Articles | Volume 13, issue 11
https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-13-5311-2020
https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-13-5311-2020
Model evaluation paper
 | 
05 Nov 2020
Model evaluation paper |  | 05 Nov 2020

Description and evaluation of the process-based forest model 4C v2.2 at four European forest sites

Petra Lasch-Born, Felicitas Suckow, Christopher P. O. Reyer, Martin Gutsch, Chris Kollas, Franz-Werner Badeck, Harald K. M. Bugmann, Rüdiger Grote, Cornelia Fürstenau, Marcus Lindner, and Jörg Schaber

Related authors

The PROFOUND Database for evaluating vegetation models and simulating climate impacts on European forests
Christopher P. O. Reyer, Ramiro Silveyra Gonzalez, Klara Dolos, Florian Hartig, Ylva Hauf, Matthias Noack, Petra Lasch-Born, Thomas Rötzer, Hans Pretzsch, Henning Meesenburg, Stefan Fleck, Markus Wagner, Andreas Bolte, Tanja G. M. Sanders, Pasi Kolari, Annikki Mäkelä, Timo Vesala, Ivan Mammarella, Jukka Pumpanen, Alessio Collalti, Carlo Trotta, Giorgio Matteucci, Ettore D'Andrea, Lenka Foltýnová, Jan Krejza, Andreas Ibrom, Kim Pilegaard, Denis Loustau, Jean-Marc Bonnefond, Paul Berbigier, Delphine Picart, Sébastien Lafont, Michael Dietze, David Cameron, Massimo Vieno, Hanqin Tian, Alicia Palacios-Orueta, Victor Cicuendez, Laura Recuero, Klaus Wiese, Matthias Büchner, Stefan Lange, Jan Volkholz, Hyungjun Kim, Joanna A. Horemans, Friedrich Bohn, Jörg Steinkamp, Alexander Chikalanov, Graham P. Weedon, Justin Sheffield, Flurin Babst, Iliusi Vega del Valle, Felicitas Suckow, Simon Martel, Mats Mahnken, Martin Gutsch, and Katja Frieler
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1295–1320, https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-12-1295-2020,https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-12-1295-2020, 2020
Short summary

Related subject area

Biogeosciences
The XSO framework (v0.1) and Phydra library (v0.1) for a flexible, reproducible, and integrated plankton community modeling environment in Python
Benjamin Post, Esteban Acevedo-Trejos, Andrew D. Barton, and Agostino Merico
Geosci. Model Dev., 17, 1175–1195, https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-17-1175-2024,https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-17-1175-2024, 2024
Short summary
AgriCarbon-EO v1.0.1: large-scale and high-resolution simulation of carbon fluxes by assimilation of Sentinel-2 and Landsat-8 reflectances using a Bayesian approach
Taeken Wijmer, Ahmad Al Bitar, Ludovic Arnaud, Remy Fieuzal, and Eric Ceschia
Geosci. Model Dev., 17, 997–1021, https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-17-997-2024,https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-17-997-2024, 2024
Short summary
SAMM version 1.0: a numerical model for microbial- mediated soil aggregate formation
Moritz Laub, Sergey Blagodatsky, Marijn Van de Broek, Samuel Schlichenmaier, Benjapon Kunlanit, Johan Six, Patma Vityakon, and Georg Cadisch
Geosci. Model Dev., 17, 931–956, https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-17-931-2024,https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-17-931-2024, 2024
Short summary
A model of the within-population variability of budburst in forest trees
Jianhong Lin, Daniel Berveiller, Christophe François, Heikki Hänninen, Alexandre Morfin, Gaëlle Vincent, Rui Zhang, Cyrille Rathgeber, and Nicolas Delpierre
Geosci. Model Dev., 17, 865–879, https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-17-865-2024,https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-17-865-2024, 2024
Short summary
Computationally efficient parameter estimation for high-dimensional ocean biogeochemical models
Skyler Kern, Mary E. McGuinn, Katherine M. Smith, Nadia Pinardi, Kyle E. Niemeyer, Nicole S. Lovenduski, and Peter E. Hamlington
Geosci. Model Dev., 17, 621–649, https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-17-621-2024,https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-17-621-2024, 2024
Short summary

Cited articles

Anderegg, W. R. L., Martinez-Vilalta, J., Cailleret, M., Camarero, J. J., Ewers, B. E., Galbraith, D., Gessler, A., Grote, R., Huang, C.-y., Levick, S. R., Powell, T. L., Rowland, L., Sánchez-Salguero, R., and Trotsiuk, V.: When a Tree Dies in the Forest: Scaling Climate-Driven Tree Mortality to Ecosystem Water and Carbon Fluxes, Ecosystems, 19, 1133–1147, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10021-016-9982-1, 2016. 
Badeck, F. W., Beese, F., Berthold, D., Einert, P., Jochheim, H., Kallweit, R., Konopatzky, A., Lasch, P., Meesenburg, H., Meiwes, K.-J., Puhlmann, M., Raspe, S., Schulte-Bisping, H., Schulz, C., and Suckow, F.: Parametrisierung, Kalibrierung und Validierung von Modellen des Kohlenstoffumsatzes in Waldökosystemen und deren Böden, Bayerische Landesanstalt für Wald und Forstwirtschaft (LWF), Institut für Bodenkunde und Waldernährung der Universität Göttingen (IBW), Landesforstanstalt Eberswalde (LFE), Leibniz-Zentrum für Agrarlandschaftsforschung (ZALF), Nordwestdeutsche Forstliche Versuchsanstalt (NW-FVA), Potsdam-Institut für Klimafolgenforschung (PIK), 110, 2007. 
Baldocchi, D., Chu, H., and Reichstein, M.: Inter-annual variability of net and gross ecosystem carbon fluxes: A review, Agr. Forest Meteorol., 249, 520–533, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2017.05.015, 2018. 
Berninger, F., Coll, L., Vanninen, P., Mäkelä, A., Palmroth, S., and Nikinmaa, E.: Effects of tree size and position on pipe model ratios in Scots pine, Can. J. Forest Res., 35, 1294–1304, https://doi.org/10.1139/X05-055, 2005. 
Borys, A., Lasch, P., Suckow, F., and Reyer, C.: Kohlenstoffspeicherung in Buchenbeständen in Abhängigkeit von Waldpflege und Klimawandel, Allg. Forst Jagdztg., 184, 26–35, 2013. 
Download
Short summary
The process-based model 4C has been developed to study climate impacts on forests and is now freely available as an open-source tool. This paper provides a comprehensive description of the 4C version (v2.2) for scientific users of the model and presents an evaluation of 4C. The evaluation focused on forest growth, carbon water, and heat fluxes. We conclude that 4C is widely applicable, reliable, and ready to be released to the scientific community to use and further develop the model.