Articles | Volume 13, issue 4
Model evaluation paper 30 Apr 2020
Model evaluation paper | 30 Apr 2020
WRF-Chem v3.9 simulations of the East Asian dust storm in May 2017: modeling sensitivities to dust emission and dry deposition schemes
Yi Zeng et al.
No articles found.
Yating Gao, Dihui Chen, Yanjie Shen, Yang Gao, Huiwang Gao, and Xiaohong Yao
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
This study focuses on spatiotemporal heterogeneity of observed gaseous amines, NH3 and their particulate counterparts in PM2.5 over different sea zones. The disproportional release of alkaline gases and corresponding particulate counterparts from sea-water in the sea zones in term of different extent enrichment of TMAH+ and DMAH+ in the sea surface microlayer (SML). A novel hypothesis is delivered.
Yaman Liu, Xinyi Dong, Minghuai Wang, Louisa K. Emmons, Yawen Liu, Yuan Liang, Xiao Li, and Manish Shrivastava
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8003–8021,Short summary
Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is considered one of the most important uncertainties in climate modeling. We evaluate SOA performance in the Community Earth System Model version 2.1 (CESM2.1) configured with the Community Atmosphere Model version 6 with chemistry (CAM6-Chem) through a long-term simulation (1988–2019) with observations in the United States, which indicates monoterpene-formed SOA contributes most to the overestimation of SOA at the surface and underestimation in the upper air.
Dihui Chen, Yanjie Shen, Juntao Wang, Yang Gao, Huiwang Gao, and Xiaohong Yao
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
The study provides solid evidences to demonstrate that atmospheric trimethylamine (TMAgas) and particulate trimethylaminium in PM2.5 (TMAH+) observed in marine atmospheres were uniquely derived from sea-water emissions. As sea-derived TMAgas correlated significantly with DMAgas and NH3gas, sea-derived DMAgas and NH3gas can be estimated and quantify the contribution to the observed species in the marine atmosphere. Similarly, the contributions of primary DMAH+ have also been estimated.
Ying Zhou, Simo Hakala, Chao Yan, Yang Gao, Xiaohong Yao, Biwu Chu, Tommy Chan, Juha Kangasluoma, Shahzad Gani, Jenni Kontkanen, Pauli Paasonen, Yongchun Liu, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, and Lubna Dada
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
We characterized the connection between new particle formation (NPF) events in terms of frequency, intensity and growth at a near-highway location in central Beijing and at a background mountain site 200 km away from it. Due to the substantial contribution of NPF to the global aerosol budget, identifying the conditions that promote the occurrence of regional events could help understand their participation on a large scale and would improve their implementation in global models.
Mingshuai Zhang, Chun Zhao, Yuhan Yang, Qiuyan Du, Yonglin Shen, Shengfu Lin, and Dasa Gu
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for GMDShort summary
Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) can influence atmosphere chemistry and secondary pollutant formation. This study examines the performance of different versions of Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN) in modeling BVOCs and ozone and their sensitivities to vegetation distributions over East China. The results suggest more accurate vegetation distribution and measurements of BVOCs emission flux are needed to reduce the uncertainties.
Yang Yang, Yu Zhao, Lei Zhang, Jie Zhang, Xin Huang, Xuefen Zhao, Yan Zhang, Mengxiao Xi, and Yi Lu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1191–1209,Short summary
We conducted new NOx emission estimation based on the satellite-derived NO2 column constraint and found reduced emissions compared to previous estimates for a developed region in east China. The subsequent improvement in air quality modeling was demonstrated based on available ground observations. With multiple emission reduction cases for various pollutants, we explored the effective control approaches for ozone and inorganic aerosol pollution.
Liya Ma, Yujiao Zhu, Mei Zheng, Yele Sun, Lei Huang, Xiaohuan Liu, Yang Gao, Yanjie Shen, Huiwang Gao, and Xiaohong Yao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 183–200,Short summary
In this study, we investigate three patterns of new particles growing to CCN (cloud condensation nuclei) size, i.e., one-stage growth and two-stage growth-A and growth-B patterns. Combining the observations of gaseous pollutants and measured or modeled particulate chemical species, the three growth patterns were discussed regarding the spatial heterogeneity, formation of secondary aerosols, and evaporation of semivolatile particulates as was the survival probability of new particles to CCN size.
Zhuang Wang, Cheng Liu, Zhouqing Xie, Qihou Hu, Meinrat O. Andreae, Yunsheng Dong, Chun Zhao, Ting Liu, Yizhi Zhu, Haoran Liu, Chengzhi Xing, Wei Tan, Xiangguang Ji, Jinan Lin, and Jianguo Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14917–14932,Short summary
Significant stratification of aerosols was observed in North China. Polluted dust dominated above the PBL, and anthropogenic aerosols prevailed within the PBL, which is mainly driven by meteorological conditions. The key role of the elevated dust is to alter atmospheric thermodynamics and stability, causing the suppression of turbulence exchange and a decrease in PBL height, especially during the dissipation stage, thereby inhibiting dissipation of persistent heavy surface haze pollution.
Stefan Rahimi, Xiaohong Liu, Chun Zhao, Zheng Lu, and Zachary J. Lebo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10911–10935,Short summary
Dark particles emitted to the atmosphere can absorb sunlight and heat the air. As these particles settle, they may darken the surface, especially over snow-covered regions like the Rocky Mountains. This darkening of the surface may lead to changes in snowpack, affecting the local meteorology and hydrology. We seek to evaluate whether these light-absorbing particles more prominently affect this region through their atmospheric presence or their on-snow presence.
Yang Gao, Deqiang Zhang, Juntao Wang, Huiwang Gao, and Xiaohong Yao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9665–9677,Short summary
Through the cruise campaign conducted over marginal seas in China, we found that the concentrations of condensation nuclei (Ncn) and cloud condensation nuclei (Nccn) were 1 order of magnitude larger than those in remote clear marine atmospheres, indicating overwhelming contributions from marine traffic emissions and long-range continental transport. Moreover, we derived regression equations used to estimate Ncn and Nccn from SO2 when the direct observations of Ncn and Nccn are not available.
Rong Tang, Xin Huang, Derong Zhou, and Aijun Ding
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 6177–6191,Short summary
Biomass-burning-induced large areas of dark char (i.e.
surface darkening) could influence the radiative energy balance. During the harvest season in eastern China, satellite retrieval shows that surface albedo was significantly decreased. Observational evidence of meteorological perturbations from the surface darkening is identified, which is further examined by model simulation. This work highlights the importance of burning-induced albedo change in weather forecast and regional climate.
Zhi-Zhen Ni, Kun Luo, Yang Gao, Xiang Gao, Fei Jiang, Cheng Huang, Jian-Ren Fan, Joshua S. Fu, and Chang-Hong Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5963–5976,Short summary
The Weather Research Forecast with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model was used to simulate spatial and temporal O3 evolution in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region. Various atmospheric processes were analyzed to determine the influential factors of ozone formation through the integrated process rate method. This paper provides insight into urban O3 formation and dispersion during tropical cyclone events and supports the Model Intercomparison Study Asia Phase III (MICS-Asia Phase III).
Meixin Zhang, Chun Zhao, Zhiyuan Cong, Qiuyan Du, Mingyue Xu, Yu Chen, Ming Chen, Rui Li, Yunfei Fu, Lei Zhong, Shichang Kang, Delong Zhao, and Yan Yang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5923–5943,Short summary
Analysis of multiple numerical experiments over the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau (TP) shows that the complex topography results in 50 % stronger overall cross-Himalayan transport during the pre-monsoon season primarily due to the strengthened efficiency of near-surface meridional transport towards the TP, enhanced wind speed in some valleys and deeper valley channels associated with larger transported BC mass volume, which leads to 30–50 % stronger BC radiative heating over the TP.
Xiadong An, Lifang Sheng, Qian Liu, Chun Li, Yang Gao, and Jianping Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4667–4680,Short summary
Severe haze occurred in the North China Plain (NCP) in November to December 2015. We found that the two Rossby waveguides within the westerly jet originating from the Mediterranean were responsible for the haze formation in the NCP. The weak East Asia winter monsoon and anomalous circulation with ascending motion over southern China and descending motion over the NCP related to the two Rossby waveguides, which modulated haze accumulation and favored the maintenance of severe haze.
Yu Zhao, Mengchen Yuan, Xin Huang, Feng Chen, and Jie Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4275–4294,Short summary
We estimated the ammonia emissions based on the constant emission factors and those characterizing the agricultural processes for the Yangtze River Delta, China. The discrepancies between the two estimates and their causes were analyzed. Based on ground and satellite observations, the two estimates were evaluated with air quality modeling. This work indicates ways to improve the emission estimation and helps better understand the necessity of multi-pollutant control strategy.
Qiuyan Du, Chun Zhao, Mingshuai Zhang, Xue Dong, Yu Chen, Zhen Liu, Zhiyuan Hu, Qiang Zhang, Yubin Li, Renmin Yuan, and Shiguang Miao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2839–2863,Short summary
Simulated diurnal PM2.5 with WRF-Chem is primarily controlled by planetary boundary layer (PBL) mixing and emission variations. Modeling bias is likely primarily due to inefficient PBL mixing of primary PM2.5 during the night. The increase in PBL mixing strength during the night can significantly reduce biases. This study underscores that more effort is needed to improve the boundary mixing processes of pollutants in models with observations of PBL structure and mixing fluxes besides PBL height.
Zhiyuan Hu, Jianping Huang, Chun Zhao, Qinjian Jin, Yuanyuan Ma, and Ben Yang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1507–1529,Short summary
This study investigates intercontinental transport of dust plums and distribution characteristics of dust at different altitudes over the Tibetan Plateau (TP). The results show that dust particles are emitted into atmosphere and then transport to the TP. The East Asian dust trasnports southward and is lifted up to the TP in northern slop, while the North Afican dust and Middle East dust transport eastward and concentrate in both northern and southern slops, then is lifted up to the TP.
Adeyemi A. Adebiyi, Jasper F. Kok, Yang Wang, Akinori Ito, David A. Ridley, Pierre Nabat, and Chun Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 829–863,Short summary
Although atmospheric dust particles produce significant impacts on the Earth system, most climate models still have difficulty representing the basic processes that affect these particles. In this study, we present new constraints on dust properties that consistently outperform the conventional climate models, when compared to independent measurements. As a result, our constraints can be used to improve climate models or serve as an alternative in constraining dust impacts on the Earth system.
Edward Gryspeerdt, Johannes Mülmenstädt, Andrew Gettelman, Florent F. Malavelle, Hugh Morrison, David Neubauer, Daniel G. Partridge, Philip Stier, Toshihiko Takemura, Hailong Wang, Minghuai Wang, and Kai Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 613–623,Short summary
Aerosol radiative forcing is a key uncertainty in our understanding of the human forcing of the climate, with much of this uncertainty coming from aerosol impacts on clouds. Observation-based estimates of the radiative forcing are typically smaller than those from global models, but it is not clear if they are more reliable. This work shows how the forcing components in global climate models can be identified, highlighting similarities between the two methods and areas for future investigation.
Zhen Liu, Yi Ming, Chun Zhao, Ngar Cheung Lau, Jianping Guo, Massimo Bollasina, and Steve Hung Lam Yim
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 223–241,Short summary
OH and HO2 radicals are important trace constituents of the atmosphere that are closely coupled via several types of reaction. This paper describes a new laboratory method to simultaneously determine OH kinetics and HO2 yields from chemical processes. The instrument also provides some time resolution on HO2 detection allowing one to separate HO2 produced from the target reaction from HO2 arising from secondary chemistry. Examples of applications are presented.
Yicheng Shen, Aki Virkkula, Aijun Ding, Krista Luoma, Helmi Keskinen, Pasi P. Aalto, Xuguang Chi, Ximeng Qi, Wei Nie, Xin Huang, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, and Veli-Matti Kerminen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 15483–15502,Short summary
Long-term cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) number concentration (NCCN) data are scarce; there are a lot more data on aerosol optical properties (AOPs). It is therefore valuable to derive parameterizations for estimating NCCN from AOP measurements. With the new parameterization NCCN can be estimated from backscatter fraction, scattering Ångström exponent, and total light-scattering coefficient. The NCCN–AOP relationships depend on the geometric mean diameter and the width of the size distribution.
Zhiyuan Hu, Jianping Huang, Chun Zhao, Yuanyuan Ma, Qinjian Jin, Yun Qian, L. Ruby Leung, Jianrong Bi, and Jianmin Ma
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12709–12730,Short summary
This study investigates aerosol chemical compositions and relative contributions to total aerosols in the western US. The results show that trans-Pacific aerosols have a maximum concentration in the boreal spring, with the greatest contribution from dust. Over western North America, the trans-Pacific aerosols dominate the column-integrated aerosol mass and number concentration. However, near the surface, aerosols mainly originated from local emissions.
Mingchen Ma, Yang Gao, Yuhang Wang, Shaoqing Zhang, L. Ruby Leung, Cheng Liu, Shuxiao Wang, Bin Zhao, Xing Chang, Hang Su, Tianqi Zhang, Lifang Sheng, Xiaohong Yao, and Huiwang Gao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12195–12207,Short summary
Ozone pollution has become severe in China, and extremely high ozone episodes occurred in summer 2017 over the North China Plain. While meteorology impacts are clear, we find that enhanced biogenic emissions, previously ignored by the community, driven by high vapor pressure deficit, land cover change and urban landscape contribute substantially to ozone formation. This study has significant implications for ozone pollution control with more frequent heat waves and urbanization growth in future.
Aijun Ding, Xin Huang, Wei Nie, Xuguang Chi, Zheng Xu, Longfei Zheng, Zhengning Xu, Yuning Xie, Ximeng Qi, Yicheng Shen, Peng Sun, Jiaping Wang, Lei Wang, Jianning Sun, Xiu-Qun Yang, Wei Qin, Xiangzhi Zhang, Wei Cheng, Weijing Liu, Liangbao Pan, and Congbin Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 11791–11801,Short summary
Based on continuous measurement at the SORPES statin in Nanjing, eastern China, we report the trend of PM2.5 and relevant chemical species there during 2011–2018. We found significant reduction of PM2.5 in both winter and early summer due to emission reduction of fossil-fuel combustion and open biomass burning, respectively. Reduction of fossil-fuel combustions contributed to 76 % of the wintertime PM2.5 decrease, with the remaining 24 % being caused by the change of meteorology.
Juntao Wang, Yanjie Shen, Kai Li, Yang Gao, Huiwang Gao, and Xiaohong Yao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 8845–8861,Short summary
In this paper, we studied the spatiotemporal variability of Ncn and particle number size distributions, as well as Nccn and CCN activities over the NWPO in the spring of 2014. We found that a pool of nucleation-mode atmospheric particles is aloft over the NWPO. Through comprehensive comparison with observations in the literature, we illustrate the characteristics of Ncn and Nccn over the NWPO in 2014 and reveal their changes against the results measured two decades ago.
Chun Zhao, Mingyue Xu, Yu Wang, Meixin Zhang, Jianping Guo, Zhiyuan Hu, L. Ruby Leung, Michael Duda, and William Skamarock
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 2707–2726,Short summary
Simulations at global uniform and variable resolutions share similar characteristics of precipitation and wind in the refined region. The experiments reveal the significant impacts of resolution on simulating the distribution and intensity of precipitation and updrafts. This study provides evidence supporting the use of convection-permitting global variable-resolution simulations to study extreme precipitation.
Qiuji Ding, Jianning Sun, Xin Huang, Aijun Ding, Jun Zou, Xiuqun Yang, and Congbin Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 7759–7774,Short summary
Aerosol plays an important role in advection–radiation fog formation in eastern China though stabilizing atmospheric stratification and enhancing onshore flow. For the fog–haze episode in December 2013, the effect of aerosol–radiation interaction overwhelmed that of aerosol–cloud interaction. Light-absorbing aerosol like black carbon was more crucial than scattering aerosols. This paper highlights the importance of interaction among aerosol, regional circulation and boundary layer.
Zhibo Zhang, Hua Song, Po-Lun Ma, Vincent E. Larson, Minghuai Wang, Xiquan Dong, and Jianwu Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 1077–1096,
Junxi Zhang, Yang Gao, L. Ruby Leung, Kun Luo, Huan Liu, Jean-Francois Lamarque, Jianren Fan, Xiaohong Yao, Huiwang Gao, and Tatsuya Nagashima
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 887–900,Short summary
ACCMIP simulations were used to study NOy deposition over East Asia in the future. Both dry and wet NOy deposition show significant decreases in the 2100s under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 due to large anthropogenic emission reduction. The changes in climate only significantly affect the wet deposition primarily linked to changes in precipitation. Over the coastal seas of China, weaker transport of NOy from land due to emission reduction infers a larger impact from shipping and lightning emissions.
Ge Zhang, Yang Gao, Wenju Cai, L. Ruby Leung, Shuxiao Wang, Bin Zhao, Minghuai Wang, Huayao Shan, Xiaohong Yao, and Huiwang Gao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 565–576,Short summary
Based on observed data, this study reveals a distinct seesaw feature of abnormally high and low PM2.5 concentrations in December 2015 and January 2016 over North China. The mechanism of the seesaw pattern was found to be linked to a super El Niño and the Arctic Oscillation (AO). During the mature phase of El Niño in December 2015, the weakened East Asian winter monsoon favors strong haze formation; however, the circulation pattern was reversed in the next month due to the phase change of the AO.
Yujiao Zhu, Kai Li, Yanjie Shen, Yang Gao, Xiaohuan Liu, Yang Yu, Huiwang Gao, and Xiaohong Yao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 89–113,Short summary
In this paper, we investigate new particle formation (NPF) events during seven cruises. NPF events were observed on 25 days and were most likely associated with the long-range transport of anthropogenic air pollutants. The relationship between the net generated amount of new particles and their apparent formation rate is established and explained in terms of the roles of different vapor precursors. The survival probability of new particles to CCN size is also discussed.
Mingxu Liu, Xin Huang, Yu Song, Tingting Xu, Shuxiao Wang, Zhijun Wu, Min Hu, Lin Zhang, Qiang Zhang, Yuepeng Pan, Xuejun Liu, and Tong Zhu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17933–17943,
Peng Sun, Wei Nie, Xuguang Chi, Yuning Xie, Xin Huang, Zheng Xu, Ximeng Qi, Zhengning Xu, Lei Wang, Tianyi Wang, Qi Zhang, and Aijun Ding
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17177–17190,Short summary
A total of 2 years of online measurement of particulate nitrate was conducted at the SORPES station in the western Yangtze River Delta, eastern China. Nitrate was found to be the major driver of haze pollution and behaved differently in different seasons. In summer, thermodynamic equilibrium and photochemical processes controlled nitrate formation. In winter, N2O5 hydrolysis was demonstrated to be a major contributor to the nitrate episodes.
Derong Zhou, Ke Ding, Xin Huang, Lixia Liu, Qiang Liu, Zhengning Xu, Fei Jiang, Congbin Fu, and Aijun Ding
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 16345–16361,Short summary
We investigate the vertical distribution, transport characteristics, source contribution and meteorological feedback of dust, biomass burning and fossil fuel combustion aerosols for a unique pollution episode that occurred in late March 2015 in eastern Asia, based on various measurement data and modeling methods. We found that cold front played an important role in the long-range transport of different pollutants and caused a three-layer vertical structure of pollutants over eastern China.
Ximeng Qi, Aijun Ding, Pontus Roldin, Zhengning Xu, Putian Zhou, Nina Sarnela, Wei Nie, Xin Huang, Anton Rusanen, Mikael Ehn, Matti P. Rissanen, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, and Michael Boy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11779–11791,Short summary
In this study we simulate the HOM concentrations and discuss their roles in NPF at a remote boreal forest site in Finland and a suburban site in eastern China. We found that sulfuric acid and HOM organonitrate concentrations in the gas phase are significantly higher but other HOM monomers and dimers from monoterpene oxidation are lower in eastern China. This study highlights the need for molecular-scale measurements in improving the understanding of NPF mechanisms in polluted areas.
Hua Song, Zhibo Zhang, Po-Lun Ma, Steven Ghan, and Minghuai Wang
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 3147–3158,
Junxi Zhang, Yang Gao, Kun Luo, L. Ruby Leung, Yang Zhang, Kai Wang, and Jianren Fan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 9861–9877,Short summary
We used a regional model to investigate the impact of atmosphere with high temperature and low wind speed on ozone concentration. When these compound events (heat waves and stagnant weather) occur simultaneously, a striking ozone enhancement is revealed. This type of compound event is projected to increase more dominantly compared to single events in the future over the US, Europe, and China, implying the importance of reducing emissions in order to alleviate the impact from the compound events.
Jiaping Wang, Wei Nie, Yafang Cheng, Yicheng Shen, Xuguang Chi, Jiandong Wang, Xin Huang, Yuning Xie, Peng Sun, Zheng Xu, Ximeng Qi, Hang Su, and Aijun Ding
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 9061–9074,Short summary
An optimized segregation method is applied to estimate light absorption of brown carbon (BrC) in Nanjing. This study highlights the considerable contribution of BrC to light absorption in the Yangtze River Delta region, China, and depicts its long-term profile in this region for the first time. Lagrangian modeling and the chemical signature observed at the site suggested that open biomass burning and residential emissions are the dominant sources influencing BrC in the two highest BrC seasons.
Pei Hou, Shiliang Wu, Jessica L. McCarty, and Yang Gao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 8173–8182,Short summary
Atmospheric aerosols can be affected not only by emissions, but also meteorology, in particular precipitation. Analyses of the historical meteorological data based on multiple datasets show significant changes in precipitation characteristics, including precipitation intensity and frequency, over various regions around the world. We find that the precipitation changes over the past 30 years can easily lead to perturbations in atmospheric aerosols by 10 % or higher at the regional scale.
Longtao Wu, Yu Gu, Jonathan H. Jiang, Hui Su, Nanpeng Yu, Chun Zhao, Yun Qian, Bin Zhao, Kuo-Nan Liou, and Yong-Sang Choi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 5529–5547,
Yicheng Shen, Aki Virkkula, Aijun Ding, Jiaping Wang, Xuguang Chi, Wei Nie, Ximeng Qi, Xin Huang, Qiang Liu, Longfei Zheng, Zheng Xu, Tuukka Petäjä, Pasi P. Aalto, Congbin Fu, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 5265–5292,Short summary
Aerosol optical properties (AOPs) were measured at SORPES, a regional background station in Nanjing, China from June 2013 to May 2015. The aerosol was highly scattering. The single-scattering albedo in Nanjing appears to be slightly higher than at several other sites. The data do not suggest any significant contribution to absorption by brown carbon. The sources of high values are mainly in eastern China. During pollution episodes, pollutant concentrations increased gradually but decreased fast.
Zhi-zhen Ni, Kun Luo, Yang Gao, Fei Jiang, Xiang Gao, Jian-ren Fan, and Chang-hong Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
A unique mechanism was found to modulate the high ozone episodes in Hangzhou during G20 summit: Driven by tropical cyclone convergence, prevailing north winds brought in emission sources; with invasion of tropical cycle, subsidence air and stagnant weather was induced, as well as the urban heat island effect, intensifying the ozone enhancement. Different atmospheric processes were further analyzed to elucidate the control factors of ozone formation through integrated process rate method.
Zilin Wang, Xin Huang, and Aijun Ding
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2821–2834,Short summary
Black carbon has great importance in aerosol–boundary layer interaction (the
dome effect). Key factors like vertical profile and aging of aerosol, and underlying surface, are explored with a meteorology–chemistry coupled model. We found the effect to be sensitive to altitude of aerosol and can be intensified by aging processes. The effect is also more substantial in rural areas. China’s air quality would benefit from black carbon reduction from elevated sources and domestic combustion.
Heming Bai, Cheng Gong, Minghuai Wang, Zhibo Zhang, and Tristan L'Ecuyer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 1763–1783,Short summary
Precipitation susceptibility to aerosol perturbation plays a key role in understanding aerosol–cloud interactions and for constraining aerosol indirect effects. Here, multisensor aerosol and cloud products from A-Train satellites are analyzed to estimate precipitation susceptibility. Compared to precipitation intensity susceptibility, precipitation frequency susceptibility demonstrates relatively robust features across different retrieval products.
Chengzhi Xing, Cheng Liu, Shanshan Wang, Ka Lok Chan, Yang Gao, Xin Huang, Wenjing Su, Chengxin Zhang, Yunsheng Dong, Guangqiang Fan, Tianshu Zhang, Zhenyi Chen, Qihou Hu, Hang Su, Zhouqing Xie, and Jianguo Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 14275–14289,Short summary
Vertical profiles of the aerosol extinction coefficient and NO2 and HCHO concentrations were retrieved from MAX-DOAS measurement, while vertical distribution of O3 was obtained using ozone lidar. The measured O3 vertical distribution indicates that the ozone production not only occurs at surface level but also at higher altitudes (about 1.1 km), which are not directly related to horizontal and vertical transportation but are mainly influenced by the abundance of VOCs in the lower troposphere.
Siyu Chen, Jianping Huang, Nanxuan Jiang, Zhou Zang, Xiaodan Guan, Xiaojun Ma, Zhuo Jia, Xiaorui Zhang, Yanting Zhang, Kangning Huang, Xiaocong Xu, Guolong Zhang, Jiming Li, Ran Yang, and Shujie Liao
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
Mingjin Tang, Xin Huang, Keding Lu, Maofa Ge, Yongjie Li, Peng Cheng, Tong Zhu, Aijun Ding, Yuanhang Zhang, Sasho Gligorovski, Wei Song, Xiang Ding, Xinhui Bi, and Xinming Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 11727–11777,Short summary
We provide a comprehensive and critical review of laboratory studies of heterogeneous uptake of OH, NO3, O3, and their directly related species by mineral dust particles. The atmospheric importance of heterogeneous uptake as sinks for these species is also assessed. In addition, we have outlined major open questions and challenges in this field and discussed research strategies to address them.
Yujiao Zhu, Caiqing Yan, Renyi Zhang, Zifa Wang, Mei Zheng, Huiwang Gao, Yang Gao, and Xiaohong Yao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 9469–9484,Short summary
This study reports the distinct effects of street canyons on new particle formation (NPF) under warm or cold ambient temperature conditions because of on-road vehicle emissions; i.e., stronger condensation sinks are responsible for the reduced NPF in the springtime, but efficient nucleation and partitioning of gaseous species contribute to the enhanced NPF in the wintertime. The oxidization of biogenic organics is suggested to play an important role in growing new particles.
Longtao Wu, Hui Su, Olga V. Kalashnikova, Jonathan H. Jiang, Chun Zhao, Michael J. Garay, James R. Campbell, and Nanpeng Yu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 7291–7309,Short summary
The WRF-Chem simulation successfully captures aerosol variations in the cold season in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV) but has poor performance in the warm season. High-resolution model simulation can better resolve nonhomogeneous distribution of anthropogenic emissions in urban areas, resulting in better simulation of aerosols in the cold season in the SJV. Poor performance of the WRF-Chem model in the warm season in the SJV is mainly due to misrepresentation of dust emission and vertical mixing.
Shi Zhong, Yun Qian, Chun Zhao, Ruby Leung, Hailong Wang, Ben Yang, Jiwen Fan, Huiping Yan, Xiu-Qun Yang, and Dongqing Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 5439–5457,Short summary
An online climate–chemistry coupled model (WRF-Chem) is integrated for 5 years at cloud-permitting scale to quantify the impacts of urbanization-induced changes in land cover and pollutants emission on regional climate in the Yangtze River Delta region in eastern China. Urbanization over this region increases the frequency of extreme precipitation and heat wave in summer. The results could help China government in making policies in mitigating the environmental impact of urbanization.
Huan Yao, Yu Song, Mingxu Liu, Scott Archer-Nicholls, Douglas Lowe, Gordon McFiggans, Tingting Xu, Pin Du, Jianfeng Li, Yusheng Wu, Min Hu, Chun Zhao, and Tong Zhu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 5205–5219,
Wei Nie, Juan Hong, Silja A. K. Häme, Aijun Ding, Yugen Li, Chao Yan, Liqing Hao, Jyri Mikkilä, Longfei Zheng, Yuning Xie, Caijun Zhu, Zheng Xu, Xuguang Chi, Xin Huang, Yang Zhou, Peng Lin, Annele Virtanen, Douglas R. Worsnop, Markku Kulmala, Mikael Ehn, Jianzhen Yu, Veli-Matti Kerminen, and Tuukka Petäjä
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 3659–3672,Short summary
HULIS are demonstrated to be important low-volatility, or even extremely low volatility, compounds in the organic aerosol phase. This sheds new light on the connection between atmospheric HULIS and ELVOCs. The interaction between HULIS and ammonium sulfate was found to decrease the volatility of the HULIS part in HULIS-AS mixed samples, indicating multiphase processes have the potential to lower the volatility of organic compounds in the aerosol phase.
Jiaping Wang, Aki Virkkula, Yuan Gao, Shuncheng Lee, Yicheng Shen, Xuguang Chi, Wei Nie, Qiang Liu, Zheng Xu, Xin Huang, Tao Wang, Long Cui, and Aijun Ding
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 2653–2671,Short summary
Multi-year observations at a coastal station in Hong Kong reveals that aerosol optical properties showed clear temporal variations according to the dominant sources of aerosols. LPDM modeling and correlation analysis gave similar signals about the freshness of aerosols during different seasons. Fresh emissions of particles from nearby cities and ship exhausts affected light optical properties and particle size in summer and aged air mass in winter caused larger variability of light extinction.
Siyu Chen, Jianping Huang, Litai Kang, Hao Wang, Xiaojun Ma, Yongli He, Tiangang Yuan, Ben Yang, Zhongwei Huang, and Guolong Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 2401–2421,Short summary
Compared with the TD dust, the importance of the GD dust in eastern China, Japan, and Korea is always neglected. We focused primarily on the dynamic and thermodynamics mechanisms of dust emission and transport over TD and GD and further elucidate the influence of TD and GD dust on the entire East Asia based on a case study using WRF-Chem model in the study.
Jiming Li, Qiaoyi Lv, Min Zhang, Tianhe Wang, Kazuaki Kawamoto, Siyu Chen, and Beidou Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 1847–1863,Short summary
The present study investigates the effects of atmospheric dynamics on the supercooled liquid cloud fraction (SCF) during nighttime under different aerosol loadings at global scale to better understand the conditions of supercooled liquid water gradually transforming to ice phase. Statistical results indicate that aerosols’ effect on nucleation cannot fully explain all SCF changes, and so meteorological parameter also should be considered in futher parameterization of the cloud phase.
David A. Ridley, Colette L. Heald, Jasper F. Kok, and Chun Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 15097–15117,Short summary
Mineral dust aerosol affects climate through interaction with radiation and clouds, human health through contribution to particulate matter, and ecosystem health through nutrient transport and deposition. In this study, we use satellite and in situ retrievals to derive an observational estimate of the global dust AOD with which evaluate modeled dust AOD. Differences in the seasonality and regional distribution of dust AOD between observations and models are highlighted.
Cheng Zhou, Joyce E. Penner, Guangxing Lin, Xiaohong Liu, and Minghuai Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 12411–12424,Short summary
We examined the different ice nucleation parameterization factors that affect the simulated ice number concentrations in cirrus clouds in the upper troposphere using the CAM5 model. We examined the effect from three different updraft velocities (from low to high), two different water vapour accommodation coefficients (α = 0.1 or 1), the effect of including vapour deposition onto pre-existing ice particles during ice nucleation, and the effect of including SOA as heterogeneous ice nuclei.
Xin Huang, Aijun Ding, Lixia Liu, Qiang Liu, Ke Ding, Xiaorui Niu, Wei Nie, Zheng Xu, Xuguang Chi, Minghuai Wang, Jianning Sun, Weidong Guo, and Congbin Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 10063–10082,Short summary
We conducted a comprehensive modelling work to understand the impact of biomass burning on synoptic weather during agricultural burning season in East China. We demonstrated that the numerical model with fire emission, chemical processes, and aerosol–meteorology online coupled could reproduce the change of air temperature and precipitation induced by air pollution during this event. This study highlights the importance of including human activities in numerical-model-based weather forecast.
Chun Zhao, Maoyi Huang, Jerome D. Fast, Larry K. Berg, Yun Qian, Alex Guenther, Dasa Gu, Manish Shrivastava, Ying Liu, Stacy Walters, Gabriele Pfister, Jiming Jin, John E. Shilling, and Carsten Warneke
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 1959–1976,Short summary
In this study, the latest version of MEGAN is coupled within CLM4 in WRF-Chem. In this implementation, MEGAN shares a consistent vegetation map with CLM4. This improved modeling framework is used to investigate the impact of two land surface schemes on BVOCs and examine the sensitivity of BVOCs to vegetation distributions in California. This study indicates that more effort is needed to obtain the most appropriate and accurate land cover data sets for climate and air quality models.
Zhiyuan Hu, Chun Zhao, Jianping Huang, L. Ruby Leung, Yun Qian, Hongbin Yu, Lei Huang, and Olga V. Kalashnikova
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 1725–1746,Short summary
This study conducts the simulation of WRF-Chem with the quasi-global configuration for 2010–2014, and evaluates the simulation with multiple observation datasets for the first time. This study demonstrates that the WRF-Chem quasi-global simulation can be used for investigating trans-Pacific transport of aerosols and providing reasonable inflow chemical boundaries for the western USA to further understand the impact of transported pollutants on the regional air quality and climate.
Shipeng Zhang, Minghuai Wang, Steven J. Ghan, Aijun Ding, Hailong Wang, Kai Zhang, David Neubauer, Ulrike Lohmann, Sylvaine Ferrachat, Toshihiko Takeamura, Andrew Gettelman, Hugh Morrison, Yunha Lee, Drew T. Shindell, Daniel G. Partridge, Philip Stier, Zak Kipling, and Congbin Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2765–2783,Short summary
The variation of aerosol indirect effects (AIE) in several climate models is investigated across different dynamical regimes. Regimes with strong large-scale ascent are shown to be as important as stratocumulus regimes in studying AIE. AIE over regions with high monthly large-scale surface precipitation rate contributes the most to the total aerosol indirect forcing. These results point to the need to reduce the uncertainty in AIE in different dynamical regimes.
Xin Huang, Luxi Zhou, Aijun Ding, Ximeng Qi, Wei Nie, Minghuai Wang, Xuguang Chi, Tuukka Petäjä, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Pontus Roldin, Anton Rusanen, Markku Kulmala, and Michael Boy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2477–2492,Short summary
By combining a regional model and a box model, this study simulates new particle formation in Nanjing, China, when the air masses were affected by anthropogenic activities, biogenic emissions, or mixed ocean and continental sources. The simulations reveal that biogenic organic compounds play a vital role in growth of newly formed clusters. This novel combination of two models makes it possible to accomplish new particle formation simulation without direct measurements of all chemical species.
Kai Zhang, Chun Zhao, Hui Wan, Yun Qian, Richard C. Easter, Steven J. Ghan, Koichi Sakaguchi, and Xiaohong Liu
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 607–632,Short summary
A sub-grid treatment based on Weibull distribution is introduced to CAM5 to take into account the impact of unresolved variability of surface wind speed on sea salt and dust emissions. Simulations show that sub-grid wind variability has relatively small impacts on the global mean sea salt emissions, but considerable influence on dust emissions. Dry convective eddies and mesoscale flows associated with complex topography are the major causes of dust emission enhancement.
Y. Feng, V. R. Kotamarthi, R. Coulter, C. Zhao, and M. Cadeddu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 247–264,Short summary
Aerosol radiative effects are of great importance for climate studies over South Asia, such as the weakening of the South Asian monsoon in the 20th century. This study reveals the altitude dependence of commonly underestimated aerosol radiative properties over this region. It further demonstrates the importance of constraining aerosol vertical distributions and partitioning of scattering vs absorbing aerosols in simulating the subsequent regional dynamical and hydrological responses to aerosols.
K. Thayer-Calder, A. Gettelman, C. Craig, S. Goldhaber, P. A. Bogenschutz, C.-C. Chen, H. Morrison, J. Höft, E. Raut, B. M. Griffin, J. K. Weber, V. E. Larson, M. C. Wyant, M. Wang, Z. Guo, and S. J. Ghan
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 3801–3821,Short summary
This study evaluates a unified cloud parameterization and a Monte Carlo microphysics interface that is implemented in CAM v5.3. We show mean climate and tropical variability results from global simulations. The model has a degradation in precipitation skill but improvements in shortwave cloud forcing, liquid water path, long-wave cloud forcing, precipitable water, and tropical wave simulation. We also show estimation of computational expense and sensitivity to number of subcolumns.
X. M. Qi, A. J. Ding, W. Nie, T. Petäjä, V.-M. Kerminen, E. Herrmann, Y. N. Xie, L. F. Zheng, H. Manninen, P. Aalto, J. N. Sun, Z. N. Xu, X. G. Chi, X. Huang, M. Boy, A. Virkkula, X.-Q. Yang, C. B. Fu, and M. Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 12445–12464,Short summary
We report 2 years of measurements of submicron particles at the SORPES station and provide a comprehensive understanding of main factors controlling temporal variation of the aerosol size distribution and NPF in eastern China. The number concentrations of total particles at Nanjing were comparable to other Chinese megacities but the frequency of NPF was much higher. Year-to-year differences of meteorological conditions could significantly influence the seasonal cycle of NPF and growth.
A. Virkkula, X. Chi, A. Ding, Y. Shen, W. Nie, X. Qi, L. Zheng, X. Huang, Y. Xie, J. Wang, T. Petäjä, and M. Kulmala
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 4415–4427,Short summary
Aerosol optical properties were measured with a seven-wavelength aethalometer and a three-wavelength nephelometer in Nanjing, China, in September 2013–January 2015. The aethalometer compensation parameter k depended on the backscatter fraction, measured with an independent method, the integrating nephelometer. The compensation parameter decreased with increasing single-scattering albedo.
W. Nie, A. J. Ding, Y. N. Xie, Z. Xu, H. Mao, V.-M. Kerminen, L. F. Zheng, X. M. Qi, X. Huang, X.-Q. Yang, J. N. Sun, E. Herrmann, T. Petäjä, M. Kulmala, and C. B. Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 1147–1159,
R. L. Storer, B. M. Griffin, J. Höft, J. K. Weber, E. Raut, V. E. Larson, M. Wang, and P. J. Rasch
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 1–19,Short summary
Representing clouds in climate models is a challenging problem. It is particularly difficult to represent deep convective clouds and, historically, deep convective parameterization is separate from the representation of other cloud types. Here we use a single-column cloud model to simulate three deep convective cases, and two shallow cloud cases. The results look reasonable, demonstrating that it may be possible to use one parameterization within a climate model for all cloud types.
C. Zhao, Z. Hu, Y. Qian, L. Ruby Leung, J. Huang, M. Huang, J. Jin, M. G. Flanner, R. Zhang, H. Wang, H. Yan, Z. Lu, and D. G. Streets
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 11475–11491,
S. Yu, R. Mathur, J. Pleim, D. Wong, R. Gilliam, K. Alapaty, C. Zhao, and X. Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 11247–11285,
H. Wan, P. J. Rasch, K. Zhang, Y. Qian, H. Yan, and C. Zhao
Geosci. Model Dev., 7, 1961–1977,
C. Zhao, X. Liu, Y. Qian, J. Yoon, Z. Hou, G. Lin, S. McFarlane, H. Wang, B. Yang, P.-L. Ma, H. Yan, and J. Bao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 10969–10987,
C. Zhao, S. Chen, L. R. Leung, Y. Qian, J. F. Kok, R. A. Zaveri, and J. Huang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 10733–10753,
H. Wang, R. C. Easter, P. J. Rasch, M. Wang, X. Liu, S. J. Ghan, Y. Qian, J.-H. Yoon, P.-L. Ma, and V. Vinoj
Geosci. Model Dev., 6, 765–782,
K. Zhang, X. Liu, M. Wang, J. M. Comstock, D. L. Mitchell, S. Mishra, and G. G. Mace
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 4963–4982,
S. Kalenderski, G. Stenchikov, and C. Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 1999–2014,
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Sarah Sparrow, Andrew Bowery, Glenn D. Carver, Marcus O. Köhler, Pirkka Ollinaho, Florian Pappenberger, David Wallom, and Antje Weisheimer
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 3473–3486,Short summary
This paper describes how the research version of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts’ Integrated Forecast System is combined with climateprediction.net’s public volunteer computing resource to develop OpenIFS@home. Thousands of volunteer personal computers simulated slightly different realizations of Tropical Cyclone Karl to demonstrate the performance of the large-ensemble forecast. OpenIFS@Home offers researchers a new tool to study weather forecasts and related questions.
Guillaume Monteil and Marko Scholze
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 3383–3406,Short summary
LUMIA is a Python library for atmospheric inversions, originally developed at Lund University to perform regional atmospheric CO2 inversions. The inversions rely on coupling the regional transport model FLEXPART and the global transport model TM5. The paper presents the modeling setup and some first results, and it introduces the LUMIA Python package as a toolbox for inversions beyond the use case presented in the paper.
Benjamin N. Murphy, Christopher G. Nolte, Fahim Sidi, Jesse O. Bash, K. Wyat Appel, Carey Jang, Daiwen Kang, James Kelly, Rohit Mathur, Sergey Napelenok, George Pouliot, and Havala O. T. Pye
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 3407–3420,Short summary
The algorithms for applying air pollution emission rates in the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model have been improved to better support users and developers. The new features accommodate emissions perturbation studies that are typical in atmospheric research and output a wealth of metadata for each model run so assumptions can be verified and documented. The new approach dramatically enhances the transparency and functionality of this critical aspect of atmospheric modeling.
Tobias Gronemeier, Kerstin Surm, Frank Harms, Bernd Leitl, Björn Maronga, and Siegfried Raasch
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 3317–3333,Short summary
We demonstrate the capability of the PALM model system version 6.0 to simulate urban boundary layers. The studied situation includes a real-world building setup of the HafenCity area in Hamburg, Germany. We evaluate the simulation results against wind-tunnel measurements utilizing PALM's virtual measurement module. The comparison reveals an overall high agreement between simulation results and wind-tunnel measurements including mean wind speed and direction as well as turbulence statistics.
Sara M. Blichner, Moa K. Sporre, Risto Makkonen, and Terje K. Berntsen
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 3335–3359,Short summary
Aerosol–cloud interactions are the largest contributor to climate forcing uncertainty. In this study we combine two common approaches to aerosol representation in global models: a sectional scheme, which is closer to first principals, for the smallest particles forming in the atmosphere and a log-modal scheme, which is faster, for the larger particles. With this approach, we improve the aerosol representation compared to observations, while only increasing the computational cost by 15 %.
Timothy Glotfelty, Diana Ramírez-Mejía, Jared Bowden, Adrian Ghilardi, and J. Jason West
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 3215–3249,Short summary
Land use and land cover change is a major contributor to climate change in Africa. Here we document deficiencies in how a weather model represents the land surface of Africa and how we modify a common land surface model to overcome these deficiencies. Our tests reveal that the default weather model does not accurately predict and transition the properties of different African biomes and growing cycles. This paper demonstrates that our modified model addresses these limitations.
Mario Eduardo Gavidia-Calderón, Sergio Ibarra-Espinosa, Youngseob Kim, Yang Zhang, and Maria de Fatima Andrade
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 3251–3268,Short summary
The MUNICH model was used to calculate pollutant concentrations inside the streets of São Paulo. The VEIN emission model provided the vehicular emissions and the coordinates of the streets. We used information from an air quality station to account for pollutant concentrations over the street rooftops. Results showed that when emissions are calibrated, MUNICH satisfied the performance criteria. MUNICH can be used to evaluate the impact of traffic-related air pollution on public health.
Xiaoli G. Larsén and Jana Fischereit
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 3141–3158,Short summary
For the first time, turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) calculated from the explicit wake parameterization (EWP) in WRF is examined using high-frequency measurements over a wind farm and compared with that calculated using the Fitch et al. (2012) scheme. We examined the effect of farm-induced TKE advection in connection with the Fitch scheme. Through a case study with a low-level jet (LLJ), we analyzed the key features of LLJs and raised the issue of interaction between wind farms and LLJs.
Pavel Krč, Jaroslav Resler, Matthias Sühring, Sebastian Schubert, Mohamed H. Salim, and Vladimír Fuka
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 3095–3120,Short summary
The adverse effects of an urban environment, e.g. heat stress and air pollution, pose a risk to health and well-being. Precise modelling of the urban climate is crucial to mitigate these effects. Conventional atmospheric models are inadequate for modelling the complex structures of the urban environment; in particular, they lack a 3-D model of radiation and its interaction with surfaces and the plant canopy. The new RTM simulates these processes within the PALM-4U urban climate model.
Tao Zheng, Sha Feng, Kenneth J. Davis, Sandip Pal, and Josep-Anton Morguí
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 3037–3066,Short summary
Carbon dioxide is the most important greenhouse gas. We develop the numerical model that represents carbon dioxide transport in the atmosphere. This model development is based on the MPAS model, which has a variable-resolution capability. The purpose of developing carbon dioxide transport in MPAS is to allow for high-resolution transport model simulation that is not limited by the lateral boundaries. It will also form the base for a future development of MPAS-based carbon inversion system.
Audrey Fortems-Cheiney, Isabelle Pison, Grégoire Broquet, Gaëlle Dufour, Antoine Berchet, Elise Potier, Adriana Coman, Guillaume Siour, and Lorenzo Costantino
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 2939–2957,Short summary
Up-to-date and accurate emission inventories for air pollutants are essential for understanding their role in the formation of tropospheric ozone and particulate matter, for anticipating pollution peaks and for identifying the key drivers that could help mitigate their emissions. Complementarily with bottom-up inventories, the system described here aims at updating and improving the knowledge on the high spatiotemporal variability of emissions of air pollutants.
James Hocking, Jérôme Vidot, Pascal Brunel, Pascale Roquet, Bruna Silveira, Emma Turner, and Cristina Lupu
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 2899–2915,Short summary
RTTOV is a fast radiative transfer model for simulating passive satellite-based observations at visible, infrared, and microwave wavelengths. A core part of the model is a parameterisation of the absorption of radiation by the various gases present in the atmosphere. We present a new parameterisation that performs well compared to the existing one in terms of accuracy and can be developed further more easily. The new parameterisation is implemented in the latest release, RTTOV v13.0.
K. Wyat Appel, Jesse O. Bash, Kathleen M. Fahey, Kristen M. Foley, Robert C. Gilliam, Christian Hogrefe, William T. Hutzell, Daiwen Kang, Rohit Mathur, Benjamin N. Murphy, Sergey L. Napelenok, Christopher G. Nolte, Jonathan E. Pleim, George A. Pouliot, Havala O. T. Pye, Limei Ran, Shawn J. Roselle, Golam Sarwar, Donna B. Schwede, Fahim I. Sidi, Tanya L. Spero, and David C. Wong
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 2867–2897,Short summary
This paper details the scientific updates in the recently released CMAQ version 5.3 (and v5.3.1) and also includes operational and diagnostic evaluations of CMAQv5.3.1 against observations and the previous version of the CMAQ (v5.2.1). This work was done to improve the underlying science in CMAQ. This article is used to inform the CMAQ modeling community of the updates to the modeling system and the expected change in model performance from these updates (versus the previous model version).
Ziyu Huang, Lei Zhong, Yaoming Ma, and Yunfei Fu
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 2827–2841,Short summary
Spectral nudging is an effective dynamical downscaling method used to improve precipitation simulations of regional climate models (RCMs). However, the biases of the driving fields over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) would possibly introduce extra biases when spectral nudging is applied. The results show that the precipitation simulations were significantly improved when limiting the application of spectral nudging toward the potential temperature and water vapor mixing ratio over the TP.
Eve-Agnès Fiorentino, Henri Wortham, and Karine Sartelet
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 2747–2780,Short summary
Indoor air quality (IAQ) is strongly influenced by reactivity with surfaces, which is called heterogeneous reactivity. To date, this reactivity is barely integrated into numerical models due to the strong uncertainties it is subjected to. In this work, an open-source IAQ model, called the H2I model, is developed to consider both gas-phase and heterogeneous reactivity and simulate indoor concentrations of inorganic compounds.
Yann Cohen, Virginie Marécal, Béatrice Josse, and Valérie Thouret
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 2659–2689,Short summary
Assessing long-term chemistry–climate simulations with in situ and frequent observations near the tropopause is possible with the IAGOS commercial aircraft data set. This study presents a method that distributes the IAGOS data (ozone and CO) on a monthly model grid, limiting the impact of resolution for the evaluation of the modelled chemical fields. We applied it to the CCMI REF-C1SD simulation from the MOCAGE CTM and notably highlighted well-reproduced O3 behaviour in the lower stratosphere.
Vikram Khade, Saroja M. Polavarapu, Michael Neish, Pieter L. Houtekamer, Dylan B. A. Jones, Seung-Jong Baek, Tai-Long He, and Sylvie Gravel
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 2525–2544,Short summary
A new modeling system has been developed at Environment and Climate Change Canada to ingest observations of carbon monoxide (CO) into a coupled weather and constituent transport model. We show that accounting for the uncertainty in surface flux leads to a better estimate of CO distributions. The benefit of assimilating observations from different simulated networks varies with region. This is the first step towards developing a state and flux estimation system for greenhouse gases.
Dongqi Lin, Basit Khan, Marwan Katurji, Leroy Bird, Ricardo Faria, and Laura E. Revell
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 2503–2524,Short summary
We present an open-source toolbox WRF4PALM, which enables weather dynamics simulation within urban landscapes. WRF4PALM passes meteorological information from the popular Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to the turbulence-resolving PALM model system 6.0. WRF4PALM can potentially extend the use of WRF and PALM with realistic boundary conditions to any part of the world. WRF4PALM will help study air pollution dispersion, wind energy prospecting, and high-impact wind forecasting.
Daniel M. Gilford
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 2351–2369,Short summary
Potential intensity (PI) is a tropical cyclone's maximum speed limit given by modeling the storm as a thermal heat engine. pyPI is the first software package fully documenting the PI algorithm and translating it to Python. This study details/validates the underlying PI model and demonstrates its use in tropical cyclone intensity research. pyPI supports open science and transparency in the tropical meteorological community and is ideally suited for ongoing community development and improvement.
Mizuo Kajino, Makoto Deushi, Tsuyoshi Thomas Sekiyama, Naga Oshima, Keiya Yumimoto, Taichu Yasumichi Tanaka, Joseph Ching, Akihiro Hashimoto, Tetsuya Yamamoto, Masaaki Ikegami, Akane Kamada, Makoto Miyashita, Yayoi Inomata, Shin-ichiro Shima, Pradeep Khatri, Atsushi Shimizu, Hitoshi Irie, Kouji Adachi, Yuji Zaizen, Yasuhito Igarashi, Hiromasa Ueda, Takashi Maki, and Masao Mikami
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 2235–2264,Short summary
This study compares performance of aerosol representation methods of the Japan Meteorological Agency's regional-scale nonhydrostatic meteorology–chemistry model (NHM-Chem). It indicates separate treatment of sea salt and dust in coarse mode and that of light-absorptive and non-absorptive particles in fine mode could provide accurate assessments on aerosol feedback processes.
Langwen Huang and David Topping
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 2187–2203,Short summary
As our knowledge and understanding of atmospheric aerosol particle evolution and impact grows, designing community mechanistic models requires an ability to capture increasing chemical, physical and therefore numerical complexity. As the landscape of computing software and hardware evolves, it is important to profile the usefulness of emerging platforms in tackling this complexity. With this in mind we present JlBox v1.1, written in Julia.
Matthias Faust, Ralf Wolke, Steffen Münch, Roger Funk, and Kerstin Schepanski
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 2205–2220,Short summary
Trajectory dispersion models are powerful and intuitive tools for tracing air pollution through the atmosphere. But the turbulent nature of the atmospheric boundary layer makes it challenging to provide accurate predictions near the surface. To overcome this, we propose an approach using wind and turbulence information at high temporal resolution. Finally, we demonstrate the strength of our approach in a case study on dust emissions from agriculture.
Jie Luo, Yongming Zhang, and Qixing Zhang
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 2113–2126,Short summary
In this work, we developed a numerical method to investigate the effects of black carbon (BC) morphology on the estimation of brown carbon (BrC) absorption using the absorption Ångström exponent (AAE) method. We found that BC morphologies have significant impacts on the estimated BrC absorptions. Moreover, we have demonstrated under what conditions the AAE methods can provide good or bad estimations and explored the reasons for why the good or bad estimations were caused.
Georgia N. Theodoritsi, Giancarlo Ciarelli, and Spyros N. Pandis
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 2041–2055,Short summary
Two schemes based on the volatility basis set were used for the simulation of biomass burning organic aerosol (bbOA) in the continental US. The first is the default scheme of the PMCAMx-SR model, and the second is a recently developed scheme based on laboratory experiments. The alternative bbOA scheme predicts much higher concentrations. The default scheme performed better during summer and fall, while the alternative scheme was a little better during spring.
Dana L. McGuffin, Yuanlong Huang, Richard C. Flagan, Tuukka Petäjä, B. Erik Ydstie, and Peter J. Adams
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1821–1839,Short summary
Atmospheric particle formation, emissions, and growth process rates are significant sources of uncertainty in predicting climate change. We aim to reduce that uncertainty by using measurements from several ground-based sites across Europe. We developed an estimation technique to adapt the governing process rates so model–measurement bias decays. The estimation framework developed has potential to improve model predictions while providing insight into the underlying atmospheric particle physics.
Harald Flentje, Ina Mattis, Zak Kipling, Samuel Rémy, and Werner Thomas
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1721–1751,Short summary
Atmospheric aerosols crucially impact air quality, climate and weather. Thus, global model forecasts of atmospheric constituents are published daily on the ECMWF website and are regularly verified by the CAMS service team. The IFS-AER model is largely able to reproduce observed 3-D distributions of the important particle types over Germany. The particle concentration is mostly captured within several tens of percent, but quantification of some specific processes still remains a challenge.
Jianhui Jiang, Imad El Haddad, Sebnem Aksoyoglu, Giulia Stefenelli, Amelie Bertrand, Nicolas Marchand, Francesco Canonaco, Jean-Eudes Petit, Olivier Favez, Stefania Gilardoni, Urs Baltensperger, and André S. H. Prévôt
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1681–1697,Short summary
We developed a box model with a volatility basis set to simulate organic aerosol (OA) from biomass burning and optimized the vapor-wall-loss-corrected OA yields with a genetic algorithm. The optimized parameterizations were then implemented in the air quality model CAMx v6.5. Comparisons with ambient measurements indicate that the vapor-wall-loss-corrected parameterization effectively improves the model performance in predicting OA, which reduced the mean fractional bias from −72.9 % to −1.6 %.
Oliver Branch, Thomas Schwitalla, Marouane Temimi, Ricardo Fonseca, Narendra Nelli, Michael Weston, Josipa Milovac, and Volker Wulfmeyer
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1615–1637,Short summary
Effective numerical weather forecasting is vital in arid regions like the United Arab Emirates where extreme events like heat waves, flash floods, and dust storms are becoming more severe. This study employs a high-resolution simulation with the WRF-NOAHMP model, and the output is compared with seasonal observation data from 50 weather stations. This type of verification is vital to identify model deficiencies and improve forecasting systems for arid regions.
Lukas Hubert Leufen, Felix Kleinert, and Martin G. Schultz
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1553–1574,Short summary
MLAir provides a coherent end-to-end structure for a typical time series analysis workflow using machine learning (ML). MLAir is adaptable to a wide range of ML use cases, focusing in particular on deep learning. The user has a free hand with the ML model itself and can select from different methods during preprocessing, training, and postprocessing. MLAir offers tools to track the experiment conduction, documents necessary ML parameters, and creates a variety of publication-ready plots.
Davide Ori, Leonie von Terzi, Markus Karrer, and Stefan Kneifel
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1511–1531,Short summary
Snowflakes have very complex shapes, and modeling their properties requires vast computing power. We produced a large number of realistic snowflakes and modeled their average properties by leveraging their fractal structure. Our approach allows modeling the properties of big ensembles of snowflakes, taking into account their natural variability, at a much lower cost. This enables the usage of remote sensing instruments, such as radars, to monitor the evolution of clouds and precipitation.
Jaydeep Singh, Narendra Singh, Narendra Ojha, Amit Sharma, Andrea Pozzer, Nadimpally Kiran Kumar, Kunjukrishnapillai Rajeev, Sachin S. Gunthe, and V. Rao Kotamarthi
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1427–1443,Short summary
Atmospheric models often have limitations in simulating the geographically complex and climatically important central Himalayan region. In this direction, we have performed regional modeling at high resolutions to improve the simulation of meteorology and dynamics through a better representation of the topography. The study has implications for further model applications to investigate the effects of anthropogenic pressure over the Himalaya.
Beatrice Giacomini and Marco G. Giometto
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1409–1426,Short summary
The present work evaluates the suitability of an important class of second-order finite-volume solvers for the large-eddy simulation of atmospheric boundary- layer flows. Results show that these solvers do not capture the dominant mechanisms responsible for momentum transport in boundary layers, leading to a misprediction of relevant flow statistics and to an enhanced sensitivity of the solution to variations in grid resolution.
Michael Weger, Oswald Knoth, and Bernd Heinold
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1469–1492,Short summary
A new numerical air-quality transport model for cities is presented, in which buildings are described diffusively. The used diffusive-obstacles approach helps to reduce the computational costs for high-resolution simulations as the grid spacing can be more coarse than in traditional approaches. The research which led to this model development was primarily motivated by the need for a computationally feasible downscaling tool for urban wind and pollution fields from meteorological model output.
Yuefei Zeng, Alberto de Lozar, Tijana Janjic, and Axel Seifert
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1295–1307,Short summary
A new integrated mass-flux adjustment filter is introduced and examined with an idealized setup for convective-scale radar data assimilation. It is found that the new filter slightly reduces the accuracy of background and analysis states; however, it preserves the main structure of cold pools and primary mesocyclone properties of supercells. More importantly, it successfully diminishes the imbalance in the analysis considerably and improves the forecasts.
Pieter De Meutter, Ian Hoffman, and Kurt Ungar
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1237–1252,Short summary
Inverse atmospheric transport modelling is an important tool in several disciplines. However, the specification of atmospheric transport model error remains challenging. In this paper, we employ a state-of-the-art ensemble technique combined with a state-of-the-art Bayesian inference algorithm to infer point sources. Our research helps to fill the gap in our understanding of model error in the context of inverse atmospheric transport modelling.
Qi Tang, Michael J. Prather, Juno Hsu, Daniel J. Ruiz, Philip J. Cameron-Smith, Shaocheng Xie, and Jean-Christophe Golaz
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1219–1236,
Basit Khan, Sabine Banzhaf, Edward C. Chan, Renate Forkel, Farah Kanani-Sühring, Klaus Ketelsen, Mona Kurppa, Björn Maronga, Matthias Mauder, Siegfried Raasch, Emmanuele Russo, Martijn Schaap, and Matthias Sühring
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1171–1193,Short summary
An atmospheric chemistry model has been implemented in the microscale PALM model system 6.0. This article provides a detailed description of the model, its structure, input requirements, various features and limitations. Several pre-compiled ready-to-use chemical mechanisms are included in the chemistry model code; however, users can also easily implement other mechanisms. A case study is presented to demonstrate the application of the new chemistry model in the urban environment.
Mohsen Moradi, Benjamin Dyer, Amir Nazem, Manoj K. Nambiar, M. Rafsan Nahian, Bruno Bueno, Chris Mackey, Saeran Vasanthakumar, Negin Nazarian, E. Scott Krayenhoff, Leslie K. Norford, and Amir A. Aliabadi
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 961–984,Short summary
The Vertical City Weather Generator (VCWG) is an urban microclimate model developed to predict temporal and vertical variation of potential temperature, wind speed, and specific humidity. VCWG is forced by climate variables at a nearby rural site and coupled to radiation and building energy models. VCWG is evaluated against field observations of the BUBBLE campaign. It is run under exploration mode to assess its performance given urban characteristics, seasonal variations, and climate zones.
Loredana G. Suciu, Robert J. Griffin, and Caroline A. Masiello
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 907–921,Short summary
Understanding the atmospheric degradation of biomass burning tracers such as levoglucosan is essential to decreasing uncertainties in the role of biomass burning in air quality, carbon cycling and paleoclimate. Using a 0-D modeling approach and numerical chamber simulations, we found that the multiphase atmospheric degradation of levoglucosan occurs over timescales of hours to days, can form secondary organic aerosols and affects other key tropospheric gases, such as ozone.
Xu Feng, Haipeng Lin, Tzung-May Fu, Melissa P. Sulprizio, Jiawei Zhuang, Daniel J. Jacob, Heng Tian, Yaping Ma, Lijuan Zhang, Xiaolin Wang, and Qi Chen
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for GMDShort summary
WRF-GC is an online coupling of the WRF meteorological model and GEOS-Chem chemical transport model for regional atmospheric chemistry and air quality modeling. In WRF-GC v2.0, we implemented the aerosol-radiation interactions and aerosol-cloud interactions, as well as the capability to nest multiple domains for high-resolution simulations based on the modular framework of WRF-GC v1.0. This allows the GEOS-Chem users to investigate the meteorology-atmospheric chemistry interactions.
Chihiro Kodama, Tomoki Ohno, Tatsuya Seiki, Hisashi Yashiro, Akira T. Noda, Masuo Nakano, Yohei Yamada, Woosub Roh, Masaki Satoh, Tomoko Nitta, Daisuke Goto, Hiroaki Miura, Tomoe Nasuno, Tomoki Miyakawa, Ying-Wen Chen, and Masato Sugi
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 795–820,Short summary
This paper describes the latest stable version of NICAM, a global atmospheric model, developed for high-resolution climate simulations toward the IPCC Assessment Report. Our model explicitly treats convection, clouds, and precipitation and could reduce the uncertainty of climate change projection. A series of test simulations demonstrated improvements (e.g., high cloud) and issues (e.g., low cloud, precipitation pattern), suggesting further necessity for model improvement and higher resolutions.
Jingyu Wang, Jiwen Fan, Robert A. Houze Jr., Stella R. Brodzik, Kai Zhang, Guang J. Zhang, and Po-Lun Ma
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 719–734,Short summary
This paper presents an evaluation of the E3SM model against NEXRAD radar observations for the warm seasons during 2014–2016. The COSP forward simulator package is implemented in the model to generate radar reflectivity, and the NEXRAD observations are coarsened to the model resolution for comparison. The model severely underestimates the reflectivity above 4 km. Sensitivity tests on the parameters from cumulus parameterization and cloud microphysics do not improve this model bias.
Lei Zhang, Sunling Gong, Tianliang Zhao, Chunhong Zhou, Yuesi Wang, Jiawei Li, Dongsheng Ji, Jianjun He, Hongli Liu, Ke Gui, Xiaomei Guo, Jinhui Gao, Yunpeng Shan, Hong Wang, Yaqiang Wang, Huizheng Che, and Xiaoye Zhang
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 703–718,Short summary
Development of chemical transport models with advanced physics and chemical schemes is important for improving air-quality forecasts. This study develops the chemical module CUACE by updating with a new particle dry deposition scheme and adding heterogenous chemical reactions and couples it with the WRF model. The coupled model (WRF/CUACE) was able to capture well the variations of PM2.5, O3, NO2, and secondary inorganic aerosols in eastern China.
Simon Patrick O'Meara, Shuxuan Xu, David Topping, M. Rami Alfarra, Gerard Capes, Douglas Lowe, Yunqi Shao, and Gordon McFiggans
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 675–702,Short summary
User-friendly and open-source software for simulating aerosol chambers is a valuable tool for research scientists in designing and analysing their experiments. This paper describes a new version of such software and will therefore provide a useful reference for those applying it. Central to the paper is an assessment of the software's accuracy through comparison against previously published simulations.
Carlos Román-Cascón, Marie Lothon, Fabienne Lohou, Oscar Hartogensis, Jordi Vila-Guerau de Arellano, David Pino, Carlos Yagüe, and Eric R. Pardyjak
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for GMDShort summary
The type of vegetation (or land cover) and its status influence the heat and water transfers between the surface and the air, affecting the processes that develop in the atmosphere at different (but connected) spatiotemporal scales. In this work, we investigate how these transfers are affected by the way the surface is represented in a widely used weather model. The results encourage including realistic high-resolution and updated land-cover databases in models to improve their predictions.
Tamara Emmerichs, Astrid Kerkweg, Huug Ouwersloot, Silvano Fares, Ivan Mammarella, and Domenico Taraborrelli
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 495–519,Short summary
Dry deposition to vegetation is a major sink of ground-level ozone. Its parameterization in atmospheric chemistry models represents a significant source of uncertainty for global tropospheric ozone. We extended the current model parameterization with a relevant pathway and important meteorological adjustment factors. The comparison with measurements shows that this enables a more realistic model representation of ozone dry deposition velocity. Globally, annual dry deposition loss increases.
Ying Wei, Xueshun Chen, Huansheng Chen, Yele Sun, Wenyi Yang, Huiyun Du, Qizhong Wu, Dan Chen, Xiujuan Zhao, Jie Li, and Zifa Wang
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for GMDShort summary
The sub-grid particle formation (SGPF) in plume plays an important role in air pollution and climate effect. We coupled a SGPF scheme into a chemical transport model with aerosol microphysics module and applied it to investigate the SGPF impact over China. The scheme clearly improved the model performance in simulating aerosol components and particle number at typical sites influenced by point sources. The results indicate the significant effects of SGPF on aerosol particles in industrial areas.
Alexander Ukhov, Ravan Ahmadov, Georg Grell, and Georgiy Stenchikov
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 473–493,Short summary
We discuss and evaluate the effects of inconsistencies found in the WRF-Chem code when using the GOCART module. First, PM surface concentrations were miscalculated. Second, dust optical depth was underestimated by 25 %–30 %. Third, an inconsistency in the process of gravitational settling led to the overestimation of dust column loadings by 4 %–6 %, PM10 by 2 %–4 %, and the rate of gravitational dust settling by 5 %–10 %. We also presented diagnostics that can be used to estimate these effects.
Andrew T. Prata, Leonardo Mingari, Arnau Folch, Giovanni Macedonio, and Antonio Costa
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 409–436,Short summary
This paper presents FALL3D-8.0, the latest version release of an open-source code with a track record of 15+ years and a growing number of users in the volcanological and atmospheric communities. The code, originally conceived for atmospheric dispersal and deposition of tephra particles, has been extended to model other types of particles, aerosols and radionuclides. This paper details new model applications and validation of FALL3D-8.0 using satellite, ground-deposit load and radionuclide data.
Jian Zhong, Xiaoming Cai, and Zheng-Tong Xie
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 323–336,Short summary
A synthetic inflow turbulence generator was implemented in the idealised Weather Research and Forecasting large eddy simulation. The inflow case yielded a mean velocity profile and second-moment profiles that agreed well with those generated using periodic boundary conditions, after a short adjustment distance. This implementation can be extended to a multi-scale seamless nesting simulation from a meso-scale domain with a kilometre-scale resolution to LES domains with metre-scale resolutions.
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Dust aerosol can impact many processes of the Earth system, but large uncertainties still remain in dust simulations. In this study, we investigated dust simulation sensitivity to two dust emission schemes and three dry deposition schemes using WRF-Chem. An optimal combination of dry deposition scheme and dust emission scheme has been identified to best simulate the dust storm in comparison with observation. Our results highlight the importance of dry deposition schemes for dust simulation.
Dust aerosol can impact many processes of the Earth system, but large uncertainties still remain...