Articles | Volume 8, issue 10
Development and technical paper 22 Oct 2015
Development and technical paper | 22 Oct 2015
A parallelization scheme to simulate reactive transport in the subsurface environment with OGS#IPhreeqc 5.5.7-3.1.2
W. He et al.
No articles found.
Joni Dehaspe, Fanny Sarrazin, Rohini Kumar, Jan H. Fleckenstein, and Andreas Musolff
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 6437–6463,Short summary
Increased nitrate concentrations in surface waters can compromise river ecosystem health. As riverine nitrate uptake is hard to measure, we explore how low-frequency nitrate concentration and discharge observations (that are widely available) can help to identify (in)efficient uptake in river networks. We find that channel geometry and water velocity rather than the biological uptake capacity dominate the nitrate-discharge pattern at the outlet. The former can be used to predict uptake.
Guilherme E. H. Nogueira, Christian Schmidt, Daniel Partington, Philip Brunner, and Jan H. Fleckenstein
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for HESSShort summary
In near stream aquifers, mixing between stream water and ambient groundwater can lead to dilution and removal of substances that can be harmful to water ecosystem at high concentrations. Here, we used a numerical model to track the spatio-temporal evolution of different water sources and their mixing around a stream, which are rather difficult in the field. Results show that mixing mainly develops as narrow spots, varying on time and space, and mainly affected by magnitudes of discharge events.
Benedikt J. Werner, Oliver J. Lechtenfeld, Andreas Musolff, Gerrit H. de Rooij, Jie Yang, Ralf Gründling, Ulrike Werban, and Jan H. Fleckenstein
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 6067–6086,Short summary
Export of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from riparian zones (RZs) is an important yet poorly understood component of the catchment carbon budget. This study chemically and spatially classifies DOC source zones within a RZ of a small catchment to assess DOC export patterns. Results highlight that DOC export from only a small fraction of the RZ with distinct DOC composition dominates overall DOC export. The application of a spatial, topographic proxy can be used to improve DOC export models.
Katharina Blaurock, Burkhard Beudert, Benjamin S. Gilfedder, Jan H. Fleckenstein, Stefan Peiffer, and Luisa Hopp
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 5133–5151,Short summary
Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is an important part of the global carbon cycle with regards to carbon storage, greenhouse gas emissions and drinking water treatment. In this study, we compared DOC export of a small, forested catchment during precipitation events after dry and wet preconditions. We found that the DOC export from areas that are usually important for DOC export was inhibited after long drought periods.
Jie Yang, Ingo Heidbüchel, Chunhui Lu, Yueqing Xie, Andreas Musolff, and Jan H. Fleckenstein
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for HESSShort summary
We assessed the effect of catchment topographic slopes on the nitrate export dynamics in terms of the concentration level and its seasonal variability using a coupled surface-subsurface model. We identified a threshold-like three-class relation between young streamflow fraction and slope, with distinct mechanical explanations for each class. We emphasized that it can be misleading to assume a straightforward monotonous relationship between any catchment characteristics and young water fraction.
Ingo Heidbüchel, Jie Yang, Andreas Musolff, Peter Troch, Ty Ferré, and Jan H. Fleckenstein
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 2895–2920,Short summary
With the help of a 3-D computer model we examined how long the water of different rain events stays inside small catchments before it is discharged and how the nature of this discharge is controlled by different catchment and climate properties. We found that one can only predict the discharge dynamics when taking into account a combination of catchment and climate properties (i.e., there was not one single most important predictor). Our results can help to manage water pollution events.
Adam S. Ward, Steven M. Wondzell, Noah M. Schmadel, Skuyler Herzog, Jay P. Zarnetske, Viktor Baranov, Phillip J. Blaen, Nicolai Brekenfeld, Rosalie Chu, Romain Derelle, Jennifer Drummond, Jan H. Fleckenstein, Vanessa Garayburu-Caruso, Emily Graham, David Hannah, Ciaran J. Harman, Jase Hixson, Julia L. A. Knapp, Stefan Krause, Marie J. Kurz, Jörg Lewandowski, Angang Li, Eugènia Martí, Melinda Miller, Alexander M. Milner, Kerry Neil, Luisa Orsini, Aaron I. Packman, Stephen Plont, Lupita Renteria, Kevin Roche, Todd Royer, Catalina Segura, James Stegen, Jason Toyoda, Jacqueline Wells, and Nathan I. Wisnoski
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 5199–5225,Short summary
The movement of water and solutes between streams and their shallow, connected subsurface is important to many ecosystem functions. These exchanges are widely expected to vary with stream flow across space and time, but these assumptions are seldom tested across basin scales. We completed more than 60 experiments across a 5th-order river basin to document these changes, finding patterns in space but not time. We conclude space-for-time and time-for-space substitutions are not good assumptions.
Benedikt J. Werner, Andreas Musolff, Oliver J. Lechtenfeld, Gerrit H. de Rooij, Marieke R. Oosterwoud, and Jan H. Fleckenstein
Biogeosciences, 16, 4497–4516,Short summary
Increased dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration in streams can pose a threat to downstream water resources. Analyzing data from an in-stream probe we found that hydroclimatic and hydrological drivers can describe up to 72 % of the observed DOC concentration and composition variability. Variability was found to be highest during discharge events with warm and dry preconditions. The findings suggest an impact of climate change on DOC exports and thus also on downstream water quality.
Adam S. Ward, Jay P. Zarnetske, Viktor Baranov, Phillip J. Blaen, Nicolai Brekenfeld, Rosalie Chu, Romain Derelle, Jennifer Drummond, Jan H. Fleckenstein, Vanessa Garayburu-Caruso, Emily Graham, David Hannah, Ciaran J. Harman, Skuyler Herzog, Jase Hixson, Julia L. A. Knapp, Stefan Krause, Marie J. Kurz, Jörg Lewandowski, Angang Li, Eugènia Martí, Melinda Miller, Alexander M. Milner, Kerry Neil, Luisa Orsini, Aaron I. Packman, Stephen Plont, Lupita Renteria, Kevin Roche, Todd Royer, Noah M. Schmadel, Catalina Segura, James Stegen, Jason Toyoda, Jacqueline Wells, Nathan I. Wisnoski, and Steven M. Wondzell
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 1567–1581,Short summary
Studies of river corridor exchange commonly focus on characterization of the physical, chemical, or biological system. As a result, complimentary systems and context are often lacking, which may limit interpretation. Here, we present a characterization of all three systems at 62 sites in a 5th-order river basin, including samples of surface water, hyporheic water, and sediment. These data will allow assessment of interacting processes in the river corridor.
Sophie Ehrhardt, Rohini Kumar, Jan H. Fleckenstein, Sabine Attinger, and Andreas Musolff
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 3503–3524,Short summary
This study shows quantitative and temporal offsets between nitrogen input and riverine output, using time series of three nested catchments in central Germany. The riverine concentrations show lagged reactions to the input, but at the same time exhibit strong inter-annual changes in the relationship between riverine discharge and concentration. The study found a strong retention of nitrogen that is dominantly assigned to a hydrological N legacy, which will affect future stream concentrations.
Miao Jing, Falk Heße, Rohini Kumar, Olaf Kolditz, Thomas Kalbacher, and Sabine Attinger
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 171–190,Short summary
We evaluated the uncertainty propagation from the inputs (forcings) and parameters to the predictions of groundwater travel time distributions (TTDs) using a fully distributed numerical model (mHM-OGS) and the StorAge Selection (SAS) function. Through detailed numerical and analytical investigations, we emphasize the key role of recharge estimation in the reliable predictions of TTDs and the good interpretability of the SAS function.
Rémi Dupas, Andreas Musolff, James W. Jawitz, P. Suresh C. Rao, Christoph G. Jäger, Jan H. Fleckenstein, Michael Rode, and Dietrich Borchardt
Biogeosciences, 14, 4391–4407,Short summary
Carbon and nutrient export regimes were analyzed from archetypal headwater catchments to downstream reaches. In headwater catchments, land use and lithology determine land-to-stream C, N and P transfer processes. The crucial role of riparian zones in C, N and P coupling was investigated. In downstream reaches, point-source contributions and in-stream processes alter C, N and P export regimes.
T. Fischer, D. Naumov, S. Sattler, O. Kolditz, and M. Walther
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 3681–3694,Short summary
We present a workflow to convert geological models into the open-source VTU format for usage in numerical simulation models. Tackling relevant scientific questions or engineering tasks often involves multidisciplinary approaches. Conversion workflows are needed between the diverse tools of the various disciplines. Our approach offers an open-source, platform-independent, robust, and comprehensible method that is potentially useful for a multitude of similar environmental studies.
B. J. Kopp, J. H. Fleckenstein, N. T. Roulet, E. Humphreys, J. Talbot, and C. Blodau
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 3485–3498,
S. Strohmeier, K.-H. Knorr, M. Reichert, S. Frei, J. H. Fleckenstein, S. Peiffer, and E. Matzner
Biogeosciences, 10, 905–916,
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Niccolò Tubini and Riccardo Rigon
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 75–104,Short summary
This paper presents WHETGEO and its 1D deployment: a new physically based model simulating the water and energy budgets in a soil column. WHETGEO-1D is intended to be the first building block of a new customisable land-surface model that is integrated with process-based hydrology. WHETGEO is developed as an open-source code and is fully integrated into the GEOframe/OMS3 system, allowing the use of the many ancillary tools it provides.
Tobias Stacke and Stefan Hagemann
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 7795–7816,Short summary
HydroPy is a new version of an established global hydrology model. It was rewritten from scratch and adapted to a modern object-oriented infrastructure to facilitate its future development and application. With this study, we provide a thorough documentation and evaluation of our new model. At the same time, we open our code base and publish the model's source code in a public software repository. In this way, we aim to contribute to increasing transparency and reproducibility in science.
Tom Gleeson, Thorsten Wagener, Petra Döll, Samuel C. Zipper, Charles West, Yoshihide Wada, Richard Taylor, Bridget Scanlon, Rafael Rosolem, Shams Rahman, Nurudeen Oshinlaja, Reed Maxwell, Min-Hui Lo, Hyungjun Kim, Mary Hill, Andreas Hartmann, Graham Fogg, James S. Famiglietti, Agnès Ducharne, Inge de Graaf, Mark Cuthbert, Laura Condon, Etienne Bresciani, and Marc F. P. Bierkens
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Marco Toffolon, Luca Cortese, and Damien Bouffard
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 7527–7543,Short summary
The time when lakes freeze varies considerably from year to year. A common way to predict it is to use negative degree days, i.e., the sum of air temperatures below 0 °C, a proxy for the heat lost to the atmosphere. Here, we show that this is insufficient as the mixing of the surface layer induced by wind tends to delay the formation of ice. To do so, we developed a minimal model based on a simplified energy balance, which can be used both for large-scale analyses and short-term predictions.
Marco De Lucia, Michael Kühn, Alexander Lindemann, Max Lübke, and Bettina Schnor
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 7391–7409,Short summary
POET is a parallel reactive transport simulator which implements a mechanism to store and reuse previous results of geochemical simulations through distributed hash tables. POET parallelizes chemistry using a master/worker design with noncontiguous grid partitions to maximize its efficiency and load balance on shared-memory machines and compute clusters.
Mary M. F. O'Neill, Danielle T. Tijerina, Laura E. Condon, and Reed M. Maxwell
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 7223–7254,Short summary
Modeling the hydrologic cycle at high resolution and at large spatial scales is an incredible opportunity and challenge for hydrologists. In this paper, we present the results of a high-resolution hydrologic simulation configured over the contiguous United States. We discuss simulated water fluxes through groundwater, soil, plants, and over land, and we compare model results to in situ observations and satellite products in order to build confidence and guide future model development.
Daniel Power, Miguel Angel Rico-Ramirez, Sharon Desilets, Darin Desilets, and Rafael Rosolem
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 7287–7307,Short summary
Cosmic-ray neutron sensors estimate root-zone soil moisture at sub-kilometre scales. There are national-scale networks of these sensors across the globe; however, methods for converting neutron signals to soil moisture values are inconsistent. This paper describes our open-source Python tool that processes raw sensor data into soil moisture estimates. The aim is to allow a user to ensure they have a harmonized data set, along with informative metadata, to facilitate both research and teaching.
Marco Dal Molin, Dmitri Kavetski, and Fabrizio Fenicia
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 7047–7072,Short summary
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E. Andrés Quichimbo, Michael Bliss Singer, Katerina Michaelides, Daniel E. J. Hobley, Rafael Rosolem, and Mark O. Cuthbert
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 6893–6917,Short summary
Understanding and quantifying water partitioning in dryland regions are of key importance to anticipate the future impacts of climate change in water resources and dryland ecosystems. Here, we have developed a simple hydrological model (DRYP) that incorporates the key processes of water partitioning in drylands. DRYP is a modular, versatile, and parsimonious model that can be used to anticipate and plan for climatic and anthropogenic changes to water fluxes and storage in dryland regions.
Nathaniel W. Chaney, Laura Torres-Rojas, Noemi Vergopolan, and Colby K. Fisher
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 6813–6832,Short summary
Although there have been significant advances in river routing and sub-grid heterogeneity (i.e., tiling) schemes in Earth system models over the past decades, there has yet to be a concerted effort to couple these two concepts. This paper aims to bridge this gap through the development of a two-way coupling between tiling schemes and river networks in the HydroBlocks land surface model. The scheme is implemented and tested over a 1 arc degree domain in Oklahoma, United States.
Dejian Zhang, Bingqing Lin, Jiefeng Wu, and Qiaoying Lin
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 5915–5925,Short summary
GP-SWAT is a two-layer model parallelization tool for a SWAT model based on the graph-parallel Pregel algorithm. It can be employed to perform both individual and iterative model parallelization, endowing it with a range of possible applications and great flexibility in maximizing performance. As a flexible and scalable tool, it can run in diverse environments, ranging from a commodity computer with a Microsoft Windows, Mac or Linux OS to a Spark cluster consisting of a large number of nodes.
Daisuke Tokuda, Hyungjun Kim, Dai Yamazaki, and Taikan Oki
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 5669–5693,Short summary
We developed TCHOIR, a hydrologic simulation framework, to solve fluvial- and thermodynamics of the river–lake continuum. This provides an algorithm for upscaling high-resolution topography as well, which enables the representation of those interactions at the global scale. Validation against in situ and satellite observations shows that the coupled mode outperforms river- or lake-only modes. TCHOIR will contribute to elucidating the role of surface hydrology in Earth’s energy and water cycle.
Marko Kallio, Joseph H. A. Guillaume, Vili Virkki, Matti Kummu, and Kirsi Virrantaus
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 5155–5181,Short summary
Different runoff and streamflow products are freely available but may come with unsuitable spatial units. On the other hand, starting a new modelling exercise may require considerable resources. Hydrostreamer improves the usability of existing runoff products, allowing runoff and streamflow estimates at the desired spatial units with minimal data requirements and intuitive workflow. The case study shows that Hydrostreamer performs well compared to benchmark products and observation data.
Peter Uhe, Daniel Mitchell, Paul D. Bates, Nans Addor, Jeff Neal, and Hylke E. Beck
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 4865–4890,Short summary
We present a cascade of models to compute high-resolution river flooding. This takes meteorological inputs, e.g., rainfall and temperature from observations or climate models, and takes them through a series of modeling steps. This is relevant to evaluating current day and future flood risk and impacts. The model framework uses global data sets, allowing it to be applied anywhere in the world.
Marco De Lucia and Michael Kühn
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 4713–4730,Short summary
DecTree evaluates a hierarchical coupling method for reactive transport simulations in which pre-trained surrogate models are used to speed up the geochemical subprocess, and equation-based
full-physicssimulations are called only if the surrogate predictions are implausible. Furthermore, we devise and evaluate a decision tree surrogate approach designed to inject domain knowledge of the surrogate by defining engineered features based on law of mass action or stoichiometric reaction equations.
Camelia-Eliza Telteu, Hannes Müller Schmied, Wim Thiery, Guoyong Leng, Peter Burek, Xingcai Liu, Julien Eric Stanislas Boulange, Lauren Seaby Andersen, Manolis Grillakis, Simon Newland Gosling, Yusuke Satoh, Oldrich Rakovec, Tobias Stacke, Jinfeng Chang, Niko Wanders, Harsh Lovekumar Shah, Tim Trautmann, Ganquan Mao, Naota Hanasaki, Aristeidis Koutroulis, Yadu Pokhrel, Luis Samaniego, Yoshihide Wada, Vimal Mishra, Junguo Liu, Petra Döll, Fang Zhao, Anne Gädeke, Sam S. Rabin, and Florian Herz
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 3843–3878,Short summary
We analyse water storage compartments, water flows, and human water use sectors included in 16 global water models that provide simulations for the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project phase 2b. We develop a standard writing style for the model equations. We conclude that even though hydrologic processes are often based on similar equations, in the end these equations have been adjusted, or the models have used different values for specific parameters or specific variables.
James Shaw, Georges Kesserwani, Jeffrey Neal, Paul Bates, and Mohammad Kazem Sharifian
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 3577–3602,Short summary
LISFLOOD-FP has been extended with new shallow-water solvers – DG2 and FV1 – for modelling all types of slow- or fast-moving waves over any smooth or rough surface. Using GPU parallelisation, FV1 is faster than the simpler ACC solver on grids with millions of elements. The DG2 solver is notably effective on coarse grids where river channels are hard to capture, improving predicted river levels and flood water depths. This marks a new step towards real-world DG2 flood inundation modelling.
Chiranjib Chaudhuri, Annie Gray, and Colin Robertson
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 3295–3315,Short summary
A flood risk estimation model for two study watersheds in Canada and an interactive visualization platform using publicly available hydrometric data are presented. The risk model uses a height above nearest drainage (HAND)-based solution for Manning’s formula and is implemented on a big-data discrete global grid system framework. Overall, the novel data model decreases processing time and provides easy parallelization, resulting in performance gains in online flood analytics.
Sandra Hellmers and Peter Fröhle
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for GMDShort summary
A hydrological method to compute backwater effects in surface water streams and on adjacent lowlands caused by mostly complex drainage systems is presented. It enables to transfer discharges to water levels and to calculate backwater volume routing along streams and lowland areas by balancing water level slopes. The developed, implemented and evaluated method extends the application range of hydrological models significantly for flood routing simulation in backwater affected catchments.
Axel Schaffitel, Tobias Schuetz, and Markus Weiler
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 2127–2142,Short summary
This paper presents FluSM, an algorithm to derive the water balance from soil moisture and metrological measurements. This data-driven water balance framework uses soil moisture as an input and therefore is applicable for cases with unclear processes and lacking parameters. In a case study, we apply FluSM to derive the water balance of 15 different permeable pavements under field conditions. These findings are of special interest for urban hydrology.
Thibault Guinaldo, Simon Munier, Patrick Le Moigne, Aaron Boone, Bertrand Decharme, Margarita Choulga, and Delphine J. Leroux
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1309–1344,Short summary
Lakes are of fundamental importance in the Earth system as they support essential environmental and economic services such as freshwater supply. Despite the impact of lakes on the water cycle, they are generally not considered in global hydrological studies. Based on a model called MLake, we assessed both the importance of lakes in simulating river flows at global scale and the value of their level variations for water resource management.
Hannes Müller Schmied, Denise Cáceres, Stephanie Eisner, Martina Flörke, Claudia Herbert, Christoph Niemann, Thedini Asali Peiris, Eklavyya Popat, Felix Theodor Portmann, Robert Reinecke, Maike Schumacher, Somayeh Shadkam, Camelia-Eliza Telteu, Tim Trautmann, and Petra Döll
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1037–1079,Short summary
In a globalized world with large flows of virtual water between river basins and international responsibilities for the sustainable development of the Earth system and its inhabitants, quantitative estimates of water flows and storages and of water demand by humans are required. Global hydrological models such as WaterGAP are developed to provide this information. Here we present a thorough description, evaluation and application examples of the most recent model version, WaterGAP v2.2d.
John F. Burkhart, Felix N. Matt, Sigbjørn Helset, Yisak Sultan Abdella, Ola Skavhaug, and Olga Silantyeva
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 821–842,Short summary
We present a new hydrologic modeling framework for interactive development of inflow forecasts for hydropower production planning and other operational environments (e.g., flood forecasting). The software provides a Python user interface with an application programming interface (API) for a computationally optimized C++ model engine, giving end users extensive control over the model configuration in real time during a simulation. This provides for extensive experimentation with configuration.
Mathias Bavay, Michael Reisecker, Thomas Egger, and Daniela Korhammer
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for GMD
Joost Buitink, Lieke A. Melsen, James W. Kirchner, and Adriaan J. Teuling
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 6093–6110,Short summary
This paper presents a new distributed hydrological model: the distributed simple dynamical systems (dS2) model. The model is built with a focus on computational efficiency and is therefore able to simulate basins at high spatial and temporal resolution at a low computational cost. Despite the simplicity of the model concept, it is able to correctly simulate discharge in both small and mesoscale basins.
Zhipin Ai, Naota Hanasaki, Vera Heck, Tomoko Hasegawa, and Shinichiro Fujimori
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 6077–6092,Short summary
Incorporating bioenergy crops into the well-established global hydrological models is seldom seen today. Here, we successfully enhance a state-of-the-art global hydrological model H08 to simulate bioenergy crop yield. We found that unconstrained irrigation more than doubled the yield under rainfed conditions while simultaneously reducing the water use efficiency by 32 % globally. Our enhanced model provides a new tool for the future assessment of bioenergy–water tradeoffs.
Matthew T. Perks
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 6111–6130,Short summary
KLT-IV v1.0 offers a user-friendly graphical interface for the determination of river flow velocity and river discharge using videos acquired from both fixed and mobile remote sensing platforms. Platform motion can be accounted for using ground control points and/or stable features or a GPS device and inertial measurement unit sensor. Examples of the KLT-IV workflow are provided for two case studies where footage is acquired using unmanned aerial systems and fixed cameras.
Bram Droppers, Wietse H. P. Franssen, Michelle T. H. van Vliet, Bart Nijssen, and Fulco Ludwig
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 5029–5052,Short summary
Our study aims to include both both societal and natural water requirements and uses into a hydrological model in order to enable worldwide assessments of sustainable water use. The model was extended to include irrigation, domestic, industrial, energy, and livestock water uses as well as minimum flow requirements for natural systems. Initial results showed competition for water resources between society and nature, especially with respect to groundwater withdrawals.
Zachary L. Flamig, Humberto Vergara, and Jonathan J. Gourley
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 4943–4958,Short summary
The Ensemble Framework For Flash Flood Forecasting (EF5) is used in the US National Weather Service for operational monitoring and short-term forecasting of flash floods. This article describes the hydrologic models supported by the framework and evaluates their accuracy by comparing simulations of streamflow from 2001 to 2011 at 4 366 observation sites with catchments less than 1000 km2. Overall, the uncalibrated models reasonably simulate flash flooding events.
Benya Wang, Matthew R. Hipsey, and Carolyn Oldham
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 4253–4270,Short summary
Surface water nutrients are essential to manage water quality, but it is hard to analyse trends. We developed a hybrid model and compared with other models for the prediction of six different nutrients. Our results showed that the hybrid model had significantly higher accuracy and lower prediction uncertainty for almost all nutrient species. The hybrid model provides a flexible method to combine data of varied resolution and quality and is accurate for the prediction of nutrient concentrations.
Patrick Le Moigne, François Besson, Eric Martin, Julien Boé, Aaron Boone, Bertrand Decharme, Pierre Etchevers, Stéphanie Faroux, Florence Habets, Matthieu Lafaysse, Delphine Leroux, and Fabienne Rousset-Regimbeau
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 3925–3946,Short summary
The study describes how a hydrometeorological model, operational at Météo-France, has been improved. Particular emphasis is placed on the impact of climatic data, surface, and soil parametrizations on the model results. Model simulations and evaluations carried out on a variety of measurements of river flows and snow depths are presented. All improvements in climate, surface data, and model physics have a positive impact on system performance.
Yilin Fang, Xingyuan Chen, Jesus Gomez Velez, Xuesong Zhang, Zhuoran Duan, Glenn E. Hammond, Amy E. Goldman, Vanessa A. Garayburu-Caruso, and Emily B. Graham
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 3553–3569,Short summary
Surface water quality along river corridors can be improved by the area of the stream bed and stream bank in which stream water mixes with shallow groundwater or hyporheic zones (HZs). These zones are ubiquitous and dominated by microorganisms that can process the dissolved nutrients exchanged at this interface of these zones. The modulation of surface water quality can be simulated by connecting the channel water and HZs through hyporheic exchanges using multirate mass transfer representation.
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 2905–2924,Short summary
Fractured and karst aquifers constitute important groundwater reservoirs worldwide but are particularly vulnerable to anthropogenic pollution. MFIT is a new GUI-based software for the analytical modeling of artificial tracer tests in such media. It integrates four transport models that are all capable of simulating complex (multimodal and/or heavy-tailed) tracer breakthrough curve responses and includes advanced tools for the automatic calibration and uncertainty analysis of model parameters.
Lele Shu, Paul A. Ullrich, and Christopher J. Duffy
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 2743–2762,Short summary
Hydrologic modeling is an essential strategy for understanding and predicting natural flows. The paper introduces the design of Simulator for Hydrologic Unstructured Domains (SHUD), from the conceptual and mathematical description of hydrologic processes in a watershed to the model's computational structures. To demonstrate and validate the model performance, we employ three hydrologic experiments: the V-Catchment experiment, Vauclin's experiment, and a model study of the Cache Creek Watershed.
Harsh Beria, Joshua R. Larsen, Anthony Michelon, Natalie C. Ceperley, and Bettina Schaefli
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 2433–2450,Short summary
We develop a Bayesian mixing model to address the issue of small sample sizes to describe different sources in hydrological mixing applications. Using composite likelihood functions, the model accounts for an often overlooked bias arising due to unweighted mixing. We test the model efficacy using a series of statistical benchmarking tests and demonstrate its real-life applicability by applying it to a Swiss Alpine catchment to obtain the proportion of groundwater recharged from rain vs. snow.
Andrew J. Newman and Martyn P. Clark
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 1827–1843,Short summary
This paper introduces the Topographically InformEd Regression (TIER) model, which uses terrain attributes to turn observations of precipitation and temperature into spatial maps. TIER allows our understanding of complex atmospheric processes such as terrain-enhanced precipitation to be modeled in a very simple way. TIER lets users change the model so they can experiment with different ways of making maps. A key conclusion is that small changes in TIER will change the final map.
Zhen Yin, Sebastien Strebelle, and Jef Caers
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 651–672,Short summary
We provide completely automated Bayesian evidential learning (AutoBEL) for geological uncertainty quantification. AutoBEL focuses on model falsification, global sensitivity analysis, and statistical learning for joint model uncertainty reduction by borehole data. Application shows fast and robust uncertainty reduction in geological models and predictions for large field cases, showing its applicability in subsurface applications, e.g., groundwater, oil, gas, and geothermal or mineral resources.
Thomas Bueche, Marko Wenk, Benjamin Poschlod, Filippo Giadrossich, Mario Pirastru, and Mark Vetter
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 565–580,Short summary
The R-based graphical user interface glmGUI provides tools for pre- and postprocessing of General Lake Model (GLM) simulations. This includes an autocalibration, parameter sensitivity analysis, and several plot options. The model parameters can be analyzed and calibrated for the simulation output variables water temperature and lake level. The toolbox is tested for two sites (lake Ammersee, Germany, and lake Baratz, Italy).
Christopher B. Marsh, John W. Pomeroy, and Howard S. Wheater
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 225–247,Short summary
The Canadian Hydrological Model (CHM) is a next-generation distributed model. Although designed to be applied generally, it has a focus for application where cold-region processes, such as snowpacks, play a role in hydrology. A key feature is that it uses a multi-scale surface representation, increasing efficiency. It also enables algorithm comparisons in a flexible structure. Model philosophy, design, and several cold-region-specific examples are described.
Ganquan Mao and Junguo Liu
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 5267–5289,
Mattia Zaramella, Marco Borga, Davide Zoccatelli, and Luca Carturan
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 5251–5265,Short summary
This paper presents TOPMELT, a parsimonious snowpack simulation model integrated into a basin-scale hydrological model. TOPMELT implements the full spatial distribution of clear-sky potential solar radiation by means of a statistical representation: this approach reduces computational burden, which is a key potential advantage when parameter sensitivity and uncertainty estimation procedures are carried out. The model is assessed by examining different resolutions of its domain.
Rui Wu, Lei Yang, Chao Chen, Sajjad Ahmad, Sergiu M. Dascalu, and Frederick C. Harris Jr.
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 4115–4131,Short summary
The paper mainly has two contributions. First, a post-processor framework is proposed to improve hydrologic model accuracy. The key is to characterize possible connections between model inputs and errors. Based on results, it is also possible to replace the time-consuming model calibration step using our post-processor framework. Second, a window selection method is proposed to handle nonstationary data. A window size is chosen containing stable data using a measure named
DSproposed by us.
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 4061–4073,Short summary
This paper presents a new model code that can be used to date the flow of hot fluids in the crust and the age of hot springs. It does so by modelling the thermal effects of fluid flow in the subsurface and by comparing the results with low-temperature thermochronology, which is a widely used method to quantify the temperature history of minerals and rocks. The model also demonstrates the effects of the depth and angle of permeable faults on temperatures of hot springs.
Jiali Wang, Cheng Wang, Vishwas Rao, Andrew Orr, Eugene Yan, and Rao Kotamarthi
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 3523–3539,Short summary
WRF-Hydro needs to be calibrated to optimize its output with respect to observations. However, when applied to a relatively large domain, both WRF-Hydro simulations and calibrations require intensive computing resources and are best performed in parallel. This study ported an independent calibration tool (parameter estimation tool – PEST) to high-performance computing clusters and adapted it to work with WRF-Hydro. The results show significant speedup for model calibration.
Brendan Alexander Harmon, Helena Mitasova, Anna Petrasova, and Vaclav Petras
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 2837–2854,Short summary
The numerical model, r.sim.terrain, simulates how overland flows of water and sediment shape topography over short periods of time. We tested the model by comparing runs of the simulation against a time series of airborne lidar surveys for our study landscape. Through these tests, we demonstrated that the model can simulate gully evolution including processes such as channel incision, channel widening, and the development of scour pits, rills, and depositional ridges.
Elena Shevnina and Andrey Silaev
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 2767–2780,Short summary
The paper provides a theory and assumptions behind an advance of frequency analysis (AFA) approach in long-term hydrological forecasting. In this paper, a new core of the probabilistic hydrological model MARkov Chain System (MARCSHYDRO) was introduced, together with the code and an example of a climate-scale prediction of an exceedance probability curve of river runoff with low computational costs.
Ting Sun and Sue Grimmond
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 2781–2795,Short summary
A Python-enhanced urban land surface model, SuPy (SUEWS in Python), is presented with its development (the SUEWS interface modification, F2PY configuration and Python frontend implementation), cross-platform deployment (PyPI, Python Package Index) and demonstration (online tutorials in Jupyter notebooks for users of different levels). SuPy represents a significant enhancement that supports existing and new model applications, reproducibility and enhanced functionality.
Stephan Thober, Matthias Cuntz, Matthias Kelbling, Rohini Kumar, Juliane Mai, and Luis Samaniego
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 2501–2521,Short summary
We present a model that aggregates simulated runoff along a river (i.e. a routing model). The unique feature of the model is that it can be run at multiple resolutions without any modifications to the input data. The model internally (dis-)aggregates all input data to the resolution given by the user. The model performance does not depend on the chosen resolution. This allows efficient model calibration at coarse resolution and subsequent model application at fine resolution.
Wouter J. M. Knoben, Jim E. Freer, Keirnan J. A. Fowler, Murray C. Peel, and Ross A. Woods
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 2463–2480,Short summary
Computer models are used to predict river flows. A good model should represent the river basin to which it is applied so that flow predictions are as realistic as possible. However, many different computer models exist, and selecting the most appropriate model for a given river basin is not always easy. This study combines computer code for 46 different hydrological models into a single coding framework so that models can be compared in an objective way and we can learn about model differences.
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Ballarini, E., Beyer, C., Bauer, R. D., Griebler, C., and Bauer, S.: Model based evaluation of a contaminant plume development under aerobic and anaerobic conditions in 2-D bench-scale tank experiments, Biodegradation, 25, 351–371, 2014.
Beyer, C., Li, D., De Lucia, M., Kühn, M., and Bauer, S.: Modelling CO2-induced fluid-rock interactions in the Altensalzwedel gas reservoir. Part II: coupled reactive transport simulation, Environ. Earth Sci., 67, 573–588, 2012.
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Hammond, G. E. and Lichtner, P. C.: Field-scale model for the natural attenuation of uranium at the Hanford 300 Area using high-performance computing, Water Resour. Res., 46, W09527, https://doi.org/10.1029/2009WR008819, 2010.
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This technical paper presents a new tool to simulate reactive transport processes in subsurface systems and which couples the open-source software packages OpenGeoSys and IPhreeqc. A flexible parallelization scheme was developed and implemented to enable an optimized allocation of computer resources. The performance tests of the coupling interface and parallelization scheme illustrate the promising efficiency of this generally valid approach to simulate reactive transport problems.
This technical paper presents a new tool to simulate reactive transport processes in subsurface...