Articles | Volume 14, issue 5
Development and technical paper 01 Jun 2021
Development and technical paper | 01 Jun 2021
Reproducing complex simulations of economic impacts of climate change with lower-cost emulators
Jun'ya Takakura et al.
No articles found.
Yuji Masutomi, Toshichika Iizumi, Key Oyoshi, Nobuyuki Kayaba, Wonsik Kim, Takahiro Takimoto, and Yoshimitsu Masaki
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for GMDShort summary
The accuracy of seasonal climate forecasts for monthly precipitation of JMA/MRI-CPS2, a dynamical seasonal climate forecast (SCF) system, is higher than that of statistical SCF (St-SCF) system using climate indices around the equator (10° S–10° N) even for six-month lead forecasts. On a global scale, the forecast accuracy of JMA/MRI-CPS2 is higher for one-month lead forecasts; however, St-SCFs were more accurate for forecasts more than two months in advance.
Camelia-Eliza Telteu, Hannes Müller Schmied, Wim Thiery, Guoyong Leng, Peter Burek, Xingcai Liu, Julien Eric Stanislas Boulange, Lauren Seaby Andersen, Manolis Grillakis, Simon Newland Gosling, Yusuke Satoh, Oldrich Rakovec, Tobias Stacke, Jinfeng Chang, Niko Wanders, Harsh Lovekumar Shah, Tim Trautmann, Ganquan Mao, Naota Hanasaki, Aristeidis Koutroulis, Yadu Pokhrel, Luis Samaniego, Yoshihide Wada, Vimal Mishra, Junguo Liu, Petra Döll, Fang Zhao, Anne Gädeke, Sam S. Rabin, and Florian Herz
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 3843–3878,Short summary
We analyse water storage compartments, water flows, and human water use sectors included in 16 global water models that provide simulations for the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project phase 2b. We develop a standard writing style for the model equations. We conclude that even though hydrologic processes are often based on similar equations, in the end these equations have been adjusted, or the models have used different values for specific parameters or specific variables.
Vili Virkki, Elina Alanärä, Miina Porkka, Lauri Ahopelto, Tom Gleeson, Chinchu Mohan, Lan Wang-Erlandsson, Martina Flörke, Dieter Gerten, Simon N. Gosling, Naota Hanasaki, Hannes Müller Schmied, and Matti Kummu
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for HESSShort summary
Direct and indirect of human actions have altered streamflow across the world since the pre-industrial time. Here, we introduce a novel method of Environmental Flow Envelopes (EFEs); this is an envelope of safe discharge variability within which riverine ecosystems are not seriously compromised. By assessing the violations of the EFE, we comprehensively quantify the frequency, severity, and trends of flow alteration during the past decades, illustrating anthropogenic effects on streamflow.
Fabian Stenzel, Dieter Gerten, and Naota Hanasaki
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 1711–1726,Short summary
Ideas to mitigate climate change include the large-scale cultivation of fast-growing plants to capture atmospheric CO2 in biomass. To maximize the productivity of these plants, they will likely be irrigated. However, there is strong disagreement in the literature on how much irrigation water is needed globally, potentially inducing water stress. We provide a comprehensive overview of global irrigation demand studies for biomass production and discuss the diverse underlying study assumptions.
Robert Reinecke, Hannes Müller Schmied, Tim Trautmann, Lauren Seaby Andersen, Peter Burek, Martina Flörke, Simon N. Gosling, Manolis Grillakis, Naota Hanasaki, Aristeidis Koutroulis, Yadu Pokhrel, Wim Thiery, Yoshihide Wada, Satoh Yusuke, and Petra Döll
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 787–810,Short summary
Billions of people rely on groundwater as an accessible source of drinking water and for irrigation, especially in times of drought. Groundwater recharge is the primary process of regenerating groundwater resources. We find that groundwater recharge will increase in northern Europe by about 19 % and decrease by 10 % in the Amazon with 3 °C global warming. In the Mediterranean, a 2 °C warming has already lead to a reduction in recharge by 38 %. However, these model predictions are uncertain.
Zhipin Ai, Naota Hanasaki, Vera Heck, Tomoko Hasegawa, and Shinichiro Fujimori
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 6077–6092,Short summary
Incorporating bioenergy crops into the well-established global hydrological models is seldom seen today. Here, we successfully enhance a state-of-the-art global hydrological model H08 to simulate bioenergy crop yield. We found that unconstrained irrigation more than doubled the yield under rainfed conditions while simultaneously reducing the water use efficiency by 32 % globally. Our enhanced model provides a new tool for the future assessment of bioenergy–water tradeoffs.
George C. Hurtt, Louise Chini, Ritvik Sahajpal, Steve Frolking, Benjamin L. Bodirsky, Katherine Calvin, Jonathan C. Doelman, Justin Fisk, Shinichiro Fujimori, Kees Klein Goldewijk, Tomoko Hasegawa, Peter Havlik, Andreas Heinimann, Florian Humpenöder, Johan Jungclaus, Jed O. Kaplan, Jennifer Kennedy, Tamás Krisztin, David Lawrence, Peter Lawrence, Lei Ma, Ole Mertz, Julia Pongratz, Alexander Popp, Benjamin Poulter, Keywan Riahi, Elena Shevliakova, Elke Stehfest, Peter Thornton, Francesco N. Tubiello, Detlef P. van Vuuren, and Xin Zhang
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 5425–5464,Short summary
To estimate the effects of human land use activities on the carbon–climate system, a new set of global gridded land use forcing datasets was developed to link historical land use data to eight future scenarios in a standard format required by climate models. This new generation of land use harmonization (LUH2) includes updated inputs, higher spatial resolution, more detailed land use transitions, and the addition of important agricultural management layers; it will be used for CMIP6 simulations.
Tokuta Yokohata, Tsuguki Kinoshita, Gen Sakurai, Yadu Pokhrel, Akihiko Ito, Masashi Okada, Yusuke Satoh, Etsushi Kato, Tomoko Nitta, Shinichiro Fujimori, Farshid Felfelani, Yoshimitsu Masaki, Toshichika Iizumi, Motoki Nishimori, Naota Hanasaki, Kiyoshi Takahashi, Yoshiki Yamagata, and Seita Emori
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 4713–4747,Short summary
The most significant feature of MIROC-INTEG-LAND is that the land surface model that describes the processes of the energy and water balances, human water management, and crop growth incorporates a land-use decision-making model based on economic activities. The future simulations indicate that changes in climate have significant impacts on crop yields, land use, and irrigation water demand.
Robert J. Allen, Steven Turnock, Pierre Nabat, David Neubauer, Ulrike Lohmann, Dirk Olivié, Naga Oshima, Martine Michou, Tongwen Wu, Jie Zhang, Toshihiko Takemura, Michael Schulz, Kostas Tsigaridis, Susanne E. Bauer, Louisa Emmons, Larry Horowitz, Vaishali Naik, Twan van Noije, Tommi Bergman, Jean-Francois Lamarque, Prodromos Zanis, Ina Tegen, Daniel M. Westervelt, Philippe Le Sager, Peter Good, Sungbo Shim, Fiona O'Connor, Dimitris Akritidis, Aristeidis K. Georgoulias, Makoto Deushi, Lori T. Sentman, Jasmin G. John, Shinichiro Fujimori, and William J. Collins
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9641–9663,
Hideo Shiogama, Ryuichi Hirata, Tomoko Hasegawa, Shinichiro Fujimori, Noriko N. Ishizaki, Satoru Chatani, Masahiro Watanabe, Daniel Mitchell, and Y. T. Eunice Lo
Earth Syst. Dynam., 11, 435–445,Short summary
Based on climate simulations, we suggested that historical warming increased chances of drought exceeding the severe 2015 event in equatorial Asia due to El Niño. The fire and fire emissions of CO2/PM2.5 will largely increase at 1.5 and 2 °C warming. If global warming reaches 3 °C, as is expected from the current mitigation policies, chances of fire and CO2/PM2.5 emissions exceeding the 2015 event become approximately 100 %. Future climate policy has to consider these climate change effects.
Matias Heino, Joseph H. A. Guillaume, Christoph Müller, Toshichika Iizumi, and Matti Kummu
Earth Syst. Dynam., 11, 113–128,Short summary
In this study, we analyse the impacts of three major climate oscillations on global crop production. Our results show that maize, rice, soybean, and wheat yields are influenced by climate oscillations to a wide extent and in several important crop-producing regions. We observe larger impacts if crops are rainfed or fully fertilized, while irrigation tends to mitigate the impacts. These results can potentially help to increase the resilience of the global food system to climate-related shocks.
Zhipin Ai, Naota Hanasaki, Vera Heck, Tomoko Hasegawa, and Shinichiro Fujimori
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
Reliable bioenergy crop yield simulation remains a challenge at the global scale. Here, we enhanced a state-of-the-art global hydrological model to simulate bioenergy yield. We found that unconstrained irrigation more than doubled the yield under rainfed condition, while simultaneously reducing the water-use efficiency by 29 % globally. This is the first trial to use a global hydrological model to simulate the bioenergy crop and offers an effective tool to assess the bioenergy-water relations.
Matthew J. Gidden, Keywan Riahi, Steven J. Smith, Shinichiro Fujimori, Gunnar Luderer, Elmar Kriegler, Detlef P. van Vuuren, Maarten van den Berg, Leyang Feng, David Klein, Katherine Calvin, Jonathan C. Doelman, Stefan Frank, Oliver Fricko, Mathijs Harmsen, Tomoko Hasegawa, Petr Havlik, Jérôme Hilaire, Rachel Hoesly, Jill Horing, Alexander Popp, Elke Stehfest, and Kiyoshi Takahashi
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 1443–1475,Short summary
We present a suite of nine scenarios of future emissions trajectories of anthropogenic sources for use in CMIP6. Integrated assessment model results are provided for each scenario with consistent transitions from the historical data to future trajectories. We find that the set of scenarios enables the exploration of a variety of warming pathways. A wide range of scenario data products are provided for the CMIP6 scientific community including global, regional, and gridded emissions datasets.
HyeJin Kim, Isabel M. D. Rosa, Rob Alkemade, Paul Leadley, George Hurtt, Alexander Popp, Detlef P. van Vuuren, Peter Anthoni, Almut Arneth, Daniele Baisero, Emma Caton, Rebecca Chaplin-Kramer, Louise Chini, Adriana De Palma, Fulvio Di Fulvio, Moreno Di Marco, Felipe Espinoza, Simon Ferrier, Shinichiro Fujimori, Ricardo E. Gonzalez, Maya Gueguen, Carlos Guerra, Mike Harfoot, Thomas D. Harwood, Tomoko Hasegawa, Vanessa Haverd, Petr Havlík, Stefanie Hellweg, Samantha L. L. Hill, Akiko Hirata, Andrew J. Hoskins, Jan H. Janse, Walter Jetz, Justin A. Johnson, Andreas Krause, David Leclère, Ines S. Martins, Tetsuya Matsui, Cory Merow, Michael Obersteiner, Haruka Ohashi, Benjamin Poulter, Andy Purvis, Benjamin Quesada, Carlo Rondinini, Aafke M. Schipper, Richard Sharp, Kiyoshi Takahashi, Wilfried Thuiller, Nicolas Titeux, Piero Visconti, Christopher Ware, Florian Wolf, and Henrique M. Pereira
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 4537–4562,Short summary
This paper lays out the protocol for the Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services Scenario-based Intercomparison of Models (BES-SIM) that projects the global impacts of land use and climate change on biodiversity and ecosystem services over the coming decades, compared to the 20th century. BES-SIM uses harmonized scenarios and input data and a set of common output metrics at multiple scales, and identifies model uncertainties and research gaps.
Zhongwei Huang, Mohamad Hejazi, Xinya Li, Qiuhong Tang, Chris Vernon, Guoyong Leng, Yaling Liu, Petra Döll, Stephanie Eisner, Dieter Gerten, Naota Hanasaki, and Yoshihide Wada
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 2117–2133,Short summary
This study generate a historical global monthly gridded water withdrawal data (0.5 × 0.5 degrees) for the period 1971–2010, distinguishing six water use sectors (irrigation, domestic, electricity generation, livestock, mining, and manufacturing). This dataset is the first reconstructed global water withdrawal data product at sub-annual and gridded resolution that is derived from different models and data sources, and was generated by spatially and temporally downscaling country-scale estimates.
Naota Hanasaki, Sayaka Yoshikawa, Yadu Pokhrel, and Shinjiro Kanae
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 789–817,Short summary
Six schemes were added to the H08 global hydrological model (GHM) to represent human water abstraction more accurately and ensure that all water fluxes and storage are traceable in each grid cell at a daily interval. The schemes of local reservoirs, aqueduct water transfer, and seawater desalination were incorporated into GHMs for the first time, to the best of our knowledge. H08 has become one of the most detailed GHMs for attributing water sources available to humanity.
Yoshihide Wada, Marc F. P. Bierkens, Ad de Roo, Paul A. Dirmeyer, James S. Famiglietti, Naota Hanasaki, Megan Konar, Junguo Liu, Hannes Müller Schmied, Taikan Oki, Yadu Pokhrel, Murugesu Sivapalan, Tara J. Troy, Albert I. J. M. van Dijk, Tim van Emmerik, Marjolein H. J. Van Huijgevoort, Henny A. J. Van Lanen, Charles J. Vörösmarty, Niko Wanders, and Howard Wheater
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 4169–4193,Short summary
Rapidly increasing population and human activities have altered terrestrial water fluxes on an unprecedented scale. Awareness of potential water scarcity led to first global water resource assessments; however, few hydrological models considered the interaction between terrestrial water fluxes and human activities. Our contribution highlights the importance of human activities transforming the Earth's water cycle, and how hydrological models can include such influences in an integrated manner.
Christoph Müller, Joshua Elliott, James Chryssanthacopoulos, Almut Arneth, Juraj Balkovic, Philippe Ciais, Delphine Deryng, Christian Folberth, Michael Glotter, Steven Hoek, Toshichika Iizumi, Roberto C. Izaurralde, Curtis Jones, Nikolay Khabarov, Peter Lawrence, Wenfeng Liu, Stefan Olin, Thomas A. M. Pugh, Deepak K. Ray, Ashwan Reddy, Cynthia Rosenzweig, Alex C. Ruane, Gen Sakurai, Erwin Schmid, Rastislav Skalsky, Carol X. Song, Xuhui Wang, Allard de Wit, and Hong Yang
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 1403–1422,Short summary
Crop models are increasingly used in climate change impact research and integrated assessments. For the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP), 14 global gridded crop models (GGCMs) have supplied crop yield simulations (1980–2010) for maize, wheat, rice and soybean. We evaluate the performance of these models against observational data at global, national and grid cell level. We propose an open-access benchmark system against which future model versions can be tested.
Nozomi Ando, Sayaka Yoshikawa, Shinichiro Fujimori, and Shinjiro Kanae
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Manuscript not accepted for further reviewShort summary
Electricity generation may become a key factor that accelerates water scarcity. In this study, we estimated the future global water use for electricity generation from 2005 to 2100 in 17 global sub-regions. Consequently, We indicated that the socioeconomic changes had a larger impact on water withdrawal and consumption for electricity generation, compared with the climate mitigation changes represented by the climate mitigation scenarios.
Kazuya Nishina, Akihiko Ito, Naota Hanasaki, and Seiji Hayashi
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 9, 149–162,Short summary
Available historical global N fertilizer map as an input data to global biogeochemical model is still limited and existing maps were not considered NH4+ and NO3− in the fertilizer application rates. In our products, by utilizing national fertilizer species consumption data in FAOSTAT database, we succeeded to estimate the ratio of NH4+ to NO3− in the N fertilizer map. The products could be widely utilized for global N cycling studies.
Naota Hanasaki, Sayaka Yoshikawa, Kaoru Kakinuma, and Shinjiro Kanae
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 4143–4157,Short summary
Although seawater desalination has been widely implemented and used as a key source of water in arid regions, it has been seldom included in global water resource assessments based on numerical simulations. We first developed a global model to estimate the areal extent and production of seawater desalination which was designed to be incorporated with global hydrological models. The model was applied to future periods under three distinct socioeconomic conditions.
Y. Wada, M. Flörke, N. Hanasaki, S. Eisner, G. Fischer, S. Tramberend, Y. Satoh, M. T. H. van Vliet, P. Yillia, C. Ringler, P. Burek, and D. Wiberg
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 175–222,Short summary
The Water Futures and Solutions (WFaS) initiative coordinates its work with other ongoing scenario efforts for the sake of establishing a consistent set of new global water scenarios based on the shared socio-economic pathways (SSPs) and the representative concentration pathways (RCPs). The WFaS "fast-track" assessment uses three global water models, H08, PCR-GLOBWB, and WaterGAP, to provide the first multi-model analysis of global water use for the 21st century based on the water scenarios.
Y. Masaki, N. Hanasaki, K. Takahashi, and Y. Hijioka
Earth Syst. Dynam., 6, 461–484,
J. Elliott, C. Müller, D. Deryng, J. Chryssanthacopoulos, K. J. Boote, M. Büchner, I. Foster, M. Glotter, J. Heinke, T. Iizumi, R. C. Izaurralde, N. D. Mueller, D. K. Ray, C. Rosenzweig, A. C. Ruane, and J. Sheffield
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 261–277,Short summary
We present and describe the Global Gridded Crop Model Intercomparison (GGCMI) project, an ongoing international effort to 1) validate global models of crop productivity, 2) improve models through detailed analysis of processes, and 3) assess the impacts of climate change on agriculture and food security. We present analysis of data inputs for the project, detailed protocols for conducting and evaluating simulation outputs, and example results.
M. Masood, P. J.-F. Yeh, N. Hanasaki, and K. Takeuchi
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 747–770,Short summary
A hydrologic model H08 is calibrated and validated on the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna basin by addressing model parameter-related uncertainty. The impacts of climate change on runoff, evapotranspiration, net radiation and soil moisture are assessed by using five CMIP5 GCMs. The paper reveals the higher possibility of flood occurrence in the Meghna Basin due to the highest increase in runoff. Findings provide indispensable basis for scientifically based decision-making in climate change adaptation.
S. Yoshikawa, J. Cho, H. G. Yamada, N. Hanasaki, and S. Kanae
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 4289–4310,
M. Konar, Z. Hussein, N. Hanasaki, D. L. Mauzerall, and I. Rodriguez-Iturbe
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 3219–3234,
N. Hanasaki, S. Fujimori, T. Yamamoto, S. Yoshikawa, Y. Masaki, Y. Hijioka, M. Kainuma, Y. Kanamori, T. Masui, K. Takahashi, and S. Kanae
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 2375–2391,
N. Hanasaki, S. Fujimori, T. Yamamoto, S. Yoshikawa, Y. Masaki, Y. Hijioka, M. Kainuma, Y. Kanamori, T. Masui, K. Takahashi, and S. Kanae
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 2393–2413,
S. Hagemann, C. Chen, D. B. Clark, S. Folwell, S. N. Gosling, I. Haddeland, N. Hanasaki, J. Heinke, F. Ludwig, F. Voss, and A. J. Wiltshire
Earth Syst. Dynam., 4, 129–144,
Related subject area
Climate and Earth system modelingRecalibrating decadal climate predictions – what is an adequate model for the drift?Multi-variate factorisation of numerical simulationsInclusion of a suite of weathering tracers in the cGENIE Earth system model – muffin release v.0.9.23The ENEA-REG system (v1.0), a multi-component regional Earth system model: sensitivity to different atmospheric components over the Med-CORDEX (Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment) regionCM2Mc-LPJmL v1.0: biophysical coupling of a process-based dynamic vegetation model with managed land to a general circulation modelESM-Tools version 5.0: a modular infrastructure for stand-alone and coupled Earth system modelling (ESM)Performance of the Adriatic Sea and Coast (AdriSC) climate component – a COAWST V3.3-based coupled atmosphere–ocean modelling suite: atmospheric datasetModel of Early Diagenesis in the Upper Sediment with Adaptable complexity – MEDUSA (v. 2): a time-dependent biogeochemical sediment module for Earth system models, process analysis and teachingA Markov chain method for weighting climate model ensemblesBuilding indoor model in PALM-4U: indoor climate, energy demand, and the interaction between buildings and the urban microclimateImprovement of modeling plant responses to low soil moisture in JULESvn4.9 and evaluation against flux tower measurementsEarth System Model Evaluation Tool (ESMValTool) v2.0 – diagnostics for extreme events, regional and impact evaluation, and analysis of Earth system models in CMIPAn improved multivariable integrated evaluation method and tool (MVIETool) v1.0 for multimodel intercomparisonPhysically regularized machine learning emulators of aerosol activationFaIRv2.0.0: a generalized impulse response model for climate uncertainty and future scenario explorationBCC-CSM2-HR: a high-resolution version of the Beijing Climate Center Climate System ModelA Schwarz iterative method to evaluate ocean–atmosphere coupling schemes: implementation and diagnostics in IPSL-CM6-SW-VLRUnstructured global to coastal wave modeling for the Energy Exascale Earth System Model using WAVEWATCH III version 6.07TransEBM v. 1.0: description, tuning, and validation of a transient model of the Earth's energy balance in two dimensionsSimCloud version 1.0: a simple diagnostic cloud scheme for idealized climate modelsSensitivity of precipitation and temperature over the Mount Kenya area to physics parameterization options in a high-resolution model simulation performed with WRFV3.8.1The GPU version of LASG/IAP Climate System Ocean Model version 3 (LICOM3) under the heterogeneous-compute interface for portability (HIP) framework and its large-scale applicationDeveloping a common, flexible and efficient framework for weakly coupled ensemble data assimilation based on C-Coupler2.0JULES-CN: a coupled terrestrial carbon–nitrogen scheme (JULES vn5.1)Ensemble prediction using a new dataset of ECMWF initial states – OpenEnsemble 1.0Global evaluation of the nutrient-enabled version of the land surface model ORCHIDEE-CNP v1.2 (r5986)Quantifying and attributing time step sensitivities in present-day climate simulations conducted with EAMv1A process-based evaluation of the Intermediate Complexity Atmospheric Research Model (ICAR) 1.0.1Effects of coupling a stochastic convective parameterization with the Zhang–McFarlane scheme on precipitation simulation in the DOE E3SMv1.0 atmosphere modelSensitivity of surface solar radiation to aerosol–radiation and aerosol–cloud interactions over Europe in WRFv3.6.1 climatic runs with fully interactive aerosolsfv3gfs-wrapper: a Python wrapper of the FV3GFS atmospheric modelEvaluation of regional climate models ALARO-0 and REMO2015 at 0.22° resolution over the CORDEX Central Asia domainUsing the anomaly forcing Community Land Model (CLM 4.5) for crop yield projectionsPMIP4 experiments using MIROC-ES2L Earth system modelSimulating the mid-Holocene, last interglacial and mid-Pliocene climate with EC-Earth3-LRUnderstanding the development of systematic errors in the Asian summer monsoonICON in Climate Limited-area Mode (ICON release version 2.6.1): a new regional climate modelThe SMHI Large Ensemble (SMHI-LENS) with EC-Earth3Climate model-informed deep learning of global soil moisture distributionEvaluation of polar stratospheric clouds in the global chemistry–climate model SOCOLv3.1 by comparison with CALIPSO spaceborne lidar measurementsLossy compression of Earth system model data based on a hierarchical tensor with Adaptive-HGFDR (v1.0)Methane chemistry in a nutshell – the new submodels CH4 (v1.0) and TRSYNC (v1.0) in MESSy (v2.54.0)Coordinating an operational data distribution network for CMIP6 dataImplementation of sequential cropping into JULESvn5.2 land-surface modelDevelopment of four-dimensional variational assimilation system based on the GRAPES–CUACE adjoint model (GRAPES–CUACE-4D-Var V1.0) and its application in emission inversionHIRM v1.0: a hybrid impulse response model for climate modeling and uncertainty analysesCLIMADA v1.4.1: towards a globally consistent adaptation options appraisal toolTempestExtremes v2.1: A Community Framework for Feature Detection, Tracking and Analysis in Large DatasetsFORTE 2.0: a fast, parallel and flexible coupled climate modelOptimization of the sulfate aerosol hygroscopicity parameter in WRF-Chem
Alexander Pasternack, Jens Grieger, Henning W. Rust, and Uwe Ulbrich
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 4335–4355,Short summary
Decadal climate ensemble forecasts are increasingly being used to guide adaptation measures. To ensure the applicability of these probabilistic predictions, inherent systematic errors of the prediction system must be adjusted. Since it is not clear which statistical model is optimal for this purpose, we propose a recalibration strategy with a systematic model selection based on non-homogeneous boosting for identifying the most relevant features for both ensemble mean and ensemble spread.
Daniel J. Lunt, Deepak Chandan, Alan M. Haywood, George M. Lunt, Jonathan C. Rougier, Ulrich Salzmann, Gavin A. Schmidt, and Paul J. Valdes
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 4307–4317,Short summary
Often in science we carry out experiments with computers in which several factors are explored, for example, in the field of climate science, how the factors of greenhouse gases, ice, and vegetation affect temperature. We can explore the relative importance of these factors by
swapping in and outdifferent values of these factors, and can also carry out experiments with many different combinations of these factors. This paper discusses how best to analyse the results from such experiments.
Markus Adloff, Andy Ridgwell, Fanny M. Monteiro, Ian J. Parkinson, Alexander J. Dickson, Philip A. E. Pogge von Strandmann, Matthew S. Fantle, and Sarah E. Greene
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 4187–4223,Short summary
We present the first representation of the trace metals Sr, Os, Li and Ca in a 3D Earth system model (cGENIE). The simulation of marine metal sources (weathering, hydrothermal input) and sinks (deposition) reproduces the observed concentrations and isotopic homogeneity of these metals in the modern ocean. With these new tracers, cGENIE can be used to test hypotheses linking these metal cycles and the cycling of other elements like O and C and simulate their dynamic response to external forcing.
Alessandro Anav, Adriana Carillo, Massimiliano Palma, Maria Vittoria Struglia, Ufuk Utku Turuncoglu, and Gianmaria Sannino
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 4159–4185,Short summary
The Mediterranean Basin is a complex region, characterized by the presence of pronounced topography and a complex land–sea distribution including a considerable number of islands and straits; these features generate strong local atmosphere–sea interactions. Regional Earth system models have been developed and used to study both present and future Mediterranean climate systems. The main aims of this paper are to present and evaluate the newly developed regional Earth system model ENEA-REG.
Markus Drüke, Werner von Bloh, Stefan Petri, Boris Sakschewski, Sibyll Schaphoff, Matthias Forkel, Willem Huiskamp, Georg Feulner, and Kirsten Thonicke
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 4117–4141,Short summary
In this study, we couple the well-established and comprehensively validated state-of-the-art dynamic LPJmL5 global vegetation model to the CM2Mc coupled climate model (CM2Mc-LPJmL v.1.0). Several improvements to LPJmL5 were implemented to allow a fully functional biophysical coupling. The new climate model is able to capture important biospheric processes, including fire, mortality, permafrost, hydrological cycling and the the impacts of managed land (crop growth and irrigation).
Dirk Barbi, Nadine Wieters, Paul Gierz, Miguel Andrés-Martínez, Deniz Ural, Fatemeh Chegini, Sara Khosravi, and Luisa Cristini
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 4051–4067,
Cléa Denamiel, Petra Pranić, Damir Ivanković, Iva Tojčić, and Ivica Vilibić
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 3995–4017,Short summary
The atmospheric results of the Adriatic Sea and Coast (AdriSC) climate simulation (1987–2017) are evaluated against available observational datasets in the Adriatic region. Generally, the AdriSC model performs better than regional climate models that have resolutions that are 4 times more coarse, except concerning summer temperatures, which are systematically underestimated. High-resolution climate models may thus provide new insights about the local impacts of global warming in the Adriatic.
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 3603–3631,Short summary
Sea-floor sediments play an important role in biogeochemical cycling of elements (e.g. carbon, silicon, nutrients) in the ocean. Realistic sediment modules are, however, not yet commonly used in global ocean biogeochemical models. Here we present MEDUSA, a model of the processes taking place in the surface sea-floor sediments which control the interaction between the sediments and the ocean. MEDUSA can be configured to meet the exact needs of any given ocean biogeochemical model.
Max Kulinich, Yanan Fan, Spiridon Penev, Jason P. Evans, and Roman Olson
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 3539–3551,Short summary
We present a novel stochastic approach based on Markov chains to estimate climate model weights of multi-model ensemble means. This approach showed improved performance (better correlation with observations) over existing alternatives during cross-validation and model-as-truth tests. The results of this comparative analysis should serve to motivate further studies in applications of Markov chain and other nonlinear methods to find optimal model weights for constructing ensemble means.
Jens Pfafferott, Sascha Rißmann, Matthias Sühring, Farah Kanani-Sühring, and Björn Maronga
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 3511–3519,Short summary
The building model is integrated via an urban surface model into the urban climate model. There is a strong interaction between the built environment and the urban climate. According to the building energy concept, the energy demand results in a waste heat; this is directly transferred to the urban environment. The impact of buildings on the urban climate is defined by different physical building parameters with different technical facilities for ventilation, heating and cooling.
Anna B. Harper, Karina E. Williams, Patrick C. McGuire, Maria Carolina Duran Rojas, Debbie Hemming, Anne Verhoef, Chris Huntingford, Lucy Rowland, Toby Marthews, Cleiton Breder Eller, Camilla Mathison, Rodolfo L. B. Nobrega, Nicola Gedney, Pier Luigi Vidale, Fred Otu-Larbi, Divya Pandey, Sebastien Garrigues, Azin Wright, Darren Slevin, Martin G. De Kauwe, Eleanor Blyth, Jonas Ardö, Andrew Black, Damien Bonal, Nina Buchmann, Benoit Burban, Kathrin Fuchs, Agnès de Grandcourt, Ivan Mammarella, Lutz Merbold, Leonardo Montagnani, Yann Nouvellon, Natalia Restrepo-Coupe, and Georg Wohlfahrt
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 3269–3294,Short summary
We evaluated 10 representations of soil moisture stress in the JULES land surface model against site observations of GPP and latent heat flux. Increasing the soil depth and plant access to deep soil moisture improved many aspects of the simulations, and we recommend these settings in future work using JULES. In addition, using soil matric potential presents the opportunity to include parameters specific to plant functional type to further improve modeled fluxes.
Katja Weigel, Lisa Bock, Bettina K. Gier, Axel Lauer, Mattia Righi, Manuel Schlund, Kemisola Adeniyi, Bouwe Andela, Enrico Arnone, Peter Berg, Louis-Philippe Caron, Irene Cionni, Susanna Corti, Niels Drost, Alasdair Hunter, Llorenç Lledó, Christian Wilhelm Mohr, Aytaç Paçal, Núria Pérez-Zanón, Valeriu Predoi, Marit Sandstad, Jana Sillmann, Andreas Sterl, Javier Vegas-Regidor, Jost von Hardenberg, and Veronika Eyring
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 3159–3184,Short summary
This work presents new diagnostics for the Earth System Model Evaluation Tool (ESMValTool) v2.0 on the hydrological cycle, extreme events, impact assessment, regional evaluations, and ensemble member selection. The ESMValTool v2.0 diagnostics are developed by a large community of scientists aiming to facilitate the evaluation and comparison of Earth system models (ESMs) with a focus on the ESMs participating in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP).
Meng-Zhuo Zhang, Zhongfeng Xu, Ying Han, and Weidong Guo
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 3079–3094,Short summary
The Multivariable Integrated Evaluation Tool (MVIETool) is a simple-to-use and straightforward tool designed for evaluation and intercomparison of climate models in terms of vector fields or multiple fields. The tool incorporates some new improvements in vector field evaluation (VFE) and multivariable integrated evaluation (MVIE) methods, which are introduced in this paper.
Sam J. Silva, Po-Lun Ma, Joseph C. Hardin, and Daniel Rothenberg
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 3067–3077,Short summary
The activation of aerosol into cloud droplets is an important but uncertain process in the Earth system. The physical and chemical interactions that govern this process are too computationally expensive to explicitly resolve in modern Earth system models. Here, we demonstrate how hybrid machine learning approaches can provide a potential path forward, enabling the representation of the more detailed physics and chemistry at a reduced computational cost while still retaining physical information.
Nicholas J. Leach, Stuart Jenkins, Zebedee Nicholls, Christopher J. Smith, John Lynch, Michelle Cain, Tristram Walsh, Bill Wu, Junichi Tsutsui, and Myles R. Allen
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 3007–3036,Short summary
This paper presents an update of the FaIR simple climate model, which can estimate the impact of anthropogenic greenhouse gas and aerosol emissions on the global climate. This update aims to significantly increase the structural simplicity of the model, making it more understandable and transparent. This simplicity allows it to be implemented in a wide range of environments, including Excel. We suggest that it could be used widely in academia, corporate research, and education.
Tongwen Wu, Rucong Yu, Yixiong Lu, Weihua Jie, Yongjie Fang, Jie Zhang, Li Zhang, Xiaoge Xin, Laurent Li, Zaizhi Wang, Yiming Liu, Fang Zhang, Fanghua Wu, Min Chu, Jianglong Li, Weiping Li, Yanwu Zhang, Xueli Shi, Wenyan Zhou, Junchen Yao, Xiangwen Liu, He Zhao, Jinghui Yan, Min Wei, Wei Xue, Anning Huang, Yaocun Zhang, Yu Zhang, Qi Shu, and Aixue Hu
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 2977–3006,Short summary
This paper presents the high-resolution version of the Beijing Climate Center (BCC) Climate System Model, BCC-CSM2-HR, and describes its climate simulation performance including the atmospheric temperature and wind; precipitation; and the tropical climate phenomena such as TC, MJO, QBO, and ENSO. BCC-CSM2-HR is our model version contributing to the HighResMIP. We focused on its updates and differential characteristics from its predecessor, the medium-resolution version BCC-CSM2-MR.
Olivier Marti, Sébastien Nguyen, Pascale Braconnot, Sophie Valcke, Florian Lemarié, and Eric Blayo
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 2959–2975,Short summary
State-of-the-art Earth system models, like the ones used in CMIP6, suffer from temporal inconsistencies at the ocean–atmosphere interface. In this study, a mathematically consistent iterative Schwarz method is used as a reference. Its tremendous computational cost makes it unusable for production runs, but it allows us to evaluate the error made when using legacy coupling schemes. The impact on the climate at longer timescales of days to decades is not evaluated.
Steven R. Brus, Phillip J. Wolfram, Luke P. Van Roekel, and Jessica D. Meixner
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 2917–2938,Short summary
Wind-generated waves are an important process in the global climate system. They mediate many interactions between the ocean, atmosphere, and sea ice. Models which describe these waves are computationally expensive and have often been excluded from coupled Earth system models. To address this, we have developed a capability for the WAVEWATCH III model which allows model resolution to be varied globally across the coastal open ocean. This allows for improved accuracy at reduced computing time.
Elisa Ziegler and Kira Rehfeld
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 2843–2866,Short summary
Past climate changes are the only record of how the climate responds to changes in conditions on Earth, but simulations with complex climate models are challenging. We extended a simple climate model such that it simulates the development of temperatures over time. In the model, changes in carbon dioxide and ice distribution affect the simulated temperatures the most. The model is very efficient and can therefore be used to examine past climate changes happening over long periods of time.
Qun Liu, Matthew Collins, Penelope Maher, Stephen I. Thomson, and Geoffrey K. Vallis
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 2801–2826,Short summary
Clouds play an vital role in Earth's energy budget, and even a small change in cloud fields can have a large impact on the climate system. They also bring lots of uncertainties to climate models. Here we implement a simple diagnostic cloud scheme in order to reproduce the general radiative properties of clouds. The scheme can capture some key features of the cloud fraction and cloud radiative properties and thus provide a useful tool to explore unsolved problems relating to clouds.
Martina Messmer, Santos J. González-Rojí, Christoph C. Raible, and Thomas F. Stocker
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 2691–2711,Short summary
Sensitivity experiments with the WRF model are run to find an optimal parameterization setup for precipitation around Mount Kenya at a scale that resolves convection (1 km). Precipitation is compared against many weather stations and gridded observational data sets. Both the temporal correlation of precipitation sums and pattern correlations show that fewer nests lead to a more constrained simulation with higher correlation. The Grell–Freitas cumulus scheme obtains the most accurate results.
Pengfei Wang, Jinrong Jiang, Pengfei Lin, Mengrong Ding, Junlin Wei, Feng Zhang, Lian Zhao, Yiwen Li, Zipeng Yu, Weipeng Zheng, Yongqiang Yu, Xuebin Chi, and Hailong Liu
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 2781–2799,Short summary
Global ocean general circulation models are a fundamental tool for oceanography research, ocean forecast, and climate change research. The increasing resolution will greatly improve simulations of the models, but it also demands much more computing resources. In this study, we have ported an ocean general circulation model to a heterogeneous computing system and have developed a 3–5 km model version. A 14-year integration has been conducted and the preliminary results have been evaluated.
Chao Sun, Li Liu, Ruizhe Li, Xinzhu Yu, Hao Yu, Biao Zhao, Guansuo Wang, Juanjuan Liu, Fangli Qiao, and Bin Wang
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 2635–2657,Short summary
Data assimilation (DA) provides better initial states of model runs by combining observations and models. This work focuses on the technical challenges in developing a coupled ensemble-based DA system and proposes a new DA framework DAFCC1 based on C-Coupler2. DAFCC1 enables users to conveniently integrate a DA method into a model with automatic and efficient data exchanges. A sample DA system that combines GSI/EnKF and FIO-AOW demonstrates the effectiveness of DAFCC1.
Andrew J. Wiltshire, Eleanor J. Burke, Sarah E. Chadburn, Chris D. Jones, Peter M. Cox, Taraka Davies-Barnard, Pierre Friedlingstein, Anna B. Harper, Spencer Liddicoat, Stephen Sitch, and Sönke Zaehle
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 2161–2186,Short summary
Limited nitrogen availbility can restrict the growth of plants and their ability to assimilate carbon. It is important to include the impact of this process on the global land carbon cycle. This paper presents a model of the coupled land carbon and nitrogen cycle, which is included within the UK Earth System model to improve projections of climate change and impacts on ecosystems.
Pirkka Ollinaho, Glenn D. Carver, Simon T. K. Lang, Lauri Tuppi, Madeleine Ekblom, and Heikki Järvinen
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 2143–2160,Short summary
OpenEnsemble 1.0 is a novel dataset that aims to open ensemble or probabilistic weather forecasting research up to the academic community. The dataset contains atmospheric states that are required for running model forecasts of atmospheric evolution. Our capacity to observe the atmosphere is limited; thus, a single reconstruction of the atmospheric state contains some errors. Our dataset provides sets of 50 slightly different atmospheric states so that these errors can be taken into account.
Yan Sun, Daniel S. Goll, Jinfeng Chang, Philippe Ciais, Betrand Guenet, Julian Helfenstein, Yuanyuan Huang, Ronny Lauerwald, Fabienne Maignan, Victoria Naipal, Yilong Wang, Hui Yang, and Haicheng Zhang
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1987–2010,Short summary
We evaluated the performance of the nutrient-enabled version of the land surface model ORCHIDEE-CNP v1.2 against remote sensing, ground-based measurement networks and ecological databases. The simulated carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus fluxes among different spatial scales are generally in good agreement with data-driven estimates. However, the recent carbon sink in the Northern Hemisphere is substantially underestimated. Potential causes and model development priorities are discussed.
Hui Wan, Shixuan Zhang, Philip J. Rasch, Vincent E. Larson, Xubin Zeng, and Huiping Yan
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1921–1948,Short summary
Numerical models used in weather and climate research and prediction unavoidably contain numerical errors resulting from temporal discretization, and the impact of such errors can be substantial. Complex process interactions often make it difficult to pinpoint the exact sources of such errors. This study uses a series of sensitivity experiments to identify components in a global atmosphere model that are responsible for time step sensitivities in various cloud regimes.
Johannes Horak, Marlis Hofer, Ethan Gutmann, Alexander Gohm, and Mathias W. Rotach
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1657–1680,Short summary
This process-based evaluation of the atmospheric model ICAR is conducted to derive recommendations to increase the likelihood of its results being correct for the right reasons. We conclude that a different diagnosis of the atmospheric background state is necessary, as well as a model top at an elevation of at least 10 km. Alternative boundary conditions at the top were not found to be effective in reducing this model top elevation. The results have wide implications for future ICAR studies.
Yong Wang, Guang J. Zhang, Shaocheng Xie, Wuyin Lin, George C. Craig, Qi Tang, and Hsi-Yen Ma
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1575–1593,Short summary
A stochastic deep convection parameterization is implemented into the US Department of Energy Energy Exascale Earth System Model Atmosphere Model version 1 (EAMv1). Compared to the default model, the well-known problem of
too much light rain and too little heavy rainis largely alleviated over the tropics with the stochastic scheme. Results from this study provide important insights into the model performance of EAMv1 when stochasticity is included in the deep convective parameterization.
Sonia Jerez, Laura Palacios-Peña, Claudia Gutiérrez, Pedro Jiménez-Guerrero, Jose María López-Romero, Enrique Pravia-Sarabia, and Juan Pedro Montávez
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1533–1551,Short summary
This research explores the role of aerosols when modeling surface solar radiation at regional scales (over Europe). A set of model experiments was performed with and without dynamical modeling of atmospheric aerosols and their direct and indirect effects on radiation. Results showed significant differences in the simulated solar radiation, mainly driven by the aerosol impact on cloudiness, which calls for caution when interpreting model experiments that do not include aerosols.
Jeremy McGibbon, Noah D. Brenowitz, Mark Cheeseman, Spencer K. Clark, Johann Dahm, Eddie Davis, Oliver D. Elbert, Rhea C. George, Lucas M. Harris, Brian Henn, Anna Kwa, W. Andre Perkins, Oliver Watt-Meyer, Tobias Wicky, Christopher S. Bretherton, and Oliver Fuhrer
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for GMDShort summary
The FV3GFS is a weather and climate model written in Fortran. It uses Fortran so it can run fast, but this makes it hard to add features if you don't (or even if you do) know Fortran. We've written a Python interface to FV3GFS that lets you import the Fortran model as a Python package. We show examples of how this is used to write
modelscripts, which reproduce or build on what the Fortran model can do. You could do this same wrapping for any compiled model, not just FV3GFS.
Sara Top, Lola Kotova, Lesley De Cruz, Svetlana Aniskevich, Leonid Bobylev, Rozemien De Troch, Natalia Gnatiuk, Anne Gobin, Rafiq Hamdi, Arne Kriegsmann, Armelle Reca Remedio, Abdulla Sakalli, Hans Van De Vyver, Bert Van Schaeybroeck, Viesturs Zandersons, Philippe De Maeyer, Piet Termonia, and Steven Caluwaerts
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1267–1293,Short summary
Detailed climate data are needed to assess the impact of climate change on human and natural systems. The performance of two high-resolution regional climate models, ALARO-0 and REMO2015, was investigated over central Asia, a vulnerable region where detailed climate information is scarce. In certain subregions the produced climate data are suitable for impact studies, but bias adjustment is required for subregions where significant biases have been identified.
Yaqiong Lu and Xianyu Yang
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1253–1265,Short summary
Crop growth in land surface models normally requires high-temporal-resolution climate data, but such high-temporal-resolution climate data are not provided by many climate model simulations due to expensive storage, which limits modeling choices if there is an interest in a particular climate simulation that only saved monthly outputs. Our work provides an alternative way to use the monthly climate for crop yield projections. Such an approach could be easily adopted by other crop models.
Rumi Ohgaito, Akitomo Yamamoto, Tomohiro Hajima, Ryouta O'ishi, Manabu Abe, Hiroaki Tatebe, Ayako Abe-Ouchi, and Michio Kawamiya
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1195–1217,Short summary
Using the MIROC-ES2L Earth system model, selected time periods of the past were simulated. The ability to simulate the past is also an evaluation of the performance of the model in projecting global warming. Simulations for 21 000, 6000, and 127 000 years ago, and a simulation for 1000 years starting in 850 CE were simulated. The results showed that the model can generally describe past climate change.
Qiong Zhang, Ellen Berntell, Josefine Axelsson, Jie Chen, Zixuan Han, Wesley de Nooijer, Zhengyao Lu, Qiang Li, Qiang Zhang, Klaus Wyser, and Shuting Yang
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1147–1169,Short summary
Paleoclimate modelling has long been regarded as a strong out-of-sample test bed of the climate models that are used for the projection of future climate changes. Here, we document the model experimental setups for the three past warm periods with EC-Earth3-LR and present the results on the large-scale features. The simulations demonstrate good performance of the model in capturing the climate response under different climate forcings.
Gill M. Martin, Richard C. Levine, José M. Rodriguez, and Michael Vellinga
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1007–1035,Short summary
Our study highlights a number of different techniques that can be employed to investigate the sources of model error. We demonstrate how this methodology can be used to identify the regions and model components responsible for the development of long-standing errors in the Asian summer monsoon. Once these are known, further work can be done to explore the local processes contributing to this behaviour and their sensitivity to changes in physical parameterisations and/or model resolution.
Trang Van Pham, Christian Steger, Burkhardt Rockel, Klaus Keuler, Ingo Kirchner, Mariano Mertens, Daniel Rieger, Günther Zängl, and Barbara Früh
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 985–1005,Short summary
A new regional climate model was prepared based on a weather forecast model. Slow processes of the climate system such as ocean state development and greenhouse gas emissions were implemented. A model infrastructure and evaluation tools were also prepared to facilitate long-term simulations and model evalution. The first ICON-CLM results were close to observations and comparable to those from COSMO-CLM, the recommended model being used at the Deutscher Wetterdienst and CLM Community.
Klaus Wyser, Torben Koenigk, Uwe Fladrich, Ramon Fuentes-Franco, Mehdi Pasha Karami, and Tim Kruschke
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for GMDShort summary
This paper describes the large ensemble done by SMHI with the EC-Earth3 climate model. The ensemble comprises 50 realisations of the historical experiment and four different future projections for CMIP6. We describe the creation of the initial states for the large ensemble and the reduced set of output variables. A first look at the results illustrates the changes in the climate during this century and puts them in relation to the uncertainty from the model's internal variability.
Klaus Klingmüller and Jos Lelieveld
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for GMDShort summary
Soil moisture is of great importance for weather and climate. We present a machine learning model that produces accurate predictions of satellite-observed surface soil moisture, based on meteorological data from a climate model. It can be used as soil moisture parametrisation in climate models and to produce comprehensive global soil moisture datasets. Moreover, it may motivate similar applications of machine learning in climate science.
Michael Steiner, Beiping Luo, Thomas Peter, Michael C. Pitts, and Andrea Stenke
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 935–959,Short summary
We evaluate polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) as simulated by the chemistry–climate model (CCM) SOCOLv3.1 in comparison with measurements by the CALIPSO satellite. A cold bias results in an overestimated PSC area and mountain-wave ice is underestimated, but we find overall good temporal and spatial agreement of PSC occurrence and composition. This work confirms previous studies indicating that simplified PSC schemes may also achieve good approximations of the fundamental properties of PSCs.
Zhaoyuan Yu, Dongshuang Li, Zhengfang Zhang, Wen Luo, Yuan Liu, Zengjie Wang, and Linwang Yuan
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 875–887,Short summary
Few lossy compression methods consider both the global and local multidimensional coupling correlations, which could lead to information loss in data compression. Here we develop an adaptive lossy compression method, Adaptive-HGFDR, to capture both the global and local variation of multidimensional coupling correlations and improve approximation accuracy. The method can achieve good compression performances for most flux variables with significant spatiotemporal heterogeneity.
Franziska Winterstein and Patrick Jöckel
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 661–674,Short summary
Atmospheric methane is currently a hot topic in climate research. This is partly due to its chemically active nature. We introduce a simplified approach to simulate methane in climate models to enable large sensitivity studies by reducing computational cost but including the crucial feedback of methane on stratospheric water vapour. We further provide options to simulate the isotopic content of methane and to generate output for an inverse optimization technique for emission estimation.
Ruth Petrie, Sébastien Denvil, Sasha Ames, Guillaume Levavasseur, Sandro Fiore, Chris Allen, Fabrizio Antonio, Katharina Berger, Pierre-Antoine Bretonnière, Luca Cinquini, Eli Dart, Prashanth Dwarakanath, Kelsey Druken, Ben Evans, Laurent Franchistéguy, Sébastien Gardoll, Eric Gerbier, Mark Greenslade, David Hassell, Alan Iwi, Martin Juckes, Stephan Kindermann, Lukasz Lacinski, Maria Mirto, Atef Ben Nasser, Paola Nassisi, Eric Nienhouse, Sergey Nikonov, Alessandra Nuzzo, Clare Richards, Syazwan Ridzwan, Michel Rixen, Kim Serradell, Kate Snow, Ag Stephens, Martina Stockhause, Hans Vahlenkamp, and Rick Wagner
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 629–644,Short summary
This paper describes the infrastructure that is used to distribute Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6) data around the world for analysis by the climate research community. It is expected that there will be ~20 PB (petabytes) of data available for analysis. The operations team performed a series of preparation "data challenges" to ensure all components of the infrastructure were operational for when the data became available for timely data distribution and subsequent analysis.
Camilla Mathison, Andrew J. Challinor, Chetan Deva, Pete Falloon, Sébastien Garrigues, Sophie Moulin, Karina Williams, and Andy Wiltshire
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 437–471,Short summary
Sequential cropping (also known as multiple or double cropping) is a common cropping system, particularly in tropical regions. Typically, land surface models only simulate a single crop per year. To understand how sequential crops influence surface fluxes, we implement sequential cropping in JULES to simulate all the crops grown within a year at a given location in a seamless way. We demonstrate the method using a site in Avignon, four locations in India and a regional run for two Indian states.
Chao Wang, Xingqin An, Qing Hou, Zhaobin Sun, Yanjun Li, and Jiangtao Li
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 337–350,
Kalyn Dorheim, Steven J. Smith, and Ben Bond-Lamberty
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 365–375,Short summary
Simple climate models are frequently used in research and decision-making communities because of their tractability and low computational cost. Simple climate models are diverse, including highly idealized and process-based models. Here we present a hybrid approach that combines the strength of two types of simple climate models in a flexible framework. This hybrid approach has provided insights into the climate system and opens an avenue for investigating radiative forcing uncertainties.
David N. Bresch and Gabriela Aznar-Siguan
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 351–363,Short summary
Climate change is a fact and adaptation a necessity. The Economics of Climate Adaptation methodology provides a framework to integrate risk and reward perspectives of different stakeholders, underpinned by the CLIMADA impact modelling platform. This extended version of CLIMADA enables risk assessment and options appraisal in a modular form and occasionally bespoke fashion yet with high reusability of functionalities to foster usage in interdisciplinary studies and international collaboration.
Paul A. Ullrich, Colin M. Zarzycki, Elizabeth E. McClenny, Marielle C. Pinheiro, Alyssa M. Stansfield, and Kevin A. Reed
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for GMDShort summary
TempestExtremes (TE) is a multifaceted framework for feature detection, tracking, and scientific analysis of regional or global Earth-system datasets. Version 2.1 of TE now provides extensive support for nodal and areal features. This paper describes the algorithms that have been added to the TE framework since version 1.0, and gives several examples of how these can be combined to produce composite algorithms for evaluating and understanding atmospheric features.
Adam T. Blaker, Manoj Joshi, Bablu Sinha, David P. Stevens, Robin S. Smith, and Joël J.-M. Hirschi
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 275–293,Short summary
FORTE 2.0 is a flexible coupled atmosphere–ocean general circulation model that can be run on modest hardware. We present two 2000-year simulations which show that FORTE 2.0 is capable of producing a stable climate. Earlier versions of FORTE were used for a wide range of studies, ranging from aquaplanet configurations to investigating the cold European winters of 2009–2010. This paper introduces the updated model for which the code and configuration are now publicly available.
Ah-Hyun Kim, Seong Soo Yum, Dong Yeong Chang, and Minsu Park
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 259–273,Short summary
A new method to estimate the sulfate aerosol hygroscopicity parameter (κSO4) is suggested that can consider κSO4 for two different sulfate species instead of prescribing a single κSO4 value, as in most previous studies. The new method simulates more realistic cloud droplet concentrations and, thus, a more realistic cloud albedo effect than the original method. The new method is simple and readily applicable to modeling studies investigating sulfate aerosols’ effect in aerosol–cloud interactions.
Burke, M., Hsiang, S. M., and Miguel, E.: Global non-linear effect of temperature on economic production, Nature, 527, 235, https://doi.org/10.1038/nature15725, 2015.
Castelletti, A., Galelli, S., Ratto, M., Soncini-Sessa, R., and Young, P. C.: A general framework for Dynamic Emulation Modelling in environmental problems, Environ. Modell. Softw., 34, 5–18, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsoft.2012.01.002, 2012.
Chollet, F.: Keras, https://github.com/fchollet/keras (last access: 21 July 2019), 2015.
Ciscar, J.-C., Iglesias, A., Feyen, L., Szabó, L., Van Regemorter, D., Amelung, B., Nicholls, R., Watkiss, P., Christensen, O. B., Dankers, R., Garrote, L., Goodess, C. M., Hunt, A., Moreno, A., Richards, J., and Soria, A.: Physical and economic consequences of climate change in Europe, P. Natl. Acad. Sci., 108, 2678, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1011612108, 2011.
Cybenko, G.: Approximation by superpositions of a sigmoidal function, Mathematics of Control, Signals and Systems, 2, 303–314, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02551274, 1989.
Dellink, R., Chateau, J., Lanzi, E., and Magné, B.: Long-term economic growth projections in the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways, Global Environ. Chang., 42, 200–214, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2015.06.004, 2017.
Diaz, D. and Moore, F.: Quantifying the economic risks of climate change, Nat. Clim. Change, 7, 774–782, https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate3411, 2017.
Fujimori, S., Masui, T., and Matsuoka, Y.: AIM/CGE [basic] manual, Discussion Paper Series, Center for Social and Environmental Systems Research, NIES, 2012.
Fujimori, S., Masui, T., and Matsuoka, Y.: Development of a global computable general equilibrium model coupled with detailed energy end-use technology, Appl. Energ., 128, 296–306, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2014.04.074, 2014.
Fujimori, S., Hasegawa, T., Masui, T., Takahashi, K., Herran, D. S., Dai, H., Hijioka, Y., and Kainuma, M.: SSP3: AIM implementation of Shared Socioeconomic Pathways, Global Environ. Chang., 42, 268–283, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2016.06.009, 2017.
Fujimori, S., Iizumi, T., Hasegawa, T., Takakura, J., Takahashi, K., and Hijioka, Y.: Macroeconomic Impacts of Climate Change Driven by Changes in Crop Yields, Sustainability, 10, 3673, https://doi.org/10.3390/su10103673, 2018.
Goodfellow, I., Bengio, Y., and Courville, A.: Deep learning, MIT press, Cambridge, MA, USA, 2016.
Harrison, P. A., Holman, I. P., Cojocaru, G., Kok, K., Kontogianni, A., Metzger, M. J., and Gramberger, M.: Combining qualitative and quantitative understanding for exploring cross-sectoral climate change impacts, adaptation and vulnerability in Europe, Reg. Environ. Change, 13, 761–780, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10113-012-0361-y, 2013.
Harrison, P. A., Dunford, R. W., Holman, I. P., and Rounsevell, M. D. A.: Climate change impact modelling needs to include cross-sectoral interactions, Nat. Clim. Change, 6, 885, https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate3039, 2016.
Hasegawa, T., Fujimori, S., Takahashi, K., Yokohata, T., and Masui, T.: Economic implications of climate change impacts on human health through undernourishment, Climatic Change, 136, 189–202, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-016-1606-4, 2016a.
Hasegawa, T., Park, C., Fujimori, S., Takahashi, K., Hijioka, Y., and Masui, T.: Quantifying the economic impact of changes in energy demand for space heating and cooling systems under varying climatic scenarios, Palgrave Communications, 2, 16013, https://doi.org/10.1057/palcomms.2016.13, 2016b.
Hausfather, Z. and Peters, G. P.: Emissions – the `business as usual' story is misleading, Nature, 577, 618–620, 2020.
Hempel, S., Frieler, K., Warszawski, L., Schewe, J., and Piontek, F.: A trend-preserving bias correction – the ISI-MIP approach, Earth Syst. Dynam., 4, 219–236, https://doi.org/10.5194/esd-4-219-2013, 2013.
Herger, N., Sanderson, B. M., and Knutti, R.: Improved pattern scaling approaches for the use in climate impact studies, Geophys. Res. Lett., 42, 3486–3494, https://doi.org/10.1002/2015GL063569, 2015.
Honda, Y., Kondo, M., McGregor, G., Kim, H., Guo, Y. L., Hijioka, Y., Yoshikawa, M., Oka, K., Takano, S., Hales, S., and Kovats, R. S.: Heat-related mortality risk model for climate change impact projection, Environ. Health Prev., 19, 56–63, https://doi.org/10.1007/s12199-013-0354-6, 2014.
Howard, P. H. and Sterner, T.: Few and Not So Far Between: A Meta-analysis of Climate Damage Estimates, Environ. Resour. Econ., 68, 197–225, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10640-017-0166-z, 2017.
Iizumi, T., Furuya, J., Shen, Z., Kim, W., Okada, M., Fujimori, S., Hasegawa, T., and Nishimori, M.: Responses of crop yield growth to global temperature and socioeconomic changes, Sci. Rep., 7, 7800, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-08214-4, 2017.
IPCC: Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation. A Special Report of Working Groups I and II of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, and New York, NY, USA, 2012.
IPCC: Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK and New York, NY, USA, 2014.
Kaufman, S., Rosset, S., and Perlich, C.: Leakage in data mining: formulation, detection, and avoidance, Proceedings of the 17th ACM SIGKDD international conference on Knowledge discovery and data mining, San Diego, California, USA, 21–24 August 2011, 556–563, https://doi.org/10.1145/2020408.2020496, 2011.
Kc, S. and Lutz, W.: The human core of the shared socioeconomic pathways: Population scenarios by age, sex and level of education for all countries to 2100, Global Environ. Chang., 42, 181–192, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2014.06.004, 2017.
Riahi, K., Bertram, C., Huppmann, D., Rogelj, J., Bosetti, V., Cabardos, A.-M., Deppermann, A., Drouet, L., Frank, S., Fricko, O., Fujimori, S., Harmsen, M., Hasegawa, T., Krey, V., Luderer, G., Paroussos, L., Schaeffer, R., Weitzel, M., van der Zwaan, B., Vrontisi, Z., Dalla Longa, F., Després, J., Fosse, F., Fragkiadakis, K., Gusti, M., Humpenöder, F., Keramidas, K., Kishimoto, P., Kriegler, E., Meinshausen, M., Nogueira, L. P., Oshiro, K., Popp, A., Rochedo, P., Unlu, G., van Ruijven, B., Takakura, J., Tavoni, M., van Vuuren, D., and Zakeri, B.: Long-term economic benefits of stabilizing warming without overshoot – the ENGAGE model intercomparison, Nature Portfolio [preprint], https://doi.org/10.21203/rs.3.rs-127847/v1, 2021.
Kinoshita, Y., Tanoue, M., Watanabe, S., and Hirabayashi, Y.: Quantifying the effect of autonomous adaptation to global river flood projections: application to future flood risk assessments, Environ. Res. Lett., 13, 014006, 2018.
Matsumoto, K.: Climate change impacts on socioeconomic activities through labor productivity changes considering interactions between socioeconomic and climate systems, J. Clean. Prod., 216, 528–541, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.12.127, 2019.
Mitchell, D., AchutaRao, K., Allen, M., Bethke, I., Beyerle, U., Ciavarella, A., Forster, P. M., Fuglestvedt, J., Gillett, N., Haustein, K., Ingram, W., Iversen, T., Kharin, V., Klingaman, N., Massey, N., Fischer, E., Schleussner, C.-F., Scinocca, J., Seland, Ø., Shiogama, H., Shuckburgh, E., Sparrow, S., Stone, D., Uhe, P., Wallom, D., Wehner, M., and Zaaboul, R.: Half a degree additional warming, prognosis and projected impacts (HAPPI): background and experimental design, Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 571–583, https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-10-571-2017, 2017.
Mizuta, R., Murata, A., Ishii, M., Shiogama, H., Hibino, K., Mori, N., Arakawa, O., Imada, Y., Yoshida, K., Aoyagi, T., Kawase, H., Mori, M., Okada, Y., Shimura, T., Nagatomo, T., Ikeda, M., Endo, H., Nosaka, M., Arai, M., Takahashi, C., Tanaka, K., Takemi, T., Tachikawa, Y., Temur, K., Kamae, Y., Watanabe, M., Sasaki, H., Kitoh, A., Takayabu, I., Nakakita, E., and Kimoto, M.: Over 5,000 Years of Ensemble Future Climate Simulations by 60 km Global and 20 km Regional Atmospheric Models, B. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 98, 1383–1398, https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-16-0099.1, 2017.
Nordhaus, W. D.: Revisiting the social cost of carbon, P. Natl. Acad. Sci., 114, 1518–1523, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1609244114, 2017.
OECD: Mortality Risk Valuation in Environment, Health and Transport Policies, OECD Publishing, https://doi.org/10.1787/9789264130807-en, 2012.
Osborn, T. J., Wallace, C. J., Harris, I. C., and Melvin, T. M.: Pattern scaling using ClimGen: monthly-resolution future climate scenarios including changes in the variability of precipitation, Climatic Change, 134, 353–369, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-015-1509-9, 2016.
Oyebamiji, O. K., Edwards, N. R., Holden, P. B., Garthwaite, P. H., Schaphoff, S., and Gerten, D.: Emulating global climate change impacts on crop yields, Stat. Model., 15, 499–525, https://doi.org/10.1177/1471082X14568248, 2015.
Park, C., Fujimori, S., Hasegawa, T., Takakura, J., Takahashi, K., and Hijioka, Y.: Avoided economic impacts of energy demand changes by 1.5 and 2 ∘C climate stabilization, Environ. Res. Lett., 13, 045010, https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/aab724, 2018.
R Core Team: R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing, R Foundation for Statistical Computing, 2017.
Schnorbus, M. A. and Cannon, A. J.: Statistical emulation of streamflow projections from a distributed hydrological model: Application to CMIP3 and CMIP5 climate projections for British Columbia, Canada, Water Resour. Res., 50, 8907–8926, https://doi.org/10.1002/2014WR015279, 2014.
Stern, N.: The Economics of Climate Change: The Stern Review, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 2006.
Takakura, J.: Code and data for the paper “Reproducing complex simulations of economic impacts of climate change with lower-cost emulators” (Version 2.0), Zenodo, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4692496, 2021.
Takakura, J., Fujimori, S., Takahashi, K., Hijioka, Y., Hasegawa, T., Honda, Y., and Masui, T.: Cost of preventing workplace heat-related illness through worker breaks and the benefit of climate-change mitigation, Environ. Res. Lett., 12, 064010, https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/aa72cc, 2017.
Takakura, J., Fujimori, S., Hanasaki, N., Hasegawa, T., Hirabayashi, Y., Honda, Y., Iizumi, T., Kumano, N., Park, C., Shen, Z., Takahashi, K., Tamura, M., Tanoue, M., Tsuchida, K., Yokoki, H., Zhou, Q., Oki, T., and Hijioka, Y.: Dependence of economic impacts of climate change on anthropogenically directed pathways, Nat. Clim. Change, 9, 737–741, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41558-019-0578-6, 2019.
Tamura, M., Kumano, N., Yotsukuri, M., and Yokoki, H.: Global assessment of the effectiveness of adaptation in coastal areas based on RCP/SSP scenarios, Climatic Change, 152, 363–377, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-018-2356-2, 2019.
Taylor, K. E., Stouffer, R. J., and Meehl, G. A.: An Overview of CMIP5 and the Experiment Design, B. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 93, 485–498, https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-11-00094.1, 2011.
Tol, R. S. J.: Estimates of the Damage Costs of Climate Change. Part 1: Benchmark Estimates, Environ. Resour. Econ., 21, 47–73, https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1014500930521, 2002.
van Vuuren, D. P., Edmonds, J., Kainuma, M., Riahi, K., Thomson, A., Hibbard, K., Hurtt, G. C., Kram, T., Krey, V., Lamarque, J.-F., Masui, T., Meinshausen, M., Nakicenovic, N., Smith, S. J., and Rose, S. K.: The representative concentration pathways: an overview, Climatic Change, 109, 5, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-011-0148-z, 2011.
van Vuuren, D. P., Kriegler, E., O’Neill, B. C., Ebi, K. L., Riahi, K., Carter, T. R., Edmonds, J., Hallegatte, S., Kram, T., Mathur, R., and Winkler, H.: A new scenario framework for Climate Change Research: scenario matrix architecture, Climatic Change, 122, 373–386, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-013-0906-1, 2013.
Waldhoff, S., Anthoff, D., Rose, S., and Tol, R. S. J.: The Marginal Damage Costs of Different Greenhouse Gases: An Application of FUND, Economics: The Open-Access, Open-Assessment E-Journal, 8, 1–33, https://doi.org/10.5018/economics-ejournal.ja.2014-31, 2014.
Weyant, J.: Some Contributions of Integrated Assessment Models of Global Climate Change, Rev. Env. Econ. Policy, 11, 115–137, https://doi.org/10.1093/reep/rew018, 2017.
Yokohata, T., Kinoshita, T., Sakurai, G., Pokhrel, Y., Ito, A., Okada, M., Satoh, Y., Kato, E., Nitta, T., Fujimori, S., Felfelani, F., Masaki, Y., Iizumi, T., Nishimori, M., Hanasaki, N., Takahashi, K., Yamagata, Y., and Emori, S.: MIROC-INTEG-LAND version 1: a global biogeochemical land surface model with human water management, crop growth, and land-use change, Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 4713–4747, https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-13-4713-2020, 2020.
Zhou, Q., Hanasaki, N., and Fujimori, S.: Economic Consequences of Cooling Water Insufficiency in the Thermal Power Sector under Climate Change Scenarios, Energies, 11, 2686, https://doi.org/10.3390/en11102686, 2018a.
Zhou, Q., Hanasaki, N., Fujimori, S., Masaki, Y., and Hijioka, Y.: Economic consequences of global climate change and mitigation on future hydropower generation, Climatic Change, 147, 77–90, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-017-2131-9, 2018b.
Zhou, Q., Hanasaki, N., Fujimori, S., Yoshikawa, S., Kanae, S., and Okadera, T.: Cooling Water Sufficiency in a Warming World: Projection Using an Integrated Assessment Model and a Global Hydrological Model, Water, 10, 872, https://doi.org/10.3390/w10070872, 2018c.
To simplify calculating economic impacts of climate change, statistical methods called emulators are developed and evaluated. There are trade-offs between model complexity and emulation performance. Aggregated economic impacts can be approximated by relatively simple emulators, but complex emulators are necessary to accommodate finer-scale economic impacts.
To simplify calculating economic impacts of climate change, statistical methods called emulators...