Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean - NEMO
Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean - NEMO
Editor(s): GMD topic editors | Coordinator: P. Oddo
NEMO (Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean) is a state-of-the-art modelling framework for oceanographic research, operational oceanography seasonal forecast and climate studies. The NEMO components are NEMO-OPA (the "blue" ocean, modelling the ocean dynamics and solving the primitive equations); NEMO-LIM (the "white ocean" for modelling sea-ice), and NEMO-TOP (the "green ocean" for modelling biogeochemistry). NEMO also includes grid refinement software (AGRIF) and an assimilation component (linear-tangent NEMO-TAM, Observational operators NEMO-OBS, and increment NEMO-ASM). The "blue ocean" component is fundamental to all users. NEMO can also be interfaced to a number of other components such as atmosphere models or alternative other models of sea-ice or biogeochemistry, to enable Earth system modelling.

This Special Issue aims to collect technical and scientific manuscripts dealing with evaluation of model skill and performance as well as development of NEMO components. Submitted manuscripts can cover a wide variety of topics, including process studies, new parameterizations, implementation of new model features and new NEMO configurations. The main scope is to collect relevant and state of the art manuscripts to provide the NEMO users with a single portal to search, discover and understand about the NEMO modelling framework potential and evolution and submit their contributions.

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28 Mar 2024
Impact of ocean vertical mixing parameterization on Arctic sea ice and upper ocean properties using the NEMO-SI3 model
Sofia Allende, Anne Marie Treguier, Camille Lique, Clément de Boyer Montégut, François Massonnet, Thierry Fichefet, and Antoine Barthélemy
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,,, 2024
Preprint under review for GMD (discussion: open, 0 comments)
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10 Jan 2024
Implementation of a brittle sea-ice rheology in an Eulerian, finite-difference, C-grid modeling framework: Impact on the simulated deformation of sea-ice in the Arctic
Laurent Brodeau, Pierre Rampal, Einar Òlason, and Véronique Dansereau
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,,, 2024
Preprint under review for GMD (discussion: final response, 9 comments)
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05 Oct 2023
CAR36, a regional high-resolution ocean forecasting system for improving drift and beaching of Sargassum in the Caribbean Archipelago
Sylvain Cailleau, Laurent Bessières, Léonel Chiendje, Flavie Dubost, Guillaume Reffray, Jean-Michel Lellouche, Simon van Gennip, Charly Régnier, Marie Drevillon, Marc Tressol, Matthieu Clavier, Julien Temple-Boyer, and Léo Berline
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,,, 2023
Revised manuscript accepted for GMD (discussion: closed, 6 comments)
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08 Aug 2023
The sea ice component of GC5: coupling SI3 to HadGEM3 using conductive fluxes
Ed Blockley, Emma Fiedler, Jeff Ridley, Luke Roberts, Alex West, Dan Copsey, Daniel Feltham, Tim Graham, David Livings, Clement Rousset, David Schroeder, and Martin Vancoppenolle
EGUsphere,,, 2023
Preprint under review for GMD (discussion: open, 1 comment)
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30 Jun 2023
Improving Antarctic Bottom Water precursors in NEMO for climate applications
Katherine Hutchinson, Julie Deshayes, Christian Éthé, Clément Rousset, Casimir de Lavergne, Martin Vancoppenolle, Nicolas C. Jourdain, and Pierre Mathiot
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 3629–3650,,, 2023
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09 Mar 2023
Reproducible and relocatable regional ocean modelling: fundamentals and practices
Jeff Polton, James Harle, Jason Holt, Anna Katavouta, Dale Partridge, Jenny Jardine, Sarah Wakelin, Julia Rulent, Anthony Wise, Katherine Hutchinson, David Byrne, Diego Bruciaferri, Enda O'Dea, Michela De Dominicis, Pierre Mathiot, Andrew Coward, Andrew Yool, Julien Palmiéri, Gennadi Lessin, Claudia Gabriela Mayorga-Adame, Valérie Le Guennec, Alex Arnold, and Clément Rousset
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 1481–1510,,, 2023
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02 Mar 2023
Sensitivity of NEMO4.0-SI3 model parameters on sea ice budgets in the Southern Ocean
Yafei Nie, Chengkun Li, Martin Vancoppenolle, Bin Cheng, Fabio Boeira Dias, Xianqing Lv, and Petteri Uotila
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 1395–1425,,, 2023
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01 Dec 2022
GULF18, a high-resolution NEMO-based tidal ocean model of the Arabian/Persian Gulf
Diego Bruciaferri, Marina Tonani, Isabella Ascione, Fahad Al Senafi, Enda O'Dea, Helene T. Hewitt, and Andrew Saulter
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 8705–8730,,, 2022
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09 Sep 2022
The bulk parameterizations of turbulent air–sea fluxes in NEMO4: the origin of sea surface temperature differences in a global model study
Giulia Bonino, Doroteaciro Iovino, Laurent Brodeau, and Simona Masina
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 6873–6889,,, 2022
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22 Jul 2022
Use of genetic algorithms for ocean model parameter optimisation: a case study using PISCES-v2_RC for North Atlantic particulate organic carbon
Marcus Falls, Raffaele Bernardello, Miguel Castrillo, Mario Acosta, Joan Llort, and Martí Galí
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 5713–5737,,, 2022
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22 Feb 2022
Improving ocean modeling software NEMO 4.0 benchmarking and communication efficiency
Gaston Irrmann, Sébastien Masson, Éric Maisonnave, David Guibert, and Erwan Raffin
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 1567–1582,,, 2022
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14 Feb 2022
NEMO-Bohai 1.0: a high-resolution ocean and sea ice modelling system for the Bohai Sea, China
Yu Yan, Wei Gu, Andrea M. U. Gierisch, Yingjun Xu, and Petteri Uotila
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 1269–1288,,, 2022
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16 Sep 2021
Nemo-Nordic 2.0: operational marine forecast model for the Baltic Sea
Tuomas Kärnä, Patrik Ljungemyr, Saeed Falahat, Ida Ringgaard, Lars Axell, Vasily Korabel, Jens Murawski, Ilja Maljutenko, Anja Lindenthal, Simon Jandt-Scheelke, Svetlana Verjovkina, Ina Lorkowski, Priidik Lagemaa, Jun She, Laura Tuomi, Adam Nord, and Vibeke Huess
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 5731–5749,,, 2021
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01 Jul 2021
A NEMO-based model of Sargassum distribution in the tropical Atlantic: description of the model and sensitivity analysis (NEMO-Sarg1.0)
Julien Jouanno, Rachid Benshila, Léo Berline, Antonin Soulié, Marie-Hélène Radenac, Guillaume Morvan, Frédéric Diaz, Julio Sheinbaum, Cristele Chevalier, Thierry Thibaut, Thomas Changeux, Frédéric Menard, Sarah Berthet, Olivier Aumont, Christian Ethé, Pierre Nabat, and Marc Mallet
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 4069–4086,,, 2021
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15 Mar 2021
The Regional Ice Ocean Prediction System v2: a pan-Canadian ocean analysis system using an online tidal harmonic analysis
Gregory C. Smith, Yimin Liu, Mounir Benkiran, Kamel Chikhar, Dorina Surcel Colan, Audrey-Anne Gauthier, Charles-Emmanuel Testut, Frederic Dupont, Ji Lei, François Roy, Jean-François Lemieux, and Fraser Davidson
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1445–1467,,, 2021
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27 Jan 2021
A simplified atmospheric boundary layer model for an improved representation of air–sea interactions in eddying oceanic models: implementation and first evaluation in NEMO (4.0)
Florian Lemarié, Guillaume Samson, Jean-Luc Redelsperger, Hervé Giordani, Théo Brivoal, and Gurvan Madec
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 543–572,,, 2021
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10 Nov 2020
Multi-grid algorithm for passive tracer transport in the NEMO ocean circulation model: a case study with the NEMO OGCM (version 3.6)
Clément Bricaud, Julien Le Sommer, Gurvan Madec, Christophe Calone, Julie Deshayes, Christian Ethe, Jérôme Chanut, and Marina Levy
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 5465–5483,,, 2020
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05 Oct 2020
Impact of the ice thickness distribution discretization on the sea ice concentration variability in the NEMO3.6–LIM3 global ocean–sea ice model
Eduardo Moreno-Chamarro, Pablo Ortega, and François Massonnet
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 4773–4787,,, 2020
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30 Jul 2020
Representation of the Denmark Strait overflow in a z-coordinate eddying configuration of the NEMO (v3.6) ocean model: resolution and parameter impacts
Pedro Colombo, Bernard Barnier, Thierry Penduff, Jérôme Chanut, Julie Deshayes, Jean-Marc Molines, Julien Le Sommer, Polina Verezemskaya, Sergey Gulev, and Anne-Marie Treguier
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 3347–3371,,, 2020
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10 Jul 2020
Development of a two-way-coupled ocean–wave model: assessment on a global NEMO(v3.6)–WW3(v6.02) coupled configuration
Xavier Couvelard, Florian Lemarié, Guillaume Samson, Jean-Luc Redelsperger, Fabrice Ardhuin, Rachid Benshila, and Gurvan Madec
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 3067–3090,,, 2020
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22 Apr 2020
Tracking water masses using passive-tracer transport in NEMO v3.4 with NEMOTAM: application to North Atlantic Deep Water and North Atlantic Subtropical Mode Water
Dafydd Stephenson, Simon A. Müller, and Florian Sévellec
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 2031–2050,,, 2020
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27 Aug 2019
On the discretization of the ice thickness distribution in the NEMO3.6-LIM3 global ocean–sea ice model
François Massonnet, Antoine Barthélemy, Koffi Worou, Thierry Fichefet, Martin Vancoppenolle, Clément Rousset, and Eduardo Moreno-Chamarro
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 3745–3758,,, 2019
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29 Jul 2019
The INALT family – a set of high-resolution nests for the Agulhas Current system within global NEMO ocean/sea-ice configurations
Franziska U. Schwarzkopf, Arne Biastoch, Claus W. Böning, Jérôme Chanut, Jonathan V. Durgadoo, Klaus Getzlaff, Jan Harlaß, Jan K. Rieck, Christina Roth, Markus M. Scheinert, and René Schubert
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 3329–3355,,, 2019
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21 Jan 2019
Nemo-Nordic 1.0: a NEMO-based ocean model for the Baltic and North seas – research and operational applications
Robinson Hordoir, Lars Axell, Anders Höglund, Christian Dieterich, Filippa Fransner, Matthias Gröger, Ye Liu, Per Pemberton, Semjon Schimanke, Helen Andersson, Patrik Ljungemyr, Petter Nygren, Saeed Falahat, Adam Nord, Anette Jönsson, Iréne Lake, Kristofer Döös, Magnus Hieronymus, Heiner Dietze, Ulrike Löptien, Ivan Kuznetsov, Antti Westerlund, Laura Tuomi, and Jari Haapala
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 363–386,,, 2019
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31 Aug 2018
A global scavenging and circulation ocean model of thorium-230 and protactinium-231 with improved particle dynamics (NEMO–ProThorP 0.1)
Marco van Hulten, Jean-Claude Dutay, and Matthieu Roy-Barman
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 3537–3556,,, 2018
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10 Aug 2018
UK Global Ocean GO6 and GO7: a traceable hierarchy of model resolutions
David Storkey, Adam T. Blaker, Pierre Mathiot, Alex Megann, Yevgeny Aksenov, Edward W. Blockley, Daley Calvert, Tim Graham, Helene T. Hewitt, Patrick Hyder, Till Kuhlbrodt, Jamie G. L. Rae, and Bablu Sinha
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 3187–3213,,, 2018
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22 Feb 2018
AMM15: a new high-resolution NEMO configuration for operational simulation of the European north-west shelf
Jennifer A. Graham, Enda O'Dea, Jason Holt, Jeff Polton, Helene T. Hewitt, Rachel Furner, Karen Guihou, Ashley Brereton, Alex Arnold, Sarah Wakelin, Juan Manuel Castillo Sanchez, and C. Gabriela Mayorga Adame
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 681–696,,, 2018
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22 Aug 2017
Sea-ice evaluation of NEMO-Nordic 1.0: a NEMO–LIM3.6-based ocean–sea-ice model setup for the North Sea and Baltic Sea
Per Pemberton, Ulrike Löptien, Robinson Hordoir, Anders Höglund, Semjon Schimanke, Lars Axell, and Jari Haapala
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 3105–3123,,, 2017
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04 Aug 2017
The CO5 configuration of the 7 km Atlantic Margin Model: large-scale biases and sensitivity to forcing, physics options and vertical resolution
Enda O'Dea, Rachel Furner, Sarah Wakelin, John Siddorn, James While, Peter Sykes, Robert King, Jason Holt, and Helene Hewitt
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 2947–2969,,, 2017
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26 Jul 2017
Explicit representation and parametrised impacts of under ice shelf seas in the z coordinate ocean model NEMO 3.6
Pierre Mathiot, Adrian Jenkins, Christopher Harris, and Gurvan Madec
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 2849–2874,,, 2017
10 Mar 2017
Development of a probabilistic ocean modelling system based on NEMO 3.5: application at eddying resolution
Laurent Bessières, Stéphanie Leroux, Jean-Michel Brankart, Jean-Marc Molines, Marie-Pierre Moine, Pierre-Antoine Bouttier, Thierry Penduff, Laurent Terray, Bernard Barnier, and Guillaume Sérazin
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 1091–1106,,, 2017
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03 Mar 2017
Comparing sea ice, hydrography and circulation between NEMO3.6 LIM3 and LIM2
Petteri Uotila, Doroteaciro Iovino, Martin Vancoppenolle, Mikko Lensu, and Clement Rousset
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 1009–1031,,, 2017
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13 Oct 2016
The impact of resolving the Rossby radius at mid-latitudes in the ocean: results from a high-resolution version of the Met Office GC2 coupled model
Helene T. Hewitt, Malcolm J. Roberts, Pat Hyder, Tim Graham, Jamie Rae, Stephen E. Belcher, Romain Bourdallé-Badie, Dan Copsey, Andrew Coward, Catherine Guiavarch, Chris Harris, Richard Hill, Joël J.-M. Hirschi, Gurvan Madec, Matthew S. Mizielinski, Erica Neininger, Adrian L. New, Jean-Christophe Rioual, Bablu Sinha, David Storkey, Ann Shelly, Livia Thorpe, and Richard A. Wood
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 3655–3670,,, 2016
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12 Aug 2016
A 1/16° eddying simulation of the global NEMO sea-ice–ocean system
Doroteaciro Iovino, Simona Masina, Andrea Storto, Andrea Cipollone, and Vladimir N. Stepanov
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 2665–2684,,, 2016
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10 Jun 2016
Performance and results of the high-resolution biogeochemical model PELAGOS025 v1.0 within NEMO v3.4
Italo Epicoco, Silvia Mocavero, Francesca Macchia, Marcello Vichi, Tomas Lovato, Simona Masina, and Giovanni Aloisio
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 2115–2128,,, 2016
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21 Apr 2016
Evaluation of an operational ocean model configuration at 1/12° spatial resolution for the Indonesian seas (NEMO2.3/INDO12) – Part 2: Biogeochemistry
Elodie Gutknecht, Guillaume Reffray, Marion Gehlen, Iis Triyulianti, Dessy Berlianty, and Philippe Gaspar
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 1523–1543,,, 2016
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10 Mar 2016
Evaluation of an operational ocean model configuration at 1/12° spatial resolution for the Indonesian seas (NEMO2.3/INDO12) – Part 1: Ocean physics
Benoît Tranchant, Guillaume Reffray, Eric Greiner, Dwiyoga Nugroho, Ariane Koch-Larrouy, and Philippe Gaspar
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 1037–1064,,, 2016
06 Oct 2015
Increasing vertical mixing to reduce Southern Ocean deep convection in NEMO3.4
C. Heuzé, J. K. Ridley, D. Calvert, D. P. Stevens, and K. J. Heywood
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 3119–3130,,, 2015
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01 Oct 2015
The Louvain-La-Neuve sea ice model LIM3.6: global and regional capabilities
C. Rousset, M. Vancoppenolle, G. Madec, T. Fichefet, S. Flavoni, A. Barthélemy, R. Benshila, J. Chanut, C. Levy, S. Masson, and F. Vivier
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 2991–3005,,, 2015
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13 Aug 2015
PISCES-v2: an ocean biogeochemical model for carbon and ecosystem studies
O. Aumont, C. Ethé, A. Tagliabue, L. Bopp, and M. Gehlen
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 2465–2513,,, 2015
28 May 2015
A high-resolution ocean and sea-ice modelling system for the Arctic and North Atlantic oceans
F. Dupont, S. Higginson, R. Bourdallé-Badie, Y. Lu, F. Roy, G. C. Smith, J.-F. Lemieux, G. Garric, and F. Davidson
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 1577–1594,,, 2015
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27 May 2015
NEMO–ICB (v1.0): interactive icebergs in the NEMO ocean model globally configured at eddy-permitting resolution
R. Marsh, V. O. Ivchenko, N. Skliris, S. Alderson, G. R. Bigg, G. Madec, A. T. Blaker, Y. Aksenov, B. Sinha, A. C. Coward, J. Le Sommer, N. Merino, and V. B. Zalesny
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 1547–1562,,, 2015
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04 May 2015
A generic approach to explicit simulation of uncertainty in the NEMO ocean model
J.-M. Brankart, G. Candille, F. Garnier, C. Calone, A. Melet, P.-A. Bouttier, P. Brasseur, and J. Verron
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 1285–1297,,, 2015
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29 Apr 2015
NEMOTAM: tangent and adjoint models for the ocean modelling platform NEMO
A. Vidard, P.-A. Bouttier, and F. Vigilant
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 1245–1257,,, 2015
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22 Jan 2015
Modelling turbulent vertical mixing sensitivity using a 1-D version of NEMO
G. Reffray, R. Bourdalle-Badie, and C. Calone
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 69–86,,, 2015
17 Dec 2014
Sensitivity of the Mediterranean sea level to atmospheric pressure and free surface elevation numerical formulation in NEMO
P. Oddo, A. Bonaduce, N. Pinardi, and A. Guarnieri
Geosci. Model Dev., 7, 3001–3015,,, 2014
10 Nov 2014
Recent development of the Met Office operational ocean forecasting system: an overview and assessment of the new Global FOAM forecasts
E. W. Blockley, M. J. Martin, A. J. McLaren, A. G. Ryan, J. Waters, D. J. Lea, I. Mirouze, K. A. Peterson, A. Sellar, and D. Storkey
Geosci. Model Dev., 7, 2613–2638,,, 2014
06 Jun 2014
GO5.0: the joint NERC–Met Office NEMO global ocean model for use in coupled and forced applications
A. Megann, D. Storkey, Y. Aksenov, S. Alderson, D. Calvert, T. Graham, P. Hyder, J. Siddorn, and B. Sinha
Geosci. Model Dev., 7, 1069–1092,,, 2014
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