Articles | Volume 14, issue 2
Methods for assessment of models 03 Feb 2021
Methods for assessment of models | 03 Feb 2021
Using radar observations to evaluate 3-D radar echo structure simulated by the Energy Exascale Earth System Model (E3SM) version 1
Jingyu Wang et al.
No articles found.
Yong Wang, Guang J. Zhang, Shaocheng Xie, Wuyin Lin, George C. Craig, Qi Tang, and Hsi-Yen Ma
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1575–1593,Short summary
A stochastic deep convection parameterization is implemented into the US Department of Energy Energy Exascale Earth System Model Atmosphere Model version 1 (EAMv1). Compared to the default model, the well-known problem of
too much light rain and too little heavy rainis largely alleviated over the tropics with the stochastic scheme. Results from this study provide important insights into the model performance of EAMv1 when stochasticity is included in the deep convective parameterization.
Yuwei Zhang, Jiwen Fan, Zhanqing Li, and Daniel Rosenfeld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2363–2381,Short summary
Impacts of anthropogenic aerosols on deep convective clouds (DCCs) and precipitation are examined using both the Morrison bulk and spectral bin microphysics (SBM) schemes. With the SBM scheme, anthropogenic aerosols notably invigorate convective intensity and precipitation, causing better agreement between the simulated DCCs and observations; this effect is absent with the Morrison scheme, mainly due to limitations of the saturation adjustment approach for droplet condensation and evaporation.
Bo Zhang, Hongyu Liu, James H. Crawford, Gao Chen, T. Duncan Fairlie, Scott Chambers, Chang-Hee Kang, Alastair G. Williams, Kai Zhang, David B. Considine, Melissa P. Sulprizio, and Robert M. Yantosca
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1861–1887,Short summary
We simulate atmospheric 222Rn using the GEOS-Chem model to improve understanding of 222Rn emissions and characterize convective transport in the model. We demonstrate the potential of a customized global 222Rn emission scenario to improve simulated surface 222Rn concentrations and seasonality. We assess convective transport using observed 222Rn vertical profiles. Results have important implications for using chemical transport models to interpret the transport of trace gases and aerosols.
Sam J. Silva, Po-Lun Ma, Joseph C. Hardin, and Daniel Rothenberg
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for GMDShort summary
The activation of aerosol into cloud droplets is an important but uncertain process in the Earth system. The physical and chemical interactions that govern this process are too computationally expensive to explicitly resolve in modern Earth System Models. Here, we demonstrate how hybrid machine learning approaches can provide a potential path forward, enabling representation of the more detailed physics and chemistry at reduced computational cost while still retaining physical information.
Raghavendra Krishnamurthy, Rob K. Newsom, Larry K. Berg, Heng Xiao, Po-Lun Ma, and David D. Turner
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for AMTShort summary
Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) height is a critical parameter in atmospheric models. Continuous PBL height measurements from remote sensing measurements are important to understand various boundary layer mechanisms especially during daytime and evening transition periods. Due to several limitations in existing methodologies to detect PBL height from a Doppler lidar, in this study, a Machine Learning (ML) approach is tested. The ML model is observed to improve the accuracy by over 50 %.
Johannes Quaas, Antti Arola, Brian Cairns, Matthew Christensen, Hartwig Deneke, Annica M. L. Ekman, Graham Feingold, Ann Fridlind, Edward Gryspeerdt, Otto Hasekamp, Zhanqing Li, Antti Lipponen, Po-Lun Ma, Johannes Mülmenstädt, Athanasios Nenes, Joyce E. Penner, Daniel Rosenfeld, Roland Schrödner, Kenneth Sinclair, Odran Sourdeval, Philip Stier, Matthias Tesche, Bastiaan van Diedenhoven, and Manfred Wendisch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15079–15099,Short summary
Anthropogenic pollution particles – aerosols – serve as cloud condensation nuclei and thus increase cloud droplet concentration and the clouds' reflection of sunlight (a cooling effect on climate). This Twomey effect is poorly constrained by models and requires satellite data for better quantification. The review summarizes the challenges in properly doing so and outlines avenues for progress towards a better use of aerosol retrievals and better retrievals of droplet concentrations.
Jiwen Fan, Yuwei Zhang, Zhanqing Li, Jiaxi Hu, and Daniel Rosenfeld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14163–14182,Short summary
We investigate the urbanization-induced land and aerosol impacts on convective clouds and precipitation over Houston. We find that Houston urbanization notably enhances storm intensity and precipitation, with the anthropogenic aerosol effect more significant. Urban land effect strengthens sea-breeze circulation, leading to a faster development of warm cloud into mixed-phase cloud and earlier rain. The anthropogenic aerosol effect accelerates the development of storms into deep convection.
María A. Burgos, Elisabeth Andrews, Gloria Titos, Angela Benedetti, Huisheng Bian, Virginie Buchard, Gabriele Curci, Zak Kipling, Alf Kirkevåg, Harri Kokkola, Anton Laakso, Julie Letertre-Danczak, Marianne T. Lund, Hitoshi Matsui, Gunnar Myhre, Cynthia Randles, Michael Schulz, Twan van Noije, Kai Zhang, Lucas Alados-Arboledas, Urs Baltensperger, Anne Jefferson, James Sherman, Junying Sun, Ernest Weingartner, and Paul Zieger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10231–10258,Short summary
We investigate how well models represent the enhancement in scattering coefficients due to particle water uptake, and perform an evaluation of several implementation schemes used in ten Earth system models. Our results show the importance of the parameterization of hygroscopicity and model chemistry as drivers of some of the observed diversity amongst model estimates. The definition of dry conditions and the phenomena taking place in this relative humidity range also impact the model evaluation.
Jonathon S. Wright, Xiaoyi Sun, Paul Konopka, Kirstin Krüger, Bernard Legras, Andrea M. Molod, Susann Tegtmeier, Guang J. Zhang, and Xi Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8989–9030,Short summary
High clouds are influential in tropical climate. Although reanalysis cloud fields are essentially model products, they are indirectly constrained by observations and offer global coverage with direct links to advanced water and energy cycle metrics, giving them many useful applications. We describe how high cloud fields are generated in reanalyses, assess their realism and reliability in the tropics, and evaluate how differences in these fields affect other aspects of the reanalysis state.
Gunnar Myhre, Bjørn H. Samset, Christian W. Mohr, Kari Alterskjær, Yves Balkanski, Nicolas Bellouin, Mian Chin, James Haywood, Øivind Hodnebrog, Stefan Kinne, Guangxing Lin, Marianne T. Lund, Joyce E. Penner, Michael Schulz, Nick Schutgens, Ragnhild B. Skeie, Philip Stier, Toshihiko Takemura, and Kai Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8855–8865,Short summary
The radiative forcing of the direct aerosol effects can be decomposed into clear-sky and cloudy-sky portions. In this study we use observational methods and two sets of multi-model global aerosol simulations over the industrial era to show that the contribution from cloudy-sky regions is likely weak.
Wenchao Han, Zhanqing Li, Fang Wu, Yuwei Zhang, Jianping Guo, Tianning Su, Maureen Cribb, Jiwen Fan, Tianmeng Chen, Jing Wei, and Seoung-Soo Lee
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 6479–6493,Short summary
Observational data and model simulation were used to analyze the daytime urban heat island intensity (UHII) under polluted and clean conditions in China. We found that aerosols reduce the UHII in summer but increase the UHII in winter. Two mechanisms, the aerosol radiative effect (ARE) and the aerosol dynamic effect (ADE), behave differently in summer and winter. In summer, the UHII is mainly affected by the ARE, and the ADE is weak, and the opposite is the case in winter.
Fan Mei, Jian Wang, Jennifer M. Comstock, Ralf Weigel, Martina Krämer, Christoph Mahnke, John E. Shilling, Johannes Schneider, Christiane Schulz, Charles N. Long, Manfred Wendisch, Luiz A. T. Machado, Beat Schmid, Trismono Krisna, Mikhail Pekour, John Hubbe, Andreas Giez, Bernadett Weinzierl, Martin Zoeger, Mira L. Pöhlker, Hans Schlager, Micael A. Cecchini, Meinrat O. Andreae, Scot T. Martin, Suzane S. de Sá, Jiwen Fan, Jason Tomlinson, Stephen Springston, Ulrich Pöschl, Paulo Artaxo, Christopher Pöhlker, Thomas Klimach, Andreas Minikin, Armin Afchine, and Stephan Borrmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 661–684,Short summary
In 2014, the US DOE G1 aircraft and the German HALO aircraft overflew the Amazon basin to study how aerosols influence cloud cycles under a clean condition and around a tropical megacity. This paper describes how to meaningfully compare similar measurements from two research aircraft and identify the potential measurement issue. We also discuss the uncertainty range for each measurement for further usage in model evaluation and satellite data validation.
Edward Gryspeerdt, Johannes Mülmenstädt, Andrew Gettelman, Florent F. Malavelle, Hugh Morrison, David Neubauer, Daniel G. Partridge, Philip Stier, Toshihiko Takemura, Hailong Wang, Minghuai Wang, and Kai Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 613–623,Short summary
Aerosol radiative forcing is a key uncertainty in our understanding of the human forcing of the climate, with much of this uncertainty coming from aerosol impacts on clouds. Observation-based estimates of the radiative forcing are typically smaller than those from global models, but it is not clear if they are more reliable. This work shows how the forcing components in global climate models can be identified, highlighting similarities between the two methods and areas for future investigation.
Johannes Mülmenstädt, Edward Gryspeerdt, Marc Salzmann, Po-Lun Ma, Sudhakar Dipu, and Johannes Quaas
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 15415–15429,Short summary
The effect of aerosol–cloud interactions (ACIs) on Earth's energy budget continues to be highly uncertain. We decompose the effective radiative forcing by ACIs (ERFaci) into the instantaneous forcing due to anthropogenic increases in the number of cloud droplets and fast responses of cloud properties to the droplet number perturbation in the ECHAM–HAMMOZ aerosol–climate model. This decomposition maps onto the IPCC's Fifth Assessment Report analysis of ERFaci more directly than previous work.
Toni Mitovski, Jason N. S. Cole, Norman A. McFarlane, Knut von Salzen, and Guang J. Zhang
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 2107–2117,Short summary
Changes in the large-scale environment during convective precipitation events simulated by the Canadian Atmospheric Model (CanAM4.3) are compared against those simulated by the super-parameterized Community Atmosphere Model (spCAM5). Compared to spCAM5, CanAM4.3 underestimates the frequency of extreme convective precipitation and the duration of convective events are 50 % shorter. The dependence of precipitation on changes in the large-scale environment differs between CanAM4.3 and spCAM5.
Zhibo Zhang, Hua Song, Po-Lun Ma, Vincent E. Larson, Minghuai Wang, Xiquan Dong, and Jianwu Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 1077–1096,
Matthew Gibbons, Qilong Min, and Jiwen Fan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 12161–12184,Short summary
The effects of dust aerosols on ice formation within a tropical Atlantic thunderstorm system were investigated using a 3-D weather model and compared with observations. Updated ice formation mechanisms directly connect available dust particles with ice particle formation. The resulting clouds were lower and narrower and produced less rain at the surface compared to cleaner conditions, due to ice formation occurring at warmer temperatures. These results agree well with observed changes.
Hua Song, Zhibo Zhang, Po-Lun Ma, Steven Ghan, and Minghuai Wang
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 3147–3158,
Kai Zhang, Philip J. Rasch, Mark A. Taylor, Hui Wan, Ruby Leung, Po-Lun Ma, Jean-Christophe Golaz, Jon Wolfe, Wuyin Lin, Balwinder Singh, Susannah Burrows, Jin-Ho Yoon, Hailong Wang, Yun Qian, Qi Tang, Peter Caldwell, and Shaocheng Xie
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 1971–1988,Short summary
The conservation of total water is an important numerical feature for global Earth system models. Even small conservation problems in the water budget can lead to systematic errors in century-long simulations for sea level rise projection. This study quantifies and reduces various sources of water conservation error in the atmosphere component of the Energy Exascale Earth System Model.
Susannah M. Burrows, Richard Easter, Xiaohong Liu, Po-Lun Ma, Hailong Wang, Scott M. Elliott, Balwinder Singh, Kai Zhang, and Philip J. Rasch
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript has not been submittedShort summary
Sea spray particles are composed of a mixture of salts and organic substances from oceanic microorganisms. In prior work, our team developed an approach connecting sea spray chemistry to ocean biology, called OCEANFILMS. Here we describe its implementation within an Earth System Model, E3SM. We show that simulated sea spray chemistry is consistent with observed seasonal cycles, and that sunlight reflected by simulated Southern Ocean clouds increases, consistent with analysis of satellite data.
Luiz A. T. Machado, Alan J. P. Calheiros, Thiago Biscaro, Scott Giangrande, Maria A. F. Silva Dias, Micael A. Cecchini, Rachel Albrecht, Meinrat O. Andreae, Wagner F. Araujo, Paulo Artaxo, Stephan Borrmann, Ramon Braga, Casey Burleyson, Cristiano W. Eichholz, Jiwen Fan, Zhe Feng, Gilberto F. Fisch, Michael P. Jensen, Scot T. Martin, Ulrich Pöschl, Christopher Pöhlker, Mira L. Pöhlker, Jean-François Ribaud, Daniel Rosenfeld, Jaci M. B. Saraiva, Courtney Schumacher, Ryan Thalman, David Walter, and Manfred Wendisch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 6461–6482,Short summary
This overview discuss the main precipitation processes and their sensitivities to environmental conditions in the Central Amazon Basin. It presents a review of the knowledge acquired about cloud processes and rainfall formation in Amazonas. In addition, this study provides a characterization of the seasonal variation and rainfall sensitivities to topography, surface cover, and aerosol concentration. Airplane measurements were evaluated to characterize and contrast cloud microphysical properties.
Tianyi Fan, Xiaohong Liu, Po-Lun Ma, Qiang Zhang, Zhanqing Li, Yiquan Jiang, Fang Zhang, Chuanfeng Zhao, Xin Yang, Fang Wu, and Yuying Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 1395–1417,Short summary
We found that 22–28 % of the low AOD bias in eastern China simulated by the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 can be improved by using a new emission inventory. The concentrations of primary aerosols are closely related to the emission, while the seasonal variations of secondary aerosols depend more on atmospheric processes. This study highlights the importance of improving both the emission and atmospheric processes in modeling the atmospheric aerosols and their radiative effects.
Yawen Liu, Kai Zhang, Yun Qian, Yuhang Wang, Yufei Zou, Yongjia Song, Hui Wan, Xiaohong Liu, and Xiu-Qun Yang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 31–47,Short summary
Fire aerosols have large impact on weather and climate through their effect on clouds and radiation, but it is difficult to quantify. Here we investigated the short-term effective radiative forcing of fire aerosols using the nudged hindcast ensemble simulations from global aerosol-climate model. Results show large effects of fire aerosols on both liquid and ice cloud and large ensemble spread of regional mean shortwave cloud radiative forcing over southern Mexico and the central US.
Maria Sand, Bjørn H. Samset, Yves Balkanski, Susanne Bauer, Nicolas Bellouin, Terje K. Berntsen, Huisheng Bian, Mian Chin, Thomas Diehl, Richard Easter, Steven J. Ghan, Trond Iversen, Alf Kirkevåg, Jean-François Lamarque, Guangxing Lin, Xiaohong Liu, Gan Luo, Gunnar Myhre, Twan van Noije, Joyce E. Penner, Michael Schulz, Øyvind Seland, Ragnhild B. Skeie, Philip Stier, Toshihiko Takemura, Kostas Tsigaridis, Fangqun Yu, Kai Zhang, and Hua Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 12197–12218,Short summary
The role of aerosols in the changing polar climate is not well understood and the aerosols are poorly constrained in the models. In this study we have compared output from 16 different aerosol models with available observations at both poles. We show that the model median is representative of the observations, but the model spread is large. The Arctic direct aerosol radiative effect over the industrial area is positive during spring due to black carbon and negative during summer due to sulfate.
Yang Yang, Hailong Wang, Steven J. Smith, Richard Easter, Po-Lun Ma, Yun Qian, Hongbin Yu, Can Li, and Philip J. Rasch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 8903–8922,Short summary
Sulfate has significant impacts on air quality and climate. Local sulfate pollution could result from remote influences, making domestic mitigation efforts inefficient. Using CESM with a sulfur source-tagging technique, we found that, over regions with relatively low emissions, sulfate concentrations are primarily attributed to non-local sources and sulfate indirect radiative forcing over the Southern Hemisphere is more sensitive to emission perturbation than the polluted Northern Hemisphere.
Shi Zhong, Yun Qian, Chun Zhao, Ruby Leung, Hailong Wang, Ben Yang, Jiwen Fan, Huiping Yan, Xiu-Qun Yang, and Dongqing Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 5439–5457,Short summary
An online climate–chemistry coupled model (WRF-Chem) is integrated for 5 years at cloud-permitting scale to quantify the impacts of urbanization-induced changes in land cover and pollutants emission on regional climate in the Yangtze River Delta region in eastern China. Urbanization over this region increases the frequency of extreme precipitation and heat wave in summer. The results could help China government in making policies in mitigating the environmental impact of urbanization.
Chenglai Wu, Xiaohong Liu, Minghui Diao, Kai Zhang, Andrew Gettelman, Zheng Lu, Joyce E. Penner, and Zhaohui Lin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 4731–4749,Short summary
This study utilizes a novel approach to directly compare the CAM5-simulated cloud macro- and microphysics with the collocated HIPPO observations for the period of 2009 to 2011. The model cannot capture the large spatial variabilities of observed RH, which is responsible for much of the model missing low-level warm clouds. A large portion of the RH bias results from the discrepancy in water vapor. The model underestimates the observed number concentration and ice water content.
Yang Yang, Hailong Wang, Steven J. Smith, Po-Lun Ma, and Philip J. Rasch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 4319–4336,Short summary
The source attributions of black carbon (BC) in China are quantified using the Community Earth System Model by source tagging. BC impacts neighboring regions greatly. Transport is important in increasing BC during regional polluted days. Emissions outside China contribute 35 % of BC direct radiative forcing in China. Efficiency analysis shows that reduction in BC emissions over eastern China could have a greater benefit for regional air quality in China, especially in the winter haze season.
Hui Wan, Kai Zhang, Philip J. Rasch, Balwinder Singh, Xingyuan Chen, and Jim Edwards
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 537–552,Short summary
Solution reproductibility testing is an important task for assuring the software quality of a climate model. A new method is developed using the concept of numerical convergence with respect to temporal resolution. The method is objective, easy to implement, and computationally efficient. This paper describes the new test and demonstrates its utility in the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5).
Jiwen Fan, L. Ruby Leung, Daniel Rosenfeld, and Paul J. DeMott
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 1017–1035,Short summary
How orographic mixed-phase clouds respond to changes in cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and ice nucleating particles (INPs) is highly uncertain. We conducted this study to improve understanding of these processes. We found a new mechanism through which CCN can invigorate orographic mixed-phase clouds and drastically intensify snow precipitation when CCN concentrations are high. Our findings have very important implications for orographic precipitation in polluted regions.
Yiquan Jiang, Zheng Lu, Xiaohong Liu, Yun Qian, Kai Zhang, Yuhang Wang, and Xiu-Qun Yang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14805–14824,Short summary
Aerosols from open fires could significantly perturb the global radiation balance and induce climate change. In this study, the CAM5 global climate model is used to investigate the spatial and seasonal characteristics of radiative effects due to fire aerosol–radiation interactions, fire aerosol-cloud interactions and fire aerosol-surface albedo interactions, including radiative effects from all fire aerosols, fire black carbon and fire particulate organic matter.
Micael A. Cecchini, Luiz A. T. Machado, Jennifer M. Comstock, Fan Mei, Jian Wang, Jiwen Fan, Jason M. Tomlinson, Beat Schmid, Rachel Albrecht, Scot T. Martin, and Paulo Artaxo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 7029–7041,Short summary
This work focuses on the analysis of anthropogenic impacts on Amazonian clouds. The experiment was conducted around Manaus (Brazil), which is a city with 2 million inhabitants and is surrounded by the Amazon forest in every direction. The clouds that form over the pristine atmosphere of the forest are understood as the background clouds and the ones that form over the city pollution are the anthropogenically impacted ones. The paper analyses microphysical characteristics of both types of clouds.
Matthew Gibbons, Qilong Min, and Jiwen Fan
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
Observations suggest cloud systems evolve differently under dusty conditions compared to other aerosols. We have used numerical modeling to study one such case. Dust increases the formation of small sized ice in the mid-troposphere. This enhanced convective intensity, shifted precipitation top height to higher altitudes, and glaciated clouds at lower altitudes. Consistent with observations, average cloud height was lowered due to a greater number of heavy particles forming near the cloud tops.
S. T. Martin, P. Artaxo, L. A. T. Machado, A. O. Manzi, R. A. F. Souza, C. Schumacher, J. Wang, M. O. Andreae, H. M. J. Barbosa, J. Fan, G. Fisch, A. H. Goldstein, A. Guenther, J. L. Jimenez, U. Pöschl, M. A. Silva Dias, J. N. Smith, and M. Wendisch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 4785–4797,Short summary
The Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5) Experiment took place in central Amazonia throughout 2014 and 2015. The experiment focused on the complex links among vegetation, atmospheric chemistry, and aerosol production on the one hand and their connections to aerosols, clouds, and precipitation on the other, especially when altered by urban pollution. This article serves as an introduction to the special issue of publications presenting findings of this experiment.
N. I. Kristiansen, A. Stohl, D. J. L. Olivié, B. Croft, O. A. Søvde, H. Klein, T. Christoudias, D. Kunkel, S. J. Leadbetter, Y. H. Lee, K. Zhang, K. Tsigaridis, T. Bergman, N. Evangeliou, H. Wang, P.-L. Ma, R. C. Easter, P. J. Rasch, X. Liu, G. Pitari, G. Di Genova, S. Y. Zhao, Y. Balkanski, S. E. Bauer, G. S. Faluvegi, H. Kokkola, R. V. Martin, J. R. Pierce, M. Schulz, D. Shindell, H. Tost, and H. Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 3525–3561,Short summary
Processes affecting aerosol removal from the atmosphere are not fully understood. In this study we investigate to what extent atmospheric transport models can reproduce observed loss of aerosols. We compare measurements of radioactive isotopes, that attached to ambient sulfate aerosols during the 2011 Fukushima nuclear accident, to 19 models using identical emissions. Results indicate aerosol removal that is too fast in most models, and apply to aerosols that have undergone long-range transport.
Shipeng Zhang, Minghuai Wang, Steven J. Ghan, Aijun Ding, Hailong Wang, Kai Zhang, David Neubauer, Ulrike Lohmann, Sylvaine Ferrachat, Toshihiko Takeamura, Andrew Gettelman, Hugh Morrison, Yunha Lee, Drew T. Shindell, Daniel G. Partridge, Philip Stier, Zak Kipling, and Congbin Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2765–2783,Short summary
The variation of aerosol indirect effects (AIE) in several climate models is investigated across different dynamical regimes. Regimes with strong large-scale ascent are shown to be as important as stratocumulus regimes in studying AIE. AIE over regions with high monthly large-scale surface precipitation rate contributes the most to the total aerosol indirect forcing. These results point to the need to reduce the uncertainty in AIE in different dynamical regimes.
Zak Kipling, Philip Stier, Colin E. Johnson, Graham W. Mann, Nicolas Bellouin, Susanne E. Bauer, Tommi Bergman, Mian Chin, Thomas Diehl, Steven J. Ghan, Trond Iversen, Alf Kirkevåg, Harri Kokkola, Xiaohong Liu, Gan Luo, Twan van Noije, Kirsty J. Pringle, Knut von Salzen, Michael Schulz, Øyvind Seland, Ragnhild B. Skeie, Toshihiko Takemura, Kostas Tsigaridis, and Kai Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2221–2241,Short summary
The vertical distribution of atmospheric aerosol is an important factor in its effects on climate. In this study we use a sophisticated model of the many interacting processes affecting aerosol in the atmosphere to show that the vertical distribution is typically dominated by only a few of these processes. Constraining these physical processes may help to reduce the large differences between models. However, the important processes are not always the same for different types of aerosol.
Kai Zhang, Chun Zhao, Hui Wan, Yun Qian, Richard C. Easter, Steven J. Ghan, Koichi Sakaguchi, and Xiaohong Liu
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 607–632,Short summary
A sub-grid treatment based on Weibull distribution is introduced to CAM5 to take into account the impact of unresolved variability of surface wind speed on sea salt and dust emissions. Simulations show that sub-grid wind variability has relatively small impacts on the global mean sea salt emissions, but considerable influence on dust emissions. Dry convective eddies and mesoscale flows associated with complex topography are the major causes of dust emission enhancement.
X. Liu, P.-L. Ma, H. Wang, S. Tilmes, B. Singh, R. C. Easter, S. J. Ghan, and P. J. Rasch
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 505–522,Short summary
In this study, we describe and evaluate a new four-mode version of the Modal Aerosol Module (MAM4) in the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5). Compared to the current three-mode version of MAM in CAM5, MAM4 significantly improves the simulation of seasonal variation of BC concentrations in the polar regions, by increasing the BC concentrations in all seasons and particularly in cold seasons.
R. Zhang, H. Wang, D. A. Hegg, Y. Qian, S. J. Doherty, C. Dang, P.-L. Ma, P. J. Rasch, and Q. Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 12805–12822,Short summary
We use a global climate model with an explicit source tagging technique to quantify contributions of emissions from various geographical regions and sectors to BC in North America. Model results are evaluated against measurements of near-surface and in-snow BC. We found strong spatial variations of BC and its radiative forcing that can be quantitatively attributed to the various source origins, and also identified a significant source of BC in snow that is likely missing in most climate models.
R. Zhang, H. Wang, Y. Qian, P. J. Rasch, R. C. Easter, P.-L. Ma, B. Singh, J. Huang, and Q. Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 6205–6223,Short summary
We use the CAM5 model with a novel source-tagging technique to characterize the fate of BC particles emitted from various geographical regions and sectors and their transport pathways to the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau (HTP). We show a comprehensive picture of the seasonal and regional dependence of BC source attributions, and find strong seasonal and spatial variations in BC-in-snow radiative forcing in the HTP that can be quantitatively attributed to the various regional/sectoral sources.
N. Sudarchikova, U. Mikolajewicz, C. Timmreck, D. O'Donnell, G. Schurgers, D. Sein, and K. Zhang
Clim. Past, 11, 765–779,
S. Tilmes, J.-F. Lamarque, L. K. Emmons, D. E. Kinnison, P.-L. Ma, X. Liu, S. Ghan, C. Bardeen, S. Arnold, M. Deeter, F. Vitt, T. Ryerson, J. W. Elkins, F. Moore, J. R. Spackman, and M. Val Martin
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 1395–1426,Short summary
The Community Atmosphere Model (CAM), version 5, is now coupled to extensive tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry, called CAM5-chem, and is available in addition to CAM4-chem in the Community Earth System Model (CESM) version 1.2. Both configurations are well suited as tools for atmospheric chemistry modeling studies in the troposphere and lower stratosphere.
X. Shi, X. Liu, and K. Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 1503–1520,Short summary
The ice nucleation scheme in the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5) was improved by considering the effects of pre-existing ice crystals and some other modifications. Subsequently, the comparison between different ice nucleation parameterizations is investigated. Experiment using the ice nucleation parameterization of Kärcher et al. (2006) predicts a much smaller anthropogenic aerosol indirect forcing than that using the parameterizations of Liu and Penner (2005) and Barahona and Nenes (2009).
N. Hiranuma, M. Paukert, I. Steinke, K. Zhang, G. Kulkarni, C. Hoose, M. Schnaiter, H. Saathoff, and O. Möhler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 13145–13158,Short summary
A new heterogeneous ice nucleation parameterization is developed and implemented in cloud models. The results of our simulations suggest stronger influence of dust particles lifted to the upper troposphere on heterogeneous nucleation and more ice nucleation at temperature and humidity conditions relevant to both mixed-phase and cirrus clouds when compared to the existing parametrical frameworks.
K. Tsigaridis, N. Daskalakis, M. Kanakidou, P. J. Adams, P. Artaxo, R. Bahadur, Y. Balkanski, S. E. Bauer, N. Bellouin, A. Benedetti, T. Bergman, T. K. Berntsen, J. P. Beukes, H. Bian, K. S. Carslaw, M. Chin, G. Curci, T. Diehl, R. C. Easter, S. J. Ghan, S. L. Gong, A. Hodzic, C. R. Hoyle, T. Iversen, S. Jathar, J. L. Jimenez, J. W. Kaiser, A. Kirkevåg, D. Koch, H. Kokkola, Y. H Lee, G. Lin, X. Liu, G. Luo, X. Ma, G. W. Mann, N. Mihalopoulos, J.-J. Morcrette, J.-F. Müller, G. Myhre, S. Myriokefalitakis, N. L. Ng, D. O'Donnell, J. E. Penner, L. Pozzoli, K. J. Pringle, L. M. Russell, M. Schulz, J. Sciare, Ø. Seland, D. T. Shindell, S. Sillman, R. B. Skeie, D. Spracklen, T. Stavrakou, S. D. Steenrod, T. Takemura, P. Tiitta, S. Tilmes, H. Tost, T. van Noije, P. G. van Zyl, K. von Salzen, F. Yu, Z. Wang, Z. Wang, R. A. Zaveri, H. Zhang, K. Zhang, Q. Zhang, and X. Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 10845–10895,
K. Zhang, H. Wan, X. Liu, S. J. Ghan, G. J. Kooperman, P.-L. Ma, P. J. Rasch, D. Neubauer, and U. Lohmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 8631–8645,
P.-L. Ma, P. J. Rasch, J. D. Fast, R. C. Easter, W. I. Gustafson Jr., X. Liu, S. J. Ghan, and B. Singh
Geosci. Model Dev., 7, 755–778,
C. Jiao, M. G. Flanner, Y. Balkanski, S. E. Bauer, N. Bellouin, T. K. Berntsen, H. Bian, K. S. Carslaw, M. Chin, N. De Luca, T. Diehl, S. J. Ghan, T. Iversen, A. Kirkevåg, D. Koch, X. Liu, G. W. Mann, J. E. Penner, G. Pitari, M. Schulz, Ø. Seland, R. B. Skeie, S. D. Steenrod, P. Stier, T. Takemura, K. Tsigaridis, T. van Noije, Y. Yun, and K. Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 2399–2417,
J. Fan, L. R. Leung, P. J. DeMott, J. M. Comstock, B. Singh, D. Rosenfeld, J. M. Tomlinson, A. White, K. A. Prather, P. Minnis, J. K. Ayers, and Q. Min
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 81–101,
C. Zhao, X. Liu, Y. Qian, J. Yoon, Z. Hou, G. Lin, S. McFarlane, H. Wang, B. Yang, P.-L. Ma, H. Yan, and J. Bao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 10969–10987,
H. Wang, R. C. Easter, P. J. Rasch, M. Wang, X. Liu, S. J. Ghan, Y. Qian, J.-H. Yoon, P.-L. Ma, and V. Vinoj
Geosci. Model Dev., 6, 765–782,
B. H. Samset, G. Myhre, M. Schulz, Y. Balkanski, S. Bauer, T. K. Berntsen, H. Bian, N. Bellouin, T. Diehl, R. C. Easter, S. J. Ghan, T. Iversen, S. Kinne, A. Kirkevåg, J.-F. Lamarque, G. Lin, X. Liu, J. E. Penner, Ø. Seland, R. B. Skeie, P. Stier, T. Takemura, K. Tsigaridis, and K. Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 2423–2434,
Related subject area
Atmospheric sciencesNovel estimation of aerosol processes with particle size distribution measurements: a case study with the TOMAS algorithm v1.0.0Evaluation of ECMWF IFS-AER (CAMS) operational forecasts during cycle 41r1–46r1 with calibrated ceilometer profiles over GermanyInfluence of biomass burning vapor wall loss correction on modeling organic aerosols in Europe by CAMx v6.50Seasonal and diurnal performance of daily forecasts with WRF V3.8.1 over the United Arab EmiratesMLAir (v1.0) – a tool to enable fast and flexible machine learning on air data time seriessnowScatt 1.0: consistent model of microphysical and scattering properties of rimed and unrimed snowflakes based on the self-similar Rayleigh–Gans approximationEffects of spatial resolution on WRF v3.8.1 simulated meteorology over the central HimalayaOn the suitability of second-order accurate finite-volume solvers for the simulation of atmospheric boundary layer flowAn urban large-eddy-simulation-based dispersion model for marginal grid resolutions: CAIRDIO v1.0Applying a new integrated mass-flux adjustment filter in rapid update cycling of convective-scale data assimilation for the COSMO model (v5.07)On the model uncertainties in Bayesian source reconstruction using an ensemble of weather predictions, the emission inverse modelling system FREAR v1.0, and the Lagrangian transport and dispersion model Flexpart v9.0.2Evaluation of the interactive stratospheric ozone (O3v2) module in the E3SM version 1 Earth system modelDevelopment of an atmospheric chemistry model coupled to the PALM model system 6.0: implementation and first applicationsThe Vertical City Weather Generator (VCWG v1.3.2)A zero-dimensional view of atmospheric degradation of levoglucosan (LEVCHEM_v1) using numerical chamber simulationsThe Nonhydrostatic ICosahedral Atmospheric Model for CMIP6 HighResMIP simulations (NICAM16-S): experimental design, model description, and impacts of model updatesDevelopment of WRF/CUACE v1.0 model and its preliminary application in simulating air quality in ChinaPyCHAM (v2.1.1): a Python box model for simulating aerosol chambersA revised dry deposition scheme for land–atmosphere exchange of trace gases in ECHAM/MESSy v2.54Improving dust simulations in WRF-Chem v4.1.3 coupled with the GOCART aerosol moduleFALL3D-8.0: a computational model for atmospheric transport and deposition of particles, aerosols and radionuclides – Part 2: Model validationImplementation of a synthetic inflow turbulence generator in idealised WRF v3.6.1 large eddy simulations under neutral atmospheric conditionsNumerical study of the effects of initial conditions and emissions on PM2.5 concentration simulations with CAMx v6.1: a Xi'an case studyA multi-year short-range hindcast experiment with CESM1 for evaluating climate model moist processes from diurnal to interannual timescalesGround-based lidar processing and simulator framework for comparing models and observations (ALCF 1.0)Development of an Ozone Monitoring 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simulated moisture source for East Asian precipitation in MetUM GA6/GC2On the tuning of atmospheric inverse methods: comparisons with the European Tracer Experiment (ETEX) and Chernobyl datasets using the atmospheric transport model FLEXPARTWRF4PALM v1.0: A Mesoscale Dynamical Driver for the Microscale PALM Model System 6.0Sensitivity of aerosol optical properties to the aerosol size distribution over central Europe and the Mediterranean Basin using the WRF-Chem v.220.127.116.11 coupled modelPMIF v1.0: assessing the potential of satellite observations to constrain CO2 emissions from large cities and point sources over the globe using synthetic dataMultilayer cloud conditions in trade wind shallow cumulus – confronting two ICON model derivatives with airborne observationsA new parameterization of ice heterogeneous nucleation coupled to aerosol chemistry in WRF-Chem model version 3.5.1: evaluation through ISDAC measurementsPrioritising the sources of pollution in European cities: do air 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Dana L. McGuffin, Yuanlong Huang, Richard C. Flagan, Tuukka Petäjä, B. Erik Ydstie, and Peter J. Adams
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1821–1839,Short summary
Atmospheric particle formation, emissions, and growth process rates are significant sources of uncertainty in predicting climate change. We aim to reduce that uncertainty by using measurements from several ground-based sites across Europe. We developed an estimation technique to adapt the governing process rates so model–measurement bias decays. The estimation framework developed has potential to improve model predictions while providing insight into the underlying atmospheric particle physics.
Harald Flentje, Ina Mattis, Zak Kipling, Samuel Rémy, and Werner Thomas
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1721–1751,Short summary
Atmospheric aerosols crucially impact air quality, climate and weather. Thus, global model forecasts of atmospheric constituents are published daily on the ECMWF website and are regularly verified by the CAMS service team. The IFS-AER model is largely able to reproduce observed 3-D distributions of the important particle types over Germany. The particle concentration is mostly captured within several tens of percent, but quantification of some specific processes still remains a challenge.
Jianhui Jiang, Imad El Haddad, Sebnem Aksoyoglu, Giulia Stefenelli, Amelie Bertrand, Nicolas Marchand, Francesco Canonaco, Jean-Eudes Petit, Olivier Favez, Stefania Gilardoni, Urs Baltensperger, and André S. H. Prévôt
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1681–1697,Short summary
We developed a box model with a volatility basis set to simulate organic aerosol (OA) from biomass burning and optimized the vapor-wall-loss-corrected OA yields with a genetic algorithm. The optimized parameterizations were then implemented in the air quality model CAMx v6.5. Comparisons with ambient measurements indicate that the vapor-wall-loss-corrected parameterization effectively improves the model performance in predicting OA, which reduced the mean fractional bias from −72.9 % to −1.6 %.
Oliver Branch, Thomas Schwitalla, Marouane Temimi, Ricardo Fonseca, Narendra Nelli, Michael Weston, Josipa Milovac, and Volker Wulfmeyer
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1615–1637,Short summary
Effective numerical weather forecasting is vital in arid regions like the United Arab Emirates where extreme events like heat waves, flash floods, and dust storms are becoming more severe. This study employs a high-resolution simulation with the WRF-NOAHMP model, and the output is compared with seasonal observation data from 50 weather stations. This type of verification is vital to identify model deficiencies and improve forecasting systems for arid regions.
Lukas Hubert Leufen, Felix Kleinert, and Martin G. Schultz
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1553–1574,Short summary
MLAir provides a coherent end-to-end structure for a typical time series analysis workflow using machine learning (ML). MLAir is adaptable to a wide range of ML use cases, focusing in particular on deep learning. The user has a free hand with the ML model itself and can select from different methods during preprocessing, training, and postprocessing. MLAir offers tools to track the experiment conduction, documents necessary ML parameters, and creates a variety of publication-ready plots.
Davide Ori, Leonie von Terzi, Markus Karrer, and Stefan Kneifel
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1511–1531,Short summary
Snowflakes have very complex shapes, and modeling their properties requires vast computing power. We produced a large number of realistic snowflakes and modeled their average properties by leveraging their fractal structure. Our approach allows modeling the properties of big ensembles of snowflakes, taking into account their natural variability, at a much lower cost. This enables the usage of remote sensing instruments, such as radars, to monitor the evolution of clouds and precipitation.
Jaydeep Singh, Narendra Singh, Narendra Ojha, Amit Sharma, Andrea Pozzer, Nadimpally Kiran Kumar, Kunjukrishnapillai Rajeev, Sachin S. Gunthe, and V. Rao Kotamarthi
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1427–1443,Short summary
Atmospheric models often have limitations in simulating the geographically complex and climatically important central Himalayan region. In this direction, we have performed regional modeling at high resolutions to improve the simulation of meteorology and dynamics through a better representation of the topography. The study has implications for further model applications to investigate the effects of anthropogenic pressure over the Himalaya.
Beatrice Giacomini and Marco G. Giometto
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1409–1426,Short summary
The present work evaluates the suitability of an important class of second-order finite-volume solvers for the large-eddy simulation of atmospheric boundary- layer flows. Results show that these solvers do not capture the dominant mechanisms responsible for momentum transport in boundary layers, leading to a misprediction of relevant flow statistics and to an enhanced sensitivity of the solution to variations in grid resolution.
Michael Weger, Oswald Knoth, and Bernd Heinold
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1469–1492,Short summary
A new numerical air-quality transport model for cities is presented, in which buildings are described diffusively. The used diffusive-obstacles approach helps to reduce the computational costs for high-resolution simulations as the grid spacing can be more coarse than in traditional approaches. The research which led to this model development was primarily motivated by the need for a computationally feasible downscaling tool for urban wind and pollution fields from meteorological model output.
Yuefei Zeng, Alberto de Lozar, Tijana Janjic, and Axel Seifert
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1295–1307,Short summary
A new integrated mass-flux adjustment filter is introduced and examined with an idealized setup for convective-scale radar data assimilation. It is found that the new filter slightly reduces the accuracy of background and analysis states; however, it preserves the main structure of cold pools and primary mesocyclone properties of supercells. More importantly, it successfully diminishes the imbalance in the analysis considerably and improves the forecasts.
Pieter De Meutter, Ian Hoffman, and Kurt Ungar
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1237–1252,Short summary
Inverse atmospheric transport modelling is an important tool in several disciplines. However, the specification of atmospheric transport model error remains challenging. In this paper, we employ a state-of-the-art ensemble technique combined with a state-of-the-art Bayesian inference algorithm to infer point sources. Our research helps to fill the gap in our understanding of model error in the context of inverse atmospheric transport modelling.
Qi Tang, Michael J. Prather, Juno Hsu, Daniel J. Ruiz, Philip J. Cameron-Smith, Shaocheng Xie, and Jean-Christophe Golaz
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1219–1236,
Basit Khan, Sabine Banzhaf, Edward C. Chan, Renate Forkel, Farah Kanani-Sühring, Klaus Ketelsen, Mona Kurppa, Björn Maronga, Matthias Mauder, Siegfried Raasch, Emmanuele Russo, Martijn Schaap, and Matthias Sühring
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1171–1193,Short summary
An atmospheric chemistry model has been implemented in the microscale PALM model system 6.0. This article provides a detailed description of the model, its structure, input requirements, various features and limitations. Several pre-compiled ready-to-use chemical mechanisms are included in the chemistry model code; however, users can also easily implement other mechanisms. A case study is presented to demonstrate the application of the new chemistry model in the urban environment.
Mohsen Moradi, Benjamin Dyer, Amir Nazem, Manoj K. Nambiar, M. Rafsan Nahian, Bruno Bueno, Chris Mackey, Saeran Vasanthakumar, Negin Nazarian, E. Scott Krayenhoff, Leslie K. Norford, and Amir A. Aliabadi
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 961–984,Short summary
The Vertical City Weather Generator (VCWG) is an urban microclimate model developed to predict temporal and vertical variation of potential temperature, wind speed, and specific humidity. VCWG is forced by climate variables at a nearby rural site and coupled to radiation and building energy models. VCWG is evaluated against field observations of the BUBBLE campaign. It is run under exploration mode to assess its performance given urban characteristics, seasonal variations, and climate zones.
Loredana G. Suciu, Robert J. Griffin, and Caroline A. Masiello
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 907–921,Short summary
Understanding the atmospheric degradation of biomass burning tracers such as levoglucosan is essential to decreasing uncertainties in the role of biomass burning in air quality, carbon cycling and paleoclimate. Using a 0-D modeling approach and numerical chamber simulations, we found that the multiphase atmospheric degradation of levoglucosan occurs over timescales of hours to days, can form secondary organic aerosols and affects other key tropospheric gases, such as ozone.
Chihiro Kodama, Tomoki Ohno, Tatsuya Seiki, Hisashi Yashiro, Akira T. Noda, Masuo Nakano, Yohei Yamada, Woosub Roh, Masaki Satoh, Tomoko Nitta, Daisuke Goto, Hiroaki Miura, Tomoe Nasuno, Tomoki Miyakawa, Ying-Wen Chen, and Masato Sugi
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 795–820,Short summary
This paper describes the latest stable version of NICAM, a global atmospheric model, developed for high-resolution climate simulations toward the IPCC Assessment Report. Our model explicitly treats convection, clouds, and precipitation and could reduce the uncertainty of climate change projection. A series of test simulations demonstrated improvements (e.g., high cloud) and issues (e.g., low cloud, precipitation pattern), suggesting further necessity for model improvement and higher resolutions.
Lei Zhang, Sunling Gong, Tianliang Zhao, Chunhong Zhou, Yuesi Wang, Jiawei Li, Dongsheng Ji, Jianjun He, Hongli Liu, Ke Gui, Xiaomei Guo, Jinhui Gao, Yunpeng Shan, Hong Wang, Yaqiang Wang, Huizheng Che, and Xiaoye Zhang
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 703–718,Short summary
Development of chemical transport models with advanced physics and chemical schemes is important for improving air-quality forecasts. This study develops the chemical module CUACE by updating with a new particle dry deposition scheme and adding heterogenous chemical reactions and couples it with the WRF model. The coupled model (WRF/CUACE) was able to capture well the variations of PM2.5, O3, NO2, and secondary inorganic aerosols in eastern China.
Simon Patrick O'Meara, Shuxuan Xu, David Topping, M. Rami Alfarra, Gerard Capes, Douglas Lowe, Yunqi Shao, and Gordon McFiggans
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 675–702,Short summary
User-friendly and open-source software for simulating aerosol chambers is a valuable tool for research scientists in designing and analysing their experiments. This paper describes a new version of such software and will therefore provide a useful reference for those applying it. Central to the paper is an assessment of the software's accuracy through comparison against previously published simulations.
Tamara Emmerichs, Astrid Kerkweg, Huug Ouwersloot, Silvano Fares, Ivan Mammarella, and Domenico Taraborrelli
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 495–519,Short summary
Dry deposition to vegetation is a major sink of ground-level ozone. Its parameterization in atmospheric chemistry models represents a significant source of uncertainty for global tropospheric ozone. We extended the current model parameterization with a relevant pathway and important meteorological adjustment factors. The comparison with measurements shows that this enables a more realistic model representation of ozone dry deposition velocity. Globally, annual dry deposition loss increases.
Alexander Ukhov, Ravan Ahmadov, Georg Grell, and Georgiy Stenchikov
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 473–493,Short summary
We discuss and evaluate the effects of inconsistencies found in the WRF-Chem code when using the GOCART module. First, PM surface concentrations were miscalculated. Second, dust optical depth was underestimated by 25 %–30 %. Third, an inconsistency in the process of gravitational settling led to the overestimation of dust column loadings by 4 %–6 %, PM10 by 2 %–4 %, and the rate of gravitational dust settling by 5 %–10 %. We also presented diagnostics that can be used to estimate these effects.
Andrew T. Prata, Leonardo Mingari, Arnau Folch, Giovanni Macedonio, and Antonio Costa
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 409–436,Short summary
This paper presents FALL3D-8.0, the latest version release of an open-source code with a track record of 15+ years and a growing number of users in the volcanological and atmospheric communities. The code, originally conceived for atmospheric dispersal and deposition of tephra particles, has been extended to model other types of particles, aerosols and radionuclides. This paper details new model applications and validation of FALL3D-8.0 using satellite, ground-deposit load and radionuclide data.
Jian Zhong, Xiaoming Cai, and Zheng-Tong Xie
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 323–336,Short summary
A synthetic inflow turbulence generator was implemented in the idealised Weather Research and Forecasting large eddy simulation. The inflow case yielded a mean velocity profile and second-moment profiles that agreed well with those generated using periodic boundary conditions, after a short adjustment distance. This implementation can be extended to a multi-scale seamless nesting simulation from a meso-scale domain with a kilometre-scale resolution to LES domains with metre-scale resolutions.
Han Xiao, Qizhong Wu, Xiaochun Yang, Lanning Wang, and Huaqiong Cheng
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 223–238,Short summary
Few studies have investigated the effects of initial conditions on the simulation or prediction of PM2.5 concentrations. Here, sensitivity experiments are used to explore the effects of three initial mechanisms (clean, restart, and continuous) and emissions in Xi’an in December 2016. According to this work, if the restart mechanism cannot be used due to computing resource and storage space limitations when forecasting PM2.5 concentrations, a spin-up time of at least 27 h is needed.
Hsi-Yen Ma, Chen Zhou, Yunyan Zhang, Stephen A. Klein, Mark D. Zelinka, Xue Zheng, Shaocheng Xie, Wei-Ting Chen, and Chien-Ming Wu
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 73–90,Short summary
We propose an experimental design of a suite of multi-year, short-term hindcasts and compare them with corresponding observations or measurements for periods based on different weather and climate phenomena. This atypical way of evaluating model performance is particularly useful and beneficial, as these hindcasts can give scientists a robust picture of modeled precipitation, and cloud and radiation processes from their diurnal variation to year-to-year variability.
Peter Kuma, Adrian J. McDonald, Olaf Morgenstern, Richard Querel, Israel Silber, and Connor J. Flynn
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 43–72,
Jianglong Zhang, Robert J. D. Spurr, Jeffrey S. Reid, Peng Xian, Peter R. Colarco, James R. Campbell, Edward J. Hyer, and Nancy L. Baker
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 27–42,Short summary
A first-of-its-kind scheme has been developed for assimilating Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) aerosol index (AI) measurements into the Naval Aerosol Analysis and Predictive System. Improvements in model simulations demonstrate the utility of OMI AI data assimilation for improving the accuracy of aerosol model analysis over cloudy regions and bright surfaces. This study can be considered one of the first attempts at direct radiance assimilation in the UV spectrum for aerosol analyses.
Felix Kleinert, Lukas H. Leufen, and Martin G. Schultz
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1–25,Short summary
With IntelliO3-ts v1.0, we present an artificial neural network as a new forecasting model for daily aggregated near-surface ozone concentrations with a lead time of up to 4 d. We used measurement and reanalysis data from more than 300 German monitoring stations to train, fine tune, and test the model. We show that the model outperforms standard reference models like persistence models and demonstrate that IntelliO3-ts outperforms climatological reference models for the first 2 d.
Ziyu Huang, Lei Zhong, Yaoming Ma, and Yunfei Fu
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for GMDShort summary
Spectral nudging is an effective dynamical downscaling method used to improve precipitation simulations of regional climate models (RCMs). However, the biases of the reference fields over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) would possibly introduce extra biases when spectral nudging is applied. Results show that the precipitation simulations were significantly improved when limiting the application of spectral nudging towards the potential temperature and water vapor mixing ratio over the TP.
Adrien Napoly, Aaron Boone, and Théo Welfringer
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 6523–6545,Short summary
Accurate modeling of snow impact on surface energy and mass fluxes is required from land surface models. This new version of the SURFEX model improves the representation of the snowpack. In particular, it prevents its ablation from occurring too early in the season, which also leads to better soil temperatures and energy fluxes toward the atmosphere. This was made possible with a more explicit and distinct representation of each layer that constitutes the surface (soil, snow, and vegetation).
Robin J. Hogan and Marco Matricardi
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 6501–6521,Short summary
A key component of computer models used to predict weather and climate is the radiation scheme, which calculates how solar and infrared radiation heats and cools the atmosphere and surface, including the important role of greenhouse gases. This paper describes the experimental protocol and large datasets for a new project, CKDMIP, to evaluate and improve the accuracy of the treatment of atmospheric gases in the radiation schemes used worldwide, as well as their computational speed.
David Simpson, Robert Bergström, Alan Briolat, Hannah Imhof, John Johansson, Michael Priestley, and Alvaro Valdebenito
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 6447–6465,Short summary
This paper outlines the structure and usage of the GenChem system, which includes a chemical pre-processor (GenChem.py) and a simple box model (boxChem). GenChem provides scripts and input files for converting chemical equations into differential form for use in atmospheric chemical transport models (CTMs) and/or the boxChem system. Although GenChem is primarily intended for users of the EMEP MSC-W CTM and related systems, boxChem can be run as a stand-alone chemical solver.
Benjamin N. Murphy, Christopher G. Nolte, Fahim Sidi, Jesse O. Bash, K. Wyat Appel, Carey Jang, Daiwen Kang, James Kelly, Rohit Mathur, Sergey Napelenok, George Pouliot, and Havala O. T. Pye
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for GMDShort summary
The algorithms for applying air pollution emission rates in the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model have been improved to better support users and developers. The new features accommodate emissions perturbation studies that are typical in atmospheric research and output a wealth of metadata for each model run so assumptions can be verified and documented. The new approach dramatically enhances the transparency and functionality of this critical of atmospheric modeling.
Zhiqiang Li, Bingcheng Wan, Yulun Zhou, and Hokit Wong
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 6349–6360,Short summary
Our results provide evidence of the effects of incoming land surface data quality on the accuracy of high-resolution urban climate simulations and emphasize the importance of the incoming data quality control.
Yihui Zhou, Yi Zhang, Jian Li, Rucong Yu, and Zhuang Liu
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 6325–6348,Short summary
This paper explores the configuration of a global atmospheric model (global-to-regional integrated forecast system-atmosphere; GRIST-A) with various multiresolution grids. The model performance is evaluated from dry dynamics to simple physics and full physics. The model is able to resolve the fine-scale structures in the grid-refinement region, and the adverse impact due to the mesh transition and the coarse-resolution area can be controlled well.
Bruce Rolstad Denby, Michael Gauss, Peter Wind, Qing Mu, Eivind Grøtting Wærsted, Hilde Fagerli, Alvaro Valdebenito, and Heiko Klein
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 6303–6323,Short summary
Air pollution is both a local and a global problem. Since measurements cannot be made everywhere, mathematical models are used to calculate air quality over cities or countries. Modelling over countries limits the level of detail of the models. For countries, the level of detail is only a few kilometres, so air quality at kerb sides is not properly represented. The uEMEP model is used together with the regional air quality model EMEP MSC-W to model details down to kerb side for all of Norway.
Yanfei Liang, Zengliang Zang, Dong Liu, Peng Yan, Yiwen Hu, Yan Zhou, and Wei You
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 6285–6301,
Ebrahim Eslami, Yunsoo Choi, Yannic Lops, Alqamah Sayeed, and Ahmed Khan Salman
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 6237–6251,Short summary
As using deep learning algorithms has become a popular data analytic technique, atmospheric scientists should have a balanced perception of their strengths and limitations so that they can provide a powerful analysis of complex data with well-established procedures. This study addresses significant limitations of an advanced deep learning algorithm, the convolutional neural network.
Eemeli Holopainen, Harri Kokkola, Anton Laakso, and Thomas Kühn
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 6215–6235,Short summary
This paper introduces an in-cloud wet deposition scheme for liquid and ice phase clouds for global aerosol–climate models. With the default setup, our wet deposition scheme behaves spuriously and better representation can be achieved with this scheme when black carbon is mixed with soluble compounds at emission time. This work is done as many of the global models fail to reproduce the transport of black carbon to the Arctic, which may be due to the poor representation of wet removal in models.
Travis A. O'Brien, Mark D. Risser, Burlen Loring, Abdelrahman A. Elbashandy, Harinarayan Krishnan, Jeffrey Johnson, Christina M. Patricola, John P. O'Brien, Ankur Mahesh, Prabhat, Sarahí Arriaga Ramirez, Alan M. Rhoades, Alexander Charn, Héctor Inda Díaz, and William D. Collins
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 6131–6148,Short summary
Researchers utilize various algorithms to identify extreme weather features in climate data, and we seek to answer this question: given a
plausibleweather event detector, how does uncertainty in the detector impact scientific results? We generate a suite of statistical models that emulate expert identification of weather features. We find that the connection between El Niño and atmospheric rivers – a specific extreme weather type – depends systematically on the design of the detector.
Enrique Pravia-Sarabia, Juan José Gómez-Navarro, Pedro Jiménez-Guerrero, and Juan Pedro Montávez
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 6051–6075,Short summary
This work shows TITAM, a time-independent tracking algorithm specifically suited for Mediterranean tropical-like cyclones, often referred to as medicanes. The methodology developed has the capacity to track multiple simultaneous cyclones, the ability to track a medicane in the presence of intense extratropical lows, and the potential to separate the medicane from other similar structures by handling the intermittent loss of structure and managing the tilting of the axis.
Liang Guo, Ruud J. van der Ent, Nicholas P. Klingaman, Marie-Estelle Demory, Pier Luigi Vidale, Andrew G. Turner, Claudia C. Stephan, and Amulya Chevuturi
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 6011–6028,Short summary
Precipitation over East Asia simulated in the Met Office Unified Model is compared with observations. Moisture sources of EA precipitation are traced using a moisture tracking model. Biases in moisture sources are linked to biases in precipitation. Using the tracking model, changes in moisture sources can be attributed to changes in SST, circulation and associated evaporation. This proves that the method used in this study is useful to identify the causes of biases in regional precipitation.
Ondřej Tichý, Lukáš Ulrych, Václav Šmídl, Nikolaos Evangeliou, and Andreas Stohl
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 5917–5934,Short summary
We study the estimation of the temporal profile of an atmospheric release using formalization as a linear inverse problem. The problem is typically ill-posed, so all state-of-the-art methods need some form of regularization using additional information. We provide a sensitivity study on the prior source term and regularization parameters for the shape of the source term with a demonstration on the ETEX experimental release and the Cs-134 and Cs-137 dataset from the Chernobyl accident.
Dongqi Lin, Basit Khan, Marwan Katurji, Leroy Bird, Ricardo Faria, and Laura E. Revell
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for GMDShort summary
We present an open-source toolbox WRF4PALM which enables simulating weather dynamics within the urban landscapes. WRF4PALM passes meteorological information from the popular Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to the turbulence-resolving PALM model system 6.0. WRF4PALM can potentially extend the use of WRF and PALM with realistic boundary conditions to any part of the world. WRF4PALM will help study air pollution dispersion, wind energy prospecting, and high impact wind forecasting.
Laura Palacios-Peña, Jerome D. Fast, Enrique Pravia-Sarabia, and Pedro Jiménez-Guerrero
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 5897–5915,Short summary
The main objective of this work is to study the impact of the representation of aerosol size distribution on aerosol optical properties over central Europe and the Mediterranean Basin during a summertime aerosol episode using the WRF-Chem online model. Results reveal that the reduction in the standard deviation of the accumulation mode leads to the largest impacts on aerosol optical depth (AOD) representation due to a transfer of particles from the accumulation mode to the coarse mode.
Yilong Wang, Grégoire Broquet, François-Marie Bréon, Franck Lespinas, Michael Buchwitz, Maximilian Reuter, Yasjka Meijer, Armin Loescher, Greet Janssens-Maenhout, Bo Zheng, and Philippe Ciais
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 5813–5831,
Marek Jacob, Pavlos Kollias, Felix Ament, Vera Schemann, and Susanne Crewell
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 5757–5777,Short summary
We compare clouds in different cloud-resolving atmosphere simulations with airborne remote sensing observations. The focus is on warm shallow clouds in the Atlantic trade wind region. Those clouds are climatologically important but challenging for climate models. We use forward operators to apply instrument-specific thresholds for cloud detection to model outputs. In this comparison, the higher-resolution model better reproduces the layered cloud structure.
Setigui Aboubacar Keita, Eric Girard, Jean-Christophe Raut, Maud Leriche, Jean-Pierre Blanchet, Jacques Pelon, Tatsuo Onishi, and Ana Cirisan
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 5737–5755,
Bart Degraeuwe, Enrico Pisoni, and Philippe Thunis
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 5725–5736,Short summary
To make decisions on how to improve air quality, it is useful to identify the main sources of pollution for an area of interest. Often these sources of pollution are identified with complex models that, even if accurate, are time consuming and complex. In this work we use another approach, simplified models, to accomplish the same task. The results, computed with two different set of simplified models, show the main sources of pollution for selected cities, and the associated uncertainties.
Mathieu Lachatre, Sylvain Mailler, Laurent Menut, Solène Turquety, Pasquale Sellitto, Henda Guermazi, Giuseppe Salerno, Tommaso Caltabiano, and Elisa Carboni
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 5707–5723,Short summary
Excessive numerical diffusion is a major limitation in the representation of long-range transport in atmospheric models. In the present study, we focus on excessive diffusion in the vertical direction. We explore three possible ways of addressing this problem: increased vertical resolution, an advection scheme with anti-diffusive properties and more accurate representation of vertical wind. This study focused on a particular volcanic eruption event to improve atmospheric transport modeling.
Mona Kurppa, Pontus Roldin, Jani Strömberg, Anna Balling, Sasu Karttunen, Heino Kuuluvainen, Jarkko V. Niemi, Liisa Pirjola, Topi Rönkkö, Hilkka Timonen, Antti Hellsten, and Leena Järvi
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 5663–5685,Short summary
High-resolution modelling is needed to solve the aerosol concentrations in a complex urban area. Here, the performance of an aerosol module within the PALM model to simulate the detailed horizontal and vertical distribution of aerosol particles is studied. Further, sensitivity to the meteorological and aerosol boundary conditions is assessed using both model and observation data. The horizontal distribution is sensitive to the wind speed and stability, and the vertical to the wind direction.
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This paper presents an evaluation of the E3SM model against NEXRAD radar observations for the warm seasons during 2014–2016. The COSP forward simulator package is implemented in the model to generate radar reflectivity, and the NEXRAD observations are coarsened to the model resolution for comparison. The model severely underestimates the reflectivity above 4 km. Sensitivity tests on the parameters from cumulus parameterization and cloud microphysics do not improve this model bias.
This paper presents an evaluation of the E3SM model against NEXRAD radar observations for the...