Articles | Volume 13, issue 4
© Author(s) 2020. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
© Author(s) 2020. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
WRF-Chem v3.9 simulations of the East Asian dust storm in May 2017: modeling sensitivities to dust emission and dry deposition schemes
Institute for Climate and Global Change Research and School of Atmospheric Sciences, Nanjing University, 210023 Nanjing, China
Joint International Research Laboratory of Atmospheric and Earth System Sciences & Institute for Climate and Global Change Research, Nanjing University, Nanjing, China
Institute for Climate and Global Change Research and School of Atmospheric Sciences, Nanjing University, 210023 Nanjing, China
Joint International Research Laboratory of Atmospheric and Earth System Sciences & Institute for Climate and Global Change Research, Nanjing University, Nanjing, China
School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230026, China
Key Laboratory for Semi-Arid Climate Change of the Ministry of Education, College of Atmospheric Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, 730000, China
Institute for Climate and Global Change Research and School of Atmospheric Sciences, Nanjing University, 210023 Nanjing, China
Joint International Research Laboratory of Atmospheric and Earth System Sciences & Institute for Climate and Global Change Research, Nanjing University, Nanjing, China
Key Laboratory of Marine Environment and Ecology, Ministry of Education/Institute for Advanced Ocean Study, Ocean University of China, Qingdao, 266100, China
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Feifan Yan, Hang Su, Yafang Cheng, Rujin Huang, Hong Liao, Ting Yang, Yuanyuan Zhu, Shaoqing Zhang, Lifang Sheng, Wenbin Kou, Xinran Zeng, Shengnan Xiang, Xiaohong Yao, Huiwang Gao, and Yang Gao
PM2.5 pollution is a major air quality issue deteriorating human health, and previous studies mostly focus on PM2.5 pollution in regions like North China Plain and Yangtze River Delta. However, the characteristics of PM2.5 concentrations between these two regions are less studied. Focusing on the transport corridor region, we identify an interesting seesaw transport phenomenon with stagnant weather conditions, conducive to PM2.5 accumulation over this region, resulting in large health effects.
Wenxuan Hua, Sijia Lou, Xin Huang, Lian Xue, Ke Ding, Zilin Wang, and Aijun Ding
This preprint is open for discussion and under review for Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP).Short summary
In this study, we diagnose uncertainties in CO and OC emissions from four inventories for seven majorwildfire-prone regions. Uncertainties in vegetation classification methods, fire detection products, and cloud obscuration effects lead to bias in these biomass burning (BB) emission inventories. By comparing simulations with measurements, we provide certain inventory recommendations. Our study has implications for reducing uncertainties in emissions in further studies.
Chupeng Zhang, Shangfei Hai, Yang Gao, Yuhang Wang, Shaoqing Zhang, Lifang Sheng, Bin Zhao, Shuxiao Wang, Jingkun Jiang, Xin Huang, Xiaojing Shen, Junying Sun, Aura Lupascu, Manish Shrivastava, Jerome D. Fast, Wenxuan Cheng, Xiuwen Guo, Ming Chu, Nan Ma, Juan Hong, Qiaoqiao Wang, Xiaohong Yao, and Huiwang Gao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 10713–10730,Short summary
New particle formation is an important source of atmospheric particles, exerting critical influences on global climate. Numerical models are vital tools to understanding atmospheric particle evolution, which, however, suffer from large biases in simulating particle numbers. Here we improve the model chemical processes governing particle sizes and compositions. The improved model reveals substantial contributions of newly formed particles to climate through effects on cloud condensation nuclei.
Shiyi Lai, Ximeng Qi, Xin Huang, Sijia Lou, Xuguang Chi, Liangduo Chen, Chong Liu, Yuliang Liu, Chao Yan, Mengmeng Li, Tengyu Liu, Wei Nie, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, and Aijun Ding
By combining in-situ measurements and chemical transport modeling, this study investigates new particle formation (NPF) in the southeastern Tibetan Plateau. We found that the NPF was driven by the presence of biogenic gases and the transport of anthropogenic precursors. The NPF was vertical heterogeneous and shaped by the vertical mixing. This study highlights the importance of anthropogenic-biogenic interactions and meteorological dynamics in NPF in this climate-sensitive region.
Nan Wang, Hongyue Wang, Xin Huang, Xi Chen, Xiaopu Lyu, Yu Zou, Tao Deng, Tingyuan Li, and Fumo Yang
This study explores the influence of extreme weather-induced natural processes on ozone pollution, which is often overlooked. By analyzing meteorological factors, natural emissions, chemistry pathways, and atmospheric transport, we discovered that these natural processes could substantially exacerbate ozone pollution. The findings contribute to a deeper understanding of ozone pollution and offer valuable insights for controlling ozone pollution in the context of global warming.
Ming Chu, Xing Wei, Shangfei Hai, Yang Gao, Huiwang Gao, Yujiao Zhu, Biwu Chu, Nan Ma, Juan Hong, Yele Sun, and Xiaohong Yao
We used a 20-bin WRF-Chem model to simulate NPF events in the NCP during a three-week observational period in the summer of 2019. The model was able to reproduce the observations during June 29–July 6, which was characterized by a high frequency of NPF occurrence.
Yuyang Li, Jiewen Shen, Bin Zhao, Runlong Cai, Shuxiao Wang, Yang Gao, Manish Shrivastava, Da Gao, Jun Zheng, Markku Kulmala, and Jingkun Jiang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 8789–8804,Short summary
We set up a new parameterization for 1.4 nm particle formation rates from sulfuric acid–dimethylamine (SA–DMA) nucleation, fully including the effects of coagulation scavenging and cluster stability. Incorporating the new parameterization into 3-D chemical transport models, we achieved better consistencies between simulation results and observation data. This new parameterization provides new insights into atmospheric nucleation simulations and its effects on atmospheric pollution or health.
Yawen Liu, Yun Qian, Philip J. Rasch, Kai Zhang, Yuhang Wang, Minghuai Wang, Hailong Wang, and Xiu-Qun Yang
Fire management has long been a challenge. Here we report the spring-peak fire activities over southern Mexico and Central America (SMCA) have a distinct quasi-biennial signal by measuring multiple fire metrics. This signal is initially driven by a quasi-biennial variability of precipitation and is further amplified by positive feedback of fire-precipitation interaction on short timescales. This work highlights the importance of fire-climate interactions in shaping fires on interannual scale.
Guangdong Niu, Ximeng Qi, Liangduo Chen, Lian Xue, Shiyi Lai, Xin Huang, Jiaping Wang, Xuguang Chi, Wei Nie, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, and Aijun Ding
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 7521–7534,Short summary
The reported below-cloud wet-scavenging coefficients (BWSCs) are much higher than theoretical data, but the reason remains unclear. Based on long-term observation, we find that air mass changing during rainfall events causes the overestimation of BWSCs. Thus, the discrepancy in BWSCs between observation and theory is not as large as currently believed. To obtain reasonable BWSCs and parameterizations from field observations, the effect of air mass changes needs to be considered.
Yu Chen, Yue Zhang, Siyu Chen, Ben Yang, Huiping Yan, Jixiang Li, Chao Zhang, Gaotong Lou, Junyan Chen, Lulu Lian, and Chuwei Liu
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for GMDShort summary
The numerical models seriously ignoring the aeolian erosion and dust emission process on the potential sources. Six sets of dynamic dust sources were built by combine surface bareness and topographic feature. Results show that dust sources are closely related to surface exposure and topographic characteristics, which respectively control the spatial distribution and numerical value of dynamic dust sources.
Koichi Sakaguchi, L. Ruby Leung, Colin M. Zarzycki, Jihyeon Jang, Seth McGinnis, Bryce E. Harrop, William C. Skamarock, Andrew Gettelman, Chun Zhao, William J. Gutowski, Stephen Leak, and Linda Mearns
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 3029–3081,Short summary
We document details of the regional climate downscaling dataset produced by a global variable-resolution model. The experiment is unique in that it follows a standard protocol designed for coordinated experiments of regional models. We found negligible influence of post-processing on statistical analysis, importance of simulation quality outside of the target region, and computational challenges that our model code faced due to rapidly changing super computer systems.
Xing Wei, Yanjie Shen, Xiao-Ying Yu, Yang Gao, Huiwang Gao, Ming Chu, Yujiao Zhu, and Xiaohong Yao
To investigate the contribution of grown new particles to Nccn at a rural mountain site in North China Plain. The total particle number concentrations (Ncn) observed on eight NPF days were higher compared to non-NPF days. The Nccn at 0.2 %SS and 0.4 %SS on the NPF days were, however, significantly lower than those observed on non-NPF days. We concluded that grown new particles generally had no detectable contribution to Nccn, but incidentally did.
Chuanhua Ren, Xin Huang, Tengyu Liu, Yu Song, Zhang Wen, Xuejun Liu, Aijun Ding, and Tong Zhu
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 1641–1659,Short summary
Ammonia in the atmosphere has wide impacts on the ecological environment and air quality, and its emission from soil volatilization is highly sensitive to meteorology, making it challenging to be well captured in models. We developed a dynamic emission model capable of calculating ammonia emission interactively with meteorological and soil conditions. Such a coupling of soil emission with meteorology provides a better understanding of ammonia emission and its contribution to atmospheric aerosol.
Huanhuan Zhang, Rui Li, Chengpeng Huang, Xiaofei Li, Shuwei Dong, Fu Wang, Tingting Li, Yizhu Chen, Guohua Zhang, Yan Ren, Qingcai Chen, Ru-jin Huang, Siyu Chen, Tao Xue, Xinming Wang, and Mingjin Tang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 3543–3559,Short summary
This work investigated the seasonal variation of aerosol Fe solubility for coarse and fine particles in Xi’an, a megacity in northwestern China severely affected by anthropogenic emission and desert dust aerosol. In addition, we discussed in depth what controlled aerosol Fe solubility at different seasons for coarse and fine particles.
Hongxia Zhu, Rui Li, Shuping Yang, Chun Zhao, Zhe Jiang, and Chen Huang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2421–2437,Short summary
The impacts of atmospheric dust aerosols and cloud dynamic conditions on precipitation vertical development in southeastern China were studied using multiple satellite observations. It was found that the precipitating drops under dusty conditions grow faster in the middle layer but slower in the upper and lower layers compared with their pristine counterparts. Quantitative estimation of the sensitivity of the precipitation top temperature to the dust aerosol optical depth is also provided.
Zhenming Wang, Shaoqing Zhang, Yishuai Jin, Yinglai Jia, Yangyang Yu, Yang Gao, Xiaolin Yu, Mingkui Li, Xiaopei Lin, and Lixin Wu
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 705–717,Short summary
To improve the numerical model predictability of monthly extended-range scales, we use the simplified slab ocean model (SOM) to restrict the complicated sea surface temperature (SST) bias from a 3-D dynamical ocean model. As for SST prediction, whether in space or time, the WRF-SOM is verified to have better performance than the WRF-ROMS, which has a significant impact on the atmosphere. For extreme weather events such as typhoons, the predictions of WRF-SOM are in good agreement with WRF-ROMS.
Yu Lin, Leiming Zhang, Qinchu Fan, He Meng, Yang Gao, Huiwang Gao, and Xiaohong Yao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 16073–16090,Short summary
In this study, we analyzed 7-year (from May 2014 to April 2021) concentration data of six criteria air pollutants (PM2.5, PM10, O3, NO2, CO and SO2) as well as the sum of NO2 and O3 in six cities in South China. Three different analysis methods were used to identify emission-driven interannual variations and perturbations from varying weather conditions. In addition, a self-developed method was further introduced to constrain analysis uncertainties.
Yangyang Yu, Shaoqing Zhang, Haohuan Fu, Lixin Wu, Dexun Chen, Yang Gao, Zhiqiang Wei, Dongning Jia, and Xiaopei Lin
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 6695–6708,Short summary
To understand the scientific consequence of perturbations caused by slave cores in heterogeneous computing environments, we examine the influence of perturbation amplitudes on the determination of the cloud bottom and cloud top and compute the probability density function (PDF) of generated clouds. A series of comparisons of the PDFs between homogeneous and heterogeneous systems show consistently acceptable error tolerances when using slave cores in heterogeneous computing environments.
Xueyin Ruan, Chun Zhao, Rahul A. Zaveri, Pengzhen He, Xinming Wang, Jingyuan Shao, and Lei Geng
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 6143–6164,Short summary
Accurate prediction of aerosol pH in chemical transport models is essential to aerosol modeling. This study examines the performance of the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) on aerosol pH predictions and the sensitivities to emissions of nonvolatile cations and NH3, aerosol-phase state assumption, and heterogeneous sulfate production. Temporal evolution of aerosol pH during haze cycles in Beijing and the driving factors are also presented and discussed.
Kai Zhang, Wentao Zhang, Hui Wan, Philip J. Rasch, Steven J. Ghan, Richard C. Easter, Xiangjun Shi, Yong Wang, Hailong Wang, Po-Lun Ma, Shixuan Zhang, Jian Sun, Susannah M. Burrows, Manish Shrivastava, Balwinder Singh, Yun Qian, Xiaohong Liu, Jean-Christophe Golaz, Qi Tang, Xue Zheng, Shaocheng Xie, Wuyin Lin, Yan Feng, Minghuai Wang, Jin-Ho Yoon, and L. Ruby Leung
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9129–9160,Short summary
Here we analyze the effective aerosol forcing simulated by E3SM version 1 using both century-long free-running and short nudged simulations. The aerosol forcing in E3SMv1 is relatively large compared to other models, mainly due to the large indirect aerosol effect. Aerosol-induced changes in liquid and ice cloud properties in E3SMv1 have a strong correlation. The aerosol forcing estimates in E3SMv1 are sensitive to the parameterization changes in both liquid and ice cloud processes.
Xiajie Yang, Qiaoqiao Wang, Nan Ma, Weiwei Hu, Yang Gao, Zhijiong Huang, Junyu Zheng, Bin Yuan, Ning Yang, Jiangchuan Tao, Juan Hong, Yafang Cheng, and Hang Su
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3743–3762,Short summary
We use the GEOS-Chem model with additional anthropogenic and biomass burning chlorine emissions combined with updated parameterizations for N2O5 ＋ Cl chemistry to investigate the impacts of chlorine chemistry on air quality in China. Our study not only significantly improves the model's performance but also demonstrates the importance of non-sea-salt chlorine sources as well as an appropriate parameterization for N2O5 ＋ Cl chemistry to the impact of chlorine chemistry in China.
Yating Gao, Dihui Chen, Yanjie Shen, Yang Gao, Huiwang Gao, and Xiaohong Yao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 1515–1528,Short summary
This study focuses on spatiotemporal heterogeneity of observed gaseous amines, NH3, their particulate counterparts in PM2.5 over different sea zones, and the disproportional release of alkaline gases and corresponding particulate counterparts from seawater in the sea zones in terms of different extents of enrichment of TMAH+ and DMAH+ in the sea surface microlayer (SML). A novel hypothesis is delivered.
Xiaodong Wang, Chun Zhao, Mingyue Xu, Qiuyan Du, Jianqiu Zheng, Yun Bi, Shengfu Lin, and Yali Luo
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 199–218,Short summary
Regional models are widely used to investigate aerosol climatic impacts. However, there are few studies examining the sensitivities of modeling results to regional domain size. In this study, the regional model is used to study the aerosol impacts on the East Asian summer monsoon system and focus on the modeling sensitivities to domain size. This study highlights the important impacts of domain size on regional modeling results of aerosol climatic impacts, which may not be limited to East Asia.
Ying Zhou, Simo Hakala, Chao Yan, Yang Gao, Xiaohong Yao, Biwu Chu, Tommy Chan, Juha Kangasluoma, Shahzad Gani, Jenni Kontkanen, Pauli Paasonen, Yongchun Liu, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, and Lubna Dada
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 17885–17906,Short summary
We characterized the connection between new particle formation (NPF) events in terms of frequency, intensity and growth at a near-highway location in central Beijing and at a background mountain site 80 km away. Due to the substantial contribution of NPF to the global aerosol budget, identifying the conditions that promote the occurrence of regional NPF events could help understand their contribution on a large scale and would improve their implementation in global models.
Dihui Chen, Yanjie Shen, Juntao Wang, Yang Gao, Huiwang Gao, and Xiaohong Yao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 16413–16425,Short summary
The study provides solid evidence to demonstrate that atmospheric trimethylamine (TMAgas) and particulate trimethylaminium in PM2.5 (TMAH+) observed in marine atmospheres were uniquely derived from seawater emissions. As sea-derived TMAgas correlated significantly with DMAgas and NH3gas, sea-derived DMAgas and NH3gas can be estimated and can quantify the contribution to the observed species in the marine atmosphere. Similarly, the contributions of primary DMAH+ have also been estimated.
Mingshuai Zhang, Chun Zhao, Yuhan Yang, Qiuyan Du, Yonglin Shen, Shengfu Lin, Dasa Gu, Wenjing Su, and Cheng Liu
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 6155–6175,Short summary
Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) can influence atmospheric chemistry and secondary pollutant formation. This study examines the performance of different versions of the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN) in modeling BVOCs and ozone and their sensitivities to vegetation distributions over eastern China. The results suggest more accurate vegetation distribution and measurements of BVOC emission fluxes are needed to reduce the uncertainties.
Yaman Liu, Xinyi Dong, Minghuai Wang, Louisa K. Emmons, Yawen Liu, Yuan Liang, Xiao Li, and Manish Shrivastava
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8003–8021,Short summary
Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is considered one of the most important uncertainties in climate modeling. We evaluate SOA performance in the Community Earth System Model version 2.1 (CESM2.1) configured with the Community Atmosphere Model version 6 with chemistry (CAM6-Chem) through a long-term simulation (1988–2019) with observations in the United States, which indicates monoterpene-formed SOA contributes most to the overestimation of SOA at the surface and underestimation in the upper air.
Yang Yang, Yu Zhao, Lei Zhang, Jie Zhang, Xin Huang, Xuefen Zhao, Yan Zhang, Mengxiao Xi, and Yi Lu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1191–1209,Short summary
We conducted new NOx emission estimation based on the satellite-derived NO2 column constraint and found reduced emissions compared to previous estimates for a developed region in east China. The subsequent improvement in air quality modeling was demonstrated based on available ground observations. With multiple emission reduction cases for various pollutants, we explored the effective control approaches for ozone and inorganic aerosol pollution.
Liya Ma, Yujiao Zhu, Mei Zheng, Yele Sun, Lei Huang, Xiaohuan Liu, Yang Gao, Yanjie Shen, Huiwang Gao, and Xiaohong Yao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 183–200,Short summary
In this study, we investigate three patterns of new particles growing to CCN (cloud condensation nuclei) size, i.e., one-stage growth and two-stage growth-A and growth-B patterns. Combining the observations of gaseous pollutants and measured or modeled particulate chemical species, the three growth patterns were discussed regarding the spatial heterogeneity, formation of secondary aerosols, and evaporation of semivolatile particulates as was the survival probability of new particles to CCN size.
Zhuang Wang, Cheng Liu, Zhouqing Xie, Qihou Hu, Meinrat O. Andreae, Yunsheng Dong, Chun Zhao, Ting Liu, Yizhi Zhu, Haoran Liu, Chengzhi Xing, Wei Tan, Xiangguang Ji, Jinan Lin, and Jianguo Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14917–14932,Short summary
Significant stratification of aerosols was observed in North China. Polluted dust dominated above the PBL, and anthropogenic aerosols prevailed within the PBL, which is mainly driven by meteorological conditions. The key role of the elevated dust is to alter atmospheric thermodynamics and stability, causing the suppression of turbulence exchange and a decrease in PBL height, especially during the dissipation stage, thereby inhibiting dissipation of persistent heavy surface haze pollution.
Stefan Rahimi, Xiaohong Liu, Chun Zhao, Zheng Lu, and Zachary J. Lebo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10911–10935,Short summary
Dark particles emitted to the atmosphere can absorb sunlight and heat the air. As these particles settle, they may darken the surface, especially over snow-covered regions like the Rocky Mountains. This darkening of the surface may lead to changes in snowpack, affecting the local meteorology and hydrology. We seek to evaluate whether these light-absorbing particles more prominently affect this region through their atmospheric presence or their on-snow presence.
Yang Gao, Deqiang Zhang, Juntao Wang, Huiwang Gao, and Xiaohong Yao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9665–9677,Short summary
Through the cruise campaign conducted over marginal seas in China, we found that the concentrations of condensation nuclei (Ncn) and cloud condensation nuclei (Nccn) were 1 order of magnitude larger than those in remote clear marine atmospheres, indicating overwhelming contributions from marine traffic emissions and long-range continental transport. Moreover, we derived regression equations used to estimate Ncn and Nccn from SO2 when the direct observations of Ncn and Nccn are not available.
Rong Tang, Xin Huang, Derong Zhou, and Aijun Ding
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 6177–6191,Short summary
Biomass-burning-induced large areas of dark char (i.e.
surface darkening) could influence the radiative energy balance. During the harvest season in eastern China, satellite retrieval shows that surface albedo was significantly decreased. Observational evidence of meteorological perturbations from the surface darkening is identified, which is further examined by model simulation. This work highlights the importance of burning-induced albedo change in weather forecast and regional climate.
Zhi-Zhen Ni, Kun Luo, Yang Gao, Xiang Gao, Fei Jiang, Cheng Huang, Jian-Ren Fan, Joshua S. Fu, and Chang-Hong Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5963–5976,Short summary
The Weather Research Forecast with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model was used to simulate spatial and temporal O3 evolution in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region. Various atmospheric processes were analyzed to determine the influential factors of ozone formation through the integrated process rate method. This paper provides insight into urban O3 formation and dispersion during tropical cyclone events and supports the Model Intercomparison Study Asia Phase III (MICS-Asia Phase III).
Meixin Zhang, Chun Zhao, Zhiyuan Cong, Qiuyan Du, Mingyue Xu, Yu Chen, Ming Chen, Rui Li, Yunfei Fu, Lei Zhong, Shichang Kang, Delong Zhao, and Yan Yang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5923–5943,Short summary
Analysis of multiple numerical experiments over the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau (TP) shows that the complex topography results in 50 % stronger overall cross-Himalayan transport during the pre-monsoon season primarily due to the strengthened efficiency of near-surface meridional transport towards the TP, enhanced wind speed in some valleys and deeper valley channels associated with larger transported BC mass volume, which leads to 30–50 % stronger BC radiative heating over the TP.
Xiadong An, Lifang Sheng, Qian Liu, Chun Li, Yang Gao, and Jianping Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4667–4680,Short summary
Severe haze occurred in the North China Plain (NCP) in November to December 2015. We found that the two Rossby waveguides within the westerly jet originating from the Mediterranean were responsible for the haze formation in the NCP. The weak East Asia winter monsoon and anomalous circulation with ascending motion over southern China and descending motion over the NCP related to the two Rossby waveguides, which modulated haze accumulation and favored the maintenance of severe haze.
Yu Zhao, Mengchen Yuan, Xin Huang, Feng Chen, and Jie Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4275–4294,Short summary
We estimated the ammonia emissions based on the constant emission factors and those characterizing the agricultural processes for the Yangtze River Delta, China. The discrepancies between the two estimates and their causes were analyzed. Based on ground and satellite observations, the two estimates were evaluated with air quality modeling. This work indicates ways to improve the emission estimation and helps better understand the necessity of multi-pollutant control strategy.
Qiuyan Du, Chun Zhao, Mingshuai Zhang, Xue Dong, Yu Chen, Zhen Liu, Zhiyuan Hu, Qiang Zhang, Yubin Li, Renmin Yuan, and Shiguang Miao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2839–2863,Short summary
Simulated diurnal PM2.5 with WRF-Chem is primarily controlled by planetary boundary layer (PBL) mixing and emission variations. Modeling bias is likely primarily due to inefficient PBL mixing of primary PM2.5 during the night. The increase in PBL mixing strength during the night can significantly reduce biases. This study underscores that more effort is needed to improve the boundary mixing processes of pollutants in models with observations of PBL structure and mixing fluxes besides PBL height.
Zhiyuan Hu, Jianping Huang, Chun Zhao, Qinjian Jin, Yuanyuan Ma, and Ben Yang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1507–1529,Short summary
This study investigates intercontinental transport of dust plums and distribution characteristics of dust at different altitudes over the Tibetan Plateau (TP). The results show that dust particles are emitted into atmosphere and then transport to the TP. The East Asian dust trasnports southward and is lifted up to the TP in northern slop, while the North Afican dust and Middle East dust transport eastward and concentrate in both northern and southern slops, then is lifted up to the TP.
Adeyemi A. Adebiyi, Jasper F. Kok, Yang Wang, Akinori Ito, David A. Ridley, Pierre Nabat, and Chun Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 829–863,Short summary
Although atmospheric dust particles produce significant impacts on the Earth system, most climate models still have difficulty representing the basic processes that affect these particles. In this study, we present new constraints on dust properties that consistently outperform the conventional climate models, when compared to independent measurements. As a result, our constraints can be used to improve climate models or serve as an alternative in constraining dust impacts on the Earth system.
Edward Gryspeerdt, Johannes Mülmenstädt, Andrew Gettelman, Florent F. Malavelle, Hugh Morrison, David Neubauer, Daniel G. Partridge, Philip Stier, Toshihiko Takemura, Hailong Wang, Minghuai Wang, and Kai Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 613–623,Short summary
Aerosol radiative forcing is a key uncertainty in our understanding of the human forcing of the climate, with much of this uncertainty coming from aerosol impacts on clouds. Observation-based estimates of the radiative forcing are typically smaller than those from global models, but it is not clear if they are more reliable. This work shows how the forcing components in global climate models can be identified, highlighting similarities between the two methods and areas for future investigation.
Zhen Liu, Yi Ming, Chun Zhao, Ngar Cheung Lau, Jianping Guo, Massimo Bollasina, and Steve Hung Lam Yim
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 223–241,Short summary
OH and HO2 radicals are important trace constituents of the atmosphere that are closely coupled via several types of reaction. This paper describes a new laboratory method to simultaneously determine OH kinetics and HO2 yields from chemical processes. The instrument also provides some time resolution on HO2 detection allowing one to separate HO2 produced from the target reaction from HO2 arising from secondary chemistry. Examples of applications are presented.
Yicheng Shen, Aki Virkkula, Aijun Ding, Krista Luoma, Helmi Keskinen, Pasi P. Aalto, Xuguang Chi, Ximeng Qi, Wei Nie, Xin Huang, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, and Veli-Matti Kerminen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 15483–15502,Short summary
Long-term cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) number concentration (NCCN) data are scarce; there are a lot more data on aerosol optical properties (AOPs). It is therefore valuable to derive parameterizations for estimating NCCN from AOP measurements. With the new parameterization NCCN can be estimated from backscatter fraction, scattering Ångström exponent, and total light-scattering coefficient. The NCCN–AOP relationships depend on the geometric mean diameter and the width of the size distribution.
Zhiyuan Hu, Jianping Huang, Chun Zhao, Yuanyuan Ma, Qinjian Jin, Yun Qian, L. Ruby Leung, Jianrong Bi, and Jianmin Ma
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12709–12730,Short summary
This study investigates aerosol chemical compositions and relative contributions to total aerosols in the western US. The results show that trans-Pacific aerosols have a maximum concentration in the boreal spring, with the greatest contribution from dust. Over western North America, the trans-Pacific aerosols dominate the column-integrated aerosol mass and number concentration. However, near the surface, aerosols mainly originated from local emissions.
Mingchen Ma, Yang Gao, Yuhang Wang, Shaoqing Zhang, L. Ruby Leung, Cheng Liu, Shuxiao Wang, Bin Zhao, Xing Chang, Hang Su, Tianqi Zhang, Lifang Sheng, Xiaohong Yao, and Huiwang Gao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12195–12207,Short summary
Ozone pollution has become severe in China, and extremely high ozone episodes occurred in summer 2017 over the North China Plain. While meteorology impacts are clear, we find that enhanced biogenic emissions, previously ignored by the community, driven by high vapor pressure deficit, land cover change and urban landscape contribute substantially to ozone formation. This study has significant implications for ozone pollution control with more frequent heat waves and urbanization growth in future.
Aijun Ding, Xin Huang, Wei Nie, Xuguang Chi, Zheng Xu, Longfei Zheng, Zhengning Xu, Yuning Xie, Ximeng Qi, Yicheng Shen, Peng Sun, Jiaping Wang, Lei Wang, Jianning Sun, Xiu-Qun Yang, Wei Qin, Xiangzhi Zhang, Wei Cheng, Weijing Liu, Liangbao Pan, and Congbin Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 11791–11801,Short summary
Based on continuous measurement at the SORPES statin in Nanjing, eastern China, we report the trend of PM2.5 and relevant chemical species there during 2011–2018. We found significant reduction of PM2.5 in both winter and early summer due to emission reduction of fossil-fuel combustion and open biomass burning, respectively. Reduction of fossil-fuel combustions contributed to 76 % of the wintertime PM2.5 decrease, with the remaining 24 % being caused by the change of meteorology.
Juntao Wang, Yanjie Shen, Kai Li, Yang Gao, Huiwang Gao, and Xiaohong Yao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 8845–8861,Short summary
In this paper, we studied the spatiotemporal variability of Ncn and particle number size distributions, as well as Nccn and CCN activities over the NWPO in the spring of 2014. We found that a pool of nucleation-mode atmospheric particles is aloft over the NWPO. Through comprehensive comparison with observations in the literature, we illustrate the characteristics of Ncn and Nccn over the NWPO in 2014 and reveal their changes against the results measured two decades ago.
Chun Zhao, Mingyue Xu, Yu Wang, Meixin Zhang, Jianping Guo, Zhiyuan Hu, L. Ruby Leung, Michael Duda, and William Skamarock
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 2707–2726,Short summary
Simulations at global uniform and variable resolutions share similar characteristics of precipitation and wind in the refined region. The experiments reveal the significant impacts of resolution on simulating the distribution and intensity of precipitation and updrafts. This study provides evidence supporting the use of convection-permitting global variable-resolution simulations to study extreme precipitation.
Qiuji Ding, Jianning Sun, Xin Huang, Aijun Ding, Jun Zou, Xiuqun Yang, and Congbin Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 7759–7774,Short summary
Aerosol plays an important role in advection–radiation fog formation in eastern China though stabilizing atmospheric stratification and enhancing onshore flow. For the fog–haze episode in December 2013, the effect of aerosol–radiation interaction overwhelmed that of aerosol–cloud interaction. Light-absorbing aerosol like black carbon was more crucial than scattering aerosols. This paper highlights the importance of interaction among aerosol, regional circulation and boundary layer.
Zhibo Zhang, Hua Song, Po-Lun Ma, Vincent E. Larson, Minghuai Wang, Xiquan Dong, and Jianwu Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 1077–1096,
Junxi Zhang, Yang Gao, L. Ruby Leung, Kun Luo, Huan Liu, Jean-Francois Lamarque, Jianren Fan, Xiaohong Yao, Huiwang Gao, and Tatsuya Nagashima
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 887–900,Short summary
ACCMIP simulations were used to study NOy deposition over East Asia in the future. Both dry and wet NOy deposition show significant decreases in the 2100s under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 due to large anthropogenic emission reduction. The changes in climate only significantly affect the wet deposition primarily linked to changes in precipitation. Over the coastal seas of China, weaker transport of NOy from land due to emission reduction infers a larger impact from shipping and lightning emissions.
Ge Zhang, Yang Gao, Wenju Cai, L. Ruby Leung, Shuxiao Wang, Bin Zhao, Minghuai Wang, Huayao Shan, Xiaohong Yao, and Huiwang Gao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 565–576,Short summary
Based on observed data, this study reveals a distinct seesaw feature of abnormally high and low PM2.5 concentrations in December 2015 and January 2016 over North China. The mechanism of the seesaw pattern was found to be linked to a super El Niño and the Arctic Oscillation (AO). During the mature phase of El Niño in December 2015, the weakened East Asian winter monsoon favors strong haze formation; however, the circulation pattern was reversed in the next month due to the phase change of the AO.
Yujiao Zhu, Kai Li, Yanjie Shen, Yang Gao, Xiaohuan Liu, Yang Yu, Huiwang Gao, and Xiaohong Yao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 89–113,Short summary
In this paper, we investigate new particle formation (NPF) events during seven cruises. NPF events were observed on 25 days and were most likely associated with the long-range transport of anthropogenic air pollutants. The relationship between the net generated amount of new particles and their apparent formation rate is established and explained in terms of the roles of different vapor precursors. The survival probability of new particles to CCN size is also discussed.
Mingxu Liu, Xin Huang, Yu Song, Tingting Xu, Shuxiao Wang, Zhijun Wu, Min Hu, Lin Zhang, Qiang Zhang, Yuepeng Pan, Xuejun Liu, and Tong Zhu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17933–17943,
Peng Sun, Wei Nie, Xuguang Chi, Yuning Xie, Xin Huang, Zheng Xu, Ximeng Qi, Zhengning Xu, Lei Wang, Tianyi Wang, Qi Zhang, and Aijun Ding
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17177–17190,Short summary
A total of 2 years of online measurement of particulate nitrate was conducted at the SORPES station in the western Yangtze River Delta, eastern China. Nitrate was found to be the major driver of haze pollution and behaved differently in different seasons. In summer, thermodynamic equilibrium and photochemical processes controlled nitrate formation. In winter, N2O5 hydrolysis was demonstrated to be a major contributor to the nitrate episodes.
Derong Zhou, Ke Ding, Xin Huang, Lixia Liu, Qiang Liu, Zhengning Xu, Fei Jiang, Congbin Fu, and Aijun Ding
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 16345–16361,Short summary
We investigate the vertical distribution, transport characteristics, source contribution and meteorological feedback of dust, biomass burning and fossil fuel combustion aerosols for a unique pollution episode that occurred in late March 2015 in eastern Asia, based on various measurement data and modeling methods. We found that cold front played an important role in the long-range transport of different pollutants and caused a three-layer vertical structure of pollutants over eastern China.
Ximeng Qi, Aijun Ding, Pontus Roldin, Zhengning Xu, Putian Zhou, Nina Sarnela, Wei Nie, Xin Huang, Anton Rusanen, Mikael Ehn, Matti P. Rissanen, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, and Michael Boy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11779–11791,Short summary
In this study we simulate the HOM concentrations and discuss their roles in NPF at a remote boreal forest site in Finland and a suburban site in eastern China. We found that sulfuric acid and HOM organonitrate concentrations in the gas phase are significantly higher but other HOM monomers and dimers from monoterpene oxidation are lower in eastern China. This study highlights the need for molecular-scale measurements in improving the understanding of NPF mechanisms in polluted areas.
Hua Song, Zhibo Zhang, Po-Lun Ma, Steven Ghan, and Minghuai Wang
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 3147–3158,
Junxi Zhang, Yang Gao, Kun Luo, L. Ruby Leung, Yang Zhang, Kai Wang, and Jianren Fan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 9861–9877,Short summary
We used a regional model to investigate the impact of atmosphere with high temperature and low wind speed on ozone concentration. When these compound events (heat waves and stagnant weather) occur simultaneously, a striking ozone enhancement is revealed. This type of compound event is projected to increase more dominantly compared to single events in the future over the US, Europe, and China, implying the importance of reducing emissions in order to alleviate the impact from the compound events.
Jiaping Wang, Wei Nie, Yafang Cheng, Yicheng Shen, Xuguang Chi, Jiandong Wang, Xin Huang, Yuning Xie, Peng Sun, Zheng Xu, Ximeng Qi, Hang Su, and Aijun Ding
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 9061–9074,Short summary
An optimized segregation method is applied to estimate light absorption of brown carbon (BrC) in Nanjing. This study highlights the considerable contribution of BrC to light absorption in the Yangtze River Delta region, China, and depicts its long-term profile in this region for the first time. Lagrangian modeling and the chemical signature observed at the site suggested that open biomass burning and residential emissions are the dominant sources influencing BrC in the two highest BrC seasons.
Pei Hou, Shiliang Wu, Jessica L. McCarty, and Yang Gao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 8173–8182,Short summary
Atmospheric aerosols can be affected not only by emissions, but also meteorology, in particular precipitation. Analyses of the historical meteorological data based on multiple datasets show significant changes in precipitation characteristics, including precipitation intensity and frequency, over various regions around the world. We find that the precipitation changes over the past 30 years can easily lead to perturbations in atmospheric aerosols by 10 % or higher at the regional scale.
Longtao Wu, Yu Gu, Jonathan H. Jiang, Hui Su, Nanpeng Yu, Chun Zhao, Yun Qian, Bin Zhao, Kuo-Nan Liou, and Yong-Sang Choi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 5529–5547,
Yicheng Shen, Aki Virkkula, Aijun Ding, Jiaping Wang, Xuguang Chi, Wei Nie, Ximeng Qi, Xin Huang, Qiang Liu, Longfei Zheng, Zheng Xu, Tuukka Petäjä, Pasi P. Aalto, Congbin Fu, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 5265–5292,Short summary
Aerosol optical properties (AOPs) were measured at SORPES, a regional background station in Nanjing, China from June 2013 to May 2015. The aerosol was highly scattering. The single-scattering albedo in Nanjing appears to be slightly higher than at several other sites. The data do not suggest any significant contribution to absorption by brown carbon. The sources of high values are mainly in eastern China. During pollution episodes, pollutant concentrations increased gradually but decreased fast.
Zhi-zhen Ni, Kun Luo, Yang Gao, Fei Jiang, Xiang Gao, Jian-ren Fan, and Chang-hong Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
A unique mechanism was found to modulate the high ozone episodes in Hangzhou during G20 summit: Driven by tropical cyclone convergence, prevailing north winds brought in emission sources; with invasion of tropical cycle, subsidence air and stagnant weather was induced, as well as the urban heat island effect, intensifying the ozone enhancement. Different atmospheric processes were further analyzed to elucidate the control factors of ozone formation through integrated process rate method.
Zilin Wang, Xin Huang, and Aijun Ding
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2821–2834,Short summary
Black carbon has great importance in aerosol–boundary layer interaction (the
dome effect). Key factors like vertical profile and aging of aerosol, and underlying surface, are explored with a meteorology–chemistry coupled model. We found the effect to be sensitive to altitude of aerosol and can be intensified by aging processes. The effect is also more substantial in rural areas. China’s air quality would benefit from black carbon reduction from elevated sources and domestic combustion.
Heming Bai, Cheng Gong, Minghuai Wang, Zhibo Zhang, and Tristan L'Ecuyer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 1763–1783,Short summary
Precipitation susceptibility to aerosol perturbation plays a key role in understanding aerosol–cloud interactions and for constraining aerosol indirect effects. Here, multisensor aerosol and cloud products from A-Train satellites are analyzed to estimate precipitation susceptibility. Compared to precipitation intensity susceptibility, precipitation frequency susceptibility demonstrates relatively robust features across different retrieval products.
Chengzhi Xing, Cheng Liu, Shanshan Wang, Ka Lok Chan, Yang Gao, Xin Huang, Wenjing Su, Chengxin Zhang, Yunsheng Dong, Guangqiang Fan, Tianshu Zhang, Zhenyi Chen, Qihou Hu, Hang Su, Zhouqing Xie, and Jianguo Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 14275–14289,Short summary
Vertical profiles of the aerosol extinction coefficient and NO2 and HCHO concentrations were retrieved from MAX-DOAS measurement, while vertical distribution of O3 was obtained using ozone lidar. The measured O3 vertical distribution indicates that the ozone production not only occurs at surface level but also at higher altitudes (about 1.1 km), which are not directly related to horizontal and vertical transportation but are mainly influenced by the abundance of VOCs in the lower troposphere.
Siyu Chen, Jianping Huang, Nanxuan Jiang, Zhou Zang, Xiaodan Guan, Xiaojun Ma, Zhuo Jia, Xiaorui Zhang, Yanting Zhang, Kangning Huang, Xiaocong Xu, Guolong Zhang, Jiming Li, Ran Yang, and Shujie Liao
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
Mingjin Tang, Xin Huang, Keding Lu, Maofa Ge, Yongjie Li, Peng Cheng, Tong Zhu, Aijun Ding, Yuanhang Zhang, Sasho Gligorovski, Wei Song, Xiang Ding, Xinhui Bi, and Xinming Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 11727–11777,Short summary
We provide a comprehensive and critical review of laboratory studies of heterogeneous uptake of OH, NO3, O3, and their directly related species by mineral dust particles. The atmospheric importance of heterogeneous uptake as sinks for these species is also assessed. In addition, we have outlined major open questions and challenges in this field and discussed research strategies to address them.
Yujiao Zhu, Caiqing Yan, Renyi Zhang, Zifa Wang, Mei Zheng, Huiwang Gao, Yang Gao, and Xiaohong Yao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 9469–9484,Short summary
This study reports the distinct effects of street canyons on new particle formation (NPF) under warm or cold ambient temperature conditions because of on-road vehicle emissions; i.e., stronger condensation sinks are responsible for the reduced NPF in the springtime, but efficient nucleation and partitioning of gaseous species contribute to the enhanced NPF in the wintertime. The oxidization of biogenic organics is suggested to play an important role in growing new particles.
Longtao Wu, Hui Su, Olga V. Kalashnikova, Jonathan H. Jiang, Chun Zhao, Michael J. Garay, James R. Campbell, and Nanpeng Yu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 7291–7309,Short summary
The WRF-Chem simulation successfully captures aerosol variations in the cold season in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV) but has poor performance in the warm season. High-resolution model simulation can better resolve nonhomogeneous distribution of anthropogenic emissions in urban areas, resulting in better simulation of aerosols in the cold season in the SJV. Poor performance of the WRF-Chem model in the warm season in the SJV is mainly due to misrepresentation of dust emission and vertical mixing.
Shi Zhong, Yun Qian, Chun Zhao, Ruby Leung, Hailong Wang, Ben Yang, Jiwen Fan, Huiping Yan, Xiu-Qun Yang, and Dongqing Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 5439–5457,Short summary
An online climate–chemistry coupled model (WRF-Chem) is integrated for 5 years at cloud-permitting scale to quantify the impacts of urbanization-induced changes in land cover and pollutants emission on regional climate in the Yangtze River Delta region in eastern China. Urbanization over this region increases the frequency of extreme precipitation and heat wave in summer. The results could help China government in making policies in mitigating the environmental impact of urbanization.
Huan Yao, Yu Song, Mingxu Liu, Scott Archer-Nicholls, Douglas Lowe, Gordon McFiggans, Tingting Xu, Pin Du, Jianfeng Li, Yusheng Wu, Min Hu, Chun Zhao, and Tong Zhu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 5205–5219,
Wei Nie, Juan Hong, Silja A. K. Häme, Aijun Ding, Yugen Li, Chao Yan, Liqing Hao, Jyri Mikkilä, Longfei Zheng, Yuning Xie, Caijun Zhu, Zheng Xu, Xuguang Chi, Xin Huang, Yang Zhou, Peng Lin, Annele Virtanen, Douglas R. Worsnop, Markku Kulmala, Mikael Ehn, Jianzhen Yu, Veli-Matti Kerminen, and Tuukka Petäjä
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 3659–3672,Short summary
HULIS are demonstrated to be important low-volatility, or even extremely low volatility, compounds in the organic aerosol phase. This sheds new light on the connection between atmospheric HULIS and ELVOCs. The interaction between HULIS and ammonium sulfate was found to decrease the volatility of the HULIS part in HULIS-AS mixed samples, indicating multiphase processes have the potential to lower the volatility of organic compounds in the aerosol phase.
Jiaping Wang, Aki Virkkula, Yuan Gao, Shuncheng Lee, Yicheng Shen, Xuguang Chi, Wei Nie, Qiang Liu, Zheng Xu, Xin Huang, Tao Wang, Long Cui, and Aijun Ding
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 2653–2671,Short summary
Multi-year observations at a coastal station in Hong Kong reveals that aerosol optical properties showed clear temporal variations according to the dominant sources of aerosols. LPDM modeling and correlation analysis gave similar signals about the freshness of aerosols during different seasons. Fresh emissions of particles from nearby cities and ship exhausts affected light optical properties and particle size in summer and aged air mass in winter caused larger variability of light extinction.
Siyu Chen, Jianping Huang, Litai Kang, Hao Wang, Xiaojun Ma, Yongli He, Tiangang Yuan, Ben Yang, Zhongwei Huang, and Guolong Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 2401–2421,Short summary
Compared with the TD dust, the importance of the GD dust in eastern China, Japan, and Korea is always neglected. We focused primarily on the dynamic and thermodynamics mechanisms of dust emission and transport over TD and GD and further elucidate the influence of TD and GD dust on the entire East Asia based on a case study using WRF-Chem model in the study.
Jiming Li, Qiaoyi Lv, Min Zhang, Tianhe Wang, Kazuaki Kawamoto, Siyu Chen, and Beidou Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 1847–1863,Short summary
The present study investigates the effects of atmospheric dynamics on the supercooled liquid cloud fraction (SCF) during nighttime under different aerosol loadings at global scale to better understand the conditions of supercooled liquid water gradually transforming to ice phase. Statistical results indicate that aerosols’ effect on nucleation cannot fully explain all SCF changes, and so meteorological parameter also should be considered in futher parameterization of the cloud phase.
David A. Ridley, Colette L. Heald, Jasper F. Kok, and Chun Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 15097–15117,Short summary
Mineral dust aerosol affects climate through interaction with radiation and clouds, human health through contribution to particulate matter, and ecosystem health through nutrient transport and deposition. In this study, we use satellite and in situ retrievals to derive an observational estimate of the global dust AOD with which evaluate modeled dust AOD. Differences in the seasonality and regional distribution of dust AOD between observations and models are highlighted.
Cheng Zhou, Joyce E. Penner, Guangxing Lin, Xiaohong Liu, and Minghuai Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 12411–12424,Short summary
We examined the different ice nucleation parameterization factors that affect the simulated ice number concentrations in cirrus clouds in the upper troposphere using the CAM5 model. We examined the effect from three different updraft velocities (from low to high), two different water vapour accommodation coefficients (α = 0.1 or 1), the effect of including vapour deposition onto pre-existing ice particles during ice nucleation, and the effect of including SOA as heterogeneous ice nuclei.
Xin Huang, Aijun Ding, Lixia Liu, Qiang Liu, Ke Ding, Xiaorui Niu, Wei Nie, Zheng Xu, Xuguang Chi, Minghuai Wang, Jianning Sun, Weidong Guo, and Congbin Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 10063–10082,Short summary
We conducted a comprehensive modelling work to understand the impact of biomass burning on synoptic weather during agricultural burning season in East China. We demonstrated that the numerical model with fire emission, chemical processes, and aerosol–meteorology online coupled could reproduce the change of air temperature and precipitation induced by air pollution during this event. This study highlights the importance of including human activities in numerical-model-based weather forecast.
Chun Zhao, Maoyi Huang, Jerome D. Fast, Larry K. Berg, Yun Qian, Alex Guenther, Dasa Gu, Manish Shrivastava, Ying Liu, Stacy Walters, Gabriele Pfister, Jiming Jin, John E. Shilling, and Carsten Warneke
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 1959–1976,Short summary
In this study, the latest version of MEGAN is coupled within CLM4 in WRF-Chem. In this implementation, MEGAN shares a consistent vegetation map with CLM4. This improved modeling framework is used to investigate the impact of two land surface schemes on BVOCs and examine the sensitivity of BVOCs to vegetation distributions in California. This study indicates that more effort is needed to obtain the most appropriate and accurate land cover data sets for climate and air quality models.
Zhiyuan Hu, Chun Zhao, Jianping Huang, L. Ruby Leung, Yun Qian, Hongbin Yu, Lei Huang, and Olga V. Kalashnikova
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 1725–1746,Short summary
This study conducts the simulation of WRF-Chem with the quasi-global configuration for 2010–2014, and evaluates the simulation with multiple observation datasets for the first time. This study demonstrates that the WRF-Chem quasi-global simulation can be used for investigating trans-Pacific transport of aerosols and providing reasonable inflow chemical boundaries for the western USA to further understand the impact of transported pollutants on the regional air quality and climate.
Shipeng Zhang, Minghuai Wang, Steven J. Ghan, Aijun Ding, Hailong Wang, Kai Zhang, David Neubauer, Ulrike Lohmann, Sylvaine Ferrachat, Toshihiko Takeamura, Andrew Gettelman, Hugh Morrison, Yunha Lee, Drew T. Shindell, Daniel G. Partridge, Philip Stier, Zak Kipling, and Congbin Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2765–2783,Short summary
The variation of aerosol indirect effects (AIE) in several climate models is investigated across different dynamical regimes. Regimes with strong large-scale ascent are shown to be as important as stratocumulus regimes in studying AIE. AIE over regions with high monthly large-scale surface precipitation rate contributes the most to the total aerosol indirect forcing. These results point to the need to reduce the uncertainty in AIE in different dynamical regimes.
Xin Huang, Luxi Zhou, Aijun Ding, Ximeng Qi, Wei Nie, Minghuai Wang, Xuguang Chi, Tuukka Petäjä, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Pontus Roldin, Anton Rusanen, Markku Kulmala, and Michael Boy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2477–2492,Short summary
By combining a regional model and a box model, this study simulates new particle formation in Nanjing, China, when the air masses were affected by anthropogenic activities, biogenic emissions, or mixed ocean and continental sources. The simulations reveal that biogenic organic compounds play a vital role in growth of newly formed clusters. This novel combination of two models makes it possible to accomplish new particle formation simulation without direct measurements of all chemical species.
Kai Zhang, Chun Zhao, Hui Wan, Yun Qian, Richard C. Easter, Steven J. Ghan, Koichi Sakaguchi, and Xiaohong Liu
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 607–632,Short summary
A sub-grid treatment based on Weibull distribution is introduced to CAM5 to take into account the impact of unresolved variability of surface wind speed on sea salt and dust emissions. Simulations show that sub-grid wind variability has relatively small impacts on the global mean sea salt emissions, but considerable influence on dust emissions. Dry convective eddies and mesoscale flows associated with complex topography are the major causes of dust emission enhancement.
Y. Feng, V. R. Kotamarthi, R. Coulter, C. Zhao, and M. Cadeddu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 247–264,Short summary
Aerosol radiative effects are of great importance for climate studies over South Asia, such as the weakening of the South Asian monsoon in the 20th century. This study reveals the altitude dependence of commonly underestimated aerosol radiative properties over this region. It further demonstrates the importance of constraining aerosol vertical distributions and partitioning of scattering vs absorbing aerosols in simulating the subsequent regional dynamical and hydrological responses to aerosols.
K. Thayer-Calder, A. Gettelman, C. Craig, S. Goldhaber, P. A. Bogenschutz, C.-C. Chen, H. Morrison, J. Höft, E. Raut, B. M. Griffin, J. K. Weber, V. E. Larson, M. C. Wyant, M. Wang, Z. Guo, and S. J. Ghan
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 3801–3821,Short summary
This study evaluates a unified cloud parameterization and a Monte Carlo microphysics interface that is implemented in CAM v5.3. We show mean climate and tropical variability results from global simulations. The model has a degradation in precipitation skill but improvements in shortwave cloud forcing, liquid water path, long-wave cloud forcing, precipitable water, and tropical wave simulation. We also show estimation of computational expense and sensitivity to number of subcolumns.
X. M. Qi, A. J. Ding, W. Nie, T. Petäjä, V.-M. Kerminen, E. Herrmann, Y. N. Xie, L. F. Zheng, H. Manninen, P. Aalto, J. N. Sun, Z. N. Xu, X. G. Chi, X. Huang, M. Boy, A. Virkkula, X.-Q. Yang, C. B. Fu, and M. Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 12445–12464,Short summary
We report 2 years of measurements of submicron particles at the SORPES station and provide a comprehensive understanding of main factors controlling temporal variation of the aerosol size distribution and NPF in eastern China. The number concentrations of total particles at Nanjing were comparable to other Chinese megacities but the frequency of NPF was much higher. Year-to-year differences of meteorological conditions could significantly influence the seasonal cycle of NPF and growth.
A. Virkkula, X. Chi, A. Ding, Y. Shen, W. Nie, X. Qi, L. Zheng, X. Huang, Y. Xie, J. Wang, T. Petäjä, and M. Kulmala
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 4415–4427,Short summary
Aerosol optical properties were measured with a seven-wavelength aethalometer and a three-wavelength nephelometer in Nanjing, China, in September 2013–January 2015. The aethalometer compensation parameter k depended on the backscatter fraction, measured with an independent method, the integrating nephelometer. The compensation parameter decreased with increasing single-scattering albedo.
W. Nie, A. J. Ding, Y. N. Xie, Z. Xu, H. Mao, V.-M. Kerminen, L. F. Zheng, X. M. Qi, X. Huang, X.-Q. Yang, J. N. Sun, E. Herrmann, T. Petäjä, M. Kulmala, and C. B. Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 1147–1159,
R. L. Storer, B. M. Griffin, J. Höft, J. K. Weber, E. Raut, V. E. Larson, M. Wang, and P. J. Rasch
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 1–19,Short summary
Representing clouds in climate models is a challenging problem. It is particularly difficult to represent deep convective clouds and, historically, deep convective parameterization is separate from the representation of other cloud types. Here we use a single-column cloud model to simulate three deep convective cases, and two shallow cloud cases. The results look reasonable, demonstrating that it may be possible to use one parameterization within a climate model for all cloud types.
C. Zhao, Z. Hu, Y. Qian, L. Ruby Leung, J. Huang, M. Huang, J. Jin, M. G. Flanner, R. Zhang, H. Wang, H. Yan, Z. Lu, and D. G. Streets
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 11475–11491,
S. Yu, R. Mathur, J. Pleim, D. Wong, R. Gilliam, K. Alapaty, C. Zhao, and X. Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 11247–11285,
H. Wan, P. J. Rasch, K. Zhang, Y. Qian, H. Yan, and C. Zhao
Geosci. Model Dev., 7, 1961–1977,
C. Zhao, X. Liu, Y. Qian, J. Yoon, Z. Hou, G. Lin, S. McFarlane, H. Wang, B. Yang, P.-L. Ma, H. Yan, and J. Bao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 10969–10987,
C. Zhao, S. Chen, L. R. Leung, Y. Qian, J. F. Kok, R. A. Zaveri, and J. Huang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 10733–10753,
H. Wang, R. C. Easter, P. J. Rasch, M. Wang, X. Liu, S. J. Ghan, Y. Qian, J.-H. Yoon, P.-L. Ma, and V. Vinoj
Geosci. Model Dev., 6, 765–782,
K. Zhang, X. Liu, M. Wang, J. M. Comstock, D. L. Mitchell, S. Mishra, and G. G. Mace
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 4963–4982,
S. Kalenderski, G. Stenchikov, and C. Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 1999–2014,
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with Weather Research and Forecasting – Advanced Research WRF (WRF-ARW) to assess mass-balance schemesThe High-resolution Intermediate Complexity Atmospheric Research (HICAR v1.1) model enables fast dynamic downscaling to the hectometer scaleA gridded air quality forecast through fusing site-available machine learning predictions from RFSML v1.0 and chemical transport model results from GEOS-Chem v13.1.0 using the ensemble Kalman filterImplementation and evaluation of updated photolysis rates in the EMEP MSC-W chemical transport model using Cloud-J v7.3ePlume detection and emission estimate for biomass burning plumes from TROPOMI carbon monoxide observations using APE v1.1CHEEREIO 1.0: a versatile and user-friendly ensemble-based chemical data assimilation and emissions inversion platform for the GEOS-Chem chemical transport modelA method to derive Fourier–wavelet spectra for the characterization of global-scale waves in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere and its MATLAB and Python software (fourierwavelet v1.1)Dynamic Meteorology-induced Emissions Coupler (MetEmis) development in the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ): CMAQ-MetEmisVisual analysis of model parameter sensitivities along warm conveyor belt trajectories using Met.3D (1.6.0-multivar1)A global grid model for the estimation of zenith tropospheric delay considering the variations at different altitudesSimulating heat and CO2 fluxes in Beijing using SUEWS V2020b: sensitivity to vegetation phenology and maximum conductanceEvaluation of surface shortwave downward radiation forecasts by the numerical weather prediction model AROMEA Python library for computing individual and merged non-CO2 algorithmic climate change functions: CLIMaCCF V1.0The three-dimensional structure of fronts in mid-latitude weather systems in numerical weather prediction modelsThe development and validation of the Inhomogeneous Wind Scheme for Urban Street (IWSUS-v1)GPU-HADVPPM V1.0: a high-efficiency parallel GPU design of the piecewise parabolic method (PPM) for horizontal advection in an air quality model (CAMx V6.10)Variability and combination as an ensemble of mineral dust forecasts during the 2021 CADDIWA experiment using the WRF 3.7.1 and CHIMERE v2020r3 modelsBreakups are complicated: an efficient representation of collisional breakup in the superdroplet method
Minjie Zheng, Hongyu Liu, Florian Adolphi, Raimund Muscheler, Zhengyao Lu, Mousong Wu, and Nønne L. Prisle
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 7037–7057,Short summary
The radionuclides 7Be and 10Be are useful tracers for atmospheric transport studies. Here we use the GEOS-Chem to simulate 7Be and 10Be with different production rates: the default production rate in GEOS-Chem and two from the state-of-the-art beryllium production model. We demonstrate that reduced uncertainties in the production rates can enhance the utility of 7Be and 10Be as tracers for evaluating transport and scavenging processes in global models.
Wenxing Jia, Xiaoye Zhang, Hong Wang, Yaqiang Wang, Deying Wang, Junting Zhong, Wenjie Zhang, Lei Zhang, Lifeng Guo, Yadong Lei, Jizhi Wang, Yuanqin Yang, and Yi Lin
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 6833–6856,Short summary
In addition to the dominant role of the PBL scheme on the results of the meteorological field, many factors in the model are influenced by large uncertainties. This study focuses on the uncertainties that influence numerical simulation results (including horizontal resolution, vertical resolution, near-surface scheme, initial and boundary conditions, underlying surface update, and update of model version), hoping to provide a reference for scholars conducting research on the model.
Owen K. Hughes and Christiane Jablonowski
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 6805–6831,Short summary
Atmospheric models benefit from idealized tests that assess their accuracy in a simpler simulation. A new test with artificial mountains is developed for models on a spherical earth. The mountains trigger the development of both planetary-scale and small-scale waves. These can be analyzed in dry or moist environments, with a simple rainfall mechanism. Four atmospheric models are intercompared. This sheds light on the pros and cons of the model design and the impact of mountains on the flow.
Zhongwei Luo, Yan Han, Kun Hua, Yufen Zhang, Jianhui Wu, Xiaohui Bi, Qili Dai, Baoshuang Liu, Yang Chen, Xin Long, and Yinchang Feng
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 6757–6771,Short summary
This study explores how the variation in the source profiles adopted in chemical transport models (CTMs) impacts the simulated results of chemical components in PM2.5 based on sensitivity analysis. The impact on PM2.5 components cannot be ignored, and its influence can be transmitted and linked between components. The representativeness and timeliness of the source profile should be paid adequate attention in air quality simulation.
Wenxing Jia, Xiaoye Zhang, Hong Wang, Yaqiang Wang, Deying Wang, Junting Zhong, Wenjie Zhang, Lei Zhang, Lifeng Guo, Yadong Lei, Jizhi Wang, Yuanqin Yang, and Yi Lin
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 6635–6670,Short summary
Most current studies on planetary boundary layer (PBL) parameterization schemes are relatively fragmented and lack systematic in-depth analysis and discussion. In this study, we comprehensively evaluate the performance capability of the PBL scheme in five typical regions of China in different seasons from the mechanism of the scheme and the effects of PBL schemes on the near-surface meteorological parameters, vertical structures of the PBL, PBL height, and turbulent diffusion.
William Rudisill, Alejandro Flores, and Rosemary Carroll
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 6531–6552,Short summary
It is important to know how well atmospheric models do in mountains, but there are not very many weather stations. We evaluate rain and snow from a model from 1987–2020 in the Upper Colorado River basin against the available data. The model works rather well, but there are still some uncertainties in remote locations. We then use snow maps collected by aircraft, streamflow measurements, and some advanced statistics to help identify how well the model works in ways we could not do before.
Angel Liduvino Vara-Vela, Christoffer Karoff, Noelia Rojas Benavente, and Janaina P. Nascimento
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 6413–6431,Short summary
A 1-year simulation of atmospheric CH4 over Europe is performed and evaluated against observations based on the TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI). A good general model–observation agreement is found, with discrepancies reaching their minimum and maximum values during the summer peak season and winter months, respectively. A huge and under-explored potential for CH4 inverse modeling using improved TROPOMI XCH4 data sets in large-scale applications is identified.
Zhaojun Tang, Zhe Jiang, Jiaqi Chen, Panpan Yang, and Yanan Shen
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 6377–6392,Short summary
We designed a new framework to facilitate emission inventory updates in the adjoint of GEOS-Chem model. It allows us to support Harmonized Emissions Component (HEMCO) emission inventories conveniently and to easily add more emission inventories following future updates in GEOS-Chem forward simulations. Furthermore, we developed new modules to support MERRA-2 meteorological data; this allows us to perform long-term analysis with consistent meteorological data.
Rui Zhu, Zhaojun Tang, Xiaokang Chen, Xiong Liu, and Zhe Jiang
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 6337–6354,Short summary
A single ozone (O3) tracer mode was developed in this work to build the capability of the GEOS-Chem model for rapid O3 simulation. It is combined with OMI and surface O3 observations to investigate the changes in tropospheric O3 in China in 2015–2020. The assimilations indicate rapid surface O3 increases that are underestimated by the a priori simulations. We find stronger increases in tropospheric O3 columns over polluted areas and a large discrepancy by assimilating different observations.
Ewa M. Bednarz, Ryan Hossaini, N. Luke Abraham, and Martyn P. Chipperfield
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 6187–6209,Short summary
Development and performance of the new DEST chemistry scheme of UM–UKCA is described. The scheme extends the standard StratTrop scheme by including important updates to the halogen chemistry, thus allowing process-oriented studies of stratospheric ozone depletion and recovery, including impacts from both controlled long-lived ozone-depleting substances and emerging issues around uncontrolled, very short-lived substances. It will thus aid studies in support of future ozone assessment reports.
Shaohui Zhou, Chloe Yuchao Gao, Zexia Duan, Xingya Xi, and Yubin Li
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 6247–6266,Short summary
The proposed wind speed correction model (VMD-PCA-RF) demonstrates the highest prediction accuracy and stability in the five southern provinces in nearly a year and at different heights. VMD-PCA-RF evaluation indices for 13 months remain relatively stable: the forecasting accuracy rate FA is above 85 %. In future research, the proposed VMD-PCA-RF algorithm can be extrapolated to the 3 km grid points of the five southern provinces to generate a 3 km grid-corrected wind speed product.
Simone Tilmes, Michael J. Mills, Yunqian Zhu, Charles G. Bardeen, Francis Vitt, Pengfei Yu, David Fillmore, Xiaohong Liu, Brian Toon, and Terry Deshler
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 6087–6125,Short summary
We implemented an alternative aerosol scheme in the high- and low-top model versions of the Community Earth System Model Version 2 (CESM2) with a more detailed description of tropospheric and stratospheric aerosol size distributions than the existing aerosol model. This development enables the comparison of different aerosol schemes with different complexity in the same model framework. It identifies improvements compared to a range of observations in both the troposphere and stratosphere.
Dien Wu, Joshua L. Laughner, Junjie Liu, Paul I. Palmer, John C. Lin, and Paul O. Wennberg
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 6161–6185,Short summary
To balance computational expenses and chemical complexity in extracting emission signals from tropospheric NO2 columns, we propose a simplified non-linear Lagrangian chemistry transport model and assess its performance against TROPOMI v2 over power plants and cities. Using this model, we then discuss how NOx chemistry affects the relationship between NOx and CO2 emissions and how studying NO2 columns helps quantify modeled biases in wind directions and prior emissions.
Jiangshan Zhu and Ross Noel Bannister
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 6067–6085,Short summary
We describe how condensation and evaporation are included in the existing (otherwise dry) simplified ABC model. The new model (Hydro-ABC) includes transport of vapour and condensate within a dynamical core, and it transitions between these two phases via a micro-physics scheme. The model shows the development of an anvil cloud and excitation of atmospheric waves over many frequencies. The covariances that develop between variables are also studied together with indicators of convective motion.
Jiangyong Li, Chunlin Zhang, Wenlong Zhao, Shijie Han, Yu Wang, Hao Wang, and Boguang Wang
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 6049–6066,Short summary
Photochemical box models, crucial for understanding tropospheric chemistry, face challenges due to slow computational efficiency with large chemical equations. The model introduced in this study, ROMAC, boosts efficiency by up to 96 % using an advanced atmospheric solver and an adaptive optimization algorithm. Moreover, ROMAC exceeds traditional box models in evaluating the impact of physical processes on pollutant concentrations.
Lina Vitali, Kees Cuvelier, Antonio Piersanti, Alexandra Monteiro, Mario Adani, Roberta Amorati, Agnieszka Bartocha, Alessandro D'Ausilio, Paweł Durka, Carla Gama, Giulia Giovannini, Stijn Janssen, Tomasz Przybyła, Michele Stortini, Stijn Vranckx, and Philippe Thunis
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 6029–6047,Short summary
Air quality forecasting models play a key role in fostering short-term measures aimed at reducing human exposure to air pollution. Together with this role comes the need for a thorough assessment of the model performances to build confidence in models’ capabilities, in particular when model applications support policymaking. In this paper, we propose an evaluation methodology and test it on several domains across Europe, highlighting its strengths and room for improvement.
Wenfu Tang, Louisa K. Emmons, Helen M. Worden, Rajesh Kumar, Cenlin He, Benjamin Gaubert, Zhonghua Zheng, Simone Tilmes, Rebecca R. Buchholz, Sara-Eva Martinez-Alonso, Claire Granier, Antonin Soulie, Kathryn McKain, Bruce C. Daube, Jeff Peischl, Chelsea Thompson, and Pieternel Levelt
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 6001–6028,Short summary
The new MUSICAv0 model enables the study of atmospheric chemistry across all relevant scales. We develop a MUSICAv0 grid for Africa. We evaluate MUSICAv0 with observations and compare it with a previously used model – WRF-Chem. Overall, the performance of MUSICAv0 is comparable to WRF-Chem. Based on model–satellite discrepancies, we find that future field campaigns in an eastern African region (30°E–45°E, 5°S–5°N) could substantially improve the predictive skill of air quality models.
Shuzhuang Feng, Fei Jiang, Zheng Wu, Hengmao Wang, Wei He, Yang Shen, Lingyu Zhang, Yanhua Zheng, Chenxi Lou, Ziqiang Jiang, and Weimin Ju
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 5949–5977,Short summary
We document the system development and application of a Regional multi-Air Pollutant Assimilation System (RAPAS v1.0). This system is developed to optimize gridded source emissions of CO, SO2, NOx, primary PM2.5, and coarse PM10 on a regional scale via simultaneously assimilating surface measurements of CO, SO2, NO2, PM2.5, and PM10. A series of sensitivity experiments demonstrates the advantage of the “two-step” inversion strategy and the robustness of the system in estimating the emissions.
Megan A. Stretton, William Morrison, Robin J. Hogan, and Sue Grimmond
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 5931–5947,Short summary
Cities' materials and forms impact radiative fluxes. We evaluate the SPARTACUS-Urban multi-layer approach to modelling longwave radiation, describing realistic 3D geometry statistically using the explicit DART (Discrete Anisotropic Radiative Transfer) model. The temperature configurations used are derived from thermal camera observations. SPARTACUS-Urban accurately predicts longwave fluxes, with a low computational time (cf. DART), but has larger errors with sunlit/shaded surface temperatures.
Daehyeon Han, Jungho Im, Yeji Shin, and Juhyun Lee
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 5895–5914,Short summary
To identify the key factors affecting quantitative precipitation nowcasting (QPN) using deep learning (DL), we carried out a comprehensive evaluation and analysis. We compared four key factors: DL model, length of the input sequence, loss function, and ensemble approach. Generally, U-Net outperformed ConvLSTM. Loss function and ensemble showed potential for improving performance when they synergized well. The length of the input sequence did not significantly affect the results.
Fabien Margairaz, Balwinder Singh, Jeremy A. Gibbs, Loren Atwood, Eric R. Pardyjak, and Rob Stoll
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 5729–5754,Short summary
The Quick Environmental Simulation (QES) tool is a low-computational-cost fast-response framework. It provides high-resolution wind and concentration information to study complex problems, such as spore or smoke transport, urban pollution, and air quality. This paper presents the particle dispersion model and its validation against analytical solutions and wind-tunnel data for a mock-urban setting. In all cases, the model provides accurate results with competitive computational performance.
Tao Wang, Hang Liu, Jie Li, Shuai Wang, Youngseob Kim, Yele Sun, Wenyi Yang, Huiyun Du, Zhe Wang, and Zifa Wang
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 5585–5599,Short summary
This paper developed a two-way coupled module in a new version of a regional urban–street network model, IAQMS-street v2.0, in which the mass flux from streets to background is considered. Test cases are defined to evaluate the performance of IAQMS-street v2.0 in Beijing by comparing it with that simulated by IAQMS-street v1.0 and a regional model. The contribution of local emissions and the influence of on-road vehicle control measures on air quality are evaluated by using IAQMS-street v2.0.
Denis E. Sergeev, Nathan J. Mayne, Thomas Bendall, Ian A. Boutle, Alex Brown, Iva Kavčič, James Kent, Krisztian Kohary, James Manners, Thomas Melvin, Enrico Olivier, Lokesh K. Ragta, Ben Shipway, Jon Wakelin, Nigel Wood, and Mohamed Zerroukat
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 5601–5626,Short summary
Three-dimensional climate models are one of the best tools we have to study planetary atmospheres. Here, we apply LFRic-Atmosphere, a new model developed by the Met Office, to seven different scenarios for terrestrial planetary climates, including four for the exoplanet TRAPPIST-1e, a primary target for future observations. LFRic-Atmosphere reproduces these scenarios within the spread of the existing models across a range of key climatic variables, justifying its use in future exoplanet studies.
Roland Eichinger, Sebastian Rhode, Hella Garny, Peter Preusse, Petr Pisoft, Aleš Kuchař, Patrick Jöckel, Astrid Kerkweg, and Bastian Kern
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 5561–5583,Short summary
The columnar approach of gravity wave (GW) schemes results in dynamical model biases, but parallel decomposition makes horizontal GW propagation computationally unfeasible. In the global model EMAC, we approximate it by GW redistribution at one altitude using tailor-made redistribution maps generated with a ray tracer. More spread-out GW drag helps reconcile the model with observations and close the 60°S GW gap. Polar vortex dynamics are improved, enhancing climate model credibility.
Xueying Liu, Yuxuan Wang, Shailaja Wasti, Wei Li, Ehsan Soleimanian, James Flynn, Travis Griggs, Sergio Alvarez, John T. Sullivan, Maurice Roots, Laurence Twigg, Guillaume Gronoff, Timothy Berkoff, Paul Walter, Mark Estes, Johnathan W. Hair, Taylor Shingler, Amy Jo Scarino, Marta Fenn, and Laura Judd
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 5493–5514,Short summary
With a comprehensive suite of ground-based and airborne remote sensing measurements during the 2021 TRacking Aerosol Convection ExpeRiment – Air Quality (TRACER-AQ) campaign in Houston, this study evaluates the simulation of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) height and the ozone vertical profile by a high-resolution (1.33 km) 3-D photochemical model Weather Research and Forecasting-driven GEOS-Chem (WRF-GC).
Stijn Van Leuven, Pieter De Meutter, Johan Camps, Piet Termonia, and Andy Delcloo
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 5323–5338,Short summary
Precipitation collects airborne particles and deposits these on the ground. This process is called wet deposition and greatly determines how airborne radioactive particles (released routinely or accidentally) contaminate the surface. In this work we present a new method to improve the calculation of wet deposition in computer models. We apply this method to the existing model FLEXPART by simulating the Fukushima nuclear accident (2011) and show that it improves the simulation of wet deposition.
Thibaud Sarica, Alice Maison, Yelva Roustan, Matthias Ketzel, Steen Solvang Jensen, Youngseob Kim, Christophe Chaillou, and Karine Sartelet
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 5281–5303,Short summary
A new version of the Model of Urban Network of Intersecting Canyons and Highways (MUNICH) is developed to represent heterogeneities of concentrations in streets. The street volume is discretized vertically and horizontally to limit the artificial dilution of emissions and concentrations. This new version is applied to street networks in Copenhagen and Paris. The comparisons to observations are improved, with higher concentrations of pollutants emitted by traffic at the bottom of the street.
Junsu Gil, Meehye Lee, Jeonghwan Kim, Gangwoong Lee, Joonyoung Ahn, and Cheol-Hee Kim
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 5251–5263,Short summary
In this study, the framework for calculating reactive nitrogen species using a deep neural network (RND) was developed. It works through simple Python codes and provides high-accuracy reactive nitrogen oxide data. In the first version (RNDv1.0), the model calculates the nitrous acid (HONO) in urban areas, which has an important role in producing O3 and fine aerosol.
Daniel Yazgi and Tinja Olenius
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 5237–5249,Short summary
We present flexible tools to implement aerosol formation rate predictions in climate and chemical transport models. New-particle formation is a significant but uncertain factor affecting aerosol numbers and an active field within molecular modeling which provides data for assessing formation rates for different chemical species. We introduce tools to generate and interpolate formation rate lookup tables for user-defined data, thus enabling the easy inclusion and testing of formation schemes.
Vineet Yadav, Subhomoy Ghosh, and Charles E. Miller
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 5219–5236,Short summary
Measuring the performance of inversions in linear Bayesian problems is crucial in real-life applications. In this work, we provide analytical forms of the local and global sensitivities of the estimated fluxes with respect to various inputs. We provide methods to uniquely map the observational signal to spatiotemporal domains. Utilizing this, we also show techniques to assess correlations between the Jacobians that naturally translate to nonstationary covariance matrix components.
Mingzhao Liu, Lars Hoffmann, Sabine Griessbach, Zhongyin Cai, Yi Heng, and Xue Wu
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 5197–5217,Short summary
We introduce new and revised chemistry and physics modules in the Massive-Parallel Trajectory Calculations (MPTRAC) Lagrangian transport model aiming to improve the representation of volcanic SO2 transport and depletion. We test these modules in a case study of the Ambae eruption in July 2018 in which the SO2 plume underwent wet removal and convection. The lifetime of SO2 shows highly variable and complex dependencies on the atmospheric conditions at different release heights.
Bernhard M. Enz, Jan P. Engelmann, and Ulrike Lohmann
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 5093–5112,Short summary
An algorithm to track tropical cyclones in model simulation data has been developed. The algorithm uses many combinations of varying parameter thresholds to detect weaker phases of tropical cyclones while still being resilient to false positives. It is shown that the algorithm performs well and adequately represents the tropical cyclone activity of the underlying simulation data. The impact of false positives on overall tropical cyclone activity is shown to be insignificant.
Sepehr Fathi, Mark Gordon, and Yongsheng Chen
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 5069–5091,Short summary
We have combined various capabilities within a WRF model to generate simulations of atmospheric pollutant dispersion at 50 m resolution. The study objective was to resolve transport processes at the scale of measurements to assess and optimize aircraft-based emission rate retrievals. Model performance evaluation resulted in agreement within 5 % of observed meteorological and within 1–2 standard deviations of observed wind fields. Mass was conserved in the model within 5 % of input emissions.
Dylan Reynolds, Ethan Gutmann, Bert Kruyt, Michael Haugeneder, Tobias Jonas, Franziska Gerber, Michael Lehning, and Rebecca Mott
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 5049–5068,Short summary
The challenge of running geophysical models is often compounded by the question of where to obtain appropriate data to give as input to a model. Here we present the HICAR model, a simplified atmospheric model capable of running at spatial resolutions of hectometers for long time series or over large domains. This makes physically consistent atmospheric data available at the spatial and temporal scales needed for some terrestrial modeling applications, for example seasonal snow forecasting.
Li Fang, Jianbing Jin, Arjo Segers, Hong Liao, Ke Li, Bufan Xu, Wei Han, Mijie Pang, and Hai Xiang Lin
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 4867–4882,Short summary
Machine learning models have gained great popularity in air quality prediction. However, they are only available at air quality monitoring stations. In contrast, chemical transport models (CTM) provide predictions that are continuous in the 3D field. Owing to complex error sources, they are typically biased. In this study, we proposed a gridded prediction with high accuracy by fusing predictions from our regional feature selection machine learning prediction (RFSML v1.0) and a CTM prediction.
Willem Elias van Caspel, David Simpson, Jan Eiof Jonson, Anna Maria Katarina Benedictow, Yao Ge, Alcide di Sarra, Giandomenico Pace, Massimo Vieno, Hannah Walker, and Mathew Heal
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for GMDShort summary
Radiation coming from the sun is essential to atmospheric chemistry, driving the break-up, or photo-dissociation, of atmospheric molecules. This in turn affects the chemical composition and reactivity of the atmosphere. The representation of these photo-dissociation effects is therefore essential in atmospheric chemistry modeling. One such models is the EMEP MSC-W model, for which in this paper a new way of calculating the photo-dissociation rates is tested and evaluated.
Manu Goudar, Juliëtte C. S. Anema, Rajesh Kumar, Tobias Borsdorff, and Jochen Landgraf
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 4835–4852,Short summary
A framework was developed to automatically detect plumes and compute emission estimates with cross-sectional flux method (CFM) for biomass burning events in TROPOMI CO datasets using Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite active fire data. The emissions were more reliable when changing plume height in downwind direction was used instead of constant injection height. The CFM had uncertainty even when the meteorological conditions were accurate; thus there is a need for better inversion models.
Drew C. Pendergrass, Daniel J. Jacob, Hannah Nesser, Daniel J. Varon, Melissa Sulprizio, Kazuyuki Miyazaki, and Kevin W. Bowman
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 4793–4810,Short summary
We have built a tool called CHEEREIO that allows scientists to use observations of pollutants or gases in the atmosphere, such as from satellites or surface stations, to update supercomputer models that simulate the Earth. CHEEREIO uses the difference between the model simulations of the atmosphere and real-world observations to come up with a good guess for the actual composition of our atmosphere, the true emissions of various pollutants, and whatever else they may want to study.
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 4749–4766,Short summary
The Earth's atmosphere can support various types of global-scale waves. Some waves propagate eastward and others westward, and they can have different zonal wavenumbers. The Fourier–wavelet analysis is a useful technique for identifying different components of global-scale waves and their temporal variability. This paper introduces an easy-to-implement method to derive Fourier–wavelet spectra from 2-D space–time data. Application examples are presented using atmospheric models.
Bok H. Baek, Carlie Coats, Siqi Ma, Chi-Tsan Wang, Yunyao Li, Jia Xing, Daniel Tong, Soontae Kim, and Jung-Hun Woo
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 4659–4676,Short summary
To enable the direct feedback effects of aerosols and local meteorology in an air quality modeling system without any computational bottleneck, we have developed an inline meteorology-induced emissions coupler module within the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Community Multiscale Air Quality modeling system to dynamically model the complex MOtor Vehicle Emission Simulator (MOVES) on-road mobile emissions inline without a separate dedicated emissions processing model like SMOKE.
Christoph Neuhauser, Maicon Hieronymus, Michael Kern, Marc Rautenhaus, Annika Oertel, and Rüdiger Westermann
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 4617–4638,Short summary
Numerical weather prediction models rely on parameterizations for sub-grid-scale processes, which are a source of uncertainty. We present novel visual analytics solutions to analyze interactively the sensitivities of a selected prognostic variable to multiple model parameters along trajectories regarding similarities in temporal development and spatiotemporal relationships. The proposed workflow is applied to cloud microphysical sensitivities along coherent strongly ascending trajectories.
Liangke Huang, Shengwei Lan, Ge Zhu, Fade Chen, Junyu Li, and Lilong Liu
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for GMDShort summary
The existing ZTD models have limitations such as using a single fitting function, neglecting daily cycle variations, and relying on only one resolution grid data for modeling. This model considers the daily-cycle variation and latitude factor of ZTD, using the sliding window algorithm based on ERA5 atmospheric reanalysis data. The ZTD data from 545 radiosonde stations and MERRA-2 atmospheric reanalysis data are used to validate the accuracy of the GGZTD-P model.
Yingqi Zheng, Minttu Havu, Huizhi Liu, Xueling Cheng, Yifan Wen, Hei Shing Lee, Joyson Ahongshangbam, and Leena Järvi
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 4551–4579,Short summary
The performance of the Surface Urban Energy and Water Balance Scheme (SUEWS) is evaluated against the observed surface exchanges (fluxes) of heat and carbon dioxide in a densely built neighborhood in Beijing. The heat flux modeling is noticeably improved by using the observed maximum conductance and by optimizing the vegetation phenology modeling. SUEWS also performs well in simulating carbon dioxide flux.
Marie-Adèle Magnaldo, Quentin Libois, Sébastien Riette, and Christine Lac
With the worlwide development of the solar energy sector, the need for reliable solar radiation forecasts has significantly increased. However meteorological models that predict among others things solar radiation, have errors. Therefore, we so wanted to know in which situtaions these errors are most significant. We found that errors mostly occurs in cloudy situations, and different errors were highlighted depending of the cloud altitude. Several potential sources of errors were identified.
Simone Dietmüller, Sigrun Matthes, Katrin Dahlmann, Hiroshi Yamashita, Abolfazl Simorgh, Manuel Soler, Florian Linke, Benjamin Lührs, Maximilian M. Meuser, Christian Weder, Volker Grewe, Feijia Yin, and Federica Castino
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 4405–4425,Short summary
Climate-optimized aircraft trajectories avoid atmospheric regions with a large climate impact due to aviation emissions. This requires spatially and temporally resolved information on aviation's climate impact. We propose using algorithmic climate change functions (aCCFs) for CO2 and non-CO2 effects (ozone, methane, water vapor, contrail cirrus). Merged aCCFs combine individual aCCFs by assuming aircraft-specific parameters and climate metrics. Technically this is done with a Python library.
Andreas A. Beckert, Lea Eisenstein, Annika Oertel, Tim Hewson, George C. Craig, and Marc Rautenhaus
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 4427–4450,Short summary
We investigate the benefit of objective 3-D front detection with modern interactive visual analysis techniques for case studies of extra-tropical cyclones and comparisons of frontal structures between different numerical weather prediction models. The 3-D frontal structures show agreement with 2-D fronts from surface analysis charts and augment them in the vertical dimension. We see great potential for more complex studies of atmospheric dynamics and for operational weather forecasting.
Zhenxin Liu, Yuanhao Chen, Yuhang Wang, Cheng Liu, Shuhua Liu, and Hong Liao
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 4385–4403,Short summary
The heterogeneous layout of urban buildings leads to the complex wind field in and over the urban canopy. Large discrepancies between the observations and the current simulations result from misunderstanding the character of the wind field. The Inhomogeneous Wind Scheme in Urban Street (IWSUS) was developed to simulate the heterogeneity of the wind speed in a typical street and then improve the simulated energy budget in the lower atmospheric layer over the urban canopy.
Kai Cao, Qizhong Wu, Lingling Wang, Nan Wang, Huaqiong Cheng, Xiao Tang, Dongqing Li, and Lanning Wang
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 4367–4383,Short summary
Offline performance experiment results show that the GPU-HADVPPM on a V100 GPU can achieve up to 1113.6 × speedups to its original version on an E5-2682 v4 CPU. A series of optimization measures are taken, and the CAMx-CUDA model improves the computing efficiency by 128.4 × on a single V100 GPU card. A parallel architecture with an MPI plus CUDA hybrid paradigm is presented, and it can achieve up to 4.5 × speedup when launching eight CPU cores and eight GPU cards.
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 4265–4281,Short summary
This study analyzes forecasts that were made in 2021 to help trigger measurements during the CADDIWA experiment. The WRF and CHIMERE models were run each day, and the first goal is to quantify the variability of the forecast as a function of forecast leads and forecast location. The possibility of using the different leads as an ensemble is also tested. For some locations, the correlation scores are better with this approach. This could be tested on operational forecast chains in the future.
Emily de Jong, John Ben Mackay, Oleksii Bulenok, Anna Jaruga, and Sylwester Arabas
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 4193–4211,Short summary
In clouds, collisional breakup occurs when two colliding droplets splinter into new, smaller fragments. Particle-based modeling approaches often do not represent breakup because of the computational demands of creating new droplets. We present a particle-based breakup method that preserves the computational efficiency of these methods. In a series of simple demonstrations, we show that this representation alters cloud processes in reasonable and expected ways.
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Dust aerosol can impact many processes of the Earth system, but large uncertainties still remain in dust simulations. In this study, we investigated dust simulation sensitivity to two dust emission schemes and three dry deposition schemes using WRF-Chem. An optimal combination of dry deposition scheme and dust emission scheme has been identified to best simulate the dust storm in comparison with observation. Our results highlight the importance of dry deposition schemes for dust simulation.
Dust aerosol can impact many processes of the Earth system, but large uncertainties still remain...