Articles | Volume 14, issue 6
Model description paper 22 Jun 2021
Model description paper | 22 Jun 2021
Coupling framework (1.0) for the PISM (1.1.4) ice sheet model and the MOM5 (5.1.0) ocean model via the PICO ice shelf cavity model in an Antarctic domain
Moritz Kreuzer et al.
No articles found.
Willem Huiskamp and Shayne McGregor
Clim. Past, 17, 1819–1839,Short summary
This study investigates the reliability of paleo-reconstructions of the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) using climate model data. We find that reconstructions are able to capture ~ 60 % of the SAM variability at best, with poorer reconstructions managing only 35 %. Reconstructions perform best when they use more proxies sourced from the entire Southern Hemisphere land mass. Future reconstructions should endeavour to address both sampling and proxy–SAM correlation stability uncertainties.
Tanja Schlemm, Johannes Feldmann, Ricarda Winkelmann, and Anders Levermann
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Preprint under review for TCShort summary
The marine cliff instability, if it exists, could dominate Antarctica's future contribution to sea level. It is likely to speed up with ice thickness and thus would accelerate in most parts of Antarctica. Here we investigate a possible mechanism that might stop a cliff instability through cloaking by ice melange. It is only a first step, but it shows that the embayment geometry is, in principle, able to stop a marine cliff instability in most parts of West Antarctica.
Markus Drüke, Werner von Bloh, Stefan Petri, Boris Sakschewski, Sibyll Schaphoff, Matthias Forkel, Willem Huiskamp, Georg Feulner, and Kirsten Thonicke
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 4117–4141,Short summary
In this study, we couple the well-established and comprehensively validated state-of-the-art dynamic LPJmL5 global vegetation model to the CM2Mc coupled climate model (CM2Mc-LPJmL v.1.0). Several improvements to LPJmL5 were implemented to allow a fully functional biophysical coupling. The new climate model is able to capture important biospheric processes, including fire, mortality, permafrost, hydrological cycling and the the impacts of managed land (crop growth and irrigation).
Nico Wunderling, Jonathan F. Donges, Jürgen Kurths, and Ricarda Winkelmann
Earth Syst. Dynam., 12, 601–619,Short summary
In the Earth system, climate tipping elements exist that can undergo qualitative changes in response to environmental perturbations. If triggered, this would result in severe consequences for the biosphere and human societies. We quantify the risk of tipping cascades using a conceptual but fully dynamic network approach. We uncover that the risk of tipping cascades under global warming scenarios is enormous and find that the continental ice sheets are most likely to initiate these failures.
Sebastian H. R. Rosier, Ronja Reese, Jonathan F. Donges, Jan De Rydt, G. Hilmar Gudmundsson, and Ricarda Winkelmann
The Cryosphere, 15, 1501–1516,Short summary
Pine Island Glacier has contributed more to sea-level rise over the past decades than any other glacier in Antarctica. Ice-flow modelling studies have shown that it can undergo periods of rapid mass loss, but no study has shown that these future changes could cross a tipping point and therefore be effectively irreversible. Here, we assess the stability of Pine Island Glacier, quantifying the changes in ocean temperatures required to cross future tipping points using statistical methods.
Maria Zeitz, Ronja Reese, Johanna Beckmann, Uta Krebs-Kanzow, and Ricarda Winkelmann
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for TCShort summary
With the increasing melt of the Greenland Ice Sheet, which contributes to sea-level rise, the surface of the ice darkens. The dark surfaces absorb more radiation and thus experience increased melt, resulting in the melt-albedo feedback. Using a simple surface melt model we estimate that this positive feedback contributes to additional 60 % ice loss in a high warming scenario and additional 90 % ice loss for moderate warming. Albedo changes are important for Greenland’s future ice loss.
Jan De Rydt, Ronja Reese, Fernando S. Paolo, and G. Hilmar Gudmundsson
The Cryosphere, 15, 113–132,Short summary
We used satellite observations and numerical simulations of Pine Island Glacier, West Antarctica, between 1996 and 2016 to show that the recent increase in its flow speed can only be reproduced by computer models if stringent assumptions are made about the material properties of the ice and its underlying bed. These assumptions are not commonly adopted in ice flow modelling, and our results therefore have implications for future simulations of Antarctic ice flow and sea level projections.
Maria Zeitz, Anders Levermann, and Ricarda Winkelmann
The Cryosphere, 14, 3537–3550,Short summary
The flow of ice drives mass losses in the large ice sheets. Sea-level rise projections rely on ice-sheet models, solving the physics of ice flow and melt. Unfortunately the parameters in the physics of flow are uncertain. Here we show, in an idealized setup, that these uncertainties can double flow-driven mass losses within the possible range of parameters. It is possible that this uncertainty carries over to realistic sea-level rise projections.
Ronja Reese, Anders Levermann, Torsten Albrecht, Hélène Seroussi, and Ricarda Winkelmann
The Cryosphere, 14, 3097–3110,Short summary
We compare 21st century projections of Antarctica's future sea-level contribution simulated with the Parallel Ice Sheet Model submitted to ISMIP6 with projections following the LARMIP-2 protocol based on the same model configuration. We find that (1) a preceding historic simulation increases mass loss by 5–50 % and that (2) the order of magnitude difference in the ice loss in our experiments following the two protocols can be explained by the translation of ocean forcing to sub-shelf melting.
Hélène Seroussi, Sophie Nowicki, Antony J. Payne, Heiko Goelzer, William H. Lipscomb, Ayako Abe-Ouchi, Cécile Agosta, Torsten Albrecht, Xylar Asay-Davis, Alice Barthel, Reinhard Calov, Richard Cullather, Christophe Dumas, Benjamin K. Galton-Fenzi, Rupert Gladstone, Nicholas R. Golledge, Jonathan M. Gregory, Ralf Greve, Tore Hattermann, Matthew J. Hoffman, Angelika Humbert, Philippe Huybrechts, Nicolas C. Jourdain, Thomas Kleiner, Eric Larour, Gunter R. Leguy, Daniel P. Lowry, Chistopher M. Little, Mathieu Morlighem, Frank Pattyn, Tyler Pelle, Stephen F. Price, Aurélien Quiquet, Ronja Reese, Nicole-Jeanne Schlegel, Andrew Shepherd, Erika Simon, Robin S. Smith, Fiammetta Straneo, Sainan Sun, Luke D. Trusel, Jonas Van Breedam, Roderik S. W. van de Wal, Ricarda Winkelmann, Chen Zhao, Tong Zhang, and Thomas Zwinger
The Cryosphere, 14, 3033–3070,Short summary
The Antarctic ice sheet has been losing mass over at least the past 3 decades in response to changes in atmospheric and oceanic conditions. This study presents an ensemble of model simulations of the Antarctic evolution over the 2015–2100 period based on various ice sheet models, climate forcings and emission scenarios. Results suggest that the West Antarctic ice sheet will continue losing a large amount of ice, while the East Antarctic ice sheet could experience increased snow accumulation.
Torsten Albrecht, Ricarda Winkelmann, and Anders Levermann
The Cryosphere, 14, 599–632,Short summary
During the last glacial cycles the Antarctic Ice Sheet experienced alternating climatic conditions and varying sea-level history. In response, changes in ice sheet volume and ice-covered area occurred, implying feedbacks on the global sea level. We ran model simulations of the ice sheet with the Parallel Ice Sheet Model (PISM) over the last two glacial cycles to evaluate the model's sensitivity to different choices of boundary conditions and parameters to gain confidence for future projections.
Torsten Albrecht, Ricarda Winkelmann, and Anders Levermann
The Cryosphere, 14, 633–656,Short summary
A large ensemble of glacial-cycle simulations of the Antarctic Ice Sheet with the Parallel Ice Sheet Model (PISM) was analyzed in which four relevant model parameters were systematically varied. These parameters were selected in a companion study and are associated with uncertainties in ice dynamics, climatic forcing, basal sliding and solid Earth deformation. For each ensemble member a statistical score is computed, which enables calibrating the model against both modern and geologic data.
Anders Levermann, Ricarda Winkelmann, Torsten Albrecht, Heiko Goelzer, Nicholas R. Golledge, Ralf Greve, Philippe Huybrechts, Jim Jordan, Gunter Leguy, Daniel Martin, Mathieu Morlighem, Frank Pattyn, David Pollard, Aurelien Quiquet, Christian Rodehacke, Helene Seroussi, Johannes Sutter, Tong Zhang, Jonas Van Breedam, Reinhard Calov, Robert DeConto, Christophe Dumas, Julius Garbe, G. Hilmar Gudmundsson, Matthew J. Hoffman, Angelika Humbert, Thomas Kleiner, William H. Lipscomb, Malte Meinshausen, Esmond Ng, Sophie M. J. Nowicki, Mauro Perego, Stephen F. Price, Fuyuki Saito, Nicole-Jeanne Schlegel, Sainan Sun, and Roderik S. W. van de Wal
Earth Syst. Dynam., 11, 35–76,Short summary
We provide an estimate of the future sea level contribution of Antarctica from basal ice shelf melting up to the year 2100. The full uncertainty range in the warming-related forcing of basal melt is estimated and applied to 16 state-of-the-art ice sheet models using a linear response theory approach. The sea level contribution we obtain is very likely below 61 cm under unmitigated climate change until 2100 (RCP8.5) and very likely below 40 cm if the Paris Climate Agreement is kept.
Hélène Seroussi, Sophie Nowicki, Erika Simon, Ayako Abe-Ouchi, Torsten Albrecht, Julien Brondex, Stephen Cornford, Christophe Dumas, Fabien Gillet-Chaulet, Heiko Goelzer, Nicholas R. Golledge, Jonathan M. Gregory, Ralf Greve, Matthew J. Hoffman, Angelika Humbert, Philippe Huybrechts, Thomas Kleiner, Eric Larour, Gunter Leguy, William H. Lipscomb, Daniel Lowry, Matthias Mengel, Mathieu Morlighem, Frank Pattyn, Anthony J. Payne, David Pollard, Stephen F. Price, Aurélien Quiquet, Thomas J. Reerink, Ronja Reese, Christian B. Rodehacke, Nicole-Jeanne Schlegel, Andrew Shepherd, Sainan Sun, Johannes Sutter, Jonas Van Breedam, Roderik S. W. van de Wal, Ricarda Winkelmann, and Tong Zhang
The Cryosphere, 13, 1441–1471,Short summary
We compare a wide range of Antarctic ice sheet simulations with varying initialization techniques and model parameters to understand the role they play on the projected evolution of this ice sheet under simple scenarios. Results are improved compared to previous assessments and show that continued improvements in the representation of the floating ice around Antarctica are critical to reduce the uncertainty in the future ice sheet contribution to sea level rise.
Sonja Totz, Stefan Petri, Jascha Lehmann, Erik Peukert, and Dim Coumou
Nonlin. Processes Geophys., 26, 1–12,
Ronja Reese, Ricarda Winkelmann, and G. Hilmar Gudmundsson
The Cryosphere, 12, 3229–3242,Short summary
Accurately representing grounding-line flux is essential for modelling the evolution of the Antarctic Ice Sheet. Currently, in some large-scale ice-flow modelling studies a condition on ice flux across grounding lines is imposed using an analytically motivated parameterisation. Here we test this expression for Antarctic grounding lines and find that it provides inaccurate and partly unphysical estimates of ice flux for the highly buttressed ice streams.
Johannes Feldmann, Ronja Reese, Ricarda Winkelmann, and Anders Levermann
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
Ronja Reese, Torsten Albrecht, Matthias Mengel, Xylar Asay-Davis, and Ricarda Winkelmann
The Cryosphere, 12, 1969–1985,Short summary
Floating ice shelves surround most of Antarctica and ocean-driven melting at their bases is a major reason for its current sea-level contribution. We developed a simple model based on a box model approach that captures the vertical ocean circulation generally present in ice-shelf cavities and allows simulating melt rates in accordance with physical processes beneath the ice. We test the model for all Antarctic ice shelves and find that melt rates and melt patterns agree well with observations.
Julia Brugger, Matthias Hofmann, Stefan Petri, and Georg Feulner
Clim. Past Discuss.,
Manuscript not accepted for further reviewShort summary
To get a deeper understanding of the various evolutionary changes, which took place during the Devonian (419 to 359 Ma), we here use a coupled climate model to investigate the sensitivity of the Devonian climate to changes in orbital forcing, continental configuration and vegetation cover. Our results are summarised by best-guess simulations for the Early, Middle and Late Devonian showing a decreasing temperature trend in accordance with the reconstructed decreasing atmospheric CO2.
Sonja Totz, Alexey V. Eliseev, Stefan Petri, Michael Flechsig, Levke Caesar, Vladimir Petoukhov, and Dim Coumou
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 665–679,
Sonja Molnos, Stefan Petri, Jascha Lehmann, Erik Peukert, and Dim Coumou
Earth Syst. Dynam. Discuss.,
Manuscript not accepted for further review
Sonja Molnos, Tarek Mamdouh, Stefan Petri, Thomas Nocke, Tino Weinkauf, and Dim Coumou
Earth Syst. Dynam., 8, 75–89,
Jan Wohland, Torsten Albrecht, and Anders Levermann
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Anders Levermann and Ricarda Winkelmann
The Cryosphere, 10, 1799–1807,Short summary
In recent decades, the Greenland Ice Sheet has been losing mass and has thereby contributed to global sea-level rise. Here we derive the basic equations for the melt elevation feedback that can lead to self-amplifying melt of the Greenland Ice Sheet and ice sheets in general. The theory unifies the results of complex models when the feedback dominates the dynamics and it allows us to estimate the melt time of ice sheets from data in cases where ice dynamic loss can be neglected.
M. A. Martin, A. Levermann, and R. Winkelmann
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
Numerical ice sheet modelling shows that idealized, step-function type ocean warming in the Weddell Sea, where the ice sheet is close to floatation, leads to more immediate ice discharge with a higher sensitivity to small warming levels than the same warming in the Amundsen Sea. While the cumulative ice loss in the Amundsen Sea Sector is of similar magnitude after five centuries of continued warming, ice loss increases at a slower pace and only for significantly higher warming levels.
A. Levermann, R. Winkelmann, S. Nowicki, J. L. Fastook, K. Frieler, R. Greve, H. H. Hellmer, M. A. Martin, M. Meinshausen, M. Mengel, A. J. Payne, D. Pollard, T. Sato, R. Timmermann, W. L. Wang, and R. A. Bindschadler
Earth Syst. Dynam., 5, 271–293,
T. Albrecht and A. Levermann
The Cryosphere, 8, 587–605,
M. Willeit, A. Ganopolski, and G. Feulner
Biogeosciences, 11, 17–32,
A. M. Foley, D. Dalmonech, A. D. Friend, F. Aires, A. T. Archibald, P. Bartlein, L. Bopp, J. Chappellaz, P. Cox, N. R. Edwards, G. Feulner, P. Friedlingstein, S. P. Harrison, P. O. Hopcroft, C. D. Jones, J. Kolassa, J. G. Levine, I. C. Prentice, J. Pyle, N. Vázquez Riveiros, E. W. Wolff, and S. Zaehle
Biogeosciences, 10, 8305–8328,
H. Kienert, G. Feulner, and V. Petoukhov
Clim. Past, 9, 1841–1862,
M. Willeit, A. Ganopolski, and G. Feulner
Clim. Past, 9, 1749–1759,
C. F. Schleussner and G. Feulner
Clim. Past, 9, 1321–1330,
M. Eby, A. J. Weaver, K. Alexander, K. Zickfeld, A. Abe-Ouchi, A. A. Cimatoribus, E. Crespin, S. S. Drijfhout, N. R. Edwards, A. V. Eliseev, G. Feulner, T. Fichefet, C. E. Forest, H. Goosse, P. B. Holden, F. Joos, M. Kawamiya, D. Kicklighter, H. Kienert, K. Matsumoto, I. I. Mokhov, E. Monier, S. M. Olsen, J. O. P. Pedersen, M. Perrette, G. Philippon-Berthier, A. Ridgwell, A. Schlosser, T. Schneider von Deimling, G. Shaffer, R. S. Smith, R. Spahni, A. P. Sokolov, M. Steinacher, K. Tachiiri, K. Tokos, M. Yoshimori, N. Zeng, and F. Zhao
Clim. Past, 9, 1111–1140,
Related subject area
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Conrad P. Koziol, Joe A. Todd, Daniel N. Goldberg, and James R. Maddison
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 5843–5861,Short summary
Sea level change due to the loss of ice sheets presents great risk for coastal communities. Models are used to forecast ice loss, but their evolution depends strongly on properties which are hidden from observation and must be inferred from satellite observations. Common methods for doing so do not allow for quantification of the uncertainty inherent or how it will affect forecasts. We provide a framework for quantifying how this
initialization uncertaintyaffects ice loss forecasts.
Yoshihiro Nakayama, Dimitris Menemenlis, Ou Wang, Hong Zhang, Ian Fenty, and An T. Nguyen
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 4909–4924,Short summary
High ice shelf melting in the Amundsen Sea has attracted many observational campaigns in the past decade. One method to combine observations with numerical models is the adjoint method. After 20 iterations, the cost function, defined as a sum of the weighted model–data difference, is reduced by 65 % by adjusting initial conditions, atmospheric forcing, and vertical diffusivity. This study demonstrates adjoint-method optimization with explicit representation of ice shelf cavity circulation.
Xiaoxu Shi, Dirk Notz, Jiping Liu, Hu Yang, and Gerrit Lohmann
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 4891–4908,Short summary
The ice–ocean heat flux is one of the key elements controlling sea ice changes. It motivates our study, which aims to examine the responses of modeled climate to three ice–ocean heat flux parameterizations, including two old approaches that assume one-way heat transport and a new one describing a double-diffusive ice–ocean heat exchange. The results show pronounced differences in the modeled sea ice, ocean, and atmosphere states for the latter as compared to the former two parameterizations.
Daniel R. Shapero, Jessica A. Badgeley, Andrew O. Hoffman, and Ian R. Joughin
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 4593–4616,Short summary
This paper describes a new software package called "icepack" for modeling the flow of ice sheets and glaciers. Glaciologists use tools like icepack to better understand how ice sheets flow, what role they have played in shaping Earth's climate, and how much sea level rise we can expect in the coming decades to centuries. The icepack package includes several innovations to help researchers describe and solve interesting glaciological problems and to experiment with the underlying model physics.
Tian Tian, Shuting Yang, Mehdi Pasha Karami, François Massonnet, Tim Kruschke, and Torben Koenigk
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 4283–4305,Short summary
Three decadal prediction experiments with EC-Earth3 are performed to investigate the impact of ocean, sea ice concentration and thickness initialization, respectively. We find that the persistence of perennial thick ice in the central Arctic can affect the sea ice predictability in its adjacent waters via advection process or wind, despite those regions being seasonally ice free during two recent decades. This has implications for the coming decades as the thinning of Arctic sea ice continues.
Xia Lin, François Massonnet, Thierry Fichefet, and Martin Vancoppenolle
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for GMDShort summary
This study introduces a new Sea Ice Evaluation Tool (SITool) to quantify the performance of global sea ice simulations by providing systematic and meaningful ice metrics and diagnostics. The SITool is applied to evaluate atmosphere-forced simulations and it could be eventually extended to fully coupled models. The SITool will be useful to describe inter-model differences and to help teams managing various versions of a sea ice model or tracking the time-evolution of model performance.
Charles Amory, Christoph Kittel, Louis Le Toumelin, Cécile Agosta, Alison Delhasse, Vincent Favier, and Xavier Fettweis
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 3487–3510,Short summary
This paper presents recent developments in the drifting-snow scheme of the regional climate model MAR and its application to simulate drifting snow and the surface mass balance of Adélie Land in East Antarctica. The model is extensively described and evaluated against a multi-year drifting-snow dataset and surface mass balance estimates available in the area. The model sensitivity to input parameters and improvements over a previously published version are also assessed.
Thiago Dias dos Santos, Mathieu Morlighem, and Hélène Seroussi
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 2545–2573,Short summary
Numerical models are routinely used to understand the past and future behavior of ice sheets in response to climate evolution. As is always the case with numerical modeling, one needs to minimize biases and numerical artifacts due to the choice of numerical scheme employed in such models. Here, we assess different numerical schemes in time-dependent simulations of ice sheets. We also introduce a new parameterization for the driving stress, the force that drives the ice sheet flow.
Constantijn J. Berends, Heiko Goelzer, and Roderik S. W. van de Wal
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 2443–2470,Short summary
The largest uncertainty in projections of sea-level rise comes from ice-sheet retreat. To better understand how these ice sheets respond to the changing climate, ice-sheet models are used, which must be able to reproduce both their present and past evolution. We have created a model that is fast enough to simulate an ice sheet at a high resolution over the course of an entire 120 000-year glacial cycle. This allows us to study processes that cannot be captured by lower-resolution models.
Jonas Van Breedam, Philippe Huybrechts, and Michel Crucifix
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for GMDShort summary
Ice sheets are an important component of the climate system and interact with the atmosphere through albedo variations and changes in the surface height. On very long timescales, it is impossible to directly couple ice sheet models with climate models and other techniques have to be used. Here we present a novel coupling method between ice sheets and the atmosphere by making use of an emulator to simulate ice sheet-climate interactions for several million years.
Tomáš Uxa, Marek Křížek, and Filip Hrbáček
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1865–1884,Short summary
We present a simple model that derives palaeo-air temperature characteristics related to the palaeo-active-layer thickness, which can be recognized using many relict periglacial features found in past permafrost regions. Its evaluation against modern temperature records and an experimental palaeo-air temperature reconstruction showed relatively high model accuracy, which suggests that it could become a useful tool for reconstructing Quaternary palaeo-environments.
Xiangfei Li, Tonghua Wu, Xiaodong Wu, Jie Chen, Xiaofan Zhu, Guojie Hu, Ren Li, Yongping Qiao, Cheng Yang, Junming Hao, Jie Ni, and Wensi Ma
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1753–1771,Short summary
In this study, an ensemble simulation of 55296 scheme combinations for at a typical permafrost site on the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau (QTP) was conducted. The general performance of the Noah-MP model for snow cover events (SCEs), soil temperature (ST) and soil liquid water content (SLW) was assessed, and the sensitivities of parameterization schemes at different depths were investigated. We show that Noah-MP tends to overestimate SCEs and underestimate ST and topsoil SLW on the QTP.
Bertrand Cluzet, Matthieu Lafaysse, Emmanuel Cosme, Clément Albergel, Louis-François Meunier, and Marie Dumont
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1595–1614,Short summary
In the mountains, the combination of large model error and observation sparseness is a challenge for data assimilation. Here, we develop two variants of the particle filter (PF) in order to propagate the information content of observations into unobserved areas. By adjusting observation errors or exploiting background correlation patterns, we demonstrate the potential for partial observations of snow depth and surface reflectance to improve model accuracy with the PF in an idealised setting.
Shihe Ren, Xi Liang, Qizhen Sun, Hao Yu, L. Bruno Tremblay, Bo Lin, Xiaoping Mai, Fu Zhao, Ming Li, Na Liu, Zhikun Chen, and Yunfei Zhang
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1101–1124,Short summary
Sea ice plays a crucial role in global energy and water budgets. To get a better simulation of sea ice, we coupled a sea ice model with an atmospheric and ocean model to form a fully coupled system. The sea ice simulation results of this coupled system demonstrated that a two-way coupled model has better performance in terms of sea ice, especially in summer. This indicates that sea-ice–ocean–atmosphere interaction plays a crucial role in controlling Arctic summertime sea ice distribution.
Rupert Gladstone, Benjamin Galton-Fenzi, David Gwyther, Qin Zhou, Tore Hattermann, Chen Zhao, Lenneke Jong, Yuwei Xia, Xiaoran Guo, Konstantinos Petrakopoulos, Thomas Zwinger, Daniel Shapero, and John Moore
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 889–905,Short summary
Retreat of the Antarctic ice sheet, and hence its contribution to sea level rise, is highly sensitive to melting of its floating ice shelves. This melt is caused by warm ocean currents coming into contact with the ice. Computer models used for future ice sheet projections are not able to realistically evolve these melt rates. We describe a new coupling framework to enable ice sheet and ocean computer models to interact, allowing projection of the evolution of melt and its impact on sea level.
Shiming Xu, Jialiang Ma, Lu Zhou, Yan Zhang, Jiping Liu, and Bin Wang
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 603–628,Short summary
A multi-resolution tripolar grid hierarchy is constructed and integrated in CESM (version 1.2.1). The resolution range includes 0.45, 0.15, and 0.05°. Based on atmospherically forced sea ice experiments, the model simulates reasonable sea ice kinematics and scaling properties. Landfast ice thickness can also be systematically shifted due to non-convergent solutions to an elastic–viscous–plastic (EVP) model. This work is a framework for multi-scale modeling of the ocean and sea ice with CESM.
Florian Herla, Simon Horton, Patrick Mair, and Pascal Haegeli
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 239–258,Short summary
The adoption of snowpack models in support of avalanche forecasting has been limited. To promote their operational application, we present a numerical method for processing multivariate snow stratigraphy profiles of mixed data types. Our algorithm enables applications like dynamical grouping and summarizing of model simulations, model evaluation, and data assimilation. By emulating the human analysis process, our approach will allow forecasters to familiarly interact with snowpack simulations.
David Pollard and Robert M. DeConto
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 6481–6500,Short summary
Buttressing by floating ice shelves at ice-sheet grounding lines is an important process that affects ice retreat and whether structural failure occurs in deep bathymetry. Here, we use a simple algorithm to better represent 2-D grounding-line curvature in an ice-sheet model. Along with other enhancements, this improves the performance in idealized-fjord intercomparisons and enables better diagnosis of potential structural failure at future retreating Antarctic grounding lines.
Fuyuki Saito, Takashi Obase, and Ayako Abe-Ouchi
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 5875–5896,Short summary
The present study introduces the rational function-based constrained interpolation profile (RCIP) method for use in 1 d dating computations in ice sheets and demonstrates the performance of the scheme. Comparisons are examined among the RCIP schemes and the first- and second-order upwind schemes. The results show that, in particular, the RCIP scheme preserves the pattern of input histories, in terms of the profile of internal annual layer thickness, better than the other schemes.
Tobias Sauter, Anselm Arndt, and Christoph Schneider
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 5645–5662,Short summary
Glacial changes play a key role from a socioeconomic, political, and scientific point of view. Here, we present the open-source coupled snowpack and ice surface energy and mass balance model, which provides a lean, flexible, and user-friendly framework for modeling distributed snow and glacier mass changes. The model provides a suitable platform for sensitivity, detection, and attribution analyses for glacier changes and a tool for quantifying inherent uncertainties.
Hakase Hayashida, Meibing Jin, Nadja S. Steiner, Neil C. Swart, Eiji Watanabe, Russell Fiedler, Andrew McC. Hogg, Andrew E. Kiss, Richard J. Matear, and Peter G. Strutton
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for GMDShort summary
Ice algae are tiny plants like phytoplankton but they grow within sea ice. In polar regions, both phytoplankton and ice algae are the foundation of marine ecosystems and play an important role in taking up carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. However, state-of-the-art climate models typically do not include ice algae, and therefore their role in the climate system remains unclear. This project aims to address this knowledge gap by coordinating a set of experiments using sea ice-ocean models.
Alex West, Mat Collins, and Ed Blockley
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 4845–4868,Short summary
This study calculates sea ice energy fluxes from data produced by ice mass balance buoys (devices measuring ice elevation and temperature). It is shown how the resulting dataset can be used to evaluate a coupled climate model (HadGEM2-ES), with biases in the energy fluxes seen to be consistent with biases in the sea ice state and surface radiation. This method has potential to improve sea ice model evaluation, so as to better understand spread in model simulations of sea ice state.
Eduardo Moreno-Chamarro, Pablo Ortega, and François Massonnet
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 4773–4787,Short summary
Climate models need to capture sea ice complexity to represent it realistically. Here we assess how distributing sea ice in discrete thickness categories impacts how sea ice variability is simulated in the NEMO3.6–LIM3 model. Simulations and satellite observations are compared by using k-means clustering of sea ice concentration in winter and summer between 1979 and 2014 at both poles. Little improvements in the modeled sea ice lead us to recommend using the standard number of five categories.
Ilkka S. O. Matero, Lauren J. Gregoire, and Ruza F. Ivanovic
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 4555–4577,Short summary
The Northern Hemisphere cooled by several degrees for a century 8000 years ago due to the collapse of an ice sheet in North America that released large amounts of meltwater into the North Atlantic and slowed down its circulation. We numerically model the ice sheet to understand its evolution during this event. Our results match data thanks to good ice dynamics but depend mostly on surface melt and snowfall. Further work will help us understand how past and future ice melt affects climate.
Martin Rückamp, Angelika Humbert, Thomas Kleiner, Mathieu Morlighem, and Helene Seroussi
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 4491–4501,Short summary
We present enthalpy formulations within the Ice-Sheet and Sea-Level System model that show better performance than earlier implementations. A first experiment indicates that the treatment of discontinuous conductivities of the solid–fluid system with a geometric mean produce accurate results when applied to coarse vertical resolutions. In a second experiment, we propose a novel stabilization formulation that avoids the problem of thin elements. This method provides accurate and stable results.
C. Max Stevens, Vincent Verjans, Jessica M. D. Lundin, Emma C. Kahle, Annika N. Horlings, Brita I. Horlings, and Edwin D. Waddington
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 4355–4377,Short summary
Understanding processes in snow (firn), including compaction and airflow, is important for calculating how much mass the ice sheets are losing and for interpreting climate records from ice cores. We have developed the open-source Community Firn Model to simulate these processes. We used it to compare 13 different firn compaction equations and found that they do not agree within 10 %. We also show that including firn compaction in a firn-air model improves the match with data from ice cores.
Alexander Robinson, Jorge Alvarez-Solas, Marisa Montoya, Heiko Goelzer, Ralf Greve, and Catherine Ritz
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 2805–2823,Short summary
Here we describe Yelmo v1.0, an intuitive and state-of-the-art hybrid ice sheet model. The model design and physics are described, and benchmark simulations are provided to validate its performance. Yelmo is a versatile ice sheet model that can be applied to a wide variety of problems.
Ahmad Jan, Ethan T. Coon, and Scott L. Painter
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 2259–2276,Short summary
Computer simulations are important tools for understanding the response of Arctic permafrost to a warming climate. To build confidence in an emerging class of permafrost simulators, we evaluated the Advanced Terrestrial Simulator against field observations from a frozen tundra site near Utqiaġvik (formerly Barrow), Alaska. The 3-year simulations agree well with observations of snow depth, summer water table, soil temperature at multiple locations, and spatially averaged evaporation.
Liz C. Logan, Sri Hari Krishna Narayanan, Ralf Greve, and Patrick Heimbach
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 1845–1864,Short summary
A new capability has been developed for the ice sheet model SICOPOLIS (SImulation COde for POLythermal Ice Sheets) that enables the generation of derivative code, such as tangent linear or adjoint models, by means of algorithmic differentiation. It relies on the source transformation algorithmic (AD) differentiation tool OpenAD. The reverse mode of AD provides the adjoint model, SICOPOLIS-AD, which may be applied for comprehensive sensitivity analyses as well as gradient-based optimization.
Jean-François Lemieux and Frédéric Dupont
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 1763–1769,Short summary
Sea ice dynamics plays an important role in shaping the sea cover in polar regions. Winds and ocean currents exert large stresses on the sea ice cover. This can lead to the formation of long cracks and ridges, which strongly impact the exchange of heat, momentum and moisture between the atmosphere and the ocean. It is therefore crucial for a sea ice model to be able to represent these features. This article describes how internal sea ice stresses should be diagnosed from model simulations.
Ludovic Räss, Aleksandar Licul, Frédéric Herman, Yury Y. Podladchikov, and Jenny Suckale
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 955–976,Short summary
Accurate predictions of future sea level rise require numerical models that predict rapidly deforming ice. Localised ice deformation can be captured numerically only with high temporal and spatial resolution. This paper’s goal is to propose a parallel FastICE solver for modelling ice deformation. Our model is particularly useful for improving our process-based understanding of localised ice deformation. Our solver reaches a parallel efficiency of 99 % on GPU-based supercomputers.
Nander Wever, Leonard Rossmann, Nina Maaß, Katherine C. Leonard, Lars Kaleschke, Marcel Nicolaus, and Michael Lehning
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 99–119,Short summary
Sea ice is an important component of the global climate system. The presence of a snow layer covering sea ice can impact ice mass and energy budgets. The detailed, physics-based, multi-layer snow model SNOWPACK was modified to simulate the snow–sea-ice system, providing simulations of the snow microstructure, water percolation and flooding, and superimposed ice formation. The model is applied to in situ measurements from snow and ice mass-balance buoys installed in the Antarctic Weddell Sea.
Christiaan T. van Dalum, Willem Jan van de Berg, Quentin Libois, Ghislain Picard, and Michiel R. van den Broeke
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 5157–5175,Short summary
Climate models are often limited to relatively simple snow albedo schemes. Therefore, we have developed the SNOWBAL module to couple a climate model with a physically based wavelength dependent snow albedo model. Using SNOWBAL v1.2 to couple the snow albedo model TARTES with the regional climate model RACMO2 indicates a potential performance gain for the Greenland ice sheet.
François Massonnet, Antoine Barthélemy, Koffi Worou, Thierry Fichefet, Martin Vancoppenolle, Clément Rousset, and Eduardo Moreno-Chamarro
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 3745–3758,Short summary
Sea ice thickness varies considerably on spatial scales of several meters. However, contemporary climate models cannot resolve such scales yet. This is why sea ice models used in climate models include an ice thickness distribution (ITD) to account for this unresolved variability. Here, we explore with the ocean–sea ice model NEMO3.6-LIM3 the sensitivity of simulated mean Arctic and Antarctic sea ice states to the way the ITD is discretized.
Shahbaz Memon, Dorothée Vallot, Thomas Zwinger, Jan Åström, Helmut Neukirchen, Morris Riedel, and Matthias Book
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 3001–3015,Short summary
Scientific workflows enable complex scientific computational scenarios, which include data intensive scenarios, parametric executions, and interactive simulations. In this article, we applied the UNICORE workflow management system to automate a formerly hard-coded coupling of a glacier flow model and a calving model, which contain many tasks and dependencies, ranging from pre-processing and data management to repetitive executions on heterogeneous high-performance computing (HPC) resources.
Sébastien Le clec'h, Aurélien Quiquet, Sylvie Charbit, Christophe Dumas, Masa Kageyama, and Catherine Ritz
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 2481–2499,Short summary
To provide reliable projections of the ice-sheet contribution to future sea-level rise, ice sheet models must be able to simulate the observed ice sheet present-day state. Using a low computational iterative minimisation procedure, based on the adjustment of the basal drag coefficient, we rapidly minimise the errors between the simulated and the observed Greenland ice thickness and ice velocity, and we succeed in stabilising the simulated Greenland ice sheet state under present-day conditions.
Lionel Favier, Nicolas C. Jourdain, Adrian Jenkins, Nacho Merino, Gaël Durand, Olivier Gagliardini, Fabien Gillet-Chaulet, and Pierre Mathiot
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 2255–2283,Short summary
The melting at the base of floating ice shelves is the main driver of the Antarctic ice sheet current retreat. Here, we use an ideal set-up to assess a wide range of melting parameterisations depending on oceanic properties with regard to a new ocean–ice-sheet coupled model, published here for the first time. A parameterisation that depends quadratically on thermal forcing in both a local and a non-local way yields the best results and needs to be further assessed with more realistic set-ups.
Hakase Hayashida, James R. Christian, Amber M. Holdsworth, Xianmin Hu, Adam H. Monahan, Eric Mortenson, Paul G. Myers, Olivier G. J. Riche, Tessa Sou, and Nadja S. Steiner
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 1965–1990,Short summary
Ice algae, the primary producer in sea ice, play a fundamental role in shaping marine ecosystems and biogeochemical cycling of key elements in polar regions. In this study, we developed a process-based numerical model component representing sea-ice biogeochemistry for a sea ice–ocean coupled general circulation model. The model developed can be used to simulate the projected changes in sea-ice ecosystems and biogeochemistry in response to on-going rapid decline of the Arctic.
Katherine J. Evans, Joseph H. Kennedy, Dan Lu, Mary M. Forrester, Stephen Price, Jeremy Fyke, Andrew R. Bennett, Matthew J. Hoffman, Irina Tezaur, Charles S. Zender, and Miren Vizcaíno
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 1067–1086,Short summary
A robust validation of ice sheet models is presented using LIVVkit, version 2.1. It targets ice sheet and coupled Earth system models, and handles datasets and operations that require high-performance computing and storage. We apply LIVVkit to a Greenland ice sheet simulation to show the degree to which it captures the surface mass balance. LIVVkit identifies a positive bias due to insufficient melting compared to observations that is focused largely around Greenland's southwest region.
Jeremy C. Ely, Chris D. Clark, David Small, and Richard C. A. Hindmarsh
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 933–953,Short summary
During the last 2.6 million years, the Earth's climate has cycled between cold glacials and warm interglacials, causing the growth and retreat of ice sheets. These ice sheets can be independently reconstructed using numerical models or from dated evidence that they leave behind (e.g. sediments, boulders). Here, we present a tool for comparing numerical model simulations with dated ice-sheet material. We demonstrate the utility of this tool by applying it to the last British–Irish ice sheet.
Fabien Maussion, Anton Butenko, Nicolas Champollion, Matthias Dusch, Julia Eis, Kévin Fourteau, Philipp Gregor, Alexander H. Jarosch, Johannes Landmann, Felix Oesterle, Beatriz Recinos, Timo Rothenpieler, Anouk Vlug, Christian T. Wild, and Ben Marzeion
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 909–931,Short summary
Mountain glaciers are one of the few remaining subsystems of the global climate system for which no globally applicable community-driven model exists. Here we present the Open Global Glacier Model (OGGM; www.oggm.org), developed to provide a modular and open-source numerical model framework for simulating past and future change of any glacier in the world.
William H. Lipscomb, Stephen F. Price, Matthew J. Hoffman, Gunter R. Leguy, Andrew R. Bennett, Sarah L. Bradley, Katherine J. Evans, Jeremy G. Fyke, Joseph H. Kennedy, Mauro Perego, Douglas M. Ranken, William J. Sacks, Andrew G. Salinger, Lauren J. Vargo, and Patrick H. Worley
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 387–424,Short summary
This paper describes the Community Ice Sheet Model (CISM) version 2.1. CISM solves equations for ice flow, heat conduction, surface melting, and other processes such as basal sliding and iceberg calving. It can be used for ice-sheet-only simulations or as the ice sheet component of the Community Earth System Model. Model solutions have been verified for standard test problems. CISM can efficiently simulate the whole Greenland ice sheet, with results that are broadly consistent with observations.
Thiago Dias dos Santos, Mathieu Morlighem, Hélène Seroussi, Philippe Remy Bernard Devloo, and Jefferson Cardia Simões
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 215–232,Short summary
The reduction of numerical errors in ice sheet modeling increases the results' accuracy reliability. We improve numerical accuracy by better capturing grounding line dynamics, while maintaining a low computational cost. We implement an adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) technique in the Ice Sheet System Model and compare AMR simulations with uniformly refined meshes. Our results show that the computational time with AMR is significantly shorter than for uniformly refined meshes for a given accuracy.
David Pollard, Robert M. DeConto, and Richard B. Alley
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 5149–5172,Short summary
Around the margins of ice sheets in contact with the ocean, calving of icebergs can generate large amounts of floating ice debris called "mélange". In major Greenland fjords, mélange significantly slows down ice flow from upstream. Our study applies numerical models to past and possible future episodes of rapid Antarctic Ice Sheet retreat. We find that, due to larger spatial scales, Antarctic mélange does not significantly impede flow or slow ice retreat and associated sea level rise.
Gerhard Krinner, Chris Derksen, Richard Essery, Mark Flanner, Stefan Hagemann, Martyn Clark, Alex Hall, Helmut Rott, Claire Brutel-Vuilmet, Hyungjun Kim, Cécile B. Ménard, Lawrence Mudryk, Chad Thackeray, Libo Wang, Gabriele Arduini, Gianpaolo Balsamo, Paul Bartlett, Julia Boike, Aaron Boone, Frédérique Chéruy, Jeanne Colin, Matthias Cuntz, Yongjiu Dai, Bertrand Decharme, Jeff Derry, Agnès Ducharne, Emanuel Dutra, Xing Fang, Charles Fierz, Josephine Ghattas, Yeugeniy Gusev, Vanessa Haverd, Anna Kontu, Matthieu Lafaysse, Rachel Law, Dave Lawrence, Weiping Li, Thomas Marke, Danny Marks, Martin Ménégoz, Olga Nasonova, Tomoko Nitta, Masashi Niwano, John Pomeroy, Mark S. Raleigh, Gerd Schaedler, Vladimir Semenov, Tanya G. Smirnova, Tobias Stacke, Ulrich Strasser, Sean Svenson, Dmitry Turkov, Tao Wang, Nander Wever, Hua Yuan, Wenyan Zhou, and Dan Zhu
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 5027–5049,Short summary
This paper provides an overview of a coordinated international experiment to determine the strengths and weaknesses in how climate models treat snow. The models will be assessed at point locations using high-quality reference measurements and globally using satellite-derived datasets. How well climate models simulate snow-related processes is important because changing snow cover is an important part of the global climate system and provides an important freshwater resource for human use.
Aurélien Quiquet, Christophe Dumas, Catherine Ritz, Vincent Peyaud, and Didier M. Roche
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 5003–5025,Short summary
This paper presents the GRISLI (Grenoble ice sheet and land ice) model in its newest revision. We present the recent model improvements from its original version (Ritz et al., 2001), together with a discussion of the model performance in reproducing the present-day Antarctic ice sheet geometry and the grounding line advances and retreats during the last 400 000 years. We show that GRISLI is a computationally cheap model, able to reproduce the large-scale behaviour of ice sheets.
Gary D. Clow
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 4889–4908,Short summary
CVPM is a modular heat-transfer modeling system designed for scientific and engineering studies in permafrost terrain, and as an educational tool. CVPM implements the heat-transfer equations in both Cartesian and cylindrical coordinates. To accommodate a diversity of geologic settings, a variety of materials can be specified within the model domain. CVPM can be used over a broad range of depth, temperature, porosity, water saturation, and solute conditions on either Earth or Mars.
Eef C. H. van Dongen, Nina Kirchner, Martin B. van Gijzen, Roderik S. W. van de Wal, Thomas Zwinger, Gong Cheng, Per Lötstedt, and Lina von Sydow
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 4563–4576,Short summary
Ice flow forced by gravity is governed by the full Stokes (FS) equations, which are computationally expensive to solve. Therefore, approximations to the FS equations are used, especially when modeling an ice sheet on long time spans. Here, we report a combination of an approximation with the FS equations that allows simulating the dynamics of ice sheets over long time spans without introducing artifacts caused by application of approximations in parts of the domain where they are not valid.
Alek A. Petty, Melinda Webster, Linette Boisvert, and Thorsten Markus
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 4577–4602,
Matthew J. Hoffman, Mauro Perego, Stephen F. Price, William H. Lipscomb, Tong Zhang, Douglas Jacobsen, Irina Tezaur, Andrew G. Salinger, Raymond Tuminaro, and Luca Bertagna
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 3747–3780,Short summary
MPAS-Albany Land Ice (MALI) is a new variable-resolution land ice model that uses unstructured grids on a plane or sphere. MALI is built for Earth system modeling on high-performance computing platforms using existing software libraries. MALI simulates the evolution of ice thickness, velocity, and temperature, and it includes schemes for simulating iceberg calving and the flow of water beneath ice sheets and its effect on ice sliding. The model is demonstrated for the Antarctic ice sheet.
Balaji, V., Maisonnave, E., Zadeh, N., Lawrence, B. N., Biercamp, J., Fladrich, U., Aloisio, G., Benson, R., Caubel, A., Durachta, J., Foujols, M.-A., Lister, G., Mocavero, S., Underwood, S., and Wright, G.: CPMIP: measurements of real computational performance of Earth system models in CMIP6, Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 19–34, https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-10-19-2017, 2017. a
Favier, L., Jourdain, N. C., Jenkins, A., Merino, N., Durand, G., Gagliardini, O., Gillet-Chaulet, F., and Mathiot, P.: Assessment of sub-shelf melting parameterisations using the ocean–ice-sheet coupled model NEMO(v3.6)–Elmer/Ice(v8.3) , Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 2255–2283, https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-12-2255-2019, 2019. a
Feldmann, J., Albrecht, T., Khroulev, C., Pattyn, F., and Levermann, A.: Resolution-dependent performance of grounding line motion in a shallow model compared with a full-Stokes model according to the MISMIP3d intercomparison, J. Glaciol., 60, 353–360, https://doi.org/10.3189/2014JoG13J093, 2014. a, b
Fretwell, P., Pritchard, H. D., Vaughan, D. G., Bamber, J. L., Barrand, N. E., Bell, R., Bianchi, C., Bingham, R. G., Blankenship, D. D., Casassa, G., Catania, G., Callens, D., Conway, H., Cook, A. J., Corr, H. F. J., Damaske, D., Damm, V., Ferraccioli, F., Forsberg, R., Fujita, S., Gim, Y., Gogineni, P., Griggs, J. A., Hindmarsh, R. C. A., Holmlund, P., Holt, J. W., Jacobel, R. W., Jenkins, A., Jokat, W., Jordan, T., King, E. C., Kohler, J., Krabill, W., Riger-Kusk, M., Langley, K. A., Leitchenkov, G., Leuschen, C., Luyendyk, B. P., Matsuoka, K., Mouginot, J., Nitsche, F. O., Nogi, Y., Nost, O. A., Popov, S. V., Rignot, E., Rippin, D. M., Rivera, A., Roberts, J., Ross, N., Siegert, M. J., Smith, A. M., Steinhage, D., Studinger, M., Sun, B., Tinto, B. K., Welch, B. C., Wilson, D., Young, D. A., Xiangbin, C., and Zirizzotti, A.: Bedmap2: improved ice bed, surface and thickness datasets for Antarctica, The Cryosphere, 7, 375–393, https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-7-375-2013, 2013. a
Galbraith, E. D., Kwon, E. Y., Gnanadesikan, A., Rodgers, K. B., Griffies, S. M., Bianchi, D., Sarmiento, J. L., Dunne, J. P., Simeon, J., Slater, R. D., Wittenberg, A. T., and Held, I. M.: Climate Variability and Radiocarbon in the CM2Mc Earth System Model, J. Climate, 24, 4230–4254, https://doi.org/10.1175/2011JCLI3919.1, 2011. a
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Griffies, S. M., Biastoch, A., Böning, C., Bryan, F., Danabasoglu, G., Chassignet, E. P., England, M. H., Gerdes, R., Haak, H., Hallberg, R. W., Hazeleger, W., Jungclaus, J., Large, W. G., Madec, G., Pirani, A., Samuels, B. L., Scheinert, M., Gupta, A. S., Severijns, C. A., Simmons, H. L., Treguier, A. M., Winton, M., Yeager, S., and Yin, J.: Coordinated Ocean-ice Reference Experiments (COREs), Ocean Model., 26, 1–46, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocemod.2008.08.007, 2009. a
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Khrulev, C., Bueler, E., Aschwanden, A., Maxwell, D., Brown, J., Albrecht, T., Seguinot, J., Mengel, M., Hinck, S., Kreuzer, M., Ziemen, F., Reese, R., and Kleiner, T.: m-kreuzer/pism: Version as used in Kreuzer et al., Geoscientific Model Development publication (gmd-2020-230) (Version v1.1.4_gmd-2020-230), Zenodo, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4686967, 2021. a
Leslie, T., Ward, M., Hannah, N., Hoover, N., Heerdegen, A., Griffies, S., Kiss, A., Fiedler, R., Holmes, R., Yan, H., Farneti, R., Leopardi, P., Snow, K., Castelão, G., Underwood, S., naught101, and Liang, Z.: m-kreuzer/MOM5: Version as used in Kreuzer et al., Geoscientific Model Development publication (gmd-2020-230) (Version 5.1.0_gmd-2020-230), Zenodo, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3991665, 2020. a
Nowicki, S., Goelzer, H., Seroussi, H., Payne, A. J., Lipscomb, W. H., Abe-Ouchi, A., Agosta, C., Alexander, P., Asay-Davis, X. S., Barthel, A., Bracegirdle, T. J., Cullather, R., Felikson, D., Fettweis, X., Gregory, J. M., Hattermann, T., Jourdain, N. C., Kuipers Munneke, P., Larour, E., Little, C. M., Morlighem, M., Nias, I., Shepherd, A., Simon, E., Slater, D., Smith, R. S., Straneo, F., Trusel, L. D., van den Broeke, M. R., and van de Wal, R.: Experimental protocol for sea level projections from ISMIP6 stand-alone ice sheet models, The Cryosphere, 14, 2331–2368, https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-14-2331-2020, 2020. a, b, c
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We present the technical implementation of a coarse-resolution coupling between an ice sheet model and an ocean model that allows one to simulate ice–ocean interactions at timescales from centuries to millennia. As ice shelf cavities cannot be resolved in the ocean model at coarse resolution, we bridge the gap using an sub-shelf cavity module. It is shown that the framework is computationally efficient, conserves mass and energy, and can produce a stable coupled state under present-day forcing.
We present the technical implementation of a coarse-resolution coupling between an ice sheet...