Articles | Volume 14, issue 9
© Author(s) 2021. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
© Author(s) 2021. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
NDCmitiQ v1.0.0: a tool to quantify and analyse greenhouse gas mitigation targets
Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK), Member of the Leibniz Association, P.O. Box 601203, 14412 Potsdam, Germany
Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK), Member of the Leibniz Association, P.O. Box 601203, 14412 Potsdam, Germany
Mairi Louise Jeffery
NewClimate Institute, Schönhauser Allee 10–11, 10119 Berlin, Germany
No articles found.
Piers M. Forster, Christopher J. Smith, Tristram Walsh, William F. Lamb, Robin Lamboll, Mathias Hauser, Aurélien Ribes, Debbie Rosen, Nathan Gillett, Matthew D. Palmer, Joeri Rogelj, Karina von Schuckmann, Sonia I. Seneviratne, Blair Trewin, Xuebin Zhang, Myles Allen, Robbie Andrew, Arlene Birt, Alex Borger, Tim Boyer, Jiddu A. Broersma, Lijing Cheng, Frank Dentener, Pierre Friedlingstein, José M. Gutiérrez, Johannes Gütschow, Bradley Hall, Masayoshi Ishii, Stuart Jenkins, Xin Lan, June-Yi Lee, Colin Morice, Christopher Kadow, John Kennedy, Rachel Killick, Jan C. Minx, Vaishali Naik, Glen P. Peters, Anna Pirani, Julia Pongratz, Carl-Friedrich Schleussner, Sophie Szopa, Peter Thorne, Robert Rohde, Maisa Rojas Corradi, Dominik Schumacher, Russell Vose, Kirsten Zickfeld, Valérie Masson-Delmotte, and Panmao Zhai
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 15, 2295–2327,Short summary
This is a critical decade for climate action, but there is no annual tracking of the level of human-induced warming. We build on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change assessment reports that are authoritative but published infrequently to create a set of key global climate indicators that can be tracked through time. Our hope is that this becomes an important annual publication that policymakers, media, scientists and the public can refer to.
Francesco N. Tubiello, Kevin Karl, Alessandro Flammini, Johannes Gütschow, Griffiths Obli-Laryea, Giulia Conchedda, Xueyao Pan, Sally Yue Qi, Hörn Halldórudóttir Heiðarsdóttir, Nathan Wanner, Roberta Quadrelli, Leonardo Rocha Souza, Philippe Benoit, Matthew Hayek, David Sandalow, Erik Mencos Contreras, Cynthia Rosenzweig, Jose Rosero Moncayo, Piero Conforti, and Maximo Torero
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 1795–1809,Short summary
The paper presents results from the new FAOSTAT database on food system emissions, covering all countries over the time series 1990–2019. Results indicate and further clarify – updated to 2019 – the relevance of emissions from crop and livestock production processes within the farm gate; from conversion of natural ecosystems to agriculture, such as deforestation and peat degradation; and from use of fossil fuels for energy and other industrial processes along food supply chains.
Johannes Gütschow, M. Louise Jeffery, Annika Günther, and Malte Meinshausen
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 1005–1040,Short summary
Climate policy analysis needs scenarios of future greenhouse gas emission to assess countries' emission targets and current trends. The models generating these scenarios work on a regional resolution. Scenarios are often made available only on a very coarse regional resolution. In this paper we use per country projections of gross domestic product (GDP) from the Shared Socio-Economic Pathways (SSPs) to derive country-level data from published regional emission scenarios.
M. Louise Jeffery, Johannes Gütschow, Robert Gieseke, and Ronja Gebel
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 1427–1438,Short summary
Developed countries are required to report detailed greenhouse gas emissions data to the UN on an annual basis. The reporting tables are complex, do not fit well with existing hierarchical reporting guidelines, and are not machine-readable. We present a processed version of the reported data in a consistent hierarchy, and in a format that is machine-readable and easy-to-use. The emissions data are also aggregated into
basketsof gases using global warming equivalency metrics from IPCC reports.
Johannes Gütschow, M. Louise Jeffery, Robert Gieseke, Ronja Gebel, David Stevens, Mario Krapp, and Marcia Rocha
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 8, 571–603,Short summary
This paper provides the methodology for the creation of historical country-resolved time series of greenhouse gas emissions from different datasets which are individually incomplete in terms of years, gases, and/or countries. The combination of datasets is carried out using the PRIMAP model (www.primap.org). The resulting time series can be viewed interactively on www.pik-potsdam.de/primap-live. It will be used for climate policy analysis, e.g. the historical responsibility for climate change.
Related subject area
Numerical methodsLISFLOOD-FP 8.1: new GPU-accelerated solvers for faster fluvial/pluvial flood simulationsFast approximate Barnes interpolation: illustrated by Python-Numba implementation fast-barnes-py v1.0Strategies for conservative and non-conservative monotone remapping on the sphereThe neXtSIM-DG dynamical core: A Framework for Higher-order Finite Element Sea Ice ModelingModeling large‐scale landform evolution with a stream power law for glacial erosion (OpenLEM v37): benchmarking experiments against a more process-based description of ice flow (iSOSIA v3.4.3)A mixed finite-element discretisation of the shallow-water equationsMultifidelity Monte Carlo estimation for efficient uncertainty quantification in climate-related modelingLeveraging Google’s Tensor Processing Units for tsunami-risk mitigation planning in the Pacific Northwest and beyondMassively parallel modeling and inversion of electrical resistivity tomography data using PFLOTRANParallelized domain decomposition for multi-dimensional Lagrangian random walk mass-transfer particle tracking schemesA Model Instability Issue in the NCEP Global Forecast System Version 16 and Potential SolutionsThe Intelligent Prospector v1.0: geoscientific model development and prediction by sequential data acquisition planning with application to mineral explorationPredicting peak daily maximum 8 h ozone and linkages to emissions and meteorology in Southern California using machine learning methods (SoCAB-8HR V1.0)Transfer learning for landslide susceptibility modeling using domain adaptation and case-based reasoningISMIP-HOM benchmark experiments using Underworldspyro: a Firedrake-based wave propagation and full-waveform-inversion finite-element solverGStatSim V1.0: a Python package for geostatistical interpolation and simulationA Comparison of 3-D Spherical Shell Thermal Convection results at Low to Moderate Rayleigh Number using ASPECT (version 2.2.0) and CitcomS (version 3.3.1)Spatial filtering in a 6D hybrid-Vlasov scheme to alleviate adaptive mesh refinement artifacts: a case study with Vlasiator (versions 5.0, 5.1, and 5.2.1)A Bayesian data assimilation framework for lake 3D hydrodynamic models with a physics-preserving particle filtering method using SPUX-MITgcm v1A fast, single-iteration ensemble Kalman smoother for sequential data assimilationAn improved subgrid channel model with upwind form artificial diffusion for river hydrodynamics and floodplain inundation simulationCharacterizing uncertainties of Earth system modeling with heterogeneous many-core architecture computingMetrics for Intercomparison of Remapping Algorithms (MIRA) protocol applied to Earth system modelsImpact of the numerical solution approach of a plant hydrodynamic model (v0.1) on vegetation dynamicsIslet: interpolation semi-Lagrangian element-based transportMulti-dimensional hydrological–hydraulic model with variational data assimilation for river networks and floodplainsAssessing the robustness and scalability of the accelerated pseudo-transient methodAssessment of stochastic weather forecast of precipitation near European cities, based on analogs of circulationUniversity of Warsaw Lagrangian Cloud Model (UWLCM) 2.0: adaptation of a mixed Eulerian–Lagrangian numerical model for heterogeneous computing clustersPrediction error growth in a more realistic atmospheric toy model with three spatiotemporal scalesOn numerical broadening of particle-size spectra: a condensational growth study using PyMPDATA 1.0Lossy checkpoint compression in full waveform inversion: a case study with ZFPv0.5.5 and the overthrust modelBlockworlds 0.1.0: a demonstration of anti-aliased geophysics for probabilistic inversions of implicit and kinematic geological modelsEfficient high-dimensional variational data assimilation with machine-learned reduced-order modelsImproved double Fourier series on a sphere and its application to a semi-implicit semi-Lagrangian shallow-water modelSciKit-GStat 1.0: a 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spherical geometryMachine-learning models to replicate large-eddy simulations of air pollutant concentrations along boulevard-type streetsRecalculation of error growth models' parameters for the ECMWF forecast systemHow biased are our models? – a case study of the alpine regionB-flood 1.0: an open-source Saint-Venant model for flash-flood simulation using adaptive refinementA micro-genetic algorithm (GA v1.7.1a) for combinatorial optimization of physics parameterizations in the Weather Research and Forecasting model (v4.0.3) for quantitative precipitation forecast in KoreaSymPKF (v1.0): a symbolic and computational toolbox for the design of parametric Kalman filter dynamics
Mohammad Kazem Sharifian, Georges Kesserwani, Alovya Ahmed Chowdhury, Jeffrey Neal, and Paul Bates
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 2391–2413,Short summary
This paper describes a new release of the LISFLOOD-FP model for fast and efficient flood simulations. It features a new non-uniform grid generator that uses multiwavelet analyses to sensibly coarsens the resolutions where the local topographic variations are smooth. Moreover, the model is parallelised on the graphical processing units (GPUs) to further boost computational efficiency. The performance of the model is assessed for five real-world case studies, noting its potential applications.
Bruno K. Zürcher
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 1697–1711,Short summary
We present a novel algorithm to efficiently compute Barnes interpolation, which is a method for transforming data values recorded at irregularly spaced points into a corresponding regular grid. In contrast to naive implementations with an algorithmic complexity that depends on the product of the number of sample points and the number of grid points, our approach reduces this dependency to their sum.
David H. Marsico and Paul A. Ullrich
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 1537–1551,Short summary
Climate models involve several different components, such as the atmosphere, ocean, and land models. Information needs to be exchanged, or remapped, between these models, and devising algorithms for performing this exchange is important for ensuring the accuracy of climate simulations. In this paper, we examine the efficacy of several traditional and novel approaches to remapping on the sphere and demonstrate where our approaches offer improvement.
Thomas Richter, Véronique Dansereau, Christian Lessig, and Piotr Minakowski
Sea ice covers not only the pole regions but affects the weather and climate globally. For example, its white surface reflects more sun light than land. The oceans around the poles are therefore kept cool, which affects the circulation in the oceans worldwide. Simulating the behavior and changes in sea ice on a computer is, however, very difficult. We propose a new computer simulation that better models how cracks in the ice change over time and show this by comparing to other simulations.
Moritz Liebl, Jörg Robl, Stefan Hergarten, David Lundbek Egholm, and Kurt Stüwe
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 1315–1343,Short summary
In this study, we benchmark a topography-based model for glacier erosion (OpenLEM) with a well-established process-based model (iSOSIA). Our experiments show that large-scale erosion patterns and particularly the transformation of valley length geometry from fluvial to glacial conditions are very similar in both models. This finding enables the application of OpenLEM to study the influence of climate and tectonics on glaciated mountains with reasonable computational effort on standard PCs.
James Kent, Thomas Melvin, and Golo Albert Wimmer
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 1265–1276,Short summary
This paper introduces the Met Office's new shallow water model. The shallow water model is a building block towards the Met Office's new atmospheric dynamical core. The shallow water model is tested on a number of standard spherical shallow water test cases, including flow over mountains and unstable jets. Results show that the model produces similar results to other shallow water models in the literature.
Anthony Gruber, Max Gunzburger, Lili Ju, Rihui Lan, and Zhu Wang
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 1213–1229,Short summary
This work applies a novel technical tool, multifidelity Monte Carlo (MFMC) estimation, to three climate-related benchmark experiments involving oceanic, atmospheric, and glacial modeling. By considering useful quantities such as maximum sea height and total (kinetic) energy, we show that MFMC leads to predictions which are more accurate and less costly than those obtained by standard methods. This suggests MFMC as a potential drop-in replacement for estimation in realistic climate models.
Ian Madden, Simone Marras, and Jenny Suckale
To aid risk managers who may wish to rapidly assess tsunami-risk but may lack high-performance computing infrastructure, we provide an accessible software package able to rapidly model tsunami inundation over real topography by leveraging Google's Tensor Processing Unit, a high-performance hardware. Minimally trained users can take advantage of the rapid modeling abilities provided by this package via a web browser thanks to the ease of use of Google Cloud Platform.
Piyoosh Jaysaval, Glenn E. Hammond, and Timothy C. Johnson
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 961–976,Short summary
We present a robust and highly scalable implementation of numerical forward modeling and inversion algorithms for geophysical electrical resistivity tomography data. The implementation is publicly available and developed within the framework of PFLOTRAN (http://www.pflotran.org), an open-source, state-of-the-art massively parallel subsurface flow and transport simulation code. The paper details all the theoretical and implementation aspects of the new capabilities along with test examples.
Lucas Schauer, Michael J. Schmidt, Nicholas B. Engdahl, Stephen D. Pankavich, David A. Benson, and Diogo Bolster
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 833–849,Short summary
We develop a multi-dimensional, parallelized domain decomposition strategy for mass-transfer particle tracking methods in two and three dimensions, investigate different procedures for decomposing the domain, and prescribe an optimal tiling based on physical problem parameters and the number of available CPU cores. For an optimally subdivided diffusion problem, the parallelized algorithm achieves nearly perfect linear speedup in comparison with the serial run-up to thousands of cores.
Xiaqiong Zhou and Hann-Ming Henry Juang
GFS is one of the most important operational global weather forecast systems at NCEP/EMC. The stability of GFS on model integration is as important as its forecast skills to deliver dependable real-time products to its users and downstream forecast systems. The model instability issue of GFSv16 caught our attention when several cases in its real-time parallel runs failed to finish 16-day forecasts. Potential solutions were proposed to fix the model instability issue.
John Mern and Jef Caers
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 289–313,Short summary
In this work, we formulate the sequential geoscientific data acquisition problem as a problem that is similar to playing chess against nature, except the pieces are not fully observed. Solutions to these problems are given in AI and rarely used in geoscientific data planning. We illustrate our approach to a simple 2D problem of mineral exploration.
Ziqi Gao, Yifeng Wang, Petros Vasilakos, Cesunica E. Ivey, Khanh Do, and Armistead G. Russell
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 9015–9029,Short summary
While the national ambient air quality standard of ozone is based on the 3-year average of the fourth highest 8 h maximum (MDA8) ozone concentrations, these predicted extreme values using numerical methods are always biased low. We built four computational models (GAM, MARS, random forest and SVR) to predict the fourth highest MDA8 ozone in Southern California using precursor emissions, meteorology and climatological patterns. All models presented acceptable performance, with GAM being the best.
Zhihao Wang, Jason Goetz, and Alexander Brenning
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 8765–8784,Short summary
A lack of inventory data can be a limiting factor in developing landslide predictive models, which are crucial for supporting hazard policy and decision-making. We show how case-based reasoning and domain adaptation (transfer-learning techniques) can effectively retrieve similar landslide modeling situations for prediction in new data-scarce areas. Using cases in Italy, Austria, and Ecuador, our findings support the application of transfer learning for areas that require rapid model development.
Till Sachau, Haibin Yang, Justin Lang, Paul D. Bons, and Louis Moresi
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 8749–8764,Short summary
Knowledge of the internal structures of the major continental ice sheets is improving, thanks to new investigative techniques. These structures are an essential indication of the flow behavior and dynamics of ice transport, which in turn is important for understanding the actual impact of the vast amounts of water trapped in continental ice sheets on global sea-level rise. The software studied here is specifically designed to simulate such structures and their evolution.
Keith J. Roberts, Alexandre Olender, Lucas Franceschini, Robert C. Kirby, Rafael S. Gioria, and Bruno S. Carmo
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 8639–8667,Short summary
Finite-element methods (FEMs) permit the use of more flexible unstructured meshes but are rarely used in full waveform inversions (FWIs), an iterative process that reconstructs velocity models of earth’s subsurface, due to computational and memory storage costs. To reduce those costs, novel software is presented allowing the use of high-order mass-lumped FEMs on triangular meshes, together with a material-property mesh-adaptation performance-enhancing strategy, enabling its use in FWIs.
Emma Johanne MacKie, Michael Field, Lijing Wang, Zhen Yin, Nathan Schoedl, Matthew Hibbs, and Allan Zhang
Earth scientists often have to fill in spatial gaps in measurements. This gap-filling or interpolation can be accomplished with geostatistical methods, where the statistical relationships between measurements are used to inform how these gaps should be filled. Despite the broad utility of these methods, there are few freely available geostatistics software. We present GStatSim, a Python package for performing different geostatistical interpolation methods.
Grant Thomas Euen, Shangxin Liu, Rene Gassmöller, Timo Heister, and Scott David King
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for GMDShort summary
Due to the increasing availability of high-performance computing over the past decades numerical models have become an important tool for research. Here we test two geodynamic codes that produce such models: ASPECT, a newer code, and CitcomS, an older one. We show that they produce solutions that are extremely close. As methods and codes become more complex over time, showing reproducibility allows us to seamlessly link previously-known information to modern methodologies.
Konstantinos Papadakis, Yann Pfau-Kempf, Urs Ganse, Markus Battarbee, Markku Alho, Maxime Grandin, Maxime Dubart, Lucile Turc, Hongyang Zhou, Konstantinos Horaites, Ivan Zaitsev, Giulia Cozzani, Maarja Bussov, Evgeny Gordeev, Fasil Tesema, Harriet George, Jonas Suni, Vertti Tarvus, and Minna Palmroth
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 7903–7912,Short summary
Vlasiator is a plasma simulation code that simulates the entire near-Earth space at a global scale. As 6D simulations require enormous amounts of computational resources, Vlasiator uses adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) to lighten the computational burden. However, due to Vlasiator’s grid topology, AMR simulations suffer from grid aliasing artifacts that affect the global results. In this work, we present and evaluate the performance of a mechanism for alleviating those artifacts.
Artur Safin, Damien Bouffard, Firat Ozdemir, Cintia L. Ramón, James Runnalls, Fotis Georgatos, Camille Minaudo, and Jonas Šukys
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 7715–7730,Short summary
Reconciling the differences between numerical model predictions and observational data is always a challenge. In this paper, we investigate the viability of a novel approach to the calibration of a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model of Lake Geneva, where the target parameters are inferred in terms of distributions. We employ a filtering technique that generates physically consistent model trajectories and implement a neural network to enable bulk-to-skin temperature conversion.
Colin Grudzien and Marc Bocquet
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 7641–7681,Short summary
Iterative optimization techniques, the state of the art in data assimilation, have largely focused on extending forecast accuracy to moderate- to long-range forecast systems. However, current methodology may not be cost-effective in reducing forecast errors in online, short-range forecast systems. We propose a novel optimization of these techniques for online, short-range forecast cycles, simultaneously providing an improvement in forecast accuracy and a reduction in the computational cost.
Youtong Rong, Paul Bates, and Jeffrey Neal
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for GMDShort summary
A novel subgrid channel model (SGC) is developed for river-floodplain modelling, allowing utilization of sub-grid scale bathymetric information while performing computations on relatively coarse grids. By including an adaptive artificial diffusion, potential numerical instability, which the original SGC solver had, in low friction regions such as the urban areas is addressed. Evaluation of the new SGC model through a structured tests confirmed that the accuracy and stability has been improved.
Yangyang Yu, Shaoqing Zhang, Haohuan Fu, Lixin Wu, Dexun Chen, Yang Gao, Zhiqiang Wei, Dongning Jia, and Xiaopei Lin
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 6695–6708,Short summary
To understand the scientific consequence of perturbations caused by slave cores in heterogeneous computing environments, we examine the influence of perturbation amplitudes on the determination of the cloud bottom and cloud top and compute the probability density function (PDF) of generated clouds. A series of comparisons of the PDFs between homogeneous and heterogeneous systems show consistently acceptable error tolerances when using slave cores in heterogeneous computing environments.
Vijay S. Mahadevan, Jorge E. Guerra, Xiangmin Jiao, Paul Kuberry, Yipeng Li, Paul Ullrich, David Marsico, Robert Jacob, Pavel Bochev, and Philip Jones
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 6601–6635,Short summary
Coupled Earth system models require transfer of field data between multiple components with varying spatial resolutions to determine the correct climate behavior. We present the Metrics for Intercomparison of Remapping Algorithms (MIRA) protocol to evaluate the accuracy, conservation properties, monotonicity, and local feature preservation of four different remapper algorithms for various unstructured mesh problems of interest. Future extensions to more practical use cases are also discussed.
Yilin Fang, L. Ruby Leung, Ryan Knox, Charlie Koven, and Ben Bond-Lamberty
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 6385–6398,Short summary
Accounting for water movement in the soil and water transport within the plant is important for plant growth in Earth system modeling. We implemented different numerical approaches for a plant hydrodynamic model and compared their impacts on the simulated aboveground biomass (AGB) at single points and globally. We found care should be taken when discretizing the number of soil layers for numerical simulations as it can significantly affect AGB if accuracy and computational costs are of concern.
Andrew M. Bradley, Peter A. Bosler, and Oksana Guba
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 6285–6310,Short summary
Tracer transport in atmosphere models can be computationally expensive. We describe a flexible and efficient interpolation semi-Lagrangian method, the Islet method. It permits using up to three grids that share an element grid: a dynamics grid for computing quantities such as the wind velocity; a physics parameterizations grid; and a tracer grid. The Islet method performs well on a number of verification problems and achieves high performance in the E3SM Atmosphere Model version 2.
Léo Pujol, Pierre-André Garambois, and Jérôme Monnier
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 6085–6113,Short summary
This contribution presents a new numerical model for representing hydraulic–hydrological quantities at the basin scale. It allows modeling large areas at a low computational cost, with fine zooms where needed. It allows the integration of local and satellite measurements, via data assimilation methods, to improve the model's match to observations. Using this capability, good matches to in situ observations are obtained on a model of the complex Adour river network with fine zooms on floodplains.
Ludovic Räss, Ivan Utkin, Thibault Duretz, Samuel Omlin, and Yuri Y. Podladchikov
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 5757–5786,Short summary
Continuum mechanics-based modelling of physical processes at large scale requires huge computational resources provided by massively parallel hardware such as graphical processing units. We present a suite of numerical algorithms, implemented using the Julia language, that efficiently leverages the parallelism. We demonstrate that our implementation is efficient, scalable and robust and showcase applications to various geophysical problems.
Meriem Krouma, Pascal Yiou, Céline Déandreis, and Soulivanh Thao
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 4941–4958,Short summary
We evaluated the skill of a stochastic weather generator (SWG) to forecast precipitation at different time scales and in different areas of western Europe from analogs of Z500 hPa. The SWG has the skill to simulate precipitation for 5 and 10 d. We found that forecast weaknesses can be associated with specific weather patterns. The comparison with ECMWF forecasts confirms the skill of our model. This work is important because it provides information about weather forecasts over specific areas.
Piotr Dziekan and Piotr Zmijewski
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 4489–4501,Short summary
Detailed computer simulations of clouds are important for understanding Earth's atmosphere and climate. The paper describes how the UWLCM has been adapted to work on supercomputers. A distinctive feature of UWLCM is that air flow is calculated by processors at the same time as cloud droplets are modeled by graphics cards. Thanks to this, use of computing resources is maximized and the time to complete simulations of large domains is not affected by communications between supercomputer nodes.
Hynek Bednář and Holger Kantz
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 4147–4161,Short summary
A scale-dependent error growth described by a power law or by a quadratic hypothesis is studied in Lorenz’s system with three spatiotemporal levels. The validity of power law is extended by including a saturation effect. The quadratic hypothesis can only serve as a first guess. In addition, we study the initial error growth for the ECMWF forecast system. Fitting the parameters, we conclude that there is an intrinsic limit of predictability after 22 days.
Michael A. Olesik, Jakub Banaśkiewicz, Piotr Bartman, Manuel Baumgartner, Simon Unterstrasser, and Sylwester Arabas
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 3879–3899,Short summary
In systems such as atmospheric clouds, droplets undergo growth through condensation of vapor. The broadness of the resultant size spectrum of droplets influences precipitation likelihood and the radiative properties of clouds. One of the inherent limitations of simulations of the problem is the so-called numerical diffusion causing overestimation of the spectrum width, hence the term numerical broadening. In the paper, we take a closer look at one of the algorithms used in this context: MPDATA.
Navjot Kukreja, Jan Hückelheim, Mathias Louboutin, John Washbourne, Paul H. J. Kelly, and Gerard J. Gorman
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 3815–3829,Short summary
Full waveform inversion (FWI) is a partial-differential equation (PDE)-constrained optimization problem that is notorious for its high computational load and memory footprint. In this paper we present a method that combines recomputation with lossy compression to accelerate the computation with minimal loss of precision in the results. We show this using experiments running FWI with a variety of compression settings on a popular academic dataset.
Richard Scalzo, Mark Lindsay, Mark Jessell, Guillaume Pirot, Jeremie Giraud, Edward Cripps, and Sally Cripps
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 3641–3662,Short summary
This paper addresses numerical challenges in reasoning about geological models constrained by sensor data, especially models that describe the history of an area in terms of a sequence of events. Our method ensures that small changes in simulated geological features, such as the position of a boundary between two rock layers, do not result in unrealistically large changes to resulting sensor measurements, as occur presently using several popular modeling packages.
Romit Maulik, Vishwas Rao, Jiali Wang, Gianmarco Mengaldo, Emil Constantinescu, Bethany Lusch, Prasanna Balaprakash, Ian Foster, and Rao Kotamarthi
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 3433–3445,Short summary
In numerical weather prediction, data assimilation is frequently utilized to enhance the accuracy of forecasts from equation-based models. In this work we use a machine learning framework that approximates a complex dynamical system given by the geopotential height. Instead of using an equation-based model, we utilize this machine-learned alternative to dramatically accelerate both the forecast and the assimilation of data, thereby reducing need for large computational resources.
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 2561–2597,Short summary
This paper proposes a new double Fourier series (DFS) method on a sphere that improves the numerical stability of a model compared with conventional DFS methods. The shallow-water model and the advection model using the new DFS method give stable results without the appearance of high-wavenumber noise near the poles. The model using the new DFS method is faster than the model using spherical harmonics (especially at high resolutions) and gives almost the same results.
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 2505–2532,Short summary
I preset SciKit-GStat, a well-documented and tested Python package for variogram estimation. The variogram is the core means of geostatistics, which almost all other methods rely on. Geostatistical interpolation and field generation are widely spread in geoscience, i.e., for data assimilation or modeling. While SciKit-GStat focuses on effective and intuitive variogram estimation, it can interface with other prominent packages and make its variograms available for a multitude of methods.
Christopher J. L. D'Amboise, Michael Neuhauser, Michaela Teich, Andreas Huber, Andreas Kofler, Frank Perzl, Reinhard Fromm, Karl Kleemayr, and Jan-Thomas Fischer
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 2423–2439,Short summary
The term gravitational mass flow (GMF) covers various natural hazard processes such as snow avalanches, rockfall, landslides, and debris flows. Here we present the open-source GMF simulation tool Flow-Py. The model equations are based on simple geometrical relations in three-dimensional terrain. We show that Flow-Py is an educational, innovative GMF simulation tool with three computational experiments: 1. validation of implementation, 2. performance, and 3. expandability.
Evan Baker, Anna B. Harper, Daniel Williamson, and Peter Challenor
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 1913–1929,Short summary
We have adapted machine learning techniques to build a model of the land surface in Great Britain. The model was trained using data from a very complex land surface model called JULES. Our model is faster at producing simulations and predictions and can investigate many different scenarios, which can be used to improve our understanding of the climate and could also be used to help make local decisions.
Daichun Wang, Wei You, Zengliang Zang, Xiaobin Pan, Yiwen Hu, and Yanfei Liang
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 1821–1840,Short summary
This paper presents a 3D variational data assimilation system for aerosol optical properties, including aerosol optical thickness (AOT) retrievals and lidar-based aerosol profiles, which was developed for a size-resolved sectional model in WRF-Chem. To directly assimilate aerosol optical properties, an observation operator based on the Mie scattering theory was designed. The results show that Himawari-8 AOT assimilation can significantly improve model aerosol analyses and forecasts.
Kevin Bulthuis and Eric Larour
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 1195–1217,Short summary
We present and implement a stochastic solver to sample spatially and temporal varying uncertain input parameters in the Ice-sheet and Sea-level System Model, such as ice thickness or surface mass balance. We represent these sources of uncertainty using Gaussian random fields with Matérn covariance function. We generate random samples of this random field using an efficient computational approach based on solving a stochastic partial differential equation.
Urmas Raudsepp and Ilja Maljutenko
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 535–551,Short summary
A model's ability to reproduce the state of a simulated object is always a subject of discussion. A new method for the multivariate assessment of numerical model skills uses the K-means algorithm for clustering model errors. All available data that fall into the model domain and simulation period are incorporated into the skill assessment. The clustered errors are used for spatial and temporal analysis of the model accuracy. The method can be applied to different types of geoscientific models.
Emmanuel Wyser, Yury Alkhimenkov, Michel Jaboyedoff, and Yury Y. Podladchikov
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 7749–7774,Short summary
We propose an implementation of the material point method using graphical processing units (GPUs) to solve elastoplastic problems in three-dimensional configurations, such as the granular collapse or the slumping mechanics, i.e., landslide. The computational power of GPUs promotes fast code executions, compared to a traditional implementation using central processing units (CPUs). This allows us to study complex three-dimensional problems tackling high spatial resolution.
Rafael Lago, Thomas Gastine, Tilman Dannert, Markus Rampp, and Johannes Wicht
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 7477–7495,Short summary
In this work we discuss a two-dimensional distributed parallelization of MagIC, an open-source code for the numerical solution of the magnetohydrodynamics equations. Such a parallelization involves several challenges concerning the distribution of work and data. We detail our algorithm and compare it with the established, optimized, one-dimensional distribution in the context of the dynamo benchmark and discuss the merits of both implementations.
Moritz Lange, Henri Suominen, Mona Kurppa, Leena Järvi, Emilia Oikarinen, Rafael Savvides, and Kai Puolamäki
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 7411–7424,Short summary
This study aims to replicate computationally expensive high-resolution large-eddy simulations (LESs) with regression models to simulate urban air quality and pollutant dispersion. The model development, including feature selection, model training and cross-validation, and detection of concept drift, has been described in detail. Of the models applied, log-linear regression shows the best performance. A regression model can replace LES unless high accuracy is needed.
Hynek Bednář, Aleš Raidl, and Jiří Mikšovský
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 7377–7389,Short summary
Forecast errors in numerical weather prediction systems grow in time. To quantify the impacts of this growth, parametric error growth models may be employed. This study recalculates and newly defines parameters for several statistic models approximating error growth in the ECMWF forecasting system. Accurate values of parameters are important because they are used to evaluate improvements of the forecasting systems or to estimate predictability.
Denise Degen, Cameron Spooner, Magdalena Scheck-Wenderoth, and Mauro Cacace
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 7133–7153,Short summary
In times of worldwide energy transitions, an understanding of the subsurface is increasingly important to provide renewable energy sources such as geothermal energy. To validate our understanding of the subsurface we require data. However, the data are usually not distributed equally and introduce a potential misinterpretation of the subsurface. Therefore, in this study we investigate the influence of measurements on temperature distribution in the European Alps.
Geoffroy Kirstetter, Olivier Delestre, Pierre-Yves Lagrée, Stéphane Popinet, and Christophe Josserand
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 7117–7132,Short summary
The development of forecasting tools may help to limit the impacts of flash floods. Our purpose here is to demonstrate the possibility of using b-flood, which is a 2D tool based on shallow-water equations and adaptive mesh refinement.
Sojung Park and Seon K. Park
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 6241–6255,Short summary
One of the biggest uncertainties in numerical weather predictions (NWPs) comes from treating subgrid-scale physical processes. Physical processes, such as cumulus, microphysics, and planetary boundary layer processes, are parameterized in NWP models by empirical and theoretical backgrounds. We developed an interface between a micro-genetic algorithm and the WRF model for a combinatorial optimization of physics for heavy rainfall events in Korea. The system improved precipitation forecasts.
Olivier Pannekoucke and Philippe Arbogast
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 5957–5976,Short summary
This contributes to research on uncertainty prediction, which is important either for determining the weather today or estimating the risk in prediction. The problem is that uncertainty prediction is numerically very expensive. An alternative has been proposed wherein uncertainty is presented in a simplified form with only the dynamics of certain parameters required. This tool allows for the determination of the symbolic equations of these parameter dynamics and their numerical computation.
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The mitigation components of the nationally determined contributions (NDCs) under the Paris Agreement are essential in our fight against climate change. Regular updates with increased ambition are requested to limit global warming to 1.5–2 °C. The new and easy-to-update open-source tool NDCmitiQ can be used to quantify the NDCs' mitigation targets and construct resulting emissions pathways. In use cases, we show target uncertainties from missing clarity, data, and methodological challenges.
The mitigation components of the nationally determined contributions (NDCs) under the Paris...