Articles | Volume 13, issue 4
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 1885–1902, 2020
© Author(s) 2020. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Development and technical paper
16 Apr 2020
Development and technical paper | 16 Apr 2020
Parallel I∕O in Flexible Modelling System (FMS) and Modular Ocean Model 5 (MOM5)
Rui Yang et al.
No articles found.
Ruth Petrie, Sébastien Denvil, Sasha Ames, Guillaume Levavasseur, Sandro Fiore, Chris Allen, Fabrizio Antonio, Katharina Berger, Pierre-Antoine Bretonnière, Luca Cinquini, Eli Dart, Prashanth Dwarakanath, Kelsey Druken, Ben Evans, Laurent Franchistéguy, Sébastien Gardoll, Eric Gerbier, Mark Greenslade, David Hassell, Alan Iwi, Martin Juckes, Stephan Kindermann, Lukasz Lacinski, Maria Mirto, Atef Ben Nasser, Paola Nassisi, Eric Nienhouse, Sergey Nikonov, Alessandra Nuzzo, Clare Richards, Syazwan Ridzwan, Michel Rixen, Kim Serradell, Kate Snow, Ag Stephens, Martina Stockhause, Hans Vahlenkamp, and Rick Wagner
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 629–644,Short summary
This paper describes the infrastructure that is used to distribute Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6) data around the world for analysis by the climate research community. It is expected that there will be ~20 PB (petabytes) of data available for analysis. The operations team performed a series of preparation "data challenges" to ensure all components of the infrastructure were operational for when the data became available for timely data distribution and subsequent analysis.
Andrew E. Kiss, Andrew McC. Hogg, Nicholas Hannah, Fabio Boeira Dias, Gary B. Brassington, Matthew A. Chamberlain, Christopher Chapman, Peter Dobrohotoff, Catia M. Domingues, Earl R. Duran, Matthew H. England, Russell Fiedler, Stephen M. Griffies, Aidan Heerdegen, Petra Heil, Ryan M. Holmes, Andreas Klocker, Simon J. Marsland, Adele K. Morrison, James Munroe, Maxim Nikurashin, Peter R. Oke, Gabriela S. Pilo, Océane Richet, Abhishek Savita, Paul Spence, Kial D. Stewart, Marshall L. Ward, Fanghua Wu, and Xihan Zhang
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 401–442,Short summary
We describe new computer model configurations which simulate the global ocean and sea ice at three resolutions. The coarsest resolution is suitable for multi-century climate projection experiments, whereas the finest resolution is designed for more detailed studies over time spans of decades. The paper provides technical details of the model configurations and an assessment of their performance relative to observations.
Related subject area
Climate and Earth system modelingEvaluation of a quasi-steady-state approximation of the cloud droplet growth equation (QDGE) scheme for aerosol activation in global models using multiple aircraft data over both continental and marine environmentsBetter calibration of cloud parameterizations and subgrid effects increases the fidelity of the E3SM Atmosphere Model version 1Landslide Susceptibility Assessment Tools v1.0.0b – Project Manager Suite: a new modular toolkit for landslide susceptibility assessmentAdded value of EURO-CORDEX high-resolution downscaling over the Iberian Peninsula revisited – Part 1: PrecipitationAdded value of EURO-CORDEX high-resolution downscaling over the Iberian Peninsula revisited – Part 2: Max and min temperatureConstraining a land cover map with satellite-based aboveground biomass estimates over AfricaAnalysing the PMIP4-CMIP6 collection: a workflow and tool (pmip_p2fvar_analyzer v1)Impacts of a revised surface roughness parameterization in the Community Land Model 5.1Novel coupled permafrost–forest model (LAVESI–CryoGrid v1.0) revealing the interplay between permafrost, vegetation, and climate across eastern SiberiaThe effects of ocean surface waves on global intraseasonal prediction: case studies with a coupled CFSv2.0–WW3 systemEarth system model parameter adjustment using a Green's functions approachEffects of forcing differences and initial conditions on inter-model agreement in the VolMIP volc-pinatubo-full experimentFrom emission scenarios to spatially resolved projections with a chain of computationally efficient emulators: coupling of MAGICC (v7.5.1) and MESMER (v0.8.3)Global simulation of dissolved 231Pa and 230Th in the ocean and the sedimentary 231Pa∕230Th ratios with the ocean general circulation model COCO ver4.0The linear feedback precipitation model (LFPM 1.0) – a simple and efficient model for orographic precipitation in the context of landform evolution modelingBuilding a machine learning surrogate model for wildfire activities within a global Earth system modelVariability and extremes: statistical validation of the Alfred Wegener Institute Earth System Model (AWI-ESM)Extreme events representation in CMCC-CM2 standard and high-resolution general circulation modelsTopoCLIM: rapid topography-based downscaling of regional climate model output in complex terrain v1.1CARDAMOM-FluxVal version 1.0: a FLUXNET-based validation system for CARDAMOM carbon and water flux estimatesSupporting hierarchical soil biogeochemical modeling: version 2 of the Biogeochemical Transport and Reaction model (BeTR-v2)Using neural network ensembles to separate ocean biogeochemical and physical drivers of phytoplankton biogeography in Earth system modelsGAN–argcPredNet v1.0: a generative adversarial model for radar echo extrapolation based on convolutional recurrent unitsA circulation-based performance atlas of the CMIP5 and 6 models for regional climate studies in the Northern Hemisphere mid-to-high latitudesAn automatic lake-model application using near-real-time data forcing: development of an operational forecast workflow (COASTLINES) for Lake ErieShellChron 0.4.0: a new tool for constructing chronologies in accretionary carbonate archives from stable oxygen isotope profilesComparison of ocean heat content estimated using two eddy-resolving hindcast simulations based on OFES1 and OFES2Enhancing the accessibility of unified modeling systems: GFDL System for High-resolution prediction on Earth-to-Local Domains (SHiELD) v2021b in a containerMinimal CMIP Emulator (MCE v1.2): a new simplified method for probabilistic climate projectionsInfluence of modifications (from AoB2015 to v0.5) in the Vegetation Optimality ModelC-LLAMA 1.0: a traceable model for food, agriculture, and land useThe Earth Model Column Collaboratory (EMC2) v1.1: an open-source ground-based lidar and radar instrument simulator and subcolumn generator for large-scale modelsMPR 1.0: a stand-alone multiscale parameter regionalization tool for improved parameter estimation of land surface modelsDescription and evaluation of a secondary organic aerosol and new particle formation scheme within TM5-MP v1.2PARASO, a circum-Antarctic fully coupled ice-sheet–ocean–sea-ice–atmosphere–land model involving f.ETISh1.7, NEMO3.6, LIM3.6, COSMO5.0 and CLM4.5Modeling land use and land cover change: using a hindcast to estimate economic parameters in gcamland v2.0Assessment of the Finite-VolumE Sea ice–Ocean Model (FESOM2.0) – Part 2: Partial bottom cells, embedded sea ice and vertical mixing library CVMixEvaluation and optimisation of the I/O scalability for the next generation of Earth system models: IFS CY43R3 and XIOS 2.0 integration as a case studyCoupling the Community Land Model version 5.0 to the parallel data assimilation framework PDAF: description and applicationsConvolutional conditional neural processes for local climate downscalingImpact of increased resolution on long-standing biases in HighResMIP-PRIMAVERA climate modelsModeling reservoir surface temperatures for regional and global climate models: a multi-model study on the inflow and level variation effectsImportance of radiative transfer processes in urban climate models: a study based on the PALM 6.0 model systemChAP 1.0: a stationary tropospheric sulfur cycle for Earth system models of intermediate complexityNon-Hydrostatic RegCM4 (RegCM4-NH): model description and case studies over multiple domainsAssessment of the sea surface temperature diurnal cycle in CNRM-CM6-1 based on its 1D coupled configurationRobustness of neural network emulations of radiative transfer parameterizations in a state-of-the-art general circulation modelNorCPM1 and its contribution to CMIP6 DCPPENSO-ASC 1.0.0: ENSO deep learning forecast model with a multivariate air–sea couplerTopography-based local spherical Voronoi grid refinement on classical and moist shallow-water finite-volume models
Hengqi Wang, Yiran Peng, Knut von Salzen, Yan Yang, Wei Zhou, and Delong Zhao
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 2949–2971,Short summary
The aerosol activation scheme is an important part of the general circulation model, but evaluations using observed data are mostly regional. This research introduced a numerically efficient aerosol activation scheme and evaluated it by using stratus and stratocumulus cloud data sampled during multiple aircraft campaigns in Canada, Chile, Brazil, and China. The decent performance indicates that the scheme is suitable for simulations of cloud droplet number concentrations over wide conditions.
Po-Lun Ma, Bryce E. Harrop, Vincent E. Larson, Richard B. Neale, Andrew Gettelman, Hugh Morrison, Hailong Wang, Kai Zhang, Stephen A. Klein, Mark D. Zelinka, Yuying Zhang, Yun Qian, Jin-Ho Yoon, Christopher R. Jones, Meng Huang, Sheng-Lun Tai, Balwinder Singh, Peter A. Bogenschutz, Xue Zheng, Wuyin Lin, Johannes Quaas, Hélène Chepfer, Michael A. Brunke, Xubin Zeng, Johannes Mülmenstädt, Samson Hagos, Zhibo Zhang, Hua Song, Xiaohong Liu, Michael S. Pritchard, Hui Wan, Jingyu Wang, Qi Tang, Peter M. Caldwell, Jiwen Fan, Larry K. Berg, Jerome D. Fast, Mark A. Taylor, Jean-Christophe Golaz, Shaocheng Xie, Philip J. Rasch, and L. Ruby Leung
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 2881–2916,Short summary
An alternative set of parameters for E3SM Atmospheric Model version 1 has been developed based on a tuning strategy that focuses on clouds. When clouds in every regime are improved, other aspects of the model are also improved, even though they are not the direct targets for calibration. The recalibrated model shows a lower sensitivity to anthropogenic aerosols and surface warming, suggesting potential improvements to the simulated climate in the past and future.
Jewgenij Torizin, Nick Schüßler, and Michael Fuchs
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 2791–2812,Short summary
With LSAT PM we introduce an open-source, stand-alone, easy-to-use application that supports scientific principles of openness, knowledge integrity, and replicability. Doing so, we want to share our experience in the implementation of heuristic and data-driven landslide susceptibility assessment methods such as analytic hierarchy process, weights of evidence, logistic regression, and artificial neural networks. A test dataset is available.
João António Martins Careto, Pedro Miguel Matos Soares, Rita Margarida Cardoso, Sixto Herrera, and José Manuel Gutiérrez
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 2635–2652,Short summary
This work focuses on the added value of high-resolution models relative to their forcing simulations, with a recent observational gridded dataset as a reference, covering the entire Iberian Peninsula. The availability of such datasets with a spatial resolution close to that of regional climate models encouraged this study. For precipitation, most models reveal added value. The gains are even more evident for precipitation extremes, particularly at a more local scale.
João António Martins Careto, Pedro Miguel Matos Soares, Rita Margarida Cardoso, Sixto Herrera, and José Manuel Gutiérrez
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 2653–2671,Short summary
This work focuses on the added value of high-resolution models relative to their forcing simulations, with an observational gridded dataset as a reference covering the Iberian Peninsula. The availability of such datasets with a spatial resolution close to that of regional models encouraged this study. For the max and min temperature, although most models reveal added value, some display losses. At more local scales, coastal sites display important gains, contrasting with the interior.
Guillaume Marie, B. Sebastiaan Luyssaert, Cecile Dardel, Thuy Le Toan, Alexandre Bouvet, Stéphane Mermoz, Ludovic Villard, Vladislav Bastrikov, and Philippe Peylin
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 2599–2617,Short summary
Most Earth system models make use of vegetation maps to initialize a simulation at global scale. Satellite-based biomass map estimates for Africa were used to estimate cover fractions for the 15 land cover classes. This study successfully demonstrates that satellite-based biomass maps can be used to better constrain vegetation maps. Applying this approach at the global scale would increase confidence in assessments of present-day biomass stocks.
Anni Zhao, Chris M. Brierley, Zhiyi Jiang, Rachel Eyles, Damián Oyarzún, and Jose Gomez-Dans
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 2475–2488,Short summary
We describe the way that our group have chosen to perform our recent analyses of the Palaeoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project ensemble simulations. We document the approach used to obtain and curate the simulations, process those outputs via the Climate Variability Diagnostics Package, and then continue through to compute ensemble-wide statistics and create figures. We also provide interim data from all steps, the codes used and the ability for users to perform their own analyses.
Ronny Meier, Edouard L. Davin, Gordon B. Bonan, David M. Lawrence, Xiaolong Hu, Gregory Duveiller, Catherine Prigent, and Sonia I. Seneviratne
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 2365–2393,Short summary
We revise the roughness of the land surface in the CESM climate model. Guided by observational data, we increase the surface roughness of forests and decrease that of bare soil, snow, ice, and crops. These modifications alter simulated temperatures and wind speeds at and above the land surface considerably, in particular over desert regions. The revised model represents the diurnal variability of the land surface temperature better compared to satellite observations over most regions.
Stefan Kruse, Simone M. Stuenzi, Julia Boike, Moritz Langer, Josias Gloy, and Ulrike Herzschuh
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 2395–2422,Short summary
We coupled established models for boreal forest (LAVESI) and permafrost dynamics (CryoGrid) in Siberia to investigate interactions of the diverse vegetation layer with permafrost soils. Our tests showed improved active layer depth estimations and newly included species growth according to their species-specific limits. We conclude that the new model system can be applied to simulate boreal forest dynamics and transitions under global warming and disturbances, expanding our knowledge.
Ruizi Shi, Fanghua Xu, Li Liu, Zheng Fan, Hao Yu, Hong Li, Xiang Li, and Yunfei Zhang
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 2345–2363,Short summary
To better understand the effects of surface waves on global intraseasonal prediction, we incorporated the WW3 model into CFSv2.0. Processes of Langmuir mixing, Stokes–Coriolis force with entrainment, air–sea fluxes modified by Stokes drift, and momentum roughness length were considered. Results from two groups of 56 d experiments show that overestimated sea surface temperature, 2 m air temperature, 10 m wind, wave height, and underestimated mixed layer from the original CFSv2.0 are improved.
Ehud Strobach, Andrea Molod, Donifan Barahona, Atanas Trayanov, Dimitris Menemenlis, and Gael Forget
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 2309–2324,Short summary
The Green's functions methodology offers a systematic, easy-to-implement, computationally cheap, scalable, and extendable method to tune uncertain parameters in models accounting for the dependent response of the model to a change in various parameters. Herein, we successfully show for the first time that long-term errors in earth system models can be considerably reduced using Green's functions methodology. The method can be easily applied to any model containing uncertain parameters.
Davide Zanchettin, Claudia Timmreck, Myriam Khodri, Anja Schmidt, Matthew Toohey, Manabu Abe, Slimane Bekki, Jason Cole, Shih-Wei Fang, Wuhu Feng, Gabriele Hegerl, Ben Johnson, Nicolas Lebas, Allegra N. LeGrande, Graham W. Mann, Lauren Marshall, Landon Rieger, Alan Robock, Sara Rubinetti, Kostas Tsigaridis, and Helen Weierbach
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 2265–2292,Short summary
This paper provides metadata and first analyses of the volc-pinatubo-full experiment of CMIP6-VolMIP. Results from six Earth system models reveal significant differences in radiative flux anomalies that trace back to different implementations of volcanic forcing. Surface responses are in contrast overall consistent across models, reflecting the large spread due to internal variability. A second phase of VolMIP shall consider both aspects toward improved protocol for volc-pinatubo-full.
Lea Beusch, Zebedee Nicholls, Lukas Gudmundsson, Mathias Hauser, Malte Meinshausen, and Sonia I. Seneviratne
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 2085–2103,Short summary
We introduce the first chain of computationally efficient Earth system model (ESM) emulators to translate user-defined greenhouse gas emission pathways into regional temperature change time series accounting for all major sources of climate change projection uncertainty. By combining the global mean emulator MAGICC with the spatially resolved emulator MESMER, we can derive ESM-specific and constrained probabilistic emulations to rapidly provide targeted climate information at the local scale.
Yusuke Sasaki, Hidetaka Kobayashi, and Akira Oka
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 2013–2033,Short summary
For realistically simulating the recently observed distributions of dissolved 230Th and 231Pa in the ocean, we highlight the importance of the removal process of 231Pa and 230Th at the seafloor (bottom scavenging) and the dependence of scavenging efficiency on particle concentration. We show that consideration of these two processes can well reproduce not only the oceanic distribution of 231Pa and 230Th but also the sedimentary 231Pa/230Th ratios.
Stefan Hergarten and Jörg Robl
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 2063–2084,Short summary
The influence of climate on landform evolution has attracted great interest over the past decades. This paper presents a simple model for simulating the influence of topography on precipitation and the decrease in precipitation over large continental areas. The approach can be included in numerical models of large-scale landform evolution and causes only a moderate increase in the numerical complexity. It opens a door to investigating feedbacks between climate and landform evolution.
Qing Zhu, Fa Li, William J. Riley, Li Xu, Lei Zhao, Kunxiaojia Yuan, Huayi Wu, Jianya Gong, and James Randerson
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 1899–1911,Short summary
Wildfire is a devastating Earth system process that burns about 500 million hectares of land each year. It wipes out vegetation including trees, shrubs, and grasses and causes large losses of economic assets. However, modeling the spatial distribution and temporal changes of wildfire activities at a global scale is challenging. This study built a machine-learning-based wildfire surrogate model within an existing Earth system model and achieved high accuracy.
Justus Contzen, Thorsten Dickhaus, and Gerrit Lohmann
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 1803–1820,Short summary
Climate models are of paramount importance to predict future climate changes. Since many severe consequences of climate change are due to extreme events, the accurate behaviour of models in terms of extremes needs to be validated thoroughly. We present a method for model validation in terms of climate extremes and an algorithm to detect regions in which extremes tend to occur at the same time. These methods are applied to data from different climate models and to observational data.
Enrico Scoccimarro, Daniele Peano, Silvio Gualdi, Alessio Bellucci, Tomas Lovato, Pier Giuseppe Fogli, and Antonio Navarra
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 1841–1854,Short summary
This study evaluated the ability of the CMCC-CM2 climate model participating to the last CMIP6 effort, in representing extreme events of precipitation and temperature at the daily and 6-hourly frequencies. The 1/4° resolution version of the atmospheric model provides better results than the version at 1° resolution for temperature extremes, at both time frequencies. For precipitation extremes, especially at the daily time frequency, the higher resolution does not improve model results.
Joel Fiddes, Kristoffer Aalstad, and Michael Lehning
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 1753–1768,Short summary
This study describes and evaluates a new downscaling scheme that addresses the need for hillslope-scale atmospheric forcing time series for modelling the local impact of regional climate change on the land surface in mountain areas. The method has a global scope and is able to generate all model forcing variables required for hydrological and land surface modelling. This is important, as impact models require high-resolution forcings such as those generated here to produce meaningful results.
Yan Yang, A. Anthony Bloom, Shuang Ma, Paul Levine, Alexander Norton, Nicholas C. Parazoo, John T. Reager, John Worden, Gregory R. Quetin, T. Luke Smallman, Mathew Williams, Liang Xu, and Sassan Saatchi
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 1789–1802,Short summary
Global carbon and water have large uncertainties that are hard to quantify in current regional and global models. Field observations provide opportunities for better calibration and validation of current modeling of carbon and water. With the unique structure of CARDAMOM, we have utilized the data assimilation capability and designed the benchmarking framework by using field observations in modeling. Results show that data assimilation improves model performance in different aspects.
Jinyun Tang, William J. Riley, and Qing Zhu
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 1619–1632,Short summary
We here describe version 2 of BeTR, a reactive transport model created to help ease the development of biogeochemical capability in Earth system models that are used for quantifying ecosystem–climate feedbacks. We then coupled BeTR-v2 to the Energy Exascale Earth System Model to quantify how different numerical couplings of plants and soils affect simulated ecosystem biogeochemistry. We found that different couplings lead to significant uncertainty that is not correctable by tuning parameters.
Christopher Holder, Anand Gnanadesikan, and Marie Aude-Pradal
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 1595–1617,Short summary
It can be challenging to understand why Earth system models (ESMs) produce specific results because one can arrive at the same result simply by changing the values of the parameters. In our paper, we demonstrate that it is possible to use machine learning to figure out how and why particular components of an ESM (such as biology or ocean circulations) affect the output. This work could be applied to observations to improve the accuracy of the formulations used in ESMs.
Kun Zheng, Yan Liu, Jinbiao Zhang, Cong Luo, Siyu Tang, Huihua Ruan, Qiya Tan, Yunlei Yi, and Xiutao Ran
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 1467–1475,Short summary
In extrapolation methods, there is a phenomenon that causes the extrapolated image to be blurred and unrealistic. The paper proposes the GAN–argcPredNet v1.0 network model, which aims to solve this problem through GAN's ability to strengthen the characteristics of multi-modal data modeling. GAN–argcPredNet v1.0 has achieved excellent results. Our model can reduce the prediction loss in a small-scale space so that the prediction results have more detailed features.
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 1375–1411,Short summary
The present study evaluates the last two global climate model generations in terms of their capability to reproduce recurrent regional atmospheric circulation patterns in the Northern Hemisphere mid-to-high latitudes under present climate conditions. These patterns are linked with many environmental variables on the local scale and thus provide an overarching concept for model verification. The results are expected to be of interest for model developers and regional climate scientists.
Shuqi Lin, Leon Boegman, Shiliang Shan, and Ryan Mulligan
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 1331–1353,Short summary
An operational hydrodynamics forecast system, COASTLINES, using the Windows Task Scheduler, Python, and MATLAB scripts, to automate application of a 3-D model (AEM3D) in Lake Erie was developed. The system predicted storm-surge and up-/downwelling events that are important for flood water and drinking water/fishery management. This example of the successful development of an operational forecast system can be adapted to simulate aquatic systems as required for management and public safety.
Niels J. de Winter
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 1247–1267,Short summary
ShellChron is a tool for determining the relative age of samples in carbonate (climate) archives based on the seasonal variability in temperature and salinity or precipitation recorded in stable oxygen isotope measurements. The model allows dating of fossil archives within a year, which is important for climate reconstructions on the sub-seasonal to decadal scale. In this paper, I introduce ShellChron and test it on a range of real and virtual datasets to demonstrate its use.
Fanglou Liao, Xiao Hua Wang, and Zhiqiang Liu
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 1129–1153,Short summary
The ocean heat content (OHC) estimated using two eddying hindcast simulations, OFES1 and OFES2, was compared from 1960 to 2016, with observation-based results as a reference. Marked differences were found, especially in the Atlantic Ocean. These were related to the differences in the net surface heating, heat advection, and vertical heat diffusion. These documented differences may help the community better understand and use these quasi-global high-resolution datasets for their own purposes.
Kai-Yuan Cheng, Lucas M. Harris, and Yong Qiang Sun
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 1097–1105,Short summary
This paper presents the implementation of container technology for the System for High‐resolution prediction on Earth‐to‐Local Domains (SHiELD), a unified atmospheric model that can be used as a global, a global–nest, and a regional model for weather-to-seasonal prediction. Container technology makes SHiELD cross-platform and easy to use, which opens opportunities for collaborative research and development. The performance and scalability of the containerized SHiELD are evaluated and discussed.
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 951–970,Short summary
A new simple climate model, MCE, was developed. It can emulate the basic behavior of comprehensive climate models in a minimal way with sufficient accuracy, providing a reasonable way to assess climate change mitigation scenarios in terms of consistency with long-term temperature goals. The model's simple structure is suitable for building probability distributions of key model parameters such that they reflect uncertainty ranges of multiple climate projections and observed warming trends.
Remko C. Nijzink, Jason Beringer, Lindsay B. Hutley, and Stanislaus J. Schymanski
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 883–900,Short summary
The Vegetation Optimality Model (VOM) is a coupled water–vegetation model that predicts vegetation properties rather than determines them based on observations. A range of updates to previous applications of the VOM has been made for increased generality and improved comparability with conventional models. This showed that there is a large effect on the simulated water and carbon fluxes caused by the assumption of deep groundwater tables and updated soil profiles in the model.
Thomas S. Ball, Naomi E. Vaughan, Thomas W. Powell, Andrew Lovett, and Timothy M. Lenton
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 929–949,Short summary
C-LLAMA is a simple model of the global food system operating at a country level from 2013 to 2050. The model begins with projections of diet composition and populations for each country, producing a demand for each food commodity and finally an agricultural land use in each country. The model can be used to explore the sensitivity of agricultural land use to various drivers within the food system at country, regional, and continental spatial aggregations.
Israel Silber, Robert C. Jackson, Ann M. Fridlind, Andrew S. Ackerman, Scott Collis, Johannes Verlinde, and Jiachen Ding
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 901–927,Short summary
The Earth Model Column Collaboratory (EMC2) is an open-source ground-based (and air- or space-borne) lidar and radar simulator and subcolumn generator designed for large-scale models, in particular climate models, applicable also for high-resolution models. EMC2 emulates measurements while remaining faithful to large-scale models' physical assumptions implemented in their cloud or radiation schemes. We demonstrate the use of EMC2 to compare AWARE measurements with the NASA GISS ModelE3 and LES.
Robert Schweppe, Stephan Thober, Sebastian Müller, Matthias Kelbling, Rohini Kumar, Sabine Attinger, and Luis Samaniego
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 859–882,Short summary
The recently released multiscale parameter regionalization (MPR) tool enables environmental modelers to efficiently use extensive datasets for model setups. It flexibly ingests the datasets using user-defined data–parameter relationships and rescales parameter fields to given model resolutions. Modern land surface models especially benefit from MPR through increased transparency and flexibility in modeling decisions. Thus, MPR empowers more sound and robust simulations of the Earth system.
Tommi Bergman, Risto Makkonen, Roland Schrödner, Erik Swietlicki, Vaughan T. J. Phillips, Philippe Le Sager, and Twan van Noije
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 683–713,Short summary
We describe in this paper the implementation of a process-based secondary organic aerosol and new particle formation scheme within the chemistry transport model TM5-MP version 1.2. The performance of the model simulations for the year 2010 is evaluated against in situ observations, ground-based remote sensing and satellite retrievals. Overall, the simulated aerosol fields are improved, although in some areas the model shows a decline in performance.
Charles Pelletier, Thierry Fichefet, Hugues Goosse, Konstanze Haubner, Samuel Helsen, Pierre-Vincent Huot, Christoph Kittel, François Klein, Sébastien Le clec'h, Nicole P. M. van Lipzig, Sylvain Marchi, François Massonnet, Pierre Mathiot, Ehsan Moravveji, Eduardo Moreno-Chamarro, Pablo Ortega, Frank Pattyn, Niels Souverijns, Guillian Van Achter, Sam Vanden Broucke, Alexander Vanhulle, Deborah Verfaillie, and Lars Zipf
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 553–594,Short summary
We present PARASO, a circumpolar model for simulating the Antarctic climate. PARASO features five distinct models, each covering different Earth system subcomponents (ice sheet, atmosphere, land, sea ice, ocean). In this technical article, we describe how this tool has been developed, with a focus on the
coupling interfacesrepresenting the feedbacks between the distinct models used for contribution. PARASO is stable and ready to use but is still characterized by significant biases.
Katherine V. Calvin, Abigail Snyder, Xin Zhao, and Marshall Wise
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 429–447,Short summary
Future changes in land use and cover have important implications for agriculture, energy, water use, and climate. In this study, we demonstrate a more systematic and empirically based approach to estimating a few key parameters for an economic model of land use and land cover change, gcamland. We identify parameter combinations that best replicate historical land use in the United States.
Patrick Scholz, Dmitry Sidorenko, Sergey Danilov, Qiang Wang, Nikolay Koldunov, Dmitry Sein, and Thomas Jung
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 335–363,Short summary
Structured-mesh ocean models are still the most mature in terms of functionality due to their long development history. However, unstructured-mesh ocean models have acquired new features and caught up in their functionality. This paper continues the work by Scholz et al. (2019) of documenting the features available in FESOM2.0. It focuses on the following two aspects: (i) partial bottom cells and embedded sea ice and (ii) dealing with mixing parameterisations enabled by using the CVMix package.
Xavier Yepes-Arbós, Gijs van den Oord, Mario C. Acosta, and Glenn D. Carver
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 379–394,Short summary
Climate prediction models produce a large volume of simulated data that sometimes might not be efficiently managed. In this paper we present an approach to address this issue by reducing the computing time and storage space. As a case study, we analyse the output writing process of the ECMWF atmospheric model called IFS, and we integrate into it a data writing tool called XIOS. The results suggest that the integration between the two components achieves an adequate computational performance.
Lukas Strebel, Heye R. Bogena, Harry Vereecken, and Harrie-Jan Hendricks Franssen
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 395–411,Short summary
We present the technical coupling between a land surface model (CLM5) and the Parallel Data Assimilation Framework (PDAF). This coupling enables measurement data to update simulated model states and parameters in a statistically optimal way. We demonstrate the viability of the model framework using an application in a forested catchment where the inclusion of soil water measurements significantly improved the simulation quality.
Anna Vaughan, Will Tebbutt, J. Scott Hosking, and Richard E. Turner
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 251–268,Short summary
We develop a new method for climate downscaling, i.e. transforming low-resolution climate model output to high-resolution projections, using a deep-learning model known as a convolutional conditional neural process. This model is shown to outperform an ensemble of baseline methods for downscaling daily maximum temperature and precipitation and provides a powerful new downscaling framework for climate impact studies.
Eduardo Moreno-Chamarro, Louis-Philippe Caron, Saskia Loosveldt Tomas, Javier Vegas-Regidor, Oliver Gutjahr, Marie-Pierre Moine, Dian Putrasahan, Christopher D. Roberts, Malcolm J. Roberts, Retish Senan, Laurent Terray, Etienne Tourigny, and Pier Luigi Vidale
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 269–289,Short summary
Climate models do not fully reproduce observations: they show differences (biases) in regional temperature, precipitation, or cloud cover. Reducing model biases is important to increase our confidence in their ability to reproduce present and future climate changes. Model realism is set by its resolution: the finer it is, the more physical processes and interactions it can resolve. We here show that increasing resolution of up to ~ 25 km can help reduce model biases but not remove them entirely.
Manuel C. Almeida, Yurii Shevchuk, Georgiy Kirillin, Pedro M. M. Soares, Rita M. Cardoso, José P. Matos, Ricardo M. Rebelo, António C. Rodrigues, and Pedro S. Coelho
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 173–197,Short summary
In this study, we have evaluated the importance of the input of energy conveyed by river inflows into lakes and reservoirs when modeling surface water energy fluxes. Our results suggest that there is a strong correlation between water residence time and the surface water temperature prediction error and that the combined use of process-based physical models and machine-learning models will considerably improve the modeling of air–lake heat and moisture fluxes.
Mohamed H. Salim, Sebastian Schubert, Jaroslav Resler, Pavel Krč, Björn Maronga, Farah Kanani-Sühring, Matthias Sühring, and Christoph Schneider
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 145–171,Short summary
Radiative transfer processes are the main energy transport mechanism in urban areas which influence the surface energy budget and drive local convection. We show here the importance of each process to help modellers decide on how much detail they should include in their models to parameterize radiative transfer in urban areas. We showed how the flow field may change in response to these processes and the essential processes needed to assure acceptable quality of the numerical simulations.
Alexey V. Eliseev, Rustam D. Gizatullin, and Alexandr V. Timazhev
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 7725–7747,Short summary
A stationary, computationally efficient scheme, ChAP 1.0 (Chemical and Aerosol Processes, version 1.0), is developed for the sulfur cycle in the troposphere. This scheme is designed for Earth system models of intermediate complexity (EMICs). The scheme model reasonably reproduces characteristics of the tropospheric sulfur cycle. Despite its simplicity, ChAP may be successfully used to simulate anthropogenic sulfur pollution in the atmosphere at coarse spatial scales and timescales.
Erika Coppola, Paolo Stocchi, Emanuela Pichelli, Jose Abraham Torres Alavez, Russell Glazer, Graziano Giuliani, Fabio Di Sante, Rita Nogherotto, and Filippo Giorgi
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 7705–7723,Short summary
In this work we describe the development of a non-hydrostatic version of the regional climate model RegCM4-NH, implemented to allow simulations at convection-permitting scales of <4 km for climate applications. The new core is described, and three case studies of intense convection are carried out to illustrate the model performances. Comparison with observations is much improved with respect to with coarse grid runs. RegCM4-NH offers a promising tool for climate investigations at a local scale.
Aurore Voldoire, Romain Roehrig, Hervé Giordani, Robin Waldman, Yunyan Zhang, Shaocheng Xie, and Marie-Nöelle Bouin
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for GMDShort summary
A single column version of the global climate model CNRM-CM6-1 has been designed to ease development and validation of the model physics at the air-sea interface in a simplified environment. This model is then used to assess the ability to represent the sea surface temperature diurnal cycle. We conclude that the sea surface temperature diurnal variability is reasonably well represented in CNRM-CM6-1 with a 1 h coupling time-step and the upper ocean model resolution of 1 m.
Alexei Belochitski and Vladimir Krasnopolsky
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 7425–7437,Short summary
There is a lot interest in using machine learning (ML) techniques to improve environmental models by replacing physically based model components with ML-derived ones. The latter ordinarily demonstrate excellent results when tested in a stand-alone setting but can break their host model either outright when coupled to it or eventually when the model changes. We built an ML component that not only does not destabilize its host model but is also robust with respect to substantial changes in it.
Ingo Bethke, Yiguo Wang, François Counillon, Noel Keenlyside, Madlen Kimmritz, Filippa Fransner, Annette Samuelsen, Helene Langehaug, Lea Svendsen, Ping-Gin Chiu, Leilane Passos, Mats Bentsen, Chuncheng Guo, Alok Gupta, Jerry Tjiputra, Alf Kirkevåg, Dirk Olivié, Øyvind Seland, Julie Solsvik Vågane, Yuanchao Fan, and Tor Eldevik
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 7073–7116,Short summary
The Norwegian Climate Prediction Model version 1 (NorCPM1) is a new research tool for performing climate reanalyses and seasonal-to-decadal climate predictions. It adds data assimilation capability to the Norwegian Earth System Model version 1 (NorESM1) and has contributed output to the Decadal Climate Prediction Project (DCPP) as part of the sixth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP6). We describe the system and evaluate its baseline, reanalysis and prediction performance.
Bin Mu, Bo Qin, and Shijin Yuan
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 6977–6999,Short summary
Considering the sophisticated energy exchanges and multivariate coupling in ENSO, we subjectively incorporate the prior physical knowledge into the modeling process and build up an ENSO deep learning forecast model with a multivariate air–sea coupler, named ENSO-ASC, the performance of which outperforms the other state-of-the-art models. The extensive experiments indicate that ENSO-ASC is a powerful tool for both the ENSO prediction and for the analysis of the underlying complex mechanisms.
Luan F. Santos and Pedro S. Peixoto
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 6919–6944,Short summary
The Andes act as a wall in atmospheric flows and play an important role in the weather of South America but are currently underrepresented in weather and climate models. In this work, we propose grids that better capture the mountains and, using idealized dynamical models, study the effects caused by the use of such grids. While possibly improving forecasts for short periods, the grids introduce spurious numerical (nonphysical) effects, which can demand added caution from model developers.
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Parallel I/O is implemented in the Modular Ocean Model (MOM) with optimal performance over a range of tuning parameters of model configuration, netCDF, MPI-IO and Lustre filesystem. The scalable parallel I/O performance is observed at 0.1° resolution global model, and it could achieve up to 60 times faster in write speed relative to serial single-file I/O running on 960 PEs.
Parallel I/O is implemented in the Modular Ocean Model (MOM) with optimal performance over a...