Articles | Volume 8, issue 4
Methods for assessment of models 29 Apr 2015
Methods for assessment of models | 29 Apr 2015
Reduction of predictive uncertainty in estimating irrigation water requirement through multi-model ensembles and ensemble averaging
S. Multsch et al.
T. Houska, S. Multsch, P. Kraft, H.-G. Frede, and L. Breuer
Biogeosciences, 11, 2069–2082,
S. Multsch, Y. A. Al-Rumaikhani, H.-G. Frede, and L. Breuer
Geosci. Model Dev., 6, 1043–1059,
Jaqueline Stenfert Kroese, John N. Quinton, Suzanne R. Jacobs, Lutz Breuer, and Mariana C. Rufino
SOIL, 7, 53–70,Short summary
Particulate macronutrient concentrations were up to 3-fold higher in a natural forest catchment compared to fertilized agricultural catchments. Although the particulate macronutrient concentrations were lower in the smallholder agriculture catchment, because of higher sediment loads from that catchment, the total particulate macronutrient loads were higher. Land management practices should be focused on agricultural land to reduce the loss of soil carbon and nutrients to the stream.
Amani Mahindawansha, Christoph Külls, Philipp Kraft, and Lutz Breuer
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 3627–3642,Short summary
Stable isotopes of soil water are an effective tool to reveal soil hydrological processes in irrigated agricultural fields. Flow mechanisms and isotopic patterns of soil water in the soil matrix differ, depending on the crop and irrigation practices. Isotope data supported the fact that unproductive water losses via evaporation can be reduced by introducing dry seasonal crops to the crop rotation system.
Michael C. Thrun, Alfred Ultsch, and Lutz Breuer
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
We propose an explainable AI (XAI) framework for times series describing water quality & environmental parameters. The relationship between parameters is investigated by swarm based cluster analysis designed to find similar days within & dissimilar days between clusters. Resulting clusters define three states of water bodies & are visualized by a topographic map of high-dimensional structures. Rules generated by the XAI system explain clusters & improve the understanding of aquatic environments.
Florian U. Jehn, Konrad Bestian, Lutz Breuer, Philipp Kraft, and Tobias Houska
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 1081–1100,Short summary
We grouped 643 rivers from the United States into 10 behavioral groups based on their hydrological behavior (e.g., how much water they transport overall). Those groups are aligned with the ecoregions in the United States. Depending on the groups’ location and other characteristics, either snow, aridity or seasonality is most important for the behavior of the rivers in a group. We also find that very similar river behavior can be found in rivers far apart and with different characteristics.
Sebastian Multsch, Maarten S. Krol, Markus Pahlow, André L. C. Assunção, Alberto G. O. P. Barretto, Quirijn de Jong van Lier, and Lutz Breuer
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 307–324,Short summary
Expanding irrigation in agriculture is one of Brazil's strategies to increase production. In this study the amount of water required to grow the main crops has been calculated and compared to the water that is available in rivers at least 95 % of the time. Future decisions regarding expanding irrigated cropping areas must, while intensifying production practices, consider the likely regional effects on water scarcity levels, in order to reach sustainable agricultural production.
Suzanne R. Jacobs, Edison Timbe, Björn Weeser, Mariana C. Rufino, Klaus Butterbach-Bahl, and Lutz Breuer
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 4981–5000,Short summary
This study investigated how land use affects stream water sources and flow paths in an East African tropical montane area. Rainfall was identified as an important stream water source in the forest and smallholder agriculture sub-catchments, while springs were more important in the commercial tea plantation sub-catchment. However, 15 % or less of the stream water consisted of water with an age of less than 3 months, indicating that groundwater plays an important role in all land use types.
Florian U. Jehn, Lutz Breuer, Tobias Houska, Konrad Bestian, and Philipp Kraft
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 4565–4581,Short summary
By realizing that hydrological models are not one single hypothesis, but an assemblage of many hypotheses, new ways to scrutinize hydrological models are needed. Up until now, studies concentrate on comparing existing models or built models incrementally. This approach here tries to tackle the problem the other way around. We construct a complex model, containing all processes important for the catchment, and deconstruct it step by step to understand the influence of single processes.
Natalie Orlowski, Lutz Breuer, Nicolas Angeli, Pascal Boeckx, Christophe Brumbt, Craig S. Cook, Maren Dubbert, Jens Dyckmans, Barbora Gallagher, Benjamin Gralher, Barbara Herbstritt, Pedro Hervé-Fernández, Christophe Hissler, Paul Koeniger, Arnaud Legout, Chandelle Joan Macdonald, Carlos Oyarzún, Regine Redelstein, Christof Seidler, Rolf Siegwolf, Christine Stumpp, Simon Thomsen, Markus Weiler, Christiane Werner, and Jeffrey J. McDonnell
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 3619–3637,Short summary
To extract water from soils for isotopic analysis, cryogenic water extraction is the most widely used removal technique. This work presents results from a worldwide laboratory intercomparison test of cryogenic extraction systems. Our results showed large differences in retrieved isotopic signatures among participating laboratories linked to interactions between soil type and properties, system setup, extraction efficiency, extraction system leaks, and each lab’s internal accuracy.
Tobias Houska, David Kraus, Ralf Kiese, and Lutz Breuer
Biogeosciences, 14, 3487–3508,Short summary
CO2 and N2O are two prominent GHGs contributing to global warming. We combined measurement and modelling to quantify GHG emissions from adjacent arable, forest and grassland sites in Germany. Measured emissions reveal seasonal patterns and management effects like fertilizer application, tillage, harvest and grazing. Modelling helps to estimate the magnitude and uncertainty of not measurable C and N fluxes and indicates missing input source, e.g. nitrate uptake from groundwater.
Natalie Orlowski, Philipp Kraft, Jakob Pferdmenges, and Lutz Breuer
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 3873–3894,Short summary
The 2-year measurements of δ2H and δ18O in rainfall, stream, soil, and groundwater revealed that surface and groundwater are isotopically disconnected from the annual precipitation cycle but showed bidirectional interactions in the Schwingbach catchment. We established a hydrological model to estimate spatially distributed groundwater ages and flow directions. Our model revealed complex age dynamics and showed that runoff must have been stored in the catchment for much longer than event water.
Giovanny M. Mosquera, Catalina Segura, Kellie B. Vaché, David Windhorst, Lutz Breuer, and Patricio Crespo
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 2987–3004,Short summary
This study focuses on the investigation of baseflow mean transit times (MTTs) in a high-elevation tropical ecosystem (páramo) using stable water isotopes. Results showed short MTTs (< 9 months) and topographic controls on their spatial variability. We conclude that (1) the hydrology of the ecosystem is dominated by shallow subsurface flow and (2) the interplay between the high storage capacity of the páramo soils and the catchments' slopes provides the ecosystem with high regulation capacity.
A. H. Aubert, O. Schnepel, P. Kraft, T. Houska, I. Plesca, N. Orlowski, and L. Breuer
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
Studienlandschaft Schwingbachtal is an out-door full-scale study site since 2008. It deals with hydrology in an interdisciplinary approach and enhances active learning by various means (field monitoring, education trails and geocache). In order to adapt to the change in students habits and to suit better as a communication tool for the locals, it is newly equipped with augmented reality which adds virtual objects on the real landscape, making learning pleasant.
E. Timbe, D. Windhorst, R. Celleri, L. Timbe, P. Crespo, H.-G. Frede, J. Feyen, and L. Breuer
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 1153–1168,Short summary
Stream, soil and precipitation waters were collected in a tropical montane cloud forest catchment for 2 years and analyzed for stable water isotopes in order to infer transit time distribution functions and mean transit times for semi-steady-state conditions. Samples were aggregated to diverse sampling resolutions for checking the sensitivity of sampling frequency on lumped-model predictions. Results provide valuable information for the planning of future fieldwork in similar catchments.
J.-F. Exbrayat, A. J. Pitman, and G. Abramowitz
Biogeosciences, 11, 6999–7008,Short summary
We use a reduced complexity soil organic carbon (SOC) model to address the influence of two parameters on the response of SOC stocks to climate change: baseline turnover time (k) and temperature sensitivity of decomposition (Q10). In our model, k determines SOC stocks and the magnitude of the response to climate change (from 1850 to 2100 under RCP 8.5) while Q10 drives its sign. We dismiss unlikely simulations using global SOC data to reduce the uncertainty in projections and parameter values.
J.-F. Exbrayat, A. J. Pitman, and G. Abramowitz
Geosci. Model Dev., 7, 2683–2692,Short summary
Pre-industrial soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks vary 6-fold in models used in the 5th IPCC Assessment Report. This paper shows that this range is largely determined by model-specific responses of microbal decomposition during the equilibration procedure. As SOC stocks are maintained through the present and to 2100 almost unchanged, we propose that current SOC observations could be used to constrain this equilibration procedure and thereby reduce the uncertainty in climate change projections.
D. Windhorst, P. Kraft, E. Timbe, H.-G. Frede, and L. Breuer
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 4113–4127,
E. Timbe, D. Windhorst, P. Crespo, H.-G. Frede, J. Feyen, and L. Breuer
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 1503–1523,
T. Houska, S. Multsch, P. Kraft, H.-G. Frede, and L. Breuer
Biogeosciences, 11, 2069–2082,
N. Orlowski, H.-G. Frede, N. Brüggemann, and L. Breuer
J. Sens. Sens. Syst., 2, 179–193,
S. Multsch, Y. A. Al-Rumaikhani, H.-G. Frede, and L. Breuer
Geosci. Model Dev., 6, 1043–1059,
D. Windhorst, T. Waltz, E. Timbe, H.-G. Frede, and L. Breuer
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 409–419,
J.-F. Exbrayat, N. R. Viney, H.-G. Frede, and L. Breuer
Geosci. Model Dev., 6, 117–125,
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Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 4865–4890,Short summary
We present a cascade of models to compute high-resolution river flooding. This takes meteorological inputs, e.g., rainfall and temperature from observations or climate models, and takes them through a series of modeling steps. This is relevant to evaluating current day and future flood risk and impacts. The model framework uses global data sets, allowing it to be applied anywhere in the world.
Marco De Lucia and Michael Kühn
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 4713–4730,Short summary
DecTree evaluates a hierarchical coupling method for reactive transport simulations in which pre-trained surrogate models are used to speed up the geochemical subprocess, and equation-based
full-physicssimulations are called only if the surrogate predictions are implausible. Furthermore, we devise and evaluate a decision tree surrogate approach designed to inject domain knowledge of the surrogate by defining engineered features based on law of mass action or stoichiometric reaction equations.
Camelia-Eliza Telteu, Hannes Müller Schmied, Wim Thiery, Guoyong Leng, Peter Burek, Xingcai Liu, Julien Eric Stanislas Boulange, Lauren Seaby Andersen, Manolis Grillakis, Simon Newland Gosling, Yusuke Satoh, Oldrich Rakovec, Tobias Stacke, Jinfeng Chang, Niko Wanders, Harsh Lovekumar Shah, Tim Trautmann, Ganquan Mao, Naota Hanasaki, Aristeidis Koutroulis, Yadu Pokhrel, Luis Samaniego, Yoshihide Wada, Vimal Mishra, Junguo Liu, Petra Döll, Fang Zhao, Anne Gädeke, Sam S. Rabin, and Florian Herz
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 3843–3878,Short summary
We analyse water storage compartments, water flows, and human water use sectors included in 16 global water models that provide simulations for the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project phase 2b. We develop a standard writing style for the model equations. We conclude that even though hydrologic processes are often based on similar equations, in the end these equations have been adjusted, or the models have used different values for specific parameters or specific variables.
James Shaw, Georges Kesserwani, Jeffrey Neal, Paul Bates, and Mohammad Kazem Sharifian
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 3577–3602,Short summary
LISFLOOD-FP has been extended with new shallow-water solvers – DG2 and FV1 – for modelling all types of slow- or fast-moving waves over any smooth or rough surface. Using GPU parallelisation, FV1 is faster than the simpler ACC solver on grids with millions of elements. The DG2 solver is notably effective on coarse grids where river channels are hard to capture, improving predicted river levels and flood water depths. This marks a new step towards real-world DG2 flood inundation modelling.
Chiranjib Chaudhuri, Annie Gray, and Colin Robertson
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 3295–3315,Short summary
A flood risk estimation model for two study watersheds in Canada and an interactive visualization platform using publicly available hydrometric data are presented. The risk model uses a height above nearest drainage (HAND)-based solution for Manning’s formula and is implemented on a big-data discrete global grid system framework. Overall, the novel data model decreases processing time and provides easy parallelization, resulting in performance gains in online flood analytics.
Axel Schaffitel, Tobias Schuetz, and Markus Weiler
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 2127–2142,Short summary
This paper presents FluSM, an algorithm to derive the water balance from soil moisture and metrological measurements. This data-driven water balance framework uses soil moisture as an input and therefore is applicable for cases with unclear processes and lacking parameters. In a case study, we apply FluSM to derive the water balance of 15 different permeable pavements under field conditions. These findings are of special interest for urban hydrology.
Daisuke Tokuda, Hyungjun Kim, Dai Yamazaki, and Taikan Oki
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for GMDShort summary
We developed the T-CHOIR, a hydrologic simulation framework, to solve fluvial- and thermo- dynamics of river-lake continuum. This provides an algorithm for upscaling high-resolution topography as well, which enables the representation of those interactions at the global scale. Validation against in-situ and satellite observations shows that the coupled mode outperforms river or lake only modes. T-CHOIR will contribute to elucidate the role of surface hydrology in Earth’s energy and water cycle.
Thibault Guinaldo, Simon Munier, Patrick Le Moigne, Aaron Boone, Bertrand Decharme, Margarita Choulga, and Delphine J. Leroux
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1309–1344,Short summary
Lakes are of fundamental importance in the Earth system as they support essential environmental and economic services such as freshwater supply. Despite the impact of lakes on the water cycle, they are generally not considered in global hydrological studies. Based on a model called MLake, we assessed both the importance of lakes in simulating river flows at global scale and the value of their level variations for water resource management.
Hannes Müller Schmied, Denise Cáceres, Stephanie Eisner, Martina Flörke, Claudia Herbert, Christoph Niemann, Thedini Asali Peiris, Eklavyya Popat, Felix Theodor Portmann, Robert Reinecke, Maike Schumacher, Somayeh Shadkam, Camelia-Eliza Telteu, Tim Trautmann, and Petra Döll
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1037–1079,Short summary
In a globalized world with large flows of virtual water between river basins and international responsibilities for the sustainable development of the Earth system and its inhabitants, quantitative estimates of water flows and storages and of water demand by humans are required. Global hydrological models such as WaterGAP are developed to provide this information. Here we present a thorough description, evaluation and application examples of the most recent model version, WaterGAP v2.2d.
John F. Burkhart, Felix N. Matt, Sigbjørn Helset, Yisak Sultan Abdella, Ola Skavhaug, and Olga Silantyeva
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 821–842,Short summary
We present a new hydrologic modeling framework for interactive development of inflow forecasts for hydropower production planning and other operational environments (e.g., flood forecasting). The software provides a Python user interface with an application programming interface (API) for a computationally optimized C++ model engine, giving end users extensive control over the model configuration in real time during a simulation. This provides for extensive experimentation with configuration.
Joost Buitink, Lieke A. Melsen, James W. Kirchner, and Adriaan J. Teuling
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 6093–6110,Short summary
This paper presents a new distributed hydrological model: the distributed simple dynamical systems (dS2) model. The model is built with a focus on computational efficiency and is therefore able to simulate basins at high spatial and temporal resolution at a low computational cost. Despite the simplicity of the model concept, it is able to correctly simulate discharge in both small and mesoscale basins.
Zhipin Ai, Naota Hanasaki, Vera Heck, Tomoko Hasegawa, and Shinichiro Fujimori
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 6077–6092,Short summary
Incorporating bioenergy crops into the well-established global hydrological models is seldom seen today. Here, we successfully enhance a state-of-the-art global hydrological model H08 to simulate bioenergy crop yield. We found that unconstrained irrigation more than doubled the yield under rainfed conditions while simultaneously reducing the water use efficiency by 32 % globally. Our enhanced model provides a new tool for the future assessment of bioenergy–water tradeoffs.
Matthew T. Perks
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 6111–6130,Short summary
KLT-IV v1.0 offers a user-friendly graphical interface for the determination of river flow velocity and river discharge using videos acquired from both fixed and mobile remote sensing platforms. Platform motion can be accounted for using ground control points and/or stable features or a GPS device and inertial measurement unit sensor. Examples of the KLT-IV workflow are provided for two case studies where footage is acquired using unmanned aerial systems and fixed cameras.
Bram Droppers, Wietse H. P. Franssen, Michelle T. H. van Vliet, Bart Nijssen, and Fulco Ludwig
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 5029–5052,Short summary
Our study aims to include both both societal and natural water requirements and uses into a hydrological model in order to enable worldwide assessments of sustainable water use. The model was extended to include irrigation, domestic, industrial, energy, and livestock water uses as well as minimum flow requirements for natural systems. Initial results showed competition for water resources between society and nature, especially with respect to groundwater withdrawals.
Marko Kallio, Joseph H. A. Guillaume, Vili Virkki, Matti Kummu, and Kirsi Virrantaus
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for GMDShort summary
Different runoff and streamflow products are freely available, but may come with unsuitable spatial units, and starting a new modelling exercise may require considerable resources. Hydrostreamer improves the usability of existing runoff products allowing runoff and streamflow estimates at the desired spatial units with minimal data requirements and intuitive workflow. Case study shows that hydrostreamer performs well compared to benchmark products and observation data.
Zachary L. Flamig, Humberto Vergara, and Jonathan J. Gourley
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 4943–4958,Short summary
The Ensemble Framework For Flash Flood Forecasting (EF5) is used in the US National Weather Service for operational monitoring and short-term forecasting of flash floods. This article describes the hydrologic models supported by the framework and evaluates their accuracy by comparing simulations of streamflow from 2001 to 2011 at 4 366 observation sites with catchments less than 1000 km2. Overall, the uncalibrated models reasonably simulate flash flooding events.
Benya Wang, Matthew R. Hipsey, and Carolyn Oldham
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 4253–4270,Short summary
Surface water nutrients are essential to manage water quality, but it is hard to analyse trends. We developed a hybrid model and compared with other models for the prediction of six different nutrients. Our results showed that the hybrid model had significantly higher accuracy and lower prediction uncertainty for almost all nutrient species. The hybrid model provides a flexible method to combine data of varied resolution and quality and is accurate for the prediction of nutrient concentrations.
Patrick Le Moigne, François Besson, Eric Martin, Julien Boé, Aaron Boone, Bertrand Decharme, Pierre Etchevers, Stéphanie Faroux, Florence Habets, Matthieu Lafaysse, Delphine Leroux, and Fabienne Rousset-Regimbeau
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 3925–3946,Short summary
The study describes how a hydrometeorological model, operational at Météo-France, has been improved. Particular emphasis is placed on the impact of climatic data, surface, and soil parametrizations on the model results. Model simulations and evaluations carried out on a variety of measurements of river flows and snow depths are presented. All improvements in climate, surface data, and model physics have a positive impact on system performance.
Yilin Fang, Xingyuan Chen, Jesus Gomez Velez, Xuesong Zhang, Zhuoran Duan, Glenn E. Hammond, Amy E. Goldman, Vanessa A. Garayburu-Caruso, and Emily B. Graham
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 3553–3569,Short summary
Surface water quality along river corridors can be improved by the area of the stream bed and stream bank in which stream water mixes with shallow groundwater or hyporheic zones (HZs). These zones are ubiquitous and dominated by microorganisms that can process the dissolved nutrients exchanged at this interface of these zones. The modulation of surface water quality can be simulated by connecting the channel water and HZs through hyporheic exchanges using multirate mass transfer representation.
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 2905–2924,Short summary
Fractured and karst aquifers constitute important groundwater reservoirs worldwide but are particularly vulnerable to anthropogenic pollution. MFIT is a new GUI-based software for the analytical modeling of artificial tracer tests in such media. It integrates four transport models that are all capable of simulating complex (multimodal and/or heavy-tailed) tracer breakthrough curve responses and includes advanced tools for the automatic calibration and uncertainty analysis of model parameters.
Lele Shu, Paul A. Ullrich, and Christopher J. Duffy
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 2743–2762,Short summary
Hydrologic modeling is an essential strategy for understanding and predicting natural flows. The paper introduces the design of Simulator for Hydrologic Unstructured Domains (SHUD), from the conceptual and mathematical description of hydrologic processes in a watershed to the model's computational structures. To demonstrate and validate the model performance, we employ three hydrologic experiments: the V-Catchment experiment, Vauclin's experiment, and a model study of the Cache Creek Watershed.
Harsh Beria, Joshua R. Larsen, Anthony Michelon, Natalie C. Ceperley, and Bettina Schaefli
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 2433–2450,Short summary
We develop a Bayesian mixing model to address the issue of small sample sizes to describe different sources in hydrological mixing applications. Using composite likelihood functions, the model accounts for an often overlooked bias arising due to unweighted mixing. We test the model efficacy using a series of statistical benchmarking tests and demonstrate its real-life applicability by applying it to a Swiss Alpine catchment to obtain the proportion of groundwater recharged from rain vs. snow.
Andrew J. Newman and Martyn P. Clark
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 1827–1843,Short summary
This paper introduces the Topographically InformEd Regression (TIER) model, which uses terrain attributes to turn observations of precipitation and temperature into spatial maps. TIER allows our understanding of complex atmospheric processes such as terrain-enhanced precipitation to be modeled in a very simple way. TIER lets users change the model so they can experiment with different ways of making maps. A key conclusion is that small changes in TIER will change the final map.
Zhen Yin, Sebastien Strebelle, and Jef Caers
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 651–672,Short summary
We provide completely automated Bayesian evidential learning (AutoBEL) for geological uncertainty quantification. AutoBEL focuses on model falsification, global sensitivity analysis, and statistical learning for joint model uncertainty reduction by borehole data. Application shows fast and robust uncertainty reduction in geological models and predictions for large field cases, showing its applicability in subsurface applications, e.g., groundwater, oil, gas, and geothermal or mineral resources.
Thomas Bueche, Marko Wenk, Benjamin Poschlod, Filippo Giadrossich, Mario Pirastru, and Mark Vetter
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 565–580,Short summary
The R-based graphical user interface glmGUI provides tools for pre- and postprocessing of General Lake Model (GLM) simulations. This includes an autocalibration, parameter sensitivity analysis, and several plot options. The model parameters can be analyzed and calibrated for the simulation output variables water temperature and lake level. The toolbox is tested for two sites (lake Ammersee, Germany, and lake Baratz, Italy).
Christopher B. Marsh, John W. Pomeroy, and Howard S. Wheater
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 225–247,Short summary
The Canadian Hydrological Model (CHM) is a next-generation distributed model. Although designed to be applied generally, it has a focus for application where cold-region processes, such as snowpacks, play a role in hydrology. A key feature is that it uses a multi-scale surface representation, increasing efficiency. It also enables algorithm comparisons in a flexible structure. Model philosophy, design, and several cold-region-specific examples are described.
Ganquan Mao and Junguo Liu
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 5267–5289,
Mattia Zaramella, Marco Borga, Davide Zoccatelli, and Luca Carturan
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 5251–5265,Short summary
This paper presents TOPMELT, a parsimonious snowpack simulation model integrated into a basin-scale hydrological model. TOPMELT implements the full spatial distribution of clear-sky potential solar radiation by means of a statistical representation: this approach reduces computational burden, which is a key potential advantage when parameter sensitivity and uncertainty estimation procedures are carried out. The model is assessed by examining different resolutions of its domain.
Rui Wu, Lei Yang, Chao Chen, Sajjad Ahmad, Sergiu M. Dascalu, and Frederick C. Harris Jr.
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 4115–4131,Short summary
The paper mainly has two contributions. First, a post-processor framework is proposed to improve hydrologic model accuracy. The key is to characterize possible connections between model inputs and errors. Based on results, it is also possible to replace the time-consuming model calibration step using our post-processor framework. Second, a window selection method is proposed to handle nonstationary data. A window size is chosen containing stable data using a measure named
DSproposed by us.
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 4061–4073,Short summary
This paper presents a new model code that can be used to date the flow of hot fluids in the crust and the age of hot springs. It does so by modelling the thermal effects of fluid flow in the subsurface and by comparing the results with low-temperature thermochronology, which is a widely used method to quantify the temperature history of minerals and rocks. The model also demonstrates the effects of the depth and angle of permeable faults on temperatures of hot springs.
Jiali Wang, Cheng Wang, Vishwas Rao, Andrew Orr, Eugene Yan, and Rao Kotamarthi
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 3523–3539,Short summary
WRF-Hydro needs to be calibrated to optimize its output with respect to observations. However, when applied to a relatively large domain, both WRF-Hydro simulations and calibrations require intensive computing resources and are best performed in parallel. This study ported an independent calibration tool (parameter estimation tool – PEST) to high-performance computing clusters and adapted it to work with WRF-Hydro. The results show significant speedup for model calibration.
Brendan Alexander Harmon, Helena Mitasova, Anna Petrasova, and Vaclav Petras
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 2837–2854,Short summary
The numerical model, r.sim.terrain, simulates how overland flows of water and sediment shape topography over short periods of time. We tested the model by comparing runs of the simulation against a time series of airborne lidar surveys for our study landscape. Through these tests, we demonstrated that the model can simulate gully evolution including processes such as channel incision, channel widening, and the development of scour pits, rills, and depositional ridges.
Elena Shevnina and Andrey Silaev
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 2767–2780,Short summary
The paper provides a theory and assumptions behind an advance of frequency analysis (AFA) approach in long-term hydrological forecasting. In this paper, a new core of the probabilistic hydrological model MARkov Chain System (MARCSHYDRO) was introduced, together with the code and an example of a climate-scale prediction of an exceedance probability curve of river runoff with low computational costs.
Ting Sun and Sue Grimmond
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 2781–2795,Short summary
A Python-enhanced urban land surface model, SuPy (SUEWS in Python), is presented with its development (the SUEWS interface modification, F2PY configuration and Python frontend implementation), cross-platform deployment (PyPI, Python Package Index) and demonstration (online tutorials in Jupyter notebooks for users of different levels). SuPy represents a significant enhancement that supports existing and new model applications, reproducibility and enhanced functionality.
Stephan Thober, Matthias Cuntz, Matthias Kelbling, Rohini Kumar, Juliane Mai, and Luis Samaniego
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 2501–2521,Short summary
We present a model that aggregates simulated runoff along a river (i.e. a routing model). The unique feature of the model is that it can be run at multiple resolutions without any modifications to the input data. The model internally (dis-)aggregates all input data to the resolution given by the user. The model performance does not depend on the chosen resolution. This allows efficient model calibration at coarse resolution and subsequent model application at fine resolution.
Wouter J. M. Knoben, Jim E. Freer, Keirnan J. A. Fowler, Murray C. Peel, and Ross A. Woods
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 2463–2480,Short summary
Computer models are used to predict river flows. A good model should represent the river basin to which it is applied so that flow predictions are as realistic as possible. However, many different computer models exist, and selecting the most appropriate model for a given river basin is not always easy. This study combines computer code for 46 different hydrological models into a single coding framework so that models can be compared in an objective way and we can learn about model differences.
Robert Reinecke, Laura Foglia, Steffen Mehl, Tim Trautmann, Denise Cáceres, and Petra Döll
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 2401–2418,Short summary
G³M is a new global groundwater model (http://globalgroundwatermodel.org) that simulates lateral and vertical flows as well as exchanges with surface water bodies like rivers, lakes, and wetlands for the whole globe except Antarctica and Greenland. The newly developed model framework enables an efficient integration into established global hydrological models. This paper presents the G³M concept and specific model design decisions together with first results under a naturalized equilibrium.
Gemma Coxon, Jim Freer, Rosanna Lane, Toby Dunne, Wouter J. M. Knoben, Nicholas J. K. Howden, Niall Quinn, Thorsten Wagener, and Ross Woods
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 2285–2306,Short summary
DECIPHeR (Dynamic fluxEs and ConnectIvity for Predictions of Hydrology) is a new modelling framework that can be applied from small catchment to continental scales for complex river basins. This paper describes the modelling framework and its key components and demonstrates the model’s ability to be applied across a large model domain. This work highlights the potential for catchment- to continental-scale predictions of streamflow to support robust environmental management and policy decisions.
Katherine R. Barnhart, Rachel C. Glade, Charles M. Shobe, and Gregory E. Tucker
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 1267–1297,Short summary
Terrainbento 1.0 is a Python package for modeling the evolution of the surface of the Earth over geologic time (e.g., thousands to millions of years). Despite many decades of effort by the geomorphology community, there is no one established governing equation for the evolution of topography. Terrainbento 1.0 thus provides 28 alternative models that support hypothesis testing and multi-model analysis in landscape evolution.
Taesam Lee and Vijay P. Singh
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 1189–1207,Short summary
A simple novel technique for simulating multisite occurrence of precipitation is proposed. The proposed technique employs the nonparametric approaches k-nearest neighbor and genetic algorithms. We tested this technique in various ways and proved that this simple technique can be useful and comparable to the existing one.
Alberto Martínez-de la Torre, Eleanor M. Blyth, and Graham P. Weedon
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 765–784,Short summary
Land–surface interactions with the atmosphere are key for weather and climate modelling studies, both in research and in the operational systems that provide scientific tools for decision makers. Regional assessments will be influenced by the characteristics of the land. We improved the representation of river flows in Great Britain by including a dependency on the terrain slope. This development will be reflected not only in river flows, but in the whole water cycle represented by the model.
Matthew R. Hipsey, Louise C. Bruce, Casper Boon, Brendan Busch, Cayelan C. Carey, David P. Hamilton, Paul C. Hanson, Jordan S. Read, Eduardo de Sousa, Michael Weber, and Luke A. Winslow
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 473–523,Short summary
The General Lake Model (GLM) has been developed to undertake simulation of a diverse range of wetlands, lakes, and reservoirs. The model supports the science needs of the Global Lake Ecological Observatory Network (GLEON), a network of lake sensors and researchers attempting to understand lake functioning and address questions about how lakes around the world vary in response to climate and land use change. The paper describes the science basis and application of the model.
Fanny Sarrazin, Andreas Hartmann, Francesca Pianosi, Rafael Rosolem, and Thorsten Wagener
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 4933–4964,Short summary
We propose the first large-scale vegetation–recharge model for karst regions (V2Karst), which enables the analysis of the impact of changes in climate and land cover on karst groundwater recharge. We demonstrate the plausibility of V2Karst simulations against observations at FLUXNET sites and of controlling modelled processes using sensitivity analysis. We perform virtual experiments to further test the model and gain insight into its sensitivity to precipitation pattern and vegetation cover.
G.-H. Crystal Ng, Andrew D. Wickert, Lauren D. Somers, Leila Saberi, Collin Cronkite-Ratcliff, Richard G. Niswonger, and Jeffrey M. McKenzie
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 4755–4777,Short summary
The profound importance of water has led to the development of increasingly complex hydrological models. However, implementing these models is usually time-consuming and requires specialized expertise, stymieing their widespread use to support science-driven decision-making. In response, we have developed GSFLOW–GRASS, a robust and comprehensive set of software tools that can be readily used to set up and execute GSFLOW, the U.S. Geological Survey's coupled groundwater–surface-water flow model.
Xenia Stavropulos-Laffaille, Katia Chancibault, Jean-Marc Brun, Aude Lemonsu, Valéry Masson, Aaron Boone, and Hervé Andrieu
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 4175–4194,Short summary
Integrating vegetation in urban planning is promoted to counter steer potential impacts of climate and demographic changes. Assessing the multiple benefits of such strategies on the urban microclimate requires a detailed coupling of both the water and energy transfers in numerical tools. In this respect, the representation of water-related processes in the urban subsoil of the existing model TEB-Veg has been improved. The new model thus allows a better evaluation of urban adaptation strategies.
Michael Bliss Singer, Katerina Michaelides, and Daniel E. J. Hobley
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 3713–3726,Short summary
For various applications, a regional or local characterization of rainfall is required, particularly at the watershed scale, where there is spatial heterogeneity. Furthermore, simple models are needed that can simulate various scenarios of climate change including changes in seasonal wetness and rainstorm intensity. To this end, we have developed the STOchastic Rainstorm Model (STORM). We explain its developments and data requirements, and illustrate how it simulates rainstorms over a basin.
Kristi R. Arsenault, Sujay V. Kumar, James V. Geiger, Shugong Wang, Eric Kemp, David M. Mocko, Hiroko Kato Beaudoing, Augusto Getirana, Mahdi Navari, Bailing Li, Jossy Jacob, Jerry Wegiel, and Christa D. Peters-Lidard
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 3605–3621,Short summary
The Earth’s land surface hydrology and physics can be represented in highly sophisticated models known as land surface models. The Land surface Data Toolkit (LDT) software was developed to meet these models’ input processing needs. LDT supports a variety of land surface and hydrology models and prepares the inputs (e.g., meteorological data, satellite observations to be assimilated into a model), which can be used for inter-model studies and to initialize weather and climate forecasts.
Joseph J. Hamman, Bart Nijssen, Theodore J. Bohn, Diana R. Gergel, and Yixin Mao
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 3481–3496,Short summary
Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) is a widely used hydrologic model. This paper documents the development of VIC version 5, which includes a reconfiguration of the model source code to support a wider range of modeling applications. It also represents a significant step forward for the VIC user community in terms of support for a range of modeling applications, reproducibility, and scientific robustness.
Rebecca Emerton, Ervin Zsoter, Louise Arnal, Hannah L. Cloke, Davide Muraro, Christel Prudhomme, Elisabeth M. Stephens, Peter Salamon, and Florian Pappenberger
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 3327–3346,Short summary
Global overviews of upcoming flood and drought events are key for many applications from agriculture to disaster risk reduction. Seasonal forecasts are designed to provide early indications of such events weeks or even months in advance. This paper introduces GloFAS-Seasonal, the first operational global-scale seasonal hydro-meteorological forecasting system producing openly available forecasts of high and low river flow out to 4 months ahead.
Sylvain Kuppel, Doerthe Tetzlaff, Marco P. Maneta, and Chris Soulsby
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 3045–3069,Short summary
This paper presents a novel ecohydrological model in which both the fluxes of water and the relative concentration in stable isotopes (2H and 18O) can be simulated. Spatial heterogeneity, lateral transfers and plant-driven water use are incorporated. A thorough evaluation shows encouraging results using a wide range of in situ measurements from a Scottish catchment. The same modelling principles are then used to simulate how (and where) precipitation ages as water transits in the catchment.
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Irrigation agriculture is required to sustain yields that allow feeding the world population. A robust assessment of irrigation requirement (IRR) relies on a sound quantification of evapotranspiration (ET). We prepared a multi-model ensemble considering several ET methods and investigate uncertainties in simulating IRR. More generally, we provide an example of the value of investigating the uncertainty in models that may be used to inform policy-making and to elaborate best management practices.
Irrigation agriculture is required to sustain yields that allow feeding the world population. A...