Articles | Volume 8, issue 10
© Author(s) 2015. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
© Author(s) 2015. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
A parallelization scheme to simulate reactive transport in the subsurface environment with OGS#IPhreeqc 5.5.7-3.1.2
Department of Environmental Informatics, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research – UFZ, Leipzig, Germany
Applied Environmental System Analysis, Technical University Dresden, Dresden, Germany
Institute of Geosciences, Geohydromodeling, Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Kiel, Germany
J. H. Fleckenstein
Department of Hydrogeology, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research – UFZ, Leipzig, Germany
Department of Environmental Informatics, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research – UFZ, Leipzig, Germany
Applied Environmental System Analysis, Technical University Dresden, Dresden, Germany
Department of Environmental Informatics, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research – UFZ, Leipzig, Germany
Applied Environmental System Analysis, Technical University Dresden, Dresden, Germany
Faculty of Mechanical and Energy Engineering, Leipzig University of Applied Science, Leipzig, Germany
No articles found.
Thomas Kohl, Ingo Sass, Olaf Kolditz, Christoph Schüth, Wolfram Rühaak, Jürgen Schamp, Judith Bremer, Bastian Rudolph, Katharina Schätzler, and Eva Schill
Saf. Nucl. Waste Disposal, 2, 135–136,Short summary
Crystalline rocks are being considered as potential host rocks in the ongoing search for a suitable site for a nuclear waste repository in Germany, where there is no existing experience in terms of excavating a repository in crystalline rocks. The planned underground laboratory GeoLaB addressing crystalline geothermal reservoirs offers unique opportunities for synergies with nuclear waste disposal research and development, especially in the exploration and building phases.
René Kahnt, Heinz Konietzky, Thomas Nagel, Olaf Kolditz, Andreas Jockel, Christian B. Silbermann, Friederike Tiedtke, Tobias Meisel, Florian Zill, Anton Carl, Aron D. Gabriel, and Marcel Schlegel
Saf. Nucl. Waste Disposal, 2, 117–118,Short summary
In the AREHS project, the effect of the alternation of cold and warm periods over 1 million years on the hydrogeological system in the vicinity of a repository was simulated. This was done with thermal–hydraulic–mechanical (–chemical) simulations. The simulations were implemented for generic 3D models for all three host rock formations: clay rock, salt rock and crystalline rock. In addition to the results for the generic sites, a workflow was developed that can be applied to concrete sites.
Michael Kühn, Dirk Bosbach, Horst Geckeis, Vinzenz Brendler, and Olaf Kolditz
Saf. Nucl. Waste Disposal, 2, 195–195,Short summary
The Repository Site Selection Act explicitly emphasises that targeting the disposal of high-level radioactive waste is a so-called learning process. We are of the opinion that the procedure and the available data should be combined with geoscientific knowledge to support the identification of siting regions. We propose this workshop and invite all experts who have dealt with the search for a repository site from a geoscientific perspective.
Arianna Borriero, Rohini Kumar, Tam V. Nguyen, Jan H. Fleckenstein, and Stefanie R. Lutz
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 27, 2989–3004,Short summary
We analyzed the uncertainty of the water transit time distribution (TTD) arising from model input (interpolated tracer data) and structure (StorAge Selection, SAS, functions). We found that uncertainty was mainly associated with temporal interpolation, choice of SAS function, nonspatial interpolation, and low-flow conditions. It is important to characterize the specific uncertainty sources and their combined effects on TTD, as this has relevant implications for both water quantity and quality.
Carolin Winter, Tam V. Nguyen, Andreas Musolff, Stefanie R. Lutz, Michael Rode, Rohini Kumar, and Jan H. Fleckenstein
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 27, 303–318,Short summary
The increasing frequency of severe and prolonged droughts threatens our freshwater resources. While we understand drought impacts on water quantity, its effects on water quality remain largely unknown. Here, we studied the impact of the unprecedented 2018–2019 drought in Central Europe on nitrate export in a heterogeneous mesoscale catchment in Germany. We show that severe drought can reduce a catchment's capacity to retain nitrogen, intensifying the internal pollution and export of nitrate.
Thomas Hermans, Pascal Goderniaux, Damien Jougnot, Jan H. Fleckenstein, Philip Brunner, Frédéric Nguyen, Niklas Linde, Johan Alexander Huisman, Olivier Bour, Jorge Lopez Alvis, Richard Hoffmann, Andrea Palacios, Anne-Karin Cooke, Álvaro Pardo-Álvarez, Lara Blazevic, Behzad Pouladi, Peleg Haruzi, Alejandro Fernandez Visentini, Guilherme E. H. Nogueira, Joel Tirado-Conde, Majken C. Looms, Meruyert Kenshilikova, Philippe Davy, and Tanguy Le Borgne
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 27, 255–287,Short summary
Although invisible, groundwater plays an essential role for society as a source of drinking water or for ecosystems but is also facing important challenges in terms of contamination. Characterizing groundwater reservoirs with their spatial heterogeneity and their temporal evolution is therefore crucial for their sustainable management. In this paper, we review some important challenges and recent innovations in imaging and modeling the 4D nature of the hydrogeological systems.
Chaofan Chen, Tao Yuan, Renchao Lu, Cornelius Fischer, Olaf Kolditz, and Haibing Shao
Adv. Geosci., 58, 77–85,Short summary
The moving distance of the diffusion front is farther away the canister center, along the direction with the neighboring layer having lower diffusion coefficient. When the bedding angle increases, the diffusion front moves farther in z+ direction, reflecting the increase in effective diffusivity and higher impact of parallel-to-bedding diffusion. The neighboring layers can slightly reshape the diffusion front line of the radionuclide.
Jie Yang, Qiaoyu Wang, Ingo Heidbüchel, Chunhui Lu, Yueqing Xie, Andreas Musolff, and Jan H. Fleckenstein
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 5051–5068,Short summary
We assessed the effect of catchment topographic slopes on the nitrate export dynamics in terms of the nitrogen mass fluxes and concentration level using a coupled surface–subsurface model. We found that flatter landscapes tend to retain more nitrogen mass in the soil and export less nitrogen mass to the stream, explained by the reduced leaching and increased potential of degradation in flat landscapes. We emphasized that stream water quality is potentially less vulnerable in flatter landscapes.
Guilherme E. H. Nogueira, Christian Schmidt, Daniel Partington, Philip Brunner, and Jan H. Fleckenstein
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 1883–1905,Short summary
In near-stream aquifers, mixing between stream water and ambient groundwater can lead to dilution and the removal of substances that can be harmful to the water ecosystem at high concentrations. We used a numerical model to track the spatiotemporal evolution of different water sources and their mixing around a stream, which are rather difficult in the field. Results show that mixing mainly develops as narrow spots, varying In time and space, and is affected by magnitudes of discharge events.
Joni Dehaspe, Fanny Sarrazin, Rohini Kumar, Jan H. Fleckenstein, and Andreas Musolff
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 6437–6463,Short summary
Increased nitrate concentrations in surface waters can compromise river ecosystem health. As riverine nitrate uptake is hard to measure, we explore how low-frequency nitrate concentration and discharge observations (that are widely available) can help to identify (in)efficient uptake in river networks. We find that channel geometry and water velocity rather than the biological uptake capacity dominate the nitrate-discharge pattern at the outlet. The former can be used to predict uptake.
Benedikt J. Werner, Oliver J. Lechtenfeld, Andreas Musolff, Gerrit H. de Rooij, Jie Yang, Ralf Gründling, Ulrike Werban, and Jan H. Fleckenstein
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 6067–6086,Short summary
Export of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from riparian zones (RZs) is an important yet poorly understood component of the catchment carbon budget. This study chemically and spatially classifies DOC source zones within a RZ of a small catchment to assess DOC export patterns. Results highlight that DOC export from only a small fraction of the RZ with distinct DOC composition dominates overall DOC export. The application of a spatial, topographic proxy can be used to improve DOC export models.
Dirk Bosbach, Horst Geckeis, Frank Heberling, Olaf Kolditz, Michael Kühn, Katharina Müller, Thorsten Stumpf, and the iCROSS team
Saf. Nucl. Waste Disposal, 1, 85–87,Short summary
The present contribution provides an overview on the collaborative project iCROSS and reports selected results. The impact of considering complex coupled processes in repository subsystems for the assessment of the integrity of a given (generic) repository arrangement will be discussed. The interdisciplinary team combines experimental work in the lab, in the underground rock laboratory and environmental simulations in order to achieve process understanding across variable scales.
René Kahnt, Heinz Konietzky, Thomas Nagel, Olaf Kolditz, Andreas Jockel, Christian B. Silbermann, Friederike Tiedke, Tobias Meisel, Karsten Rink, Wenqing Wang, Florian Zill, Antje Carl, Aron D. Gabriel, Marcel Schlegel, and Torsten Abraham
Saf. Nucl. Waste Disposal, 1, 175–177,Short summary
In the framework of the Site Selection Act – StandAG, the geoscientific and planning requirements and criteria for the site selection for a repository for high-active nuclear waste are specified. This includes, among others, the modelling of hydrogeological scenarios such as how future cold and warm periods and associated glaciation events can change the (petro-)physical properties as well as the natural hydrogeological properties of the overall system which is the focus of the AREHS project.
Gesa Ziefle, Tuanny Cajuhi, Sebastian Condamin, Stephan Costabel, Oliver Czaikowski, Antoine Fourriére, Larissa Friedenberg, Markus Furche, Nico Graebling, Bastian Graupner, Jürgen Hesser, David Jaeggi, Kyra Jantschik, Tilo Kneuker, Olaf Kolditz, Franz Königer, Herbert Kunz, Ben Laurich, Jobst Maßmann, Christian Ostertag-Henning, Dorothee Rebscher, Karsten Rink, Wolfram Rühaak, Senecio Schefer, Rainer Schuhmann, Marc Wengler, and Klaus Wieczorek
Saf. Nucl. Waste Disposal, 1, 79–81,
Katharina Blaurock, Burkhard Beudert, Benjamin S. Gilfedder, Jan H. Fleckenstein, Stefan Peiffer, and Luisa Hopp
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 5133–5151,Short summary
Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is an important part of the global carbon cycle with regards to carbon storage, greenhouse gas emissions and drinking water treatment. In this study, we compared DOC export of a small, forested catchment during precipitation events after dry and wet preconditions. We found that the DOC export from areas that are usually important for DOC export was inhibited after long drought periods.
Ingo Heidbüchel, Jie Yang, Andreas Musolff, Peter Troch, Ty Ferré, and Jan H. Fleckenstein
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 2895–2920,Short summary
With the help of a 3-D computer model we examined how long the water of different rain events stays inside small catchments before it is discharged and how the nature of this discharge is controlled by different catchment and climate properties. We found that one can only predict the discharge dynamics when taking into account a combination of catchment and climate properties (i.e., there was not one single most important predictor). Our results can help to manage water pollution events.
Adam S. Ward, Steven M. Wondzell, Noah M. Schmadel, Skuyler Herzog, Jay P. Zarnetske, Viktor Baranov, Phillip J. Blaen, Nicolai Brekenfeld, Rosalie Chu, Romain Derelle, Jennifer Drummond, Jan H. Fleckenstein, Vanessa Garayburu-Caruso, Emily Graham, David Hannah, Ciaran J. Harman, Jase Hixson, Julia L. A. Knapp, Stefan Krause, Marie J. Kurz, Jörg Lewandowski, Angang Li, Eugènia Martí, Melinda Miller, Alexander M. Milner, Kerry Neil, Luisa Orsini, Aaron I. Packman, Stephen Plont, Lupita Renteria, Kevin Roche, Todd Royer, Catalina Segura, James Stegen, Jason Toyoda, Jacqueline Hager, and Nathan I. Wisnoski
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 5199–5225,Short summary
The movement of water and solutes between streams and their shallow, connected subsurface is important to many ecosystem functions. These exchanges are widely expected to vary with stream flow across space and time, but these assumptions are seldom tested across basin scales. We completed more than 60 experiments across a 5th-order river basin to document these changes, finding patterns in space but not time. We conclude space-for-time and time-for-space substitutions are not good assumptions.
Benedikt J. Werner, Andreas Musolff, Oliver J. Lechtenfeld, Gerrit H. de Rooij, Marieke R. Oosterwoud, and Jan H. Fleckenstein
Biogeosciences, 16, 4497–4516,Short summary
Increased dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration in streams can pose a threat to downstream water resources. Analyzing data from an in-stream probe we found that hydroclimatic and hydrological drivers can describe up to 72 % of the observed DOC concentration and composition variability. Variability was found to be highest during discharge events with warm and dry preconditions. The findings suggest an impact of climate change on DOC exports and thus also on downstream water quality.
Adam S. Ward, Jay P. Zarnetske, Viktor Baranov, Phillip J. Blaen, Nicolai Brekenfeld, Rosalie Chu, Romain Derelle, Jennifer Drummond, Jan H. Fleckenstein, Vanessa Garayburu-Caruso, Emily Graham, David Hannah, Ciaran J. Harman, Skuyler Herzog, Jase Hixson, Julia L. A. Knapp, Stefan Krause, Marie J. Kurz, Jörg Lewandowski, Angang Li, Eugènia Martí, Melinda Miller, Alexander M. Milner, Kerry Neil, Luisa Orsini, Aaron I. Packman, Stephen Plont, Lupita Renteria, Kevin Roche, Todd Royer, Noah M. Schmadel, Catalina Segura, James Stegen, Jason Toyoda, Jacqueline Hager, Nathan I. Wisnoski, and Steven M. Wondzell
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 1567–1581,Short summary
Studies of river corridor exchange commonly focus on characterization of the physical, chemical, or biological system. As a result, complimentary systems and context are often lacking, which may limit interpretation. Here, we present a characterization of all three systems at 62 sites in a 5th-order river basin, including samples of surface water, hyporheic water, and sediment. These data will allow assessment of interacting processes in the river corridor.
Sophie Ehrhardt, Rohini Kumar, Jan H. Fleckenstein, Sabine Attinger, and Andreas Musolff
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 3503–3524,Short summary
This study shows quantitative and temporal offsets between nitrogen input and riverine output, using time series of three nested catchments in central Germany. The riverine concentrations show lagged reactions to the input, but at the same time exhibit strong inter-annual changes in the relationship between riverine discharge and concentration. The study found a strong retention of nitrogen that is dominantly assigned to a hydrological N legacy, which will affect future stream concentrations.
Miao Jing, Falk Heße, Rohini Kumar, Olaf Kolditz, Thomas Kalbacher, and Sabine Attinger
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 171–190,Short summary
We evaluated the uncertainty propagation from the inputs (forcings) and parameters to the predictions of groundwater travel time distributions (TTDs) using a fully distributed numerical model (mHM-OGS) and the StorAge Selection (SAS) function. Through detailed numerical and analytical investigations, we emphasize the key role of recharge estimation in the reliable predictions of TTDs and the good interpretability of the SAS function.
Miao Jing, Falk Heße, Rohini Kumar, Wenqing Wang, Thomas Fischer, Marc Walther, Matthias Zink, Alraune Zech, Luis Samaniego, Olaf Kolditz, and Sabine Attinger
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 1989–2007,
Rémi Dupas, Andreas Musolff, James W. Jawitz, P. Suresh C. Rao, Christoph G. Jäger, Jan H. Fleckenstein, Michael Rode, and Dietrich Borchardt
Biogeosciences, 14, 4391–4407,Short summary
Carbon and nutrient export regimes were analyzed from archetypal headwater catchments to downstream reaches. In headwater catchments, land use and lithology determine land-to-stream C, N and P transfer processes. The crucial role of riparian zones in C, N and P coupling was investigated. In downstream reaches, point-source contributions and in-stream processes alter C, N and P export regimes.
T. Fischer, D. Naumov, S. Sattler, O. Kolditz, and M. Walther
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 3681–3694,Short summary
We present a workflow to convert geological models into the open-source VTU format for usage in numerical simulation models. Tackling relevant scientific questions or engineering tasks often involves multidisciplinary approaches. Conversion workflows are needed between the diverse tools of the various disciplines. Our approach offers an open-source, platform-independent, robust, and comprehensible method that is potentially useful for a multitude of similar environmental studies.
B. J. Kopp, J. H. Fleckenstein, N. T. Roulet, E. Humphreys, J. Talbot, and C. Blodau
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 3485–3498,
S. Strohmeier, K.-H. Knorr, M. Reichert, S. Frei, J. H. Fleckenstein, S. Peiffer, and E. Matzner
Biogeosciences, 10, 905–916,
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Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 5449–5472,Short summary
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Javier Diez-Sierra, Salvador Navas, and Manuel del Jesus
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 5035–5048,Short summary
NEOPRENE is an open-source, freely available library allowing scientists and practitioners to generate synthetic time series and maps of rainfall. These outputs will help to explore plausible events that were never observed in the past but may occur in the near future and to generate possible future events under climate change conditions. The paper shows how to use the library to downscale daily precipitation and how to use synthetic generation to improve our characterization of extreme events.
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Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 4767–4791,Short summary
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Hugo Delottier, John Doherty, and Philip Brunner
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 4213–4231,Short summary
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Lele Shu, Paul Ullrich, Xianghong Meng, Christopher Duffy, Hao Chen, and Zhaoguo Li
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for GMDShort summary
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Zhipin Ai and Naota Hanasaki
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 3275–3290,Short summary
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Emilie Rouzies, Claire Lauvernet, Bruno Sudret, and Arthur Vidard
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 3137–3163,Short summary
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Guoding Chen, Ke Zhang, Sheng Wang, Yi Xia, and Lijun Chao
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 2915–2937,Short summary
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Jens A. de Bruijn, Mikhail Smilovic, Peter Burek, Luca Guillaumot, Yoshihide Wada, and Jeroen C. J. H. Aerts
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 2437–2454,Short summary
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Matthew D. Wilson and Thomas J. Coulthard
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 2415–2436,Short summary
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Daniel Boateng and Sebastian G. Mutz
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for GMDShort summary
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Bibi S. Naz, Wendy Sharples, Yueling Ma, Klaus Goergen, and Stefan Kollet
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 1617–1639,Short summary
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Jiangtao Liu, David Hughes, Farshid Rahmani, Kathryn Lawson, and Chaopeng Shen
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 1553–1567,Short summary
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Daniel Caviedes-Voullième, Mario Morales-Hernández, Matthew R. Norman, and Ilhan Özgen-Xian
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 977–1008,Short summary
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Andrew M. Ireson, Raymond J. Spiteri, Martyn P. Clark, and Simon A. Mathias
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 659–677,Short summary
Richards' equation (RE) is used to describe the movement and storage of water in a soil profile and is a component of many hydrological and earth-system models. Solving RE numerically is challenging due to the non-linearities in the properties. Here, we present a simple but effective and mass-conservative solution to solving RE, which is ideal for teaching/learning purposes but also useful in prototype models that are used to explore alternative process representations.
Fang Wang, Di Tian, and Mark Carroll
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 535–556,Short summary
Gridded precipitation datasets suffer from biases and coarse resolutions. We developed a customized deep learning (DL) model to bias-correct and downscale gridded precipitation data using radar observations. The results showed that the customized DL model can generate improved precipitation at fine resolutions where regular DL and statistical methods experience challenges. The new model can be used to improve precipitation estimates, especially for capturing extremes at smaller scales.
Malak Sadki, Simon Munier, Aaron Boone, and Sophie Ricci
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 427–448,Short summary
Predicting water resource evolution is a key challenge for the coming century. Anthropogenic impacts on water resources, and particularly the effects of dams and reservoirs on river flows, are still poorly known and generally neglected in global hydrological studies. A parameterized reservoir model is reproduced to compute monthly releases in Spanish anthropized river basins. For global application, an exhaustive sensitivity analysis of the model parameters is performed on flows and volumes.
Nicolas Flipo, Nicolas Gallois, and Jonathan Schuite
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 353–381,Short summary
A new approach is proposed to fit hydrological or land surface models, which suffer from large uncertainties in terms of water partitioning between fast runoff and slow infiltration from small watersheds to regional or continental river basins. It is based on the analysis of hydrosystem behavior in the frequency domain, which serves as a basis for estimating water flows in the time domain with a physically based model. It opens the way to significant breakthroughs in hydrological modeling.
Masaya Yoshikai, Takashi Nakamura, Eugene C. Herrera, Rempei Suwa, Rene Rollon, Raghab Ray, Keita Furukawa, and Kazuo Nadaoka
Due to complex root system structures, representing the impacts of Rhizophora mangroves on flow and sediment transport in hydrodynamic models has been challenging. This study presents a new drag and turbulence model that leverages an empirical model for root systems. The model can be applied without rigorous measurements of root structures and showed high performance in flow simulations, which may provide a better understanding of sedimentary processes in Rhizophora mangrove forests.
Joachim Meyer, John Horel, Patrick Kormos, Andrew Hedrick, Ernesto Trujillo, and S. McKenzie Skiles
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 233–250,Short summary
Freshwater resupply from seasonal snow in the mountains is changing. Current water prediction methods from snow rely on historical data excluding the change and can lead to errors. This work presented and evaluated an alternative snow-physics-based approach. The results in a test watershed were promising, and future improvements were identified. Adaptation to current forecast environments would improve resilience to the seasonal snow changes and helps ensure the accuracy of resupply forecasts.
Shuqi Lin, Donald C. Pierson, and Jorrit P. Mesman
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 35–46,Short summary
The risks brought by the proliferation of algal blooms motivate the improvement of bloom forecasting tools, but algal blooms are complexly controlled and difficult to predict. Given rapid growth of monitoring data and advances in computation, machine learning offers an alternative prediction methodology. This study tested various machine learning workflows in a dimictic mesotrophic lake and gave promising predictions of the seasonal variations and the timing of algal blooms.
Thibault Hallouin, Richard J. Ellis, Douglas B. Clark, Simon J. Dadson, Andrew G. Hughes, Bryan N. Lawrence, Grenville M. S. Lister, and Jan Polcher
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 9177–9196,Short summary
A new framework for modelling the water cycle in the land system has been implemented. It considers the hydrological cycle as three interconnected components, bringing flexibility in the choice of the physical processes and their spatio-temporal resolutions. It is designed to foster collaborations between land surface, hydrological, and groundwater modelling communities to develop the next-generation of land system models for integration in Earth system models.
Ciaran Harman and Esther Xu Fei
Over the last 10 years scientists have developed a new way of modeling how material is transported through complex systems, called StorAge Selection. Here we present some new code implementing this method that is easy to use, but also flexible and very accurate. We show that for cases where we know exactly what the answer should be, our code gets the right answer. We also show that our code is closer than some other people's code to the right answer in an important way: it conserves mass.
Seyed Mahmood Hamze-Ziabari, Ulrich Lemmin, Frédéric Soulignac, Mehrshad Foroughan, and David Andrew Barry
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 8785–8807,Short summary
A procedure combining numerical simulations, remote sensing, and statistical analyses is developed to detect large-scale current systems in large lakes. By applying this novel procedure in Lake Geneva, strategies for detailed transect field studies of the gyres and eddies were developed. Unambiguous field evidence of 3D gyre/eddy structures in full agreement with predictions confirmed the robustness of the proposed procedure.
Kristina Šarović, Melita Burić, and Zvjezdana B. Klaić
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 8349–8375,Short summary
We develop a simple 1-D model for the prediction of the vertical temperature profiles in small, warm lakes. The model uses routinely measured meteorological variables as well as UVB radiation and yearly mean temperature data. It can be used for the assessment of the onset and duration of lake stratification periods when water temperature data are unavailable, which can be useful for various lake studies performed in other scientific fields, such as biology, geochemistry, and sedimentology.
Jason A. Clark, Elchin E. Jafarov, Ken D. Tape, Benjamin M. Jones, and Victor Stepanenko
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 7421–7448,Short summary
Lakes in the Arctic are important reservoirs of heat. Under climate warming scenarios, we expect Arctic lakes to warm the surrounding frozen ground. We simulate water temperatures in three Arctic lakes in northern Alaska over several years. Our results show that snow depth and lake ice strongly affect water temperatures during the frozen season and that more heat storage by lakes would enhance thawing of frozen ground.
Danielle S. Grogan, Shan Zuidema, Alex Prusevich, Wilfred M. Wollheim, Stanley Glidden, and Richard B. Lammers
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 7287–7323,Short summary
This paper describes the University of New Hampshire's water balance model (WBM). This model simulates the land surface components of the global water cycle and includes water extractions for use by humans for agricultural, domestic, and industrial purposes. A new feature is described that permits water source tracking through the water cycle, which has implications for water resource management. This paper was written to describe a long-used model and presents its first open-source version.
Luca Guillaumot, Mikhail Smilovic, Peter Burek, Jens de Bruijn, Peter Greve, Taher Kahil, and Yoshihide Wada
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 7099–7120,Short summary
We develop and test the first large-scale hydrological model at regional scale with a very high spatial resolution that includes a water management and groundwater flow model. This study infers the impact of surface and groundwater-based irrigation on groundwater recharge and on evapotranspiration in both irrigated and non-irrigated areas. We argue that water table recorded in boreholes can be used as validation data if water management is well implemented and spatial resolution is ≤ 100 m.
Robert Chlumsky, James R. Craig, Simon G. M. Lin, Sarah Grass, Leland Scantlebury, Genevieve Brown, and Rezgar Arabzadeh
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 7017–7030,Short summary
We introduce the open-source RavenR package, which has been built to support the use of the hydrologic modelling framework Raven. The R package contains many functions that may be useful in each step of the model-building process, including preparing model input files, running the model, and analyzing the outputs. We present six reproducible use cases of the RavenR package for the Liard River basin in Canada to demonstrate how it may be deployed.
Bahar Bahrami, Anke Hildebrandt, Stephan Thober, Corinna Rebmann, Rico Fischer, Luis Samaniego, Oldrich Rakovec, and Rohini Kumar
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 6957–6984,Short summary
Leaf area index (LAI) and gross primary productivity (GPP) are crucial components to carbon cycle, and are closely linked to water cycle in many ways. We develop a Parsimonious Canopy Model (PCM) to simulate GPP and LAI at stand scale, and show its applicability over a diverse range of deciduous broad-leaved forest biomes. With its modular structure, the PCM is able to adapt with existing data requirements, and run in either a stand-alone mode or as an interface linked to hydrologic models.
Stefania Camici, Gabriele Giuliani, Luca Brocca, Christian Massari, Angelica Tarpanelli, Hassan Hashemi Farahani, Nico Sneeuw, Marco Restano, and Jérôme Benveniste
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 6935–6956,Short summary
This paper presents an innovative approach, STREAM (SaTellite-based Runoff Evaluation And Mapping), to derive daily river discharge and runoff estimates from satellite observations of soil moisture, precipitation, and terrestrial total water storage anomalies. Potentially useful for multiple operational and scientific applications, the added value of the STREAM approach is the ability to increase knowledge on the natural processes, human activities, and their interactions on the land.
Ji Li, Daoxian Yuan, Fuxi Zhang, Jiao Liu, and Mingguo Ma
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 6581–6600,Short summary
A new karst hydrological model (the QMG model) is developed to simulate and predict the floods in karst trough valley basins. Unlike the complex structure and parameters of current karst groundwater models, this model has a simple double-layered structure with few parameters and decreases the demand for modeling data in karst areas. The flood simulation results based on the QMG model of the Qingmuguan karst trough valley basin are satisfactory, indicating the suitability of the model simulation.
Luca Trotter, Wouter J. M. Knoben, Keirnan J. A. Fowler, Margarita Saft, and Murray C. Peel
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 6359–6369,Short summary
MARRMoT is a piece of software that emulates 47 common models for hydrological simulations. It can be used to run and calibrate these models within a common environment as well as to easily modify them. We restructured and recoded MARRMoT in order to make the models run faster and to simplify their use, while also providing some new features. This new MARRMoT version runs models on average 3.6 times faster while maintaining very strong consistency in their outputs to the previous version.
Zhi Li, Shang Gao, Mengye Chen, Jonathan Gourley, Naoki Mizukami, and Yang Hong
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 6181–6196,Short summary
Operational streamflow prediction at a continental scale is critical for national water resources management. However, limited computational resources often impede such processes, with streamflow routing being one of the most time-consuming parts. This study presents a recent development of a hydrologic system that incorporates a vector-based routing scheme with a lake module that markedly speeds up streamflow prediction. Moreover, accuracy is improved and flood false alarms are mitigated.
Suyeon Choi and Yeonjoo Kim
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 5967–5985,Short summary
Here we present the cGAN-based precipitation nowcasting model, named Rad-cGAN, trained to predict a radar reflectivity map with a lead time of 10 min. Rad-cGAN showed superior performance at a lead time of up to 90 min compared with the reference models. Furthermore, we demonstrate the successful implementation of the transfer learning strategies using pre-trained Rad-cGAN to develop the models for different dam domains.
Rolf Hut, Niels Drost, Nick van de Giesen, Ben van Werkhoven, Banafsheh Abdollahi, Jerom Aerts, Thomas Albers, Fakhereh Alidoost, Bouwe Andela, Jaro Camphuijsen, Yifat Dzigan, Ronald van Haren, Eric Hutton, Peter Kalverla, Maarten van Meersbergen, Gijs van den Oord, Inti Pelupessy, Stef Smeets, Stefan Verhoeven, Martine de Vos, and Berend Weel
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 5371–5390,Short summary
With the eWaterCycle platform, we are providing the hydrological community with a platform to conduct their research that is fully compatible with the principles of both open science and FAIR science. The eWatercyle platform gives easy access to well-known hydrological models, big datasets and example experiments. Using eWaterCycle hydrologists can easily compare the results from different models, couple models and do more complex hydrological computational research.
Hsi-Kai Chou, Ana Maria Heuminski de Avila, and Michaela Bray
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 5233–5240,Short summary
Land surface models allow us to understand and investigate the cause and effect of environmental process changes. Therefore, this type of model is increasingly used for hydrological assessments. Here we explore the possibility of this approach using a case study in the Atibaia River basin, which serves as a major water supply for the metropolitan regions of Campinas and São Paulo, Brazil. We evaluated the model performance and use the model to simulate the basin hydrology.
Malgorzata Golub, Wim Thiery, Rafael Marcé, Don Pierson, Inne Vanderkelen, Daniel Mercado-Bettin, R. Iestyn Woolway, Luke Grant, Eleanor Jennings, Benjamin M. Kraemer, Jacob Schewe, Fang Zhao, Katja Frieler, Matthias Mengel, Vasiliy Y. Bogomolov, Damien Bouffard, Marianne Côté, Raoul-Marie Couture, Andrey V. Debolskiy, Bram Droppers, Gideon Gal, Mingyang Guo, Annette B. G. Janssen, Georgiy Kirillin, Robert Ladwig, Madeline Magee, Tadhg Moore, Marjorie Perroud, Sebastiano Piccolroaz, Love Raaman Vinnaa, Martin Schmid, Tom Shatwell, Victor M. Stepanenko, Zeli Tan, Bronwyn Woodward, Huaxia Yao, Rita Adrian, Mathew Allan, Orlane Anneville, Lauri Arvola, Karen Atkins, Leon Boegman, Cayelan Carey, Kyle Christianson, Elvira de Eyto, Curtis DeGasperi, Maria Grechushnikova, Josef Hejzlar, Klaus Joehnk, Ian D. Jones, Alo Laas, Eleanor B. Mackay, Ivan Mammarella, Hampus Markensten, Chris McBride, Deniz Özkundakci, Miguel Potes, Karsten Rinke, Dale Robertson, James A. Rusak, Rui Salgado, Leon van der Linden, Piet Verburg, Danielle Wain, Nicole K. Ward, Sabine Wollrab, and Galina Zdorovennova
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 4597–4623,Short summary
Lakes and reservoirs are warming across the globe. To better understand how lakes are changing and to project their future behavior amidst various sources of uncertainty, simulations with a range of lake models are required. This in turn requires international coordination across different lake modelling teams worldwide. Here we present a protocol for and results from coordinated simulations of climate change impacts on lakes worldwide.
Verena Bessenbacher, Sonia Isabelle Seneviratne, and Lukas Gudmundsson
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 4569–4596,Short summary
Earth observations have many missing values. They are often filled using information from spatial and temporal contexts that mostly ignore information from related observed variables. We propose the gap-filling method CLIMFILL that additionally uses information from related variables. We test CLIMFILL using gap-free reanalysis data of variables related to soil–moisture climate interactions. CLIMFILL creates estimates for the missing values that recover the original dependence structure.
Anthony Bernus and Catherine Ottlé
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 4275–4295,Short summary
The lake model FLake was coupled to the ORCHIDEE land surface model to simulate lake energy balance at global scale with a multi-tile approach. Several simulations were performed with various atmospheric reanalyses and different lake depth parameterizations. The simulated lake surface temperature showed good agreement with observations (RMSEs of the order of 3 °C). We showed the large impact of the atmospheric forcing on lake temperature. We highlighted systematic errors on ice cover phenology.
Inne Vanderkelen, Shervan Gharari, Naoki Mizukami, Martyn P. Clark, David M. Lawrence, Sean Swenson, Yadu Pokhrel, Naota Hanasaki, Ann van Griensven, and Wim Thiery
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 4163–4192,Short summary
Human-controlled reservoirs have a large influence on the global water cycle. However, dam operations are rarely represented in Earth system models. We implement and evaluate a widely used reservoir parametrization in a global river-routing model. Using observations of individual reservoirs, the reservoir scheme outperforms the natural lake scheme. However, both schemes show a similar performance due to biases in runoff timing and magnitude when using simulated runoff.
Jiming Jin, Lei Wang, Jie Yang, Bingcheng Si, and Guo-Yue Niu
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 3405–3416,Short summary
This study aimed to improve runoff simulations and explore deep soil hydrological processes for a highly varying soil depth and complex terrain watershed in the Loess Plateau, China. The actual soil depths and river channels were incorporated into the model to better simulate the runoff in this watershed. The soil evaporation scheme was modified to better describe the evaporation processes. Our results showed that the model significantly improved the runoff simulations.
Sebastian Müller, Lennart Schüler, Alraune Zech, and Falk Heße
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 3161–3182,Short summary
The GSTools package provides a Python-based platform for geoostatistical applications. Salient features of GSTools are its random field generation, its kriging capabilities and its versatile covariance model. It is furthermore integrated with other Python packages, like PyKrige, ogs5py or scikit-gstat, and provides interfaces to meshio and PyVista. Four presented workflows showcase the abilities of GSTools.
Ather Abbas, Laurie Boithias, Yakov Pachepsky, Kyunghyun Kim, Jong Ahn Chun, and Kyung Hwa Cho
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 3021–3039,Short summary
The field of artificial intelligence has shown promising results in a wide variety of fields including hydrological modeling. However, developing and testing hydrological models with artificial intelligence techniques require expertise from diverse fields. In this study, we developed an open-source framework based upon the python programming language to simplify the process of the development of hydrological models of time series data using machine learning.
Yunxiang Chen, Jie Bao, Yilin Fang, William A. Perkins, Huiying Ren, Xuehang Song, Zhuoran Duan, Zhangshuan Hou, Xiaoliang He, and Timothy D. Scheibe
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 2917–2947,Short summary
Climate change affects river discharge variations that alter streamflow. By integrating multi-type survey data with a computational fluid dynamics tool, OpenFOAM, we show a workflow that enables accurate and efficient streamflow modeling at 30 km and 5-year scales. The model accuracy for water stage and depth average velocity is −16–9 cm and 0.71–0.83 in terms of mean error and correlation coefficients. This accuracy indicates the model's reliability for evaluating climate impact on rivers.
Marcela Silva, Ashley M. Matheny, Valentijn R. N. Pauwels, Dimetre Triadis, Justine E. Missik, Gil Bohrer, and Edoardo Daly
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 2619–2634,Short summary
Our study introduces FETCH3, a ready-to-use, open-access model that simulates the water fluxes across the soil, roots, and stem. To test the model capabilities, we tested it against exact solutions and a case study. The model presented considerably small errors when compared to the exact solutions and was able to correctly represent transpiration patterns when compared to experimental data. The results show that FETCH3 can correctly simulate above- and below-ground water transport.
Mayra Ishikawa, Wendy Gonzalez, Orides Golyjeswski, Gabriela Sales, J. Andreza Rigotti, Tobias Bleninger, Michael Mannich, and Andreas Lorke
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 2197–2220,Short summary
Reservoir hydrodynamics is often described in numerical models differing in dimensionality. 1D and 2D models assume homogeneity along the unresolved dimension. We compare the performance of models with 1 to 3 dimensions. All models presented reasonable results for seasonal temperature dynamics. Neglecting longitudinal transport resulted in the largest deviations in temperature. Flow velocity could only be reproduced by the 3D model. Results support the selection of models and their assessment.
Bailey, R. T., Morway, E. D., Niswonger, R. G., and Gates, T. K.: Modeling variably saturated multispecies reactive groundwater solute transport with MODFLOW-UZF and RT3D, Ground Water, 51, 752–761, 2013.
Ballarini, E., Beyer, C., Bauer, R. D., Griebler, C., and Bauer, S.: Model based evaluation of a contaminant plume development under aerobic and anaerobic conditions in 2-D bench-scale tank experiments, Biodegradation, 25, 351–371, 2014.
Beyer, C., Li, D., De Lucia, M., Kühn, M., and Bauer, S.: Modelling CO2-induced fluid-rock interactions in the Altensalzwedel gas reservoir. Part II: coupled reactive transport simulation, Environ. Earth Sci., 67, 573–588, 2012.
Centler, F., Shao, H. B., De Biase, C., Park, C. H., Regnier, P., Kolditz, O., and Thullner, M.: GeoSysBRNS – A flexible multidimensional reactive transport model for simulating biogeochemical subsurface processes, Comput. Geosci., 36, 397–405, 2010.
Charlton, S. R. and Parkhurst, D. L.: Modules based on the geochemical model PHREEQC for use in scripting and programming languages, Comput. Geosci., 37, 1653–1663, 2011.
de Dieuleveult, C. and Erhel, J.: A global approach to reactive transport: application to the MoMas benchmark, Comput. Geosci., 14, 451–464, 2010.
de Lucia, M., Bauer, S., Beyer, C., Kühn, M., Nowak, T., Pudlo, D., Reitenbach, V., and Stadler, S.: Modelling CO2-induced fluid-rock interactions in the Altensalzwedel gas reservoir. Part I: from experimental data to a reference geochemical model, Environ. Earth Sci., 67, 563–572, 2012.
Engesgaard, P. and Kipp, K. L.: A geochemical transport model for redox-controlled movement of mineral fronts in groundwater-flow systems – a case of nitrate removal by oxidation of pyrite, Water Resour. Res., 28, 2829–2843, 1992.
Hammond, G. E. and Lichtner, P. C.: Field-scale model for the natural attenuation of uranium at the Hanford 300 Area using high-performance computing, Water Resour. Res., 46, W09527, https://doi.org/10.1029/2009WR008819, 2010.
Hammond, G. E., Lichtner, P. C., and Rockhold, M. L.: Stochastic simulation of uranium migration at the Hanford 300 Area, J. Contam. Hydrol., 120–121, 115–128, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jconhyd.2010.04.005, 2011.
Hammond, G. E., Lichtner, P. C., and Mills, R. L.: PFLOTRAN: Reactive Flow & Transport Code for Use on Laptops to Leadership-Class Supercomputers, in: Groundwater Reactive Transport Models, edited by: Zhang, F., Yeh, G. T., Parker, J. C., Shi, X., Bentham Science Publishers, Oak Park, IL, 141–159, 2012.
Hammond, G. E., Lichtner, P. C., and Mills, R. T.: Evaluating the performance of parallel subsurface simulators: an illustrative example with PFLOTRAN, Water Resour. Res., 50, 208–228, 2014.
Hanappe, P., Beurivé, A., Laguzet, F., Steels, L., Bellouin, N., Boucher, O., Yamazaki, Y. H., Aina, T., and Allen, M.: FAMOUS, faster: using parallel computing techniques to accelerate the FAMOUS/HadCM3 climate model with a focus on the radiative transfer algorithm, Geosci. Model Dev., 4, 835–844, https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-4-835-2011, 2011.
Henzler, A. F., Greskowiak, J., and Massmann, G.: Modeling the fate of organic micropollutants during river bank filtration (Berlin, Germany), J. Contam. Hydrol., 156, 78–92, 2014.
Hubschwerlen, N., Zhang, K. N., Mayer, G., Roger, J., and Vialay, B.: Using Tough2-MP on a cluster-optimization methodology and study of scalability, Comput. Geosci., 45, 26–35, 2012.
Jacques, D. and Šimůnek, J.: User Manual of the Multicomponent Variably-saturated Flow and Transport Model HP1, Description, Verification and Examples, Version 1.0, SCK·CEN-BLG-998, Waste and Disposal, SCK·CEN, Mol, Belgium, 79 pp., 2005.
Kalbacher, T., Wang, W., Watanabe, N., Park, C. H., Taniguchi, T., and Kolditz, O.: Parallelization concepts and applications for the coupled finite element problems, Journal of Environmental Science for Sustainable Society, 2, 35–46, 2008.
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Kosakowski, G. and Watanabe, N.: OpenGeoSys-Gem: a numerical tool for calculating geochemical and porosity changes in saturated and partially saturated media, Phys. Chem. Earth, 70–71, 138–149, 2014.
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Li, D., Bauer, S., Benisch, K., Graupner, B., and Beyer, C.: OpenGeoSys-ChemApp: a coupled simulator for reactive transport in multiphase systems and application to CO2 storage formation in Northern Germany, Acta. Geotech., 9, 67–79, 2014.
Lichtner, P. C. and Hammond, G. E.: Using high performance computing to understand roles of labile and nonlabile uranium(VI) on Hanford 300 Area Plume Longevity, Vadose Zone J., 11, 2, https://doi.org/10.2136/vzj2011.0097, 2012.
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Molins, S., Mayer, K. U., Amos, R. T., and Bekins, B. A.: Vadose zone attenuation of organic compounds at a crude oil spill site – interactions between biogeochemical reactions and multicomponent gas transport, J. Contam. Hydrol., 112, 15–29, 2010.
Morway, E. D., Niswonger, R. G., Langevin, C. D., Bailey, R. T., and Healy, R. W.: Modeling variably saturated subsurface solute transport with MODFLOW-UZF and MT3DMS, Ground Water, 51, 237–251, 2013.
Nardi, A., Idiart, A., Trinchero, P., de Vries, L. M., and Molinero, J.: Interface COMSOL-PHREEQC (iCP), an efficient numerical framework for the solution of coupled multiphysics and geochemistry, Comput. Geosci., 69, 10–21, 2014.
Nasir, O., Fall, M., and Evgin, E.: A simulator for modeling of porosity and permeability changes in near field sedimentary host rocks for nuclear waste under climate change influences, Tunn. Undergr. Sp. Tech., 42, 122–135, 2014.
Palandri, J. L. and Kharaka, Y. K.: A compilation of rate parameters of water-mineral interaction kinetics for application to geochemical modelling, US Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 04–1068, 2004.
Parkhurst, D. L. and Appelo, C. A. J.: User's guide to PHREEQC (Version 2) – a computer program for speciation, batch-reaction, one-dimensional transport and inverse geochemical calculations, US Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report, 99–4259, 312 pp., 1999.
Parkhurst, D. L. and Appelo, C. A. J.: Description of input and examples for PHREEQC version 3 – a computer program for speciation, batch-reaction, one-dimensional transport, and inverse geochemical calculations, in: US Geological Survey Techniques and Methods, book 6, chap. A43, 497 pp., 2013.
Pau, G. S. H., Bell, J. B., Pruess, K., Almgren, A. S., Lijewski, M. J., and Zhang, K. N.: High-resolution simulation and characterization of density-driven flow in CO2 storage in saline aquifers, Adv. Water Resour., 33, 443–455, 2010.
Riley, W. J., Maggi, F., Kleber, M., Torn, M. S., Tang, J. Y., Dwivedi, D., and Guerry, N.: Long residence times of rapidly decomposable soil organic matter: application of a multi-phase, multi-component, and vertically resolved model (BAMS1) to soil carbon dynamics, Geosci. Model Dev., 7, 1335–1355, https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-7-1335-2014, 2014.
Shao, H. B., Dmytrieva, S. V., Kolditz, O., Kulik, D. A., Pfingsten, W., and Kosakowski, G.: Modeling reactive transport in non-ideal aqueous-solid solution system, Appl. Geochem., 24, 1287–1300, 2009.
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This technical paper presents a new tool to simulate reactive transport processes in subsurface systems and which couples the open-source software packages OpenGeoSys and IPhreeqc. A flexible parallelization scheme was developed and implemented to enable an optimized allocation of computer resources. The performance tests of the coupling interface and parallelization scheme illustrate the promising efficiency of this generally valid approach to simulate reactive transport problems.
This technical paper presents a new tool to simulate reactive transport processes in subsurface...