Articles | Volume 14, issue 9
© Author(s) 2021. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
© Author(s) 2021. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Mesoscale nesting interface of the PALM model system 6.0
Deutscher Wetterdienst, Offenbach, Germany
Institute of Meteorology and Climatology, Leibniz University Hannover, Hanover, Germany
Institute of Meteorology and Climatology, Leibniz University Hannover, Hanover, Germany
Institute of Meteorology and Climatology, Leibniz University Hannover, Hanover, Germany
No articles found.
Charlotte Rahlves, Frank Beyrich, and Siegfried Raasch
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 2839–2856,Short summary
Lidars can measure the wind profile in the lower part of the atmosphere, provided that the wind field is horizontally uniform and does not change during the time of the measurement. These requirements are mostly not fulfilled in reality, and the lidar wind measurement will thus hold a certain error. We investigate different strategies for lidar wind profiling using a lidar simulator implemented in a numerical simulation of the wind field. Our findings can help to improve wind measurements.
Oliver Maas and Siegfried Raasch
Wind Energ. Sci., 7, 715–739,Short summary
In the future there will be very large wind farm clusters in the German Bight. This study investigates how the wind field is affected by these very large wind farms and how much energy can be extracted by the wind turbines. Very large wind farms do not only reduce the wind speed but can also cause a change in wind direction or temperature. The extractable energy per wind turbine is much smaller for large wind farms than for small wind farms due to the reduced wind speed inside the wind farms.
Mohamed H. Salim, Sebastian Schubert, Jaroslav Resler, Pavel Krč, Björn Maronga, Farah Kanani-Sühring, Matthias Sühring, and Christoph Schneider
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 145–171,Short summary
Radiative transfer processes are the main energy transport mechanism in urban areas which influence the surface energy budget and drive local convection. We show here the importance of each process to help modellers decide on how much detail they should include in their models to parameterize radiative transfer in urban areas. We showed how the flow field may change in response to these processes and the essential processes needed to assure acceptable quality of the numerical simulations.
Stefan Metzger, David Durden, Sreenath Paleri, Matthias Sühring, Brian J. Butterworth, Christopher Florian, Matthias Mauder, David M. Plummer, Luise Wanner, Ke Xu, and Ankur R. Desai
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6929–6954,Short summary
The key points are the following. (i) Integrative observing system design can multiply the information gain of surface–atmosphere field measurements. (ii) Catalyzing numerical simulations and first-principles machine learning open up observing system simulation experiments to novel applications. (iii) Use cases include natural climate solutions, emission inventory validation, urban air quality, and industry leak detection.
Katrin Frieda Gehrke, Matthias Sühring, and Björn Maronga
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 5307–5329,
Jaroslav Resler, Kryštof Eben, Jan Geletič, Pavel Krč, Martin Rosecký, Matthias Sühring, Michal Belda, Vladimír Fuka, Tomáš Halenka, Peter Huszár, Jan Karlický, Nina Benešová, Jana Ďoubalová, Kateřina Honzáková, Josef Keder, Šárka Nápravníková, and Ondřej Vlček
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 4797–4842,Short summary
We describe validation of the PALM model v6.0 against measurements collected during two observational campaigns in Dejvice, Prague. The study focuses on the evaluation of the newly developed or improved radiative and energy balance modules in PALM related to urban modelling. In addition to the energy-related quantities, it also evaluates air flow and air quality under street canyon conditions.
Michal Belda, Jaroslav Resler, Jan Geletič, Pavel Krč, Björn Maronga, Matthias Sühring, Mona Kurppa, Farah Kanani-Sühring, Vladimír Fuka, Kryštof Eben, Nina Benešová, and Mikko Auvinen
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 4443–4464,Short summary
The analysis summarizes how sensitive the modelling of urban environment is to changes in physical parameters describing the city (e.g. reflectivity of surfaces) and to several heat island mitigation scenarios in a city quarter in Prague, Czech Republic. We used the large-eddy simulation modelling system PALM 6.0. Surface parameters connected to radiation show the highest sensitivity in this configuration. For heat island mitigation, urban vegetation is shown to be the most effective measure.
Jens Pfafferott, Sascha Rißmann, Matthias Sühring, Farah Kanani-Sühring, and Björn Maronga
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 3511–3519,Short summary
The building model is integrated via an urban surface model into the urban climate model. There is a strong interaction between the built environment and the urban climate. According to the building energy concept, the energy demand results in a waste heat; this is directly transferred to the urban environment. The impact of buildings on the urban climate is defined by different physical building parameters with different technical facilities for ventilation, heating and cooling.
Tobias Gronemeier, Kerstin Surm, Frank Harms, Bernd Leitl, Björn Maronga, and Siegfried Raasch
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 3317–3333,Short summary
We demonstrate the capability of the PALM model system version 6.0 to simulate urban boundary layers. The studied situation includes a real-world building setup of the HafenCity area in Hamburg, Germany. We evaluate the simulation results against wind-tunnel measurements utilizing PALM's virtual measurement module. The comparison reveals an overall high agreement between simulation results and wind-tunnel measurements including mean wind speed and direction as well as turbulence statistics.
Antti Hellsten, Klaus Ketelsen, Matthias Sühring, Mikko Auvinen, Björn Maronga, Christoph Knigge, Fotios Barmpas, Georgios Tsegas, Nicolas Moussiopoulos, and Siegfried Raasch
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 3185–3214,Short summary
Large-eddy simulation (LES) of the urban atmospheric boundary layer involves a large separation of turbulent scales, leading to prohibitive computational costs. An online LES–LES nesting scheme is implemented into the PALM model system 6.0 to overcome this problem. Test results show that the accuracy within the high-resolution nest domains approach the non-nested high-resolution reference results. The nesting can reduce the CPU by time up to 80 % compared to the fine-resolution reference runs.
Pavel Krč, Jaroslav Resler, Matthias Sühring, Sebastian Schubert, Mohamed H. Salim, and Vladimír Fuka
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 3095–3120,Short summary
The adverse effects of an urban environment, e.g. heat stress and air pollution, pose a risk to health and well-being. Precise modelling of the urban climate is crucial to mitigate these effects. Conventional atmospheric models are inadequate for modelling the complex structures of the urban environment; in particular, they lack a 3-D model of radiation and its interaction with surfaces and the plant canopy. The new RTM simulates these processes within the PALM-4U urban climate model.
Basit Khan, Sabine Banzhaf, Edward C. Chan, Renate Forkel, Farah Kanani-Sühring, Klaus Ketelsen, Mona Kurppa, Björn Maronga, Matthias Mauder, Siegfried Raasch, Emmanuele Russo, Martijn Schaap, and Matthias Sühring
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1171–1193,Short summary
An atmospheric chemistry model has been implemented in the microscale PALM model system 6.0. This article provides a detailed description of the model, its structure, input requirements, various features and limitations. Several pre-compiled ready-to-use chemical mechanisms are included in the chemistry model code; however, users can also easily implement other mechanisms. A case study is presented to demonstrate the application of the new chemistry model in the urban environment.
Wieke Heldens, Cornelia Burmeister, Farah Kanani-Sühring, Björn Maronga, Dirk Pavlik, Matthias Sühring, Julian Zeidler, and Thomas Esch
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 5833–5873,Short summary
For realistic microclimate simulations in urban areas with PALM 6.0, detailed description of surface types, buildings and vegetation is required. This paper shows how such input data sets can be derived with the example of three German cities. Various data sources are used, including remote sensing, municipal data collections and open data such as OpenStreetMap. The collection and preparation of input data sets is tedious. Future research aims therefore at semi-automated tools to support users.
Björn Maronga, Sabine Banzhaf, Cornelia Burmeister, Thomas Esch, Renate Forkel, Dominik Fröhlich, Vladimir Fuka, Katrin Frieda Gehrke, Jan Geletič, Sebastian Giersch, Tobias Gronemeier, Günter Groß, Wieke Heldens, Antti Hellsten, Fabian Hoffmann, Atsushi Inagaki, Eckhard Kadasch, Farah Kanani-Sühring, Klaus Ketelsen, Basit Ali Khan, Christoph Knigge, Helge Knoop, Pavel Krč, Mona Kurppa, Halim Maamari, Andreas Matzarakis, Matthias Mauder, Matthias Pallasch, Dirk Pavlik, Jens Pfafferott, Jaroslav Resler, Sascha Rissmann, Emmanuele Russo, Mohamed Salim, Michael Schrempf, Johannes Schwenkel, Gunther Seckmeyer, Sebastian Schubert, Matthias Sühring, Robert von Tils, Lukas Vollmer, Simon Ward, Björn Witha, Hauke Wurps, Julian Zeidler, and Siegfried Raasch
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 1335–1372,Short summary
In this paper, we describe the PALM model system 6.0. PALM is a Fortran-based turbulence-resolving code and has been applied for studying a variety of atmospheric and oceanic boundary layers for about 20 years. The model is optimized for use on massively parallel computer architectures. During the last years, PALM has been significantly improved and now offers a variety of new components that are especially designed to simulate the urban atmosphere at building-resolving resolution.
Sadiq Huq, Frederik De Roo, Siegfried Raasch, and Matthias Mauder
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 2523–2538,Short summary
To study turbulence in heterogeneous terrain, high-resolution LES is desired. However, the desired resolution is often restricted by computational constraints. We present a two-way interactive vertical grid nesting technique that enables high-resolution LES of the surface layer. By employing a finer grid only close to the surface layer, the total computational memory requirement is reduced. We demonstrate the accuracy and performance of the method for a convective boundary layer simulation.
Johannes Schwenkel, Fabian Hoffmann, and Siegfried Raasch
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 3929–3944,Short summary
Lagrangian cloud models are a powerful tool to understand cloud microphysics and are increasingly used in the cloud physics community. In this study we present a method designed to improve the warm cloud precipitation process in such models. Our results indicate that using this method is essential for a proper representation of the collisional process of warm clouds, while maintaining an appropriate computational demand.
Rieke Heinze, Christopher Moseley, Lennart Nils Böske, Shravan Kumar Muppa, Vera Maurer, Siegfried Raasch, and Bjorn Stevens
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 7083–7109,Short summary
High-resolution multi-week simulations of a measurement campaign are evaluated with respect to mean boundary layer quantities and turbulence statistics. Two models are used in a semi-idealized setup through forcing, with output from a coarser-scale model to account for the larger-scale conditions. The boundary layer depth is in principal agreement with observations. Turbulence statistics like variance profiles agree satisfactorily with measurements.
B. Maronga, M. Gryschka, R. Heinze, F. Hoffmann, F. Kanani-Sühring, M. Keck, K. Ketelsen, M. O. Letzel, M. Sühring, and S. Raasch
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 2515–2551,Short summary
The paper gives a detailed description of the PArallelized Large-eddy simulation Model (PALM) version 4.0 for the simulation of turbulent atmospheric and oceanic boundary layer flows. The model is optimized for use on massively parallel computer architectures and has been applied for various boundary-layer research studies over the last 15 years by various work groups all over the world. Besides the model description, we outline past PALM applications and also discuss future perspectives.
Related subject area
Atmospheric sciencesImproving trajectory calculations by FLEXPART 10.4+ using single-image super-resolutionData fusion uncertainty-enabled methods to map street-scale hourly NO2 in Barcelona: a case study with CALIOPE-Urban v1.0Forecasting tropical cyclone tracks in the northwestern Pacific based on a deep-learning modelAccelerating models for multiphase chemical kinetics through machine learning with polynomial chaos expansion and neural networksA machine learning emulator for Lagrangian particle dispersion model footprints: a case study using NAMEImproving the representation of shallow cumulus convection with the simplified-higher-order-closure–mass-flux (SHOC+MF v1.0) approachISAT v2.0: an integrated tool for nested-domain configurations and model-ready emission inventories for WRF-AQMEstimation of CH4 emission based on an advanced 4D-LETKF assimilation systemAccelerated estimation of sea-spray-mediated heat flux using Gaussian quadrature: case studies with a coupled CFSv2.0-WW3 systemAMORE-Isoprene v1.0: a new reduced mechanism for gas-phase isoprene oxidationA method for generating a quasi-linear convective system suitable for observing system simulation experimentsThe second Met Office Unified Model–JULES Regional Atmosphere and Land configuration, RAL2A dynamic ammonia emission model and the online coupling with WRF–Chem (WRF–SoilN–Chem v1.0): development and regional evaluation in ChinaSCIATRAN software package (V4.6): update and further development of aerosol, clouds, surface reflectance databases and modelsDeep learning models for generation of precipitation maps based on numerical weather predictionAn inconsistency in aviation emissions between CMIP5 and CMIP6 and the implications for short-lived species and their radiative forcingOn the use of Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) spectrally resolved radiances to test the EC-Earth climate model (v3.3.3) in clear-sky conditionsIncorporation of aerosol into the COSPv2 satellite lidar simulator for climate model evaluationThe impact of altering emission data precision on compression efficiency and accuracy of simulations of the community multiscale air quality modelAerSett v1.0: a simple and straightforward model for the settling speed of big spherical atmospheric aerosolsOptimization of weather forecasting for cloud cover over the European domain using the meteorological component of the Ensemble for Stochastic Integration of Atmospheric Simulations version 1.0Bayesian transdimensional inverse reconstruction of the Fukushima Daiichi caesium 137 releaseIntercomparison of the weather and climate physics suites of a unified forecast/climate model system (GRIST-A22.7.28) based on single column modelingImplementation of HONO into the chemistry–climate model CHASER (V4.0): roles in tropospheric chemistryIsoprene and monoterpene simulations using the chemistry–climate model EMAC (v2.55) with interactive vegetation from LPJ-GUESS (v4.0)A modern-day Mars climate in the Met Office Unified Model: dry simulationsThe AirGAM 2022r1 air quality trend and prediction modelEvaluation of a cloudy cold-air pool in the Columbia River basin in different versions of the High-Resolution Rapid Refresh (HRRR) modelComparing Sentinel-5P TROPOMI NO2 column observations with the CAMS regional air quality ensembleCross-evaluating WRF-Chem v4.1.2, TROPOMI, APEX, and in situ NO2 measurements over Antwerp, BelgiumAdapting a deep convolutional RNN model with imbalanced regression loss for improved spatio-temporal forecasting of extreme wind speed events in the short to medium rangeTechnical descriptions of the experimental dynamical downscaling simulations over North America by the CAM5.4-MPAS4.0 variable-resolution modelICLASS 1.1, a variational Inverse modelling framework for the Chemistry Land-surface Atmosphere Soil Slab model: description, validation, and applicationTowards an improved representation of carbonaceous aerosols over the Indian monsoon region in a regional climate model: RegCMThe E3SM Diagnostics Package (E3SM Diags v2.7): a Python-based diagnostics package for Earth system model evaluationA method for transporting cloud-resolving model variance in a multiscale modeling frameworkThe Mission Support System (MSS v7.0.4) and its use in planning for the SouthTRAC aircraft campaignGENerator of reduced Organic Aerosol mechanism (GENOA v1.0): an automatic generation tool of semi-explicit mechanismsRepresenting chemical history in ozone time-series predictions – a model experiment study building on the MLAir (v1.5) deep learning frameworkEvaluation of high-resolution predictions of fine particulate matter and its composition in an urban area using PMCAMx-v2.0A local data assimilation method (Local DA v1.0) and its application in a simulated typhoon caseImproved advection, resolution, performance, and community access in the new generation (version 13) of the high-performance GEOS-Chem global atmospheric chemistry model (GCHP)Source Attribution of Ozone and Precursors in the Northeast U.S. Using Multiple Photochemical Model Based Approaches (CMAQ v5.3.2 and CAMx v7.10)Lightning assimilation in the WRF model (Version 4.1.1): technique updates and assessment of the applications from regional to hemispheric scalesOptimization of snow-related parameters in the Noah land surface model (v3.4.1) using a micro-genetic algorithm (v1.7a)Development of an LSTM broadcasting deep-learning framework for regional air pollution forecast improvementA local particle filter and its Gaussian mixture extension implemented with minor modifications to the LETKFA comprehensive evaluation of the use of Lagrangian particle dispersion models for inverse modeling of greenhouse gas emissionsImportance of different parameterization changes for the updated dust cycle modeling in the Community Atmosphere Model (version 6.1)CLGAN: A GAN-based video prediction model for precipitation nowcasting
Rüdiger Brecht, Lucie Bakels, Alex Bihlo, and Andreas Stohl
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 2181–2192,Short summary
We use neural-network-based single-image super-resolution to improve the upscaling of meteorological wind fields to be used for particle dispersion models. This deep-learning-based methodology improves the standard linear interpolation typically used in particle dispersion models. The improvement of wind fields leads to substantial improvement in the computed trajectories of the particles.
Alvaro Criado, Jan Mateu Armengol, Hervé Petetin, Daniel Rodriguez-Rey, Jaime Benavides, Marc Guevara, Carlos Pérez García-Pando, Albert Soret, and Oriol Jorba
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 2193–2213,Short summary
This work aims to derive and evaluate a general statistical post-processing tool specifically designed for the street scale that can be applied to any urban air quality system. Our data fusion methodology corrects NO2 fields based on continuous hourly observations and experimental campaigns. This study enables us to obtain exceedance probability maps of air quality standards. In 2019, 13 % of the Barcelona area had a 70 % or higher probability of exceeding the annual legal NO2 limit of 40 µg/m3.
Liang Wang, Bingcheng Wan, Shaohui Zhou, Haofei Sun, and Zhiqiu Gao
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 2167–2179,Short summary
The past 24 h TC trajectories and meteorological field data were used to forecast TC tracks in the northwestern Pacific from hours 6–72 based on GRU_CNN, which we proposed in this paper and which has better prediction results than traditional single deep-learning methods. The historical steering flow of cyclones has a significant effect on improving the accuracy of short-term forecasting, while, in long-term forecasting, the SST and geopotential height will have a particular impact.
Thomas Berkemeier, Matteo Krüger, Aryeh Feinberg, Marcel Müller, Ulrich Pöschl, and Ulrich K. Krieger
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 2037–2054,Short summary
Kinetic multi-layer models (KMs) successfully describe heterogeneous and multiphase atmospheric chemistry. In applications requiring repeated execution, however, these models can be too expensive. We trained machine learning surrogate models on output of the model KM-SUB and achieved high correlations. The surrogate models run orders of magnitude faster, which suggests potential applicability in global optimization tasks and as sub-modules in large-scale atmospheric models.
Elena Fillola, Raul Santos-Rodriguez, Alistair Manning, Simon O'Doherty, and Matt Rigby
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 1997–2009,Short summary
Lagrangian particle dispersion models are used extensively for the estimation of greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes using atmospheric observations. However, these models do not scale well as data volumes increase. Here, we develop a proof-of-concept machine learning emulator that can produce outputs similar to those of the dispersion model, but 50 000 times faster, using only meteorological inputs. This works demonstrates the potential of machine learning to accelerate GHG estimations across the globe.
Maria J. Chinita, Mikael Witte, Marcin J. Kurowski, Joao Teixeira, Kay Suselj, Georgios Matheou, and Peter Bogenschutz
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 1909–1924,Short summary
Low clouds are one of the largest sources of uncertainty in climate prediction. In this paper, we introduce the first version of the unified turbulence and shallow convection parameterization named SHOC+MF developed to improve the representation of shallow cumulus clouds in the Simple Cloud-Resolving E3SM Atmosphere Model (SCREAM). Here, we also show promising preliminary results in a single-column model framework for two benchmark cases of shallow cumulus convection.
Kun Wang, Chao Gao, Kai Wu, Kaiyun Liu, Haofan Wang, Mo Dan, Xiaohui Ji, and Qingqing Tong
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 1961–1973,Short summary
This study establishes an easy-to-use and integrated framework for a model-ready emission inventory for the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF)–Air Quality Numerical Model (AQM). A free tool called the ISAT (Inventory Spatial Allocation Tool) was developed based on this framework. ISAT helps users complete the workflow from the WRF nested-domain configuration to a model-ready emission inventory for AQM with a regional emission inventory and a shapefile for the target region.
Jagat S. H. Bisht, Prabir K. Patra, Masayuki Takigawa, Takashi Sekiya, Yugo Kanaya, Naoko Saitoh, and Kazuyuki Miyazaki
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 1823–1838,Short summary
In this study, we estimated CH4 fluxes using an advanced 4D-LETKF method. The system was tested and optimized using observation system simulation experiments (OSSEs), where a known surface emission distribution is retrieved from synthetic observations. The availability of satellite measurements has increased, and there are still many missions focused on greenhouse gas observations that have not yet launched. The technique being referred to has the potential to improve estimates of CH4 fluxes.
Ruizi Shi and Fanghua Xu
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 1839–1856,Short summary
Based on the Gaussian quadrature method, a fast algorithm of sea-spray-mediated heat flux is developed. Compared with the widely used single-radius algorithm, the new fast algorithm shows a better agreement with the full spectrum integral of spray flux. The new fast algorithm is evaluated in a coupled modeling system, and the simulations of sea surface temperature, wind speed and wave height are improved. Thereby, the new fast algorithm has great potential to be used in coupled modeling systems.
Forwood Wiser, Bryan K. Place, Siddhartha Sen, Havala O. T. Pye, Benjamin Yang, Daniel M. Westervelt, Daven K. Henze, Arlene M. Fiore, and V. Faye McNeill
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 1801–1821,Short summary
We developed a reduced model of atmospheric isoprene oxidation, AMORE-Isoprene 1.0. It was created using a new Automated Model Reduction (AMORE) method designed to simplify complex chemical mechanisms with minimal manual adjustments to the output. AMORE-Isoprene 1.0 has improved accuracy and similar size to other reduced isoprene mechanisms. When included in the CRACMM mechanism, it improved the accuracy of EPA’s CMAQ model predictions for the northeastern USA compared to observations.
Jonathan D. Labriola, Jeremy A. Gibbs, and Louis J. Wicker
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 1779–1799,Short summary
Observing system simulation experiments (OSSEs) are simulated case studies used to understand how different assimilated weather observations impact forecast skill. This study introduces the methods used to create an OSSE for a tornadic quasi-linear convective system event. These steps provide an opportunity to simulate a realistic high-impact weather event and can be used to encourage a more diverse set of OSSEs.
Mike Bush, Ian Boutle, John Edwards, Anke Finnenkoetter, Charmaine Franklin, Kirsty Hanley, Aravindakshan Jayakumar, Huw Lewis, Adrian Lock, Marion Mittermaier, Saji Mohandas, Rachel North, Aurore Porson, Belinda Roux, Stuart Webster, and Mark Weeks
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 1713–1734,Short summary
Building on the baseline of RAL1, the RAL2 science configuration is used for regional modelling around the UM partnership and in operations at the Met Office. RAL2 has been tested in different parts of the world including Australia, India and the UK. RAL2 increases medium and low cloud amounts in the mid-latitudes compared to RAL1, leading to improved cloud forecasts and a reduced diurnal cycle of screen temperature. There is also a reduction in the frequency of heavier precipitation rates.
Chuanhua Ren, Xin Huang, Tengyu Liu, Yu Song, Zhang Wen, Xuejun Liu, Aijun Ding, and Tong Zhu
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 1641–1659,Short summary
Ammonia in the atmosphere has wide impacts on the ecological environment and air quality, and its emission from soil volatilization is highly sensitive to meteorology, making it challenging to be well captured in models. We developed a dynamic emission model capable of calculating ammonia emission interactively with meteorological and soil conditions. Such a coupling of soil emission with meteorology provides a better understanding of ammonia emission and its contribution to atmospheric aerosol.
Linlu Mei, Vladimir Rozanov, Alexei Rozanov, and John P. Burrows
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 1511–1536,Short summary
This paper summarizes recent developments of aerosol, cloud and surface reflectance databases and models in the framework of the software package SCIATRAN. These updates and developments extend the capabilities of the radiative transfer modeling, especially by accounting for different kinds of vertical inhomogeneties. Vertically inhomogeneous clouds and different aerosol types can be easily accounted for within SCIATRAN (V4.6). The widely used surface models and databases are now available.
Adrian Rojas-Campos, Michael Langguth, Martin Wittenbrink, and Gordon Pipa
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 1467–1480,Short summary
Our paper presents an alternative approach for generating high-resolution precipitation maps based on the nonlinear combination of the complete set of variables of the numerical weather predictions. This process combines the super-resolution task with the bias correction in a single step, generating high-resolution corrected precipitation maps with a lead time of 3 h. We used using deep learning algorithms to combine the input information and increase the accuracy of the precipitation maps.
Robin N. Thor, Mariano Mertens, Sigrun Matthes, Mattia Righi, Johannes Hendricks, Sabine Brinkop, Phoebe Graf, Volker Grewe, Patrick Jöckel, and Steven Smith
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 1459–1466,Short summary
We report on an inconsistency in the latitudinal distribution of aviation emissions between two versions of a data product which is widely used by researchers. From the available documentation, we do not expect such an inconsistency. We run a chemistry–climate model to compute the effect of the inconsistency in emissions on atmospheric chemistry and radiation and find that the radiative forcing associated with aviation ozone is 7.6 % higher when using the less recent version of the data.
Stefano Della Fera, Federico Fabiano, Piera Raspollini, Marco Ridolfi, Ugo Cortesi, Flavio Barbara, and Jost von Hardenberg
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 1379–1394,Short summary
The long-term comparison between observed and simulated outgoing longwave radiances represents a strict test to evaluate climate model performance. In this work, 9 years of synthetic spectrally resolved radiances, simulated online on the basis of the atmospheric fields predicted by the EC-Earth global climate model (v3.3.3) in clear-sky conditions, are compared to IASI spectral radiance climatology in order to detect model biases in temperature and humidity at different atmospheric levels.
Marine Bonazzola, Hélène Chepfer, Po-Lun Ma, Johannes Quaas, David M. Winker, Artem Feofilov, and Nick Schutgens
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 1359–1377,Short summary
Aerosol has a large impact on climate. Using a lidar aerosol simulator ensures consistent comparisons between modeled and observed aerosol. We present a lidar aerosol simulator that applies a cloud masking and an aerosol detection threshold. We estimate the lidar signals that would be observed at 532 nm by the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization overflying the atmosphere predicted by a climate model. Our comparison at the seasonal timescale shows a discrepancy in the Southern Ocean.
Michael S. Walters and David C. Wong
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 1179–1190,Short summary
A typical numerical simulation that associates with a large amount of input and output data, applying popular compression software, gzip or bzip2, on data is one good way to mitigate data storage burden. This article proposes a simple technique to alter input, output, or input and output by keeping a specific number of significant digits in data and demonstrates an enhancement in compression efficiency on the altered data but maintains similar statistical performance of the numerical simulation.
Sylvain Mailler, Laurent Menut, Arineh Cholakian, and Romain Pennel
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 1119–1127,Short summary
Large or even
giantparticles of mineral dust exist in the atmosphere but, so far, solving an non-linear equation was needed to calculate the speed at which they fall in the atmosphere. The model we present, AerSett v1.0 (AERosol SETTling version 1.0), provides a new and simple way of calculating their free-fall velocity in the atmosphere, which will be useful to anyone trying to understand and represent adequately the transport of giant dust particles by the wind.
Yen-Sen Lu, Garrett H. Good, and Hendrik Elbern
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 1083–1104,Short summary
The Weather Forecasting and Research (WRF) model consists of many parameters and options that can be adapted to different conditions. This expansive sensitivity study uses a large-scale simulation system to determine the most suitable options for predicting cloud cover in Europe for deterministic and probabilistic weather predictions for day-ahead forecasting simulations.
Joffrey Dumont Le Brazidec, Marc Bocquet, Olivier Saunier, and Yelva Roustan
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 1039–1052,Short summary
When radionuclides are released into the atmosphere, the assessment of the consequences depends on the evaluation of the magnitude and temporal evolution of the release, which can be highly variable as in the case of Fukushima Daiichi. Here, we propose Bayesian inverse modelling methods and the reversible-jump Markov chain Monte Carlo technique, which allows one to evaluate the temporal variability of the release and to integrate different types of information in the source reconstruction.
Xiaohan Li, Yi Zhang, Xindong Peng, Baiquan Zhou, Jian Li, and Yiming Wang
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for GMDShort summary
The weather and climate physics suites used in GRIST-A22.7.28 are compared using single column modeling. The source of their discrepancies in terms of modeling cloud and precipitation is explored. Convective parameterization is found to be a key factor responsible for the differences. The two suites also have intrinsic differences in the interaction between microphysics and other processes, resulting in different cloud features and time step sensitivities.
Phuc Thi Minh Ha, Yugo Kanaya, Fumikazu Taketani, Maria Dolores Andrés Hernández, Benjamin Schreiner, Klaus Pfeilsticker, and Kengo Sudo
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 927–960,Short summary
HONO affects tropospheric oxidizing capacity; thus, it is implemented into the chemistry–climate model CHASER. The model substantially underpredicts daytime HONO, while nitrate photolysis on surfaces can supplement the daytime HONO budget. Current HONO chemistry predicts reductions of 20.4 % for global tropospheric NOx, 40–67 % for OH, and 30–45 % for O3 in the summer North Pacific. In contrast, OH and O3 winter levels in China are greatly enhanced.
Ryan Vella, Matthew Forrest, Jos Lelieveld, and Holger Tost
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 885–906,Short summary
Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) are released by vegetation and have a major impact on atmospheric chemistry and aerosol formation. Non-interacting vegetation constrains the majority of numerical models used to estimate global BVOC emissions, and thus, the effects of changing vegetation on emissions are not addressed. In this work, we replace the offline vegetation with dynamic vegetation states by linking a chemistry–climate model with a global dynamic vegetation model.
Danny McCulloch, Denis E. Sergeev, Nathan Mayne, Matthew Bate, James Manners, Ian Boutle, Benjamin Drummond, and Kristzian Kohary
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 621–657,Short summary
We present results from the Met Office Unified Model (UM) to study the dry Martian climate. We describe our model set-up conditions and run two scenarios, with radiatively active/inactive dust. We compare both scenarios to results from an existing Mars climate model, the planetary climate model. We find good agreement in winds and air temperatures, but dust amounts differ between models. This study highlights the importance of using the UM for future Mars research.
Sam-Erik Walker, Sverre Solberg, Philipp Schneider, and Cristina Guerreiro
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 573–595,Short summary
We have developed a statistical model for estimating trends in the daily air quality observations of NO2, O3, PM10 and PM2.5, adjusting for trends and short-term variations in meteorology. The model is general and may also be used for prediction purposes, including forecasting. It has been applied in a recent comprehensive study in Europe. Significant declines are shown for the pollutants from 2005 to 2019, mainly due to reductions in emissions not attributable to changes in meteorology.
Bianca Adler, James M. Wilczak, Jaymes Kenyon, Laura Bianco, Irina V. Djalalova, Joseph B. Olson, and David D. Turner
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 597–619,Short summary
Rapid changes in wind speed make the integration of wind energy produced during persistent orographic cold-air pools difficult to integrate into the electrical grid. By evaluating three versions of NOAA’s High-Resolution Rapid Refresh model, we demonstrate how model developments targeted during the second Wind Forecast Improvement Project improve the forecast of a persistent cold-air pool event.
John Douros, Henk Eskes, Jos van Geffen, K. Folkert Boersma, Steven Compernolle, Gaia Pinardi, Anne-Marlene Blechschmidt, Vincent-Henri Peuch, Augustin Colette, and Pepijn Veefkind
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 509–534,Short summary
We focus on the challenges associated with comparing atmospheric composition models with satellite products such as tropospheric NO2 columns. The aim is to highlight the methodological difficulties and propose sound ways of doing such comparisons. Building on the comparisons, a new satellite product is proposed and made available, which takes advantage of higher-resolution, regional atmospheric modelling to improve estimates of troposheric NO2 columns over Europe.
Catalina Poraicu, Jean-François Müller, Trissevgeni Stavrakou, Dominique Fonteyn, Frederik Tack, Felix Deutsch, Quentin Laffineur, Roeland Van Malderen, and Nele Veldeman
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 479–508,Short summary
High-resolution WRF-Chem simulations are conducted over Antwerp, Belgium, in June 2019 and evaluated using meteorological data and in situ, airborne, and spaceborne NO2 measurements. An intercomparison of model, aircraft, and TROPOMI NO2 columns is conducted to characterize biases in versions 1.3.1 and 2.3.1 of the satellite product. A mass balance method is implemented to provide improved emissions for simulating NO2 distribution over the study area.
Daan R. Scheepens, Irene Schicker, Kateřina Hlaváčková-Schindler, and Claudia Plant
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 251–270,Short summary
The production of wind energy is increasing rapidly and relies heavily on atmospheric conditions. To ensure power grid stability, accurate predictions of wind speed are needed, especially in the short range and for extreme wind speed ranges. In this work, we demonstrate the forecasting skills of a data-driven deep learning model with model adaptations to suit higher wind speed ranges. The resulting model can be applied to other data and parameters, too, to improve nowcasting predictions.
Koichi Sakaguchi, L. Ruby Leung, Colin M. Zarzycki, Jihyeon Jang, Seth McGinnis, Bryce E. Harrop, William C. Skamarock, Andrew Gettelman, Chun Zhao, William J. Gutowski, Stephen Leak, and Linda Mearns
We document details of the regional climate downscaling dataset produced by a global variable-resolution model. The experiment is unique for its following a standard protocol designed for coordinated experiments of regional models. Negligible influence of post-processing on statistical analysis, importance of simulation quality outside of the target region, and computational challenges that our model code faced under rapidly changing super computer systems are illustrated.
Peter J. M. Bosman and Maarten C. Krol
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 47–74,Short summary
We describe an inverse modelling framework constructed around a simple model for the atmospheric boundary layer. This framework can be fed with various observation types to study the boundary layer and land–atmosphere exchange. With this framework, it is possible to estimate model parameters and the associated uncertainties. Some of these parameters are difficult to obtain directly by observations. An example application for a grassland in the Netherlands is included.
Sudipta Ghosh, Sagnik Dey, Sushant Das, Nicole Riemer, Graziano Giuliani, Dilip Ganguly, Chandra Venkataraman, Filippo Giorgi, Sachchida Nand Tripathi, Srikanthan Ramachandran, Thazhathakal Ayyappen Rajesh, Harish Gadhavi, and Atul Kumar Srivastava
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 1–15,Short summary
Accurate representation of aerosols in climate models is critical for minimizing the uncertainty in climate projections. Here, we implement region-specific emission fluxes and a more accurate scheme for carbonaceous aerosol ageing processes in a regional climate model (RegCM4) and show that it improves model performance significantly against in situ, reanalysis, and satellite data over the Indian subcontinent. We recommend improving the model performance before using them for climate studies.
Chengzhu Zhang, Jean-Christophe Golaz, Ryan Forsyth, Tom Vo, Shaocheng Xie, Zeshawn Shaheen, Gerald L. Potter, Xylar S. Asay-Davis, Charles S. Zender, Wuyin Lin, Chih-Chieh Chen, Chris R. Terai, Salil Mahajan, Tian Zhou, Karthik Balaguru, Qi Tang, Cheng Tao, Yuying Zhang, Todd Emmenegger, Susannah Burrows, and Paul A. Ullrich
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 9031–9056,Short summary
Earth system model (ESM) developers run automated analysis tools on data from candidate models to inform model development. This paper introduces a new Python package, E3SM Diags, that has been developed to support ESM development and use routinely in the development of DOE's Energy Exascale Earth System Model. This tool covers a set of essential diagnostics to evaluate the mean physical climate from simulations, as well as several process-oriented and phenomenon-based evaluation diagnostics.
Walter Hannah and Kyle Pressel
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 8999–9013,Short summary
A multiscale modeling framework couples two models of the atmosphere that each cover different scale ranges. Traditionally, fluctuations in the small-scale model are not transported by the flow on the large-scale model grid, but this is hypothesized to be responsible for a persistent, unphysical checkerboard pattern. A method is presented to facilitate the transport of these small-scale fluctuations, analogous to how small-scale clouds and turbulence are transported in the real atmosphere.
Reimar Bauer, Jens-Uwe Grooß, Jörn Ungermann, May Bär, Markus Geldenhuys, and Lars Hoffmann
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 8983–8997,Short summary
The Mission Support System (MSS) is an open source software package that has been used for planning flight tracks of scientific aircraft in multiple measurement campaigns during the last decade. Here, we describe the MSS software and its use during the SouthTRAC measurement campaign in 2019. As an example for how the MSS software is used in conjunction with many datasets, we describe the planning of a single flight probing orographic gravity waves propagating up into the lower mesosphere.
Zhizhao Wang, Florian Couvidat, and Karine Sartelet
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 8957–8982,Short summary
Air quality models need to reliably predict secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) at a reasonable computational cost. Thus, we developed GENOA v1.0, a mechanism reduction algorithm that preserves the accuracy of detailed gas-phase chemical mechanisms for SOA formation, thereby improving the practical use of actual chemistry in SOA models. With GENOA, a near-explicit chemical scheme was reduced to 2 % of its original size and computational time, with an average error of less than 3 %.
Felix Kleinert, Lukas H. Leufen, Aurelia Lupascu, Tim Butler, and Martin G. Schultz
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 8913–8930,Short summary
We examine the effects of spatially aggregated upstream information as input for a deep learning model forecasting near-surface ozone levels. Using aggregated data from one upstream sector (45°) improves the forecast by ~ 10 % for 4 prediction days. Three upstream sectors improve the forecasts by ~ 14 % on the first 2 d only. Our results serve as an orientation for other researchers or environmental agencies focusing on pointwise time-series predictions, for example, due to regulatory purposes.
Brian T. Dinkelacker, Pablo Garcia Rivera, Ioannis Kioutsioukis, Peter J. Adams, and Spyros N. Pandis
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 8899–8912,Short summary
The performance of a chemical transport model in reproducing PM2.5 concentrations and composition was evaluated at the finest scale using measurements from regulatory sites as well as a network of low-cost monitors. Total PM2.5 mass is reproduced well by the model during the winter when compared to regulatory measurements, but in the summer PM2.5 is underpredicted, mainly due to difficulties in reproducing regional secondary organic aerosol levels.
Shizhang Wang and Xiaoshi Qiao
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 8869–8897,Short summary
A local data assimilation scheme (Local DA v1.0) was proposed to leverage the advantage of hybrid covariance, multiscale localization, and parallel computation. The Local DA can perform covariance localization in model space, observation space, or both spaces. The Local DA that used the hybrid covariance and double-space localization produced the lowest analysis and forecast errors among all observing system simulation experiments.
Randall V. Martin, Sebastian D. Eastham, Liam Bindle, Elizabeth W. Lundgren, Thomas L. Clune, Christoph A. Keller, William Downs, Dandan Zhang, Robert A. Lucchesi, Melissa P. Sulprizio, Robert M. Yantosca, Yanshun Li, Lucas Estrada, William M. Putman, Benjamin M. Auer, Atanas L. Trayanov, Steven Pawson, and Daniel J. Jacob
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 8731–8748,Short summary
Atmospheric chemistry models must be able to operate both online as components of Earth system models and offline as standalone models. The widely used GEOS-Chem model operates both online and offline, but the classic offline version is not suitable for massively parallel simulations. We describe a new generation of the offline high-performance GEOS-Chem (GCHP) that enables high-resolution simulations on thousands of cores, including on the cloud, with improved access, performance, and accuracy.
Qian Shu, Sergey L. Napelenok, William T. Hutzell, Kirk R. Baker, Benjamin Murphy, Christian Hogrefe, and Barron H. Henderson
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for GMDShort summary
Source attribution methods are generally used to determine culpability of precursor emissions sources to ambient pollutant concentrations. However, source attribution of secondarily formed pollutants such as ozone and its precursors cannot be explicitly measured, making evaluation of source apportionment methods challenging. In this study, multiple apportionment approach comparisons show common features but still reveal wide variations in predicted sector contribution and species dependency.
Daiwen Kang, Nicholas K. Heath, Robert C. Gilliam, Tanya L. Spero, and Jonathan E. Pleim
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 8561–8579,Short summary
A lightning assimilation (LTA) technique implemented in the WRF model's Kain–Fritsch (KF) convective scheme is updated and applied to simulations from regional to hemispheric scales using observed lightning flashes from ground-based lightning detection networks. Different user-toggled options associated with the KF scheme on simulations with and without LTA are assessed. The model's performance is improved significantly by LTA, but it is sensitive to various factors.
Sujeong Lim, Hyeon-Ju Gim, Ebony Lee, Seungyeon Lee, Won Young Lee, Yong Hee Lee, Claudio Cassardo, and Seon Ki Park
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 8541–8559,Short summary
The land surface model (LSM) contains various uncertain parameters, which are obtained by the empirical relations reflecting the specific local region and can be a source of uncertainty. To seek the optimal parameter values in the snow-related processes of the Noah LSM over South Korea, we have implemented an optimization algorithm, a micro-genetic algorithm using the observations. As a result, the optimized snow parameters improve snowfall prediction.
Haochen Sun, Jimmy C. H. Fung, Yiang Chen, Zhenning Li, Dehao Yuan, Wanying Chen, and Xingcheng Lu
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 8439–8452,Short summary
This study developed a novel deep-learning layer, the broadcasting layer, to build an end-to-end LSTM-based deep-learning model for regional air pollution forecast. By combining the ground observation, WRF-CMAQ simulation, and the broadcasting LSTM deep-learning model, forecast accuracy has been significantly improved when compared to other methods. The broadcasting layer and its variants can also be applied in other research areas to supersede the traditional numerical interpolation methods.
Shunji Kotsuki, Takemasa Miyoshi, Keiichi Kondo, and Roland Potthast
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 8325–8348,Short summary
Data assimilation plays an important part in numerical weather prediction (NWP) in terms of combining forecasted states and observations. While data assimilation methods in NWP usually assume the Gaussian error distribution, some variables in the atmosphere, such as precipitation, are known to have non-Gaussian error statistics. This study extended a widely used ensemble data assimilation algorithm to enable the assimilation of more non-Gaussian observations.
Martin Vojta, Andreas Plach, Rona L. Thompson, and Andreas Stohl
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 8295–8323,Short summary
In light of recent global warming, we aim to improve methods for modeling greenhouse gas emissions in order to support the successful implementation of the Paris Agreement. In this study, we investigate certain aspects of a Bayesian inversion method that uses computer simulations and atmospheric observations to improve estimates of greenhouse gas emissions. We explore method limitations, discuss problems, and suggest improvements.
Longlei Li, Natalie M. Mahowald, Jasper F. Kok, Xiaohong Liu, Mingxuan Wu, Danny M. Leung, Douglas S. Hamilton, Louisa K. Emmons, Yue Huang, Neil Sexton, Jun Meng, and Jessica Wan
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 8181–8219,Short summary
This study advances mineral dust parameterizations in the Community Atmospheric Model (CAM; version 6.1). Efforts include 1) incorporating a more physically based dust emission scheme; 2) updating the dry deposition scheme; and 3) revising the gravitational settling velocity to account for dust asphericity. Substantial improvements achieved with these updates can help accurately quantify dust–climate interactions using CAM, such as the dust-radiation and dust–cloud interactions.
Yan Ji, Bing Gong, Michael Langguth, Amirpasha Mozaffari, and Xiefei Zhi
Formulating the short-term precipitation forecasting as a video prediction task, a novel deep learning architecture CLGAN is proposed in this work. A benchmark data set is newly built for the task, on minute-level precipitation measurements. Our results show that the GAN-component of CLGAN encourages the model to generate predictions sharing statistical properties of observed precipitation, which makes it outperform the baseline in dichotomous and spatial scores for heavy precipitation events.
André, J. C., De Moor, G., Lacarrère, P., and du Vachat, R.: Modeling the 24-Hour Evolution of the Mean and Turbulent Structures of the Planetary Boundary Layer, J. Atmos. Sci., 35, 1861–1883, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(1978)035<1861:MTHEOT>2.0.CO;2, 1978. a
Baldauf, M., Förstner, J., Klink, S., Reinhardt, T., Schraff, C., Seifert, A., and Stephan, K.: Kurze Beschreibung des Lokal-Modells Kürzestfrist COSMO-DE (LMK) und seiner Datenbanken auf dem Datenserver des DWD, Tech. rep., Deutscher Wetterdienst, available at: https://www.dwd.de/SharedDocs/downloads/DE/modelldokumentationen/nwv/cosmo_de/cosmo_de_dbbeschr_version_2_3_201406.pdf?__blob=publicationFile&v=5 (last access: 13 August 2021), version 2.3, 2014. a, b, c
Baldauf, M., Gebhardt, C., Theis, S., Ritter, B., and Schraff, C.: Beschreibung des operationellen Kürzesfristvorhersagemodells COSMO-D2 und COSMO-D2-EPS und seiner Ausgabe in die Datenbanken des DWD, Tech. rep., Deutscher Wetterdienst, available at: https://www.dwd.de/SharedDocs/downloads/DE/modelldokumentationen/nwv/cosmo_d2/cosmo_d2_dbbeschr_version_1_0_201805.pdf?__blob=publicationFile&v=3 (last access: 13 August 2021), version 1.0, 2018. a, b
Clough, S. A., Shephard, M. W., Mlawer, E. J., Delamere, J. S., Iacono, M. J., Cady-Pereira, K., Boukabara, S., and Brown, P. D.: Atmospheric radiative transfer modeling: A summary of the AER codes, Short Communication, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra., 91, 233–244, 2005. a
Heinze, R., Moseley, C., Böske, L. N., Muppa, S. K., Maurer, V., Raasch, S., and Stevens, B.: Evaluation of large-eddy simulations forced with mesoscale model output for a multi-week period during a measurement campaign, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 7083–7109, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-17-7083-2017, 2017. a, b, c, d, e
Hellsten, A., Ketelsen, K., Sühring, M., Auvinen, M., Maronga, B., Knigge, C., Barmpas, F., Tsegas, G., Moussiopoulos, N., and Raasch, S.: A nested multi-scale system implemented in the large-eddy simulation model PALM model system 6.0, Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 3185–3214, https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-14-3185-2021, 2021. a, b, c, d
Holtslag, A. A. M. and Boville, B. A.: Local Versus Nonlocal Boundary-Layer Diffusion in a Global Climate Model, J. Climate, 6, 1825–1842, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(1993)006<1825:LVNBLD>2.0.CO;2, 1993. a
Jähn, M., Muñoz-Esparza, D., Chouza, F., Reitebuch, O., Knoth, O., Haarig, M., and Ansmann, A.: Investigations of boundary layer structure, cloud characteristics and vertical mixing of aerosols at Barbados with large eddy simulations, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 651–674, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-16-651-2016, 2016. a
Kadasch, E.: INIFOR [code], available at: https://palm.muk.uni-hannover.de/trac/browser/palm/trunk/ UTIL/inifor, last access: 13 August 2021. a
Maronga, B., Gryschka, M., Heinze, R., Hoffmann, F., Kanani-Sühring, F., Keck, M., Ketelsen, K., Letzel, M. O., Sühring, M., and Raasch, S.: The Parallelized Large-Eddy Simulation Model (PALM) version 4.0 for atmospheric and oceanic flows: model formulation, recent developments, and future perspectives, Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 2515–2551, https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-8-2515-2015, 2015. a, b
Maronga, B., Banzhaf, S., Burmeister, C., Esch, T., Forkel, R., Fröhlich, D., Fuka, V., Gehrke, K. F., Geletič, J., Giersch, S., Gronemeier, T., Groß, G., Heldens, W., Hellsten, A., Hoffmann, F., Inagaki, A., Kadasch, E., Kanani-Sühring, F., Ketelsen, K., Khan, B. A., Knigge, C., Knoop, H., Krč, P., Kurppa, M., Maamari, H., Matzarakis, A., Mauder, M., Pallasch, M., Pavlik, D., Pfafferott, J., Resler, J., Rissmann, S., Russo, E., Salim, M., Schrempf, M., Schwenkel, J., Seckmeyer, G., Schubert, S., Sühring, M., von Tils, R., Vollmer, L., Ward, S., Witha, B., Wurps, H., Zeidler, J., and Raasch, S.: Overview of the PALM model system 6.0, Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 1335–1372, https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-13-1335-2020, 2020. a, b, c, d, e, f, g
Mazzaro, L. J., Koo, E., Muñoz-Esparza, D., Lundquist, J. K., and Linn, R. R.: Random Force Perturbations: A New Extension of the Cell Perturbation Method for Turbulence Generation in Multiscale Atmospheric Boundary Layer Simulations, J. Adv. Model. Earth Sy., 11, 2311–2329, https://doi.org/10.1029/2019MS001608, 2019. a, b, c
Moeng, C.-H. and Rotunno, R.: Vertical-Velocity Skewness in the Buoyancy-Driven Boundary Layer, J. Atmos. Sci., 47, 1149–1162, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(1990)047<1149:VVSITB>2.0.CO;2, 1990. a
PALM: The PALM model system web pages [code], available at: http://palm-model.org, last access: 13 August 2021. a
Reinert, D., Prill, F., Frank, H., Denhard, M., Baldauf, M., Schraff, C., Gebhardt, C., Marsigli, C., and Zängl, G.: DWD Database Reference for the Global and Regional ICON and ICON-EPS Forecasting System, Tech. rep., Deutscher Wetterdienst, available at: https://www.dwd.de/DWD/forschung/nwv/fepub/icon_database_main.pdf, version 2.1.1, last access: 6 June 2020. a, b
Scherer, D., Antretter, F., Bender, S., Cortekar, J., Emeis, S., Fehrenbach, U., Gross, G., Halbig, G., Hasse, J., Maronga, B., Raasch, S., and Scherber, K.: Urban Climate Under Change [UC]2 – A National Research Programme for Developing a Building-Resolving Atmospheric Model for Entire City Regions, Meteorol. Z. 28, 95–104, https://doi.org/10.1127/metz/2019/0913, 2019. a
Skamarock, W. C., Klemp, J. B., Dudhia, J., Gill, D. O., Barker, D., Duda, M. G., Huang, X., Wang, W., and Powers, J. G.: A Description of the Advanced Research WRF Version 3 (No. NCAR/TN-475+STR), Tech. rep., University Corporation for Atmospheric Research, https://doi.org/10.5065/D68S4MVH, 2008. a, b
Tennekes, H. and Lumley, J.: A first course in turbulence, The MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1972. a
Wan, H., Giorgetta, M. A., Zängl, G., Restelli, M., Majewski, D., Bonaventura, L., Fröhlich, K., Reinert, D., Rípodas, P., Kornblueh, L., and Förstner, J.: The ICON-1.2 hydrostatic atmospheric dynamical core on triangular grids Part 1: Formulation and performance of the baseline version, Geosci. Model Dev., 6, 735–763, https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-6-735-2013, 2013. a
Wicker, L. J. and Skamarock, W. C.: Time-Splitting Methods for Elastic Models Using Forward Time Schemes, Mon. Weather Rev., 130, 2088–2097, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(2002)130<2088:TSMFEM>2.0.CO;2, 2002. a
Wu, X.: Inflow Turbulence Generation Methods, Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech., 49, 23–49, https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-fluid-010816-060322, 2017. a
Wyngaard, J. C.: Toward Numerical Modeling in the “Terra Incognita”, J. Atmos. Sci., 61, 1816–1826, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(2004)061<1816:TNMITT>2.0.CO;2, 2004. a
In this paper, we provide a technical description of a newly developed interface for coupling the PALM model system 6.0 to the weather prediction model COSMO. The interface allows users of PALM to simulate the detailed atmospheric flow for relatively small regions of tens of kilometres under specific weather conditions, for instance, periods around observation campaigns or extreme weather situations. We demonstrate the interface using a benchmark simulation.
In this paper, we provide a technical description of a newly developed interface for coupling...