Articles | Volume 13, issue 11
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 5311–5343, 2020
https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-13-5311-2020
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 5311–5343, 2020
https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-13-5311-2020

Model evaluation paper 05 Nov 2020

Model evaluation paper | 05 Nov 2020

Description and evaluation of the process-based forest model 4C v2.2 at four European forest sites

Petra Lasch-Born et al.

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Cited articles

Badeck, F. W., Beese, F., Berthold, D., Einert, P., Jochheim, H., Kallweit, R., Konopatzky, A., Lasch, P., Meesenburg, H., Meiwes, K.-J., Puhlmann, M., Raspe, S., Schulte-Bisping, H., Schulz, C., and Suckow, F.: Parametrisierung, Kalibrierung und Validierung von Modellen des Kohlenstoffumsatzes in Waldökosystemen und deren Böden, Bayerische Landesanstalt für Wald und Forstwirtschaft (LWF), Institut für Bodenkunde und Waldernährung der Universität Göttingen (IBW), Landesforstanstalt Eberswalde (LFE), Leibniz-Zentrum für Agrarlandschaftsforschung (ZALF), Nordwestdeutsche Forstliche Versuchsanstalt (NW-FVA), Potsdam-Institut für Klimafolgenforschung (PIK), 110, 2007. 
Baldocchi, D., Chu, H., and Reichstein, M.: Inter-annual variability of net and gross ecosystem carbon fluxes: A review, Agr. Forest Meteorol., 249, 520–533, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2017.05.015, 2018. 
Berninger, F., Coll, L., Vanninen, P., Mäkelä, A., Palmroth, S., and Nikinmaa, E.: Effects of tree size and position on pipe model ratios in Scots pine, Can. J. Forest Res., 35, 1294–1304, https://doi.org/10.1139/X05-055, 2005. 
Borys, A., Lasch, P., Suckow, F., and Reyer, C.: Kohlenstoffspeicherung in Buchenbeständen in Abhängigkeit von Waldpflege und Klimawandel, Allg. Forst Jagdztg., 184, 26–35, 2013. 
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The process-based model 4C has been developed to study climate impacts on forests and is now freely available as an open-source tool. This paper provides a comprehensive description of the 4C version (v2.2) for scientific users of the model and presents an evaluation of 4C. The evaluation focused on forest growth, carbon water, and heat fluxes. We conclude that 4C is widely applicable, reliable, and ready to be released to the scientific community to use and further develop the model.