the material point method using graphical processing units (GPUs) to solve elastoplastic problems in three-dimensional configurations, such as the granular collapse or the slumping mechanics, i.e., landslide. The computational power of GPUs promotes fast code executions, compared to a traditional implementation using central processing units (CPUs). This allows us to study complex three-dimensional problems tackling high spatial resolution.
Rafael Lago, Thomas Gastine, Tilman Dannert, Markus Rampp, and Johannes Wicht
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 7477–7495,Short summary
In this work we discuss a two-dimensional distributed parallelization of MagIC, an open-source code for the numerical solution of the magnetohydrodynamics equations. Such a parallelization involves several challenges concerning the distribution of work and data. We detail our algorithm and compare it with the established, optimized, one-dimensional distribution in the context of the dynamo benchmark and discuss the merits of both implementations.
Moritz Lange, Henri Suominen, Mona Kurppa, Leena Järvi, Emilia Oikarinen, Rafael Savvides, and Kai Puolamäki
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 7411–7424,Short summary
This study aims to replicate computationally expensive high-resolution large-eddy simulations (LESs) with regression models to simulate urban air quality and pollutant dispersion. The model development, including feature selection, model training and cross-validation, and detection of concept drift, has been described in detail. Of the models applied, log-linear regression shows the best performance. A regression model can replace LES unless high accuracy is needed.
Hynek Bednář, Aleš Raidl, and Jiří Mikšovský
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 7377–7389,Short summary
Forecast errors in numerical weather prediction systems grow in time. To quantify the impacts of this growth, parametric error growth models may be employed. This study recalculates and newly defines parameters for several statistic models approximating error growth in the ECMWF forecasting system. Accurate values of parameters are important because they are used to evaluate improvements of the forecasting systems or to estimate predictability.
Denise Degen, Cameron Spooner, Magdalena Scheck-Wenderoth, and Mauro Cacace
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 7133–7153,Short summary
In times of worldwide energy transitions, an understanding of the subsurface is increasingly important to provide renewable energy sources such as geothermal energy. To validate our understanding of the subsurface we require data. However, the data are usually not distributed equally and introduce a potential misinterpretation of the subsurface. Therefore, in this study we investigate the influence of measurements on temperature distribution in the European Alps.
Geoffroy Kirstetter, Olivier Delestre, Pierre-Yves Lagrée, Stéphane Popinet, and Christophe Josserand
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 7117–7132,Short summary
The development of forecasting tools may help to limit the impacts of flash floods. Our purpose here is to demonstrate the possibility of using b-flood, which is a 2D tool based on shallow-water equations and adaptive mesh refinement.
Vijay S. Mahadevan, Jorge E. Guerra, Xiangmin Jiao, Paul Kuberry, Yipeng Li, Paul Ullrich, Robert Jacob, Pavel Bochev, and Philip Jones
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for GMDShort summary
Coupled Earth System Models require transfer of field data between multiple components with varying spatial resolutions to determine the correct climate behavior. We present the Metrics for Intercomparison of Remapping Algorithms (MIRA) protocol to evaluate the accuracy, conservation properties, monotonicity and local feature preservation of four different remapper algorithms, for various unstructured mesh problems of interest. Future extensions to more practical use cases are also discussed.
Sojung Park and Seon K. Park
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 6241–6255,Short summary
One of the biggest uncertainties in numerical weather predictions (NWPs) comes from treating subgrid-scale physical processes. Physical processes, such as cumulus, microphysics, and planetary boundary layer processes, are parameterized in NWP models by empirical and theoretical backgrounds. We developed an interface between a micro-genetic algorithm and the WRF model for a combinatorial optimization of physics for heavy rainfall events in Korea. The system improved precipitation forecasts.
Olivier Pannekoucke and Philippe Arbogast
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 5957–5976,Short summary
This contributes to research on uncertainty prediction, which is important either for determining the weather today or estimating the risk in prediction. The problem is that uncertainty prediction is numerically very expensive. An alternative has been proposed wherein uncertainty is presented in a simplified form with only the dynamics of certain parameters required. This tool allows for the determination of the symbolic equations of these parameter dynamics and their numerical computation.
Andrew M. Bradley, Peter A. Bosler, and Oksana Guba
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for GMDShort summary
Tracer transport in atmosphere models can be computationally expensive. We describe a flexible and efficient interpolation semi-Lagrangian method, Islet. It permits using up to three grids that share an element grid: a dynamics grid for computing quantities such as the wind velocity; a physics parameterizations grid; and a tracer grid. Islet performs well on a number of validation problems and achieves high performance on up to 27,600 NVIDIA V100 GPUs on the Summit supercomputer.
Annika Günther, Johannes Gütschow, and Mairi Louise Jeffery
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 5695–5730,Short summary
The mitigation components of the nationally determined contributions (NDCs) under the Paris Agreement are essential in our fight against climate change. Regular updates with increased ambition are requested to limit global warming to 1.5–2 °C. The new and easy-to-update open-source tool NDCmitiQ can be used to quantify the NDCs' mitigation targets and construct resulting emissions pathways. In use cases, we show target uncertainties from missing clarity, data, and methodological challenges.
Futo Tomizawa and Yohei Sawada
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 5623–5635,Short summary
A new method to predict chaotic systems from observation and process-based models is proposed by combining machine learning with data assimilation. Our method is robust to the sparsity of observation networks and can predict more accurately than a process-based model when it is biased. Our method effectively works when both observations and models are imperfect, which is often the case in geoscience. Therefore, our method is useful to solve a wide variety of prediction problems in this field.
Chloe Leach, Tom Coulthard, Andrew Barkwith, Daniel R. Parsons, and Susan Manson
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 5507–5523,Short summary
Numerical models can be used to understand how coastal systems evolve over time, including likely responses to climate change. However, many existing models are aimed at simulating 10- to 100-year time periods do not represent a vertical dimension and are thus unable to include the effect of sea-level rise. The Coastline Evolution Model 2D (CEM2D) presented in this paper is an advance in this field, with the inclusion of the vertical coastal profile against which the water level can be altered.
Steven J. Phipps, Jason L. Roberts, and Matt A. King
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 5107–5124,Short summary
Simplified schemes, known as parameterisations, are sometimes used to describe physical processes within numerical models. However, the values of the parameters are uncertain. This introduces uncertainty into the model outputs. We develop a simple approach to identify plausible ranges for model parameters. Using a model of the Antarctic Ice Sheet, we find that the value of one parameter can depend on the values of others. We conclude that a single optimal set of parameter values does not exist.
Axel Peytavin, Bruno Sainte-Rose, Gael Forget, and Jean-Michel Campin
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 4769–4780,Short summary
We present a new algorithm developed at The Ocean Cleanup to update ocean plastic models based on measurements from the field to improve future cleaning operations. Prepared in collaboration with MIT researchers, this initial study presents its use in several analytical and real test cases in which two observers in a flow field record regular observations to update a plastic forecast. We demonstrate this improves the prediction, even with inaccurate knowledge of the water flows driving plastic.
Kang Pan, Mei Qi Lim, Markus Kraft, and Epaminondas Mastorakos
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 4509–4534,Short summary
A new moving point source (MPS) model was developed to simulate the dispersion of emissions generated by the moving ships. Compared to the commonly used line source (LS) or fixed point source (FPS) model, the MPS model provides more emission distribution details generated by the moving ships and matches reasonably with the measurements. Therefore, the MPS model should be a valuable alternative for the environmental society to evaluate the pollutant dispersion contributed from the moving ships.
Sebastian Springer, Heikki Haario, Jouni Susiluoto, Aleksandr Bibov, Andrew Davis, and Youssef Marzouk
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 4319–4333,Short summary
Model predictions always contain uncertainty. But in some cases, such as weather forecasting or climate modeling, chaotic unpredictability increases the difficulty to say exactly how much uncertainty there is. We combine two recently proposed mathematical methods to show how the uncertainty can be analyzed in models that are simplifications of true weather models. The results can be extended in the future to show how forecasts from large-scale models can be improved.
Alexander Schaaf, Miguel de la Varga, Florian Wellmann, and Clare E. Bond
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 3899–3913,Short summary
Uncertainty is an inherent property of any model of the subsurface. We show how geological topology information – how different regions of rocks in the subsurface are connected – can be used to train uncertain geological models to reduce uncertainty. More widely, the method demonstrates the use of probabilistic machine learning (Bayesian inference) to train structural geological models on auxiliary geological knowledge that can be encoded in graph structures.
Matthew Ozon, Aku Seppänen, Jari P. Kaipio, and Kari E. J. Lehtinen
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 3715–3739,Short summary
Experimental research has provided large amounts of high-quality data on aerosol over the last 2 decades. However, inference of the process rates (e.g., the rates at which particles are generated) is still typically done by simple curve-fitting methods and does not assess the credibility of the estimation. The devised method takes advantage of the Bayesian framework to not only retrieve the state of the observed aerosol system but also to estimate the process rates (e.g., growth rate).
Colton J. Conroy and Einat Lev
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 3553–3575,Short summary
Lava flows present a natural hazard to communities around volcanoes and are usually slow-moving (< 1-5 cm/s). Lava flows during the 2018 eruption of Kilauea volcano, Hawai’i, however, reached speeds as high as 11 m/s. To investigate these dynamics we develop a new lava flow computer model that incorporates a nonlinear expression for the fluid viscosity. Model results indicate that the lava flows at Site 8 of the eruption displayed shear thickening behavior due to the flow's high bubble content.
Antti Hellsten, Klaus Ketelsen, Matthias Sühring, Mikko Auvinen, Björn Maronga, Christoph Knigge, Fotios Barmpas, Georgios Tsegas, Nicolas Moussiopoulos, and Siegfried Raasch
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 3185–3214,Short summary
Large-eddy simulation (LES) of the urban atmospheric boundary layer involves a large separation of turbulent scales, leading to prohibitive computational costs. An online LES–LES nesting scheme is implemented into the PALM model system 6.0 to overcome this problem. Test results show that the accuracy within the high-resolution nest domains approach the non-nested high-resolution reference results. The nesting can reduce the CPU by time up to 80 % compared to the fine-resolution reference runs.
Yumeng Chen, Konrad Simon, and Jörn Behrens
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 2289–2316,Short summary
Mesh adaptivity can reduce overall model error by only refining meshes in specific areas where it us necessary in the runtime. Here we suggest a way to integrate mesh adaptivity into an existing Earth system model, ECHAM6, without having to redesign the implementation from scratch. We show that while the additional computational effort is manageable, the error can be reduced compared to a low-resolution standard model using an idealized test and relatively realistic dust transport tests.
Sylvain Mailler, Romain Pennel, Laurent Menut, and Mathieu Lachâtre
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 2221–2233,Short summary
Representing the advection of thin polluted plumes in numerical models is a challenging task since these models usually tend to excessively diffuse these plumes in the vertical direction. This numerical diffusion process is the cause of major difficulties in representing such dense and thin polluted plumes in numerical models. We propose here, and test in an academic framework, a novel method to solve this problem through the use of an antidiffusive advection scheme in the vertical direction.
Daniel Otoo and David Hodgetts
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 2075–2095,Short summary
The forward stratigraphic simulation method is used to predict lithofacies, porosity, and permeability in a reservoir model. The objective of using this approach is to enhance subsurface property modelling through geologic realistic 3-D stratigraphic patterns. Results show realistic stratigraphic sequences. Given this, we can derive spatial and geometric data as secondary data to constrain property simulation in a reservoir model. The approach can reduce the uncertainty of property modelling.
Denise Degen and Mauro Cacace
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1699–1719,Short summary
In this work, we focus on improving the understanding of subsurface processes with respect to interactions with climate dynamics. We present advanced, open-source mathematical methods that enable us to investigate the influence of various model properties on the final outcomes. By relying on our approach, we have been able to showcase their importance in improving our understanding of the subsurface and highlighting the current shortcomings of currently adopted models.
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 377–389,Short summary
Resetting of non-significant figures (precision trimming) enables efficient data compression and helps to avoid excessive use of storage space and network bandwidth while having well-constrained distortion to the data. The paper analyses accuracy losses and artifacts caused by trimming methods and by the widely used linear packing method. The paper presents several methods with implementation, evaluation, and illustrations and includes subroutines directly usable in geoscientific models.
Bertrand Bessagnet, Laurent Menut, and Maxime Beauchamp
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 91–106,Short summary
This paper presents a new interpolator useful for geophysics applications. It can explore N-dimensional meshes, grids or look-up tables. The code accepts irregular but structured grids. Written in Fortran, it is easy to implement in existing codes and very fast and portable. We have compared it with a Python library. Python is convenient but suffers from portability and is sometimes not optimized enough. As an application case, this method is applied to atmospheric sciences.
Oksana Guba, Mark A. Taylor, Andrew M. Bradley, Peter A. Bosler, and Andrew Steyer
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 6467–6480,
Anna Wirbel and Alexander Helmut Jarosch
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 6425–6445,Short summary
We present an open-source numerical tool to simulate the free-surface evolution of gravity-driven flows (e.g. glaciers) constrained by bed topography. No ad hoc post-processing is required to enforce positive ice thickness and mass conservation. We utilise finite elements, define benchmark tests, and showcase glaciological examples. In addition, we provide a thorough analysis of the applicability and robustness of different spatial stabilisation and time discretisation methods.
Emmanuel Wyser, Yury Alkhimenkov, Michel Jaboyedoff, and Yury Y. Podladchikov
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 6265–6284,Short summary
In this work, we present an efficient and fast material point method (MPM) implementation in MATLAB. We first discuss the vectorization strategies to adapt this numerical method to a MATLAB implementation. We report excellent agreement of the solver compared with classical analysis among the MPM community, such as the cantilever beam problem. The solver achieves a performance gain of 28 compared with a classical iterative implementation.
Lauri Tuppi, Pirkka Ollinaho, Madeleine Ekblom, Vladimir Shemyakin, and Heikki Järvinen
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 5799–5812,Short summary
This paper presents general guidelines on how to utilise computer algorithms efficiently in order to tune weather models so that they would produce better forecasts. The main conclusions are that the computer algorithms work most efficiently with a suitable cost function, certain forecast length and ensemble size. We expect that our results will facilitate the use of algorithmic methods in the tuning of weather models.
Tarandeep S. Kalra, Neil K. Ganju, and Jeremy M. Testa
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 5211–5228,Short summary
The paper covers the description of a 3-D open-source model that dynamically couples the biophysical interactions between submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV), hydrodynamics (currents, waves), sediment dynamics, and nutrient loading. Based on SAV growth model, SAV can use growth or dieback while contributing and sequestering nutrients from the water column (modifying the biological environment) and subsequently affect the hydrodynamics and sediment transport (modifying the physical environment).
Xiaoshuang Li, Richard Garth James Bellerby, Jianzhong Ge, Philip Wallhead, Jing Liu, and Anqiang Yang
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 5103–5117,Short summary
We have developed an ANN model to predict pH using 11 cruise datasets from 2013 to 2017, demonstrated its reliability using three cruise datasets during 2018 and applied it to retrieve monthly pH for the period 2000 to 2016 on the East China Sea shelf using the ANN model in combination with input variables from the Changjiang biology Finite-Volume Coastal Ocean Model. This approach may be a valuable tool for understanding the seasonal variation of pH in poorly observed regions.
Christopher Subich, Pierre Pellerin, Gregory Smith, and Frederic Dupont
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 4379–4398,Short summary
This work presents a semi-Lagrangian advection module for the NEMO (OPA) ocean model. Semi-Lagrangian advection transports fluid properties (temperature, salinity, velocity) between time steps by following fluid motion and interpolating from upstream locations of fluid parcels. This method is commonly used in atmospheric models to extend time step size, but it has not previously been applied to operational ocean models. Overcoming this required a new approach for solid boundaries (coastlines).
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Within the framework of the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service (CMEMS), an objective is to demonstrate the contribution of coupling the high-resolution analysis and forecasting system with a wave model. This study describes the necessary steps and discusses the various choices made for coupling a wave model and an oceanic model for global-scale applications.
Within the framework of the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service (CMEMS), an...