Articles | Volume 11, issue 2
Development and technical paper
20 Feb 2018
Development and technical paper | 20 Feb 2018
Coupling the Canadian Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (CTEM v. 2.0) to Environment and Climate Change Canada's greenhouse gas forecast model (v.107-glb)
Bakr Badawy et al.
No articles found.
Pierre Friedlingstein, Michael O'Sullivan, Matthew W. Jones, Robbie M. Andrew, Luke Gregor, Judith Hauck, Corinne Le Quéré, Ingrid T. Luijkx, Are Olsen, Glen P. Peters, Wouter Peters, Julia Pongratz, Clemens Schwingshackl, Stephen Sitch, Josep G. Canadell, Philippe Ciais, Robert B. Jackson, Simone R. Alin, Ramdane Alkama, Almut Arneth, Vivek K. Arora, Nicholas R. Bates, Meike Becker, Nicolas Bellouin, Henry C. Bittig, Laurent Bopp, Frédéric Chevallier, Louise P. Chini, Margot Cronin, Wiley Evans, Stefanie Falk, Richard A. Feely, Thomas Gasser, Marion Gehlen, Thanos Gkritzalis, Lucas Gloege, Giacomo Grassi, Nicolas Gruber, Özgür Gürses, Ian Harris, Matthew Hefner, Richard A. Houghton, George C. Hurtt, Yosuke Iida, Tatiana Ilyina, Atul K. Jain, Annika Jersild, Koji Kadono, Etsushi Kato, Daniel Kennedy, Kees Klein Goldewijk, Jürgen Knauer, Jan Ivar Korsbakken, Peter Landschützer, Nathalie Lefèvre, Keith Lindsay, Junjie Liu, Zhu Liu, Gregg Marland, Nicolas Mayot, Matthew J. McGrath, Nicolas Metzl, Natalie M. Monacci, David R. Munro, Shin-Ichiro Nakaoka, Yosuke Niwa, Kevin O'Brien, Tsuneo Ono, Paul I. Palmer, Naiqing Pan, Denis Pierrot, Katie Pocock, Benjamin Poulter, Laure Resplandy, Eddy Robertson, Christian Rödenbeck, Carmen Rodriguez, Thais M. Rosan, Jörg Schwinger, Roland Séférian, Jamie D. Shutler, Ingunn Skjelvan, Tobias Steinhoff, Qing Sun, Adrienne J. Sutton, Colm Sweeney, Shintaro Takao, Toste Tanhua, Pieter P. Tans, Xiangjun Tian, Hanqin Tian, Bronte Tilbrook, Hiroyuki Tsujino, Francesco Tubiello, Guido R. van der Werf, Anthony P. Walker, Rik Wanninkhof, Chris Whitehead, Anna Willstrand Wranne, Rebecca Wright, Wenping Yuan, Chao Yue, Xu Yue, Sönke Zaehle, Jiye Zeng, and Bo Zheng
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 4811–4900,Short summary
The Global Carbon Budget 2022 describes the datasets and methodology used to quantify the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) and their partitioning among the atmosphere, the land ecosystems, and the ocean. These living datasets are updated every year to provide the highest transparency and traceability in the reporting of CO2, the key driver of climate change.
Tai-Long He, Dylan B. A. Jones, Kazuyuki Miyazaki, Kevin W. Bowman, Zhe Jiang, Xiaokang Chen, Rui Li, Yuxiang Zhang, and Kunna Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14059–14074,Short summary
We use a deep-learning (DL) model to estimate Chinese NOx emissions by combining satellite analysis and in situ measurements. Our results are consistent with conventional analyses of Chinese NOx emissions. Comparison with mobility data shows that the DL model has a better capability to capture changes in NOx. We analyse Chinese NOx emissions during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown period. Our results illustrate the potential use of DL as a complementary tool for conventional air quality studies.
Brendan Byrne, Junjie Liu, Yonghong Yi, Abhishek Chatterjee, Sourish Basu, Rui Cheng, Russell Doughty, Frédéric Chevallier, Kevin W. Bowman, Nicholas C. Parazoo, David Crisp, Xing Li, Jingfeng Xiao, Stephen Sitch, Bertrand Guenet, Feng Deng, Matthew S. Johnson, Sajeev Philip, Patrick C. McGuire, and Charles E. Miller
Biogeosciences, 19, 4779–4799,Short summary
Plants draw CO2 from the atmosphere during the growing season, while respiration releases CO2 to the atmosphere throughout the year, driving seasonal variations in atmospheric CO2 that can be observed by satellites, such as the Orbiting Carbon Observatory 2 (OCO-2). Using OCO-2 XCO2 data and space-based constraints on plant growth, we show that permafrost-rich northeast Eurasia has a strong seasonal release of CO2 during the autumn, hinting at an unexpectedly large respiration signal from soils.
Libo Wang, Vivek K. Arora, Paul Bartlett, Ed Chan, and Salvatore R. Curasi
Plant functional types (PFTs) are groups of plant species used to represent vegetation distribution in land surface models. There are large uncertainties associated with existing methods for mapping land cover datasets to PFTs. This study demonstrates how fine-resolution tree cover fraction and land cover datasets can be used to inform the PFT mapping process and reduce the uncertainties. The proposed largely objective method makes it easier to implement new land cover products in models.
Vivek K. Arora, Christian Seiler, Libo Wang, and Sian Kou-Giesbrecht
The behaviour of natural systems is now very often represented through mathematical models. These models represent our understanding of how the nature works. Of course, the nature doesn't care about our understanding. Since our understanding is not perfect, evaluating models is challenging and there are uncertainties. This manuscript illustrates this uncertainty for land models and argues that evaluating models in the light of uncertainty in various components provides useful information.
Cameron G. MacDonald, Joshua L. Laughner, Jacob K. Hedelius, Ray Nassar, Jon-Paul Mastrogiacomo, and Debra Wunch
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for ACPShort summary
We use three satellites measuring carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) to calculate atmospheric enhancements of these gases from 27 urban areas. We calculate enhancement ratios between the species and compare those to ratios derived from four globally gridded anthropogenic emission inventories. We find that the global inventories generally underestimate CO emissions in many North American and European cities relative to our observed enhancement ratios.
Brendan Byrne, David F. Baker, Sourish Basu, Michael Bertolacci, Kevin W. Bowman, Dustin Carroll, Abhishek Chatterjee, Frédéric Chevallier, Philippe Ciais, Noel Cressie, David Crisp, Sean Crowell, Feng Deng, Zhu Deng, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Manvendra Dubey, Sha Feng, Omaira García, David W. T. Griffith, Benedikt Herkommer, Lei Hu, Andrew R. Jacobson, Rajesh Janardanan, Sujong Jeong, Matthew S. Johnson, Dylan B. A. Jones, Rigel Kivi, Junjie Liu, Zhiqiang Liu, Shamil Maksyutov, John B. Miller, Scot M. Miller, Isamu Morino, Justus Notholt, Tomohiro Oda, Christopher W. O’Dell, Young-Suk Oh, Hirofumi Ohyama, Prabir K. Patra, Hélène Peiro, Christof Petri, Sajeev Philip, David F. Pollard, Benjamin Poulter, Marine Remaud, Andrew Schuh, Mahesh K. Sha, Kei Shiomi, Kimberly Strong, Colm Sweeney, Yao Té, Hanqin Tian, Voltaire A. Velazco, Mihalis Vrekoussis, Thorsten Warneke, John R. Worden, Debra Wunch, Yuanzhi Yao, Jeongmin Yun, Andrew Zammit-Mangion, and Ning Zeng
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ESSDShort summary
Changes in the carbon stocks of terrestrial ecosystems result in emissions and removals of CO2. These can be driven by anthropogenic activities (e.g., deforestation), natural processes (e.g., fires) or in response to rising CO2 (e.g., CO2 fertilization). This paper describes a dataset of CO2 emissions and removals derived from atmospheric CO2 observations. This pilot dataset informs current capabilities and future developments towards top-down monitoring and verification systems.
Joe R. Melton, Ed Chan, Koreen Millard, Matthew Fortier, R. Scott Winton, Javier M. Martín-López, Hinsby Cadillo-Quiroz, Darren Kidd, and Louis V. Verchot
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 4709–4738,Short summary
Peat-ML is a high-resolution global peatland extent map generated using machine learning techniques. Peatlands are important in the global carbon and water cycles, but their extent is poorly known. We generated Peat-ML using drivers of peatland formation including climate, soil, geomorphology, and vegetation data, and we train the model with regional peatland maps. Our accuracy estimation approaches suggest Peat-ML is of similar or higher quality than other available peatland mapping products.
Weichao Han, Tai-Long He, Zhaojun Tang, Min Wang, Dylan Jones, and Zhe Jiang
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 4225–4237,Short summary
We present an application of a hybrid deep learning (DL) model on prediction of surface CO in China from 2015 to 2020, which utilizes both convolutional neural networks and long short-term memory neural networks. The DL model performance is better than a Kalman filter (KF) system in the training period (2005–2018). Furthermore, the DL model demonstrates good temporal extensibility: the mean bias and correlation coefficients are 95.7 ppb and 0.93 in the test period (2019–2020) over eastern China.
Charles D. Koven, Vivek K. Arora, Patricia Cadule, Rosie A. Fisher, Chris D. Jones, David M. Lawrence, Jared Lewis, Keith Lindsay, Sabine Mathesius, Malte Meinshausen, Michael Mills, Zebedee Nicholls, Benjamin M. Sanderson, Roland Séférian, Neil C. Swart, William R. Wieder, and Kirsten Zickfeld
Earth Syst. Dynam., 13, 885–909,Short summary
We explore the long-term dynamics of Earth's climate and carbon cycles under a pair of contrasting scenarios to the year 2300 using six models that include both climate and carbon cycle dynamics. One scenario assumes very high emissions, while the second assumes a peak in emissions, followed by rapid declines to net negative emissions. We show that the models generally agree that warming is roughly proportional to carbon emissions but that many other aspects of the model projections differ.
Pierre Friedlingstein, Matthew W. Jones, Michael O'Sullivan, Robbie M. Andrew, Dorothee C. E. Bakker, Judith Hauck, Corinne Le Quéré, Glen P. Peters, Wouter Peters, Julia Pongratz, Stephen Sitch, Josep G. Canadell, Philippe Ciais, Rob B. Jackson, Simone R. Alin, Peter Anthoni, Nicholas R. Bates, Meike Becker, Nicolas Bellouin, Laurent Bopp, Thi Tuyet Trang Chau, Frédéric Chevallier, Louise P. Chini, Margot Cronin, Kim I. Currie, Bertrand Decharme, Laique M. Djeutchouang, Xinyu Dou, Wiley Evans, Richard A. Feely, Liang Feng, Thomas Gasser, Dennis Gilfillan, Thanos Gkritzalis, Giacomo Grassi, Luke Gregor, Nicolas Gruber, Özgür Gürses, Ian Harris, Richard A. Houghton, George C. Hurtt, Yosuke Iida, Tatiana Ilyina, Ingrid T. Luijkx, Atul Jain, Steve D. Jones, Etsushi Kato, Daniel Kennedy, Kees Klein Goldewijk, Jürgen Knauer, Jan Ivar Korsbakken, Arne Körtzinger, Peter Landschützer, Siv K. Lauvset, Nathalie Lefèvre, Sebastian Lienert, Junjie Liu, Gregg Marland, Patrick C. McGuire, Joe R. Melton, David R. Munro, Julia E. M. S. Nabel, Shin-Ichiro Nakaoka, Yosuke Niwa, Tsuneo Ono, Denis Pierrot, Benjamin Poulter, Gregor Rehder, Laure Resplandy, Eddy Robertson, Christian Rödenbeck, Thais M. Rosan, Jörg Schwinger, Clemens Schwingshackl, Roland Séférian, Adrienne J. Sutton, Colm Sweeney, Toste Tanhua, Pieter P. Tans, Hanqin Tian, Bronte Tilbrook, Francesco Tubiello, Guido R. van der Werf, Nicolas Vuichard, Chisato Wada, Rik Wanninkhof, Andrew J. Watson, David Willis, Andrew J. Wiltshire, Wenping Yuan, Chao Yue, Xu Yue, Sönke Zaehle, and Jiye Zeng
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 1917–2005,Short summary
The Global Carbon Budget 2021 describes the data sets and methodology used to quantify the emissions of carbon dioxide and their partitioning among the atmosphere, land, and ocean. These living data are updated every year to provide the highest transparency and traceability in the reporting of CO2, the key driver of climate change.
Heba S. Marey, James R. Drummond, Dylan B. A. Jones, Helen Worden, Merritt N. Deeter, John Gille, and Debbie Mao
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 701–719,Short summary
In this study, an analysis has been performed to understand the improvements in observational coverage over Canada in the new MOPITT V9 product. Temporal and spatial analysis of V9 indicates a general coverage gain of 15–20 % relative to V8, which varies regionally and seasonally; e.g., the number of successful MOPITT retrievals in V9 was doubled over Canada in winter. Also, comparison with the corresponding IASI instrument indicated generally good agreement, with about a 5–10 % positive bias.
Hélène Peiro, Sean Crowell, Andrew Schuh, David F. Baker, Chris O'Dell, Andrew R. Jacobson, Frédéric Chevallier, Junjie Liu, Annmarie Eldering, David Crisp, Feng Deng, Brad Weir, Sourish Basu, Matthew S. Johnson, Sajeev Philip, and Ian Baker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 1097–1130,Short summary
Satellite CO2 observations are constantly improved. We study an ensemble of different atmospheric models (inversions) from 2015 to 2018 using separate ground-based data or two versions of the OCO-2 satellite. Our study aims to determine if different satellite data corrections can yield different estimates of carbon cycle flux. A difference in the carbon budget between the two versions is found over tropical Africa, which seems to show the impact of corrections applied in satellite data.
Sabour Baray, Daniel J. Jacob, Joannes D. Maasakkers, Jian-Xiong Sheng, Melissa P. Sulprizio, Dylan B. A. Jones, A. Anthony Bloom, and Robert McLaren
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 18101–18121,Short summary
We use 2010–2015 surface and satellite observations to disentangle methane from anthropogenic and natural sources in Canada. Using a chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem), the mismatch between modelled and observed methane concentrations can be used to infer emissions according to Bayesian statistics. Compared to prior knowledge, we show higher anthropogenic emissions attributed to energy and/or agriculture in Western Canada and lower natural emissions from Boreal wetlands.
Joseph Mendonca, Ray Nassar, Christopher W. O'Dell, Rigel Kivi, Isamu Morino, Justus Notholt, Christof Petri, Kimberly Strong, and Debra Wunch
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 7511–7524,Short summary
Machine learning has become an important tool for pattern recognition in many applications. In this study, we used a neural network to improve the data quality of OCO-2 measurements made at northern high latitudes. The neural network was trained and used as a binary classifier to filter out bad OCO-2 measurements in order to increase the accuracy and precision of OCO-2 XCO2 measurements in the Boreal and Arctic regions.
Lina Teckentrup, Martin G. De Kauwe, Andrew J. Pitman, Daniel S. Goll, Vanessa Haverd, Atul K. Jain, Emilie Joetzjer, Etsushi Kato, Sebastian Lienert, Danica Lombardozzi, Patrick C. McGuire, Joe R. Melton, Julia E. M. S. Nabel, Julia Pongratz, Stephen Sitch, Anthony P. Walker, and Sönke Zaehle
Biogeosciences, 18, 5639–5668,Short summary
The Australian continent is included in global assessments of the carbon cycle such as the global carbon budget, yet the performance of dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs) over Australia has rarely been evaluated. We assessed simulations by an ensemble of dynamic global vegetation models over Australia and highlighted a number of key areas that lead to model divergence on both short (inter-annual) and long (decadal) timescales.
Claude-Michel Nzotungicimpaye, Kirsten Zickfeld, Andrew H. MacDougall, Joe R. Melton, Claire C. Treat, Michael Eby, and Lance F. W. Lesack
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 6215–6240,Short summary
In this paper, we describe a new wetland methane model (WETMETH) developed for use in Earth system models. WETMETH consists of simple formulations to represent methane production and oxidation in wetlands. We also present an evaluation of the model performance as embedded in the University of Victoria Earth System Climate Model (UVic ESCM). WETMETH is capable of reproducing mean annual methane emissions consistent with present-day estimates from the regional to the global scale.
Alexander J. Winkler, Ranga B. Myneni, Alexis Hannart, Stephen Sitch, Vanessa Haverd, Danica Lombardozzi, Vivek K. Arora, Julia Pongratz, Julia E. M. S. Nabel, Daniel S. Goll, Etsushi Kato, Hanqin Tian, Almut Arneth, Pierre Friedlingstein, Atul K. Jain, Sönke Zaehle, and Victor Brovkin
Biogeosciences, 18, 4985–5010,Short summary
Satellite observations since the early 1980s show that Earth's greening trend is slowing down and that browning clusters have been emerging, especially in the last 2 decades. A collection of model simulations in conjunction with causal theory points at climatic changes as a key driver of vegetation changes in natural ecosystems. Most models underestimate the observed vegetation browning, especially in tropical rainforests, which could be due to an excessive CO2 fertilization effect in models.
Beata Bukosa, Jenny Fisher, Nicholas Deutscher, and Dylan Jones
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
Human activities led to rising levels of greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), carbon monoxide (CO)) in the atmosphere, threatening our future. We use models and measurements to predict and understand the climatological impact of these gases. Here, we describe a new simulation in the GEOS-Chem model that uses a more accurate method to simulate CO2, CH4 and CO, through their chemical dependence. Relative to the original simulations our results agree better with measurements.
Ilya Stanevich, Dylan B. A. Jones, Kimberly Strong, Martin Keller, Daven K. Henze, Robert J. Parker, Hartmut Boesch, Debra Wunch, Justus Notholt, Christof Petri, Thorsten Warneke, Ralf Sussmann, Matthias Schneider, Frank Hase, Rigel Kivi, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Voltaire A. Velazco, Kaley A. Walker, and Feng Deng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9545–9572,Short summary
We explore the utility of a weak-constraint (WC) four-dimensional variational (4D-Var) data assimilation scheme for mitigating systematic errors in methane simulation in the GEOS-Chem model. We use data from the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) and show that, compared to the traditional 4D-Var approach, the WC scheme improves the agreement between the model and independent observations. We find that the WC corrections to the model provide insight into the source of the errors.
Gesa Meyer, Elyn R. Humphreys, Joe R. Melton, Alex J. Cannon, and Peter M. Lafleur
Biogeosciences, 18, 3263–3283,Short summary
Shrub and sedge plant functional types (PFTs) were incorporated in the land surface component of the Canadian Earth System Model to improve representation of Arctic tundra ecosystems. Evaluated against 14 years of non-winter measurements, the magnitude and seasonality of carbon dioxide and energy fluxes at a Canadian dwarf-shrub tundra site were better captured by the shrub PFTs than by previously used grass and tree PFTs. Model simulations showed the tundra site to be an annual net CO2 source.
Wolfgang A. Obermeier, Julia E. M. S. Nabel, Tammas Loughran, Kerstin Hartung, Ana Bastos, Felix Havermann, Peter Anthoni, Almut Arneth, Daniel S. Goll, Sebastian Lienert, Danica Lombardozzi, Sebastiaan Luyssaert, Patrick C. McGuire, Joe R. Melton, Benjamin Poulter, Stephen Sitch, Michael O. Sullivan, Hanqin Tian, Anthony P. Walker, Andrew J. Wiltshire, Soenke Zaehle, and Julia Pongratz
Earth Syst. Dynam., 12, 635–670,Short summary
We provide the first spatio-temporally explicit comparison of different model-derived fluxes from land use and land cover changes (fLULCCs) by using the TRENDY v8 dynamic global vegetation models used in the 2019 global carbon budget. We find huge regional fLULCC differences resulting from environmental assumptions, simulated periods, and the timing of land use and land cover changes, and we argue for a method consistent across time and space and for carefully choosing the accounting period.
Vikram Khade, Saroja M. Polavarapu, Michael Neish, Pieter L. Houtekamer, Dylan B. A. Jones, Seung-Jong Baek, Tai-Long He, and Sylvie Gravel
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 2525–2544,Short summary
A new modeling system has been developed at Environment and Climate Change Canada to ingest observations of carbon monoxide (CO) into a coupled weather and constituent transport model. We show that accounting for the uncertainty in surface flux leads to a better estimate of CO distributions. The benefit of assimilating observations from different simulated networks varies with region. This is the first step towards developing a state and flux estimation system for greenhouse gases.
Zichong Chen, Junjie Liu, Daven K. Henze, Deborah N. Huntzinger, Kelley C. Wells, Stephen Sitch, Pierre Friedlingstein, Emilie Joetzjer, Vladislav Bastrikov, Daniel S. Goll, Vanessa Haverd, Atul K. Jain, Etsushi Kato, Sebastian Lienert, Danica L. Lombardozzi, Patrick C. McGuire, Joe R. Melton, Julia E. M. S. Nabel, Benjamin Poulter, Hanqin Tian, Andrew J. Wiltshire, Sönke Zaehle, and Scot M. Miller
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6663–6680,Short summary
NASA's Orbiting Carbon Observatory 2 (OCO-2) satellite observes atmospheric CO2 globally. We use a multiple regression and inverse model to quantify the relationships between OCO-2 and environmental drivers within individual years for 2015–2018 and within seven global biomes. Our results point to limitations of current space-based observations for inferring environmental relationships but also indicate the potential to inform key relationships that are very uncertain in process-based models.
Christian Seiler, Joe R. Melton, Vivek K. Arora, and Libo Wang
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 2371–2417,Short summary
This study evaluates how well the CLASSIC land surface model reproduces the energy, water, and carbon cycle when compared against a wide range of global observations. Special attention is paid to how uncertainties in the data used to drive and evaluate the model affect model skill. Our results show the importance of incorporating uncertainties when evaluating land surface models and that failing to do so may potentially misguide future model development.
Shoma Yamanouchi, Camille Viatte, Kimberly Strong, Erik Lutsch, Dylan B. A. Jones, Cathy Clerbaux, Martin Van Damme, Lieven Clarisse, and Pierre-Francois Coheur
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 905–921,Short summary
Ammonia (NH3) is a major source of pollution in the air. As such, there have been increasing efforts to measure the atmospheric abundance of NH3 and its spatial and temporal variability. In this study, long-term measurements of NH3 over Toronto, Canada, derived from multiscale datasets are examined. These NH3 datasets were compared to each other and to a model to better understand NH3 variability and to assess model performance.
Ali Asaadi and Vivek K. Arora
Biogeosciences, 18, 669–706,Short summary
More than a quarter of the current anthropogenic CO2 emissions are taken up by land, reducing the atmospheric CO2 growth rate. This is because of the CO2 fertilization effect which benefits 80 % of global vegetation. However, if nitrogen and phosphorus nutrients cannot keep up with increasing atmospheric CO2, the magnitude of this terrestrial ecosystem service may reduce in future. This paper implements nitrogen constraints on photosynthesis in a model to understand the mechanisms involved.
Pierre Friedlingstein, Michael O'Sullivan, Matthew W. Jones, Robbie M. Andrew, Judith Hauck, Are Olsen, Glen P. Peters, Wouter Peters, Julia Pongratz, Stephen Sitch, Corinne Le Quéré, Josep G. Canadell, Philippe Ciais, Robert B. Jackson, Simone Alin, Luiz E. O. C. Aragão, Almut Arneth, Vivek Arora, Nicholas R. Bates, Meike Becker, Alice Benoit-Cattin, Henry C. Bittig, Laurent Bopp, Selma Bultan, Naveen Chandra, Frédéric Chevallier, Louise P. Chini, Wiley Evans, Liesbeth Florentie, Piers M. Forster, Thomas Gasser, Marion Gehlen, Dennis Gilfillan, Thanos Gkritzalis, Luke Gregor, Nicolas Gruber, Ian Harris, Kerstin Hartung, Vanessa Haverd, Richard A. Houghton, Tatiana Ilyina, Atul K. Jain, Emilie Joetzjer, Koji Kadono, Etsushi Kato, Vassilis Kitidis, Jan Ivar Korsbakken, Peter Landschützer, Nathalie Lefèvre, Andrew Lenton, Sebastian Lienert, Zhu Liu, Danica Lombardozzi, Gregg Marland, Nicolas Metzl, David R. Munro, Julia E. M. S. Nabel, Shin-Ichiro Nakaoka, Yosuke Niwa, Kevin O'Brien, Tsuneo Ono, Paul I. Palmer, Denis Pierrot, Benjamin Poulter, Laure Resplandy, Eddy Robertson, Christian Rödenbeck, Jörg Schwinger, Roland Séférian, Ingunn Skjelvan, Adam J. P. Smith, Adrienne J. Sutton, Toste Tanhua, Pieter P. Tans, Hanqin Tian, Bronte Tilbrook, Guido van der Werf, Nicolas Vuichard, Anthony P. Walker, Rik Wanninkhof, Andrew J. Watson, David Willis, Andrew J. Wiltshire, Wenping Yuan, Xu Yue, and Sönke Zaehle
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 3269–3340,Short summary
The Global Carbon Budget 2020 describes the data sets and methodology used to quantify the emissions of carbon dioxide and their partitioning among the atmosphere, land, and ocean. These living data are updated every year to provide the highest transparency and traceability in the reporting of CO2, the key driver of climate change.
Lena R. Boysen, Victor Brovkin, Julia Pongratz, David M. Lawrence, Peter Lawrence, Nicolas Vuichard, Philippe Peylin, Spencer Liddicoat, Tomohiro Hajima, Yanwu Zhang, Matthias Rocher, Christine Delire, Roland Séférian, Vivek K. Arora, Lars Nieradzik, Peter Anthoni, Wim Thiery, Marysa M. Laguë, Deborah Lawrence, and Min-Hui Lo
Biogeosciences, 17, 5615–5638,Short summary
We find a biogeophysically induced global cooling with strong carbon losses in a 20 million square kilometre idealized deforestation experiment performed by nine CMIP6 Earth system models. It takes many decades for the temperature signal to emerge, with non-local effects playing an important role. Despite a consistent experimental setup, models diverge substantially in their climate responses. This study offers unprecedented insights for understanding land use change effects in CMIP6 models.
Erik Lutsch, Kimberly Strong, Dylan B. A. Jones, Thomas Blumenstock, Stephanie Conway, Jenny A. Fisher, James W. Hannigan, Frank Hase, Yasuko Kasai, Emmanuel Mahieu, Maria Makarova, Isamu Morino, Tomoo Nagahama, Justus Notholt, Ivan Ortega, Mathias Palm, Anatoly V. Poberovskii, Ralf Sussmann, and Thorsten Warneke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12813–12851,Short summary
This paper describes the use of a network of 10 Arctic and midlatitude ground-based FTIR measurement sites to detect enhancements of the wildfire tracers carbon monoxide, hydrogen cyanide, and ethane from 2003 to 2018. A tagged CO GEOS-Chem simulation is used for source attribution and to evaluate the relative contribution of CO sources to the FTIR measurements. The use of FTIR measurements allowed for the emission ratios of hydrogen cyanide and ethane to be quantified.
Ilya Stanevich, Dylan B. A. Jones, Kimberly Strong, Robert J. Parker, Hartmut Boesch, Debra Wunch, Justus Notholt, Christof Petri, Thorsten Warneke, Ralf Sussmann, Matthias Schneider, Frank Hase, Rigel Kivi, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Voltaire A. Velazco, Kaley A. Walker, and Feng Deng
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 3839–3862,Short summary
Systematic errors in atmospheric models pose a challenge for inverse modeling studies of methane (CH4) emissions. We evaluated the CH4 simulation in the GEOS-Chem model at the horizontal resolutions of 4° × 5° and 2° × 2.5°. Our analysis identified resolution-dependent biases in the model, which we attributed to discrepancies between the two model resolutions in vertical transport in the troposphere and in stratosphere–troposphere exchange.
Vivek K. Arora, Anna Katavouta, Richard G. Williams, Chris D. Jones, Victor Brovkin, Pierre Friedlingstein, Jörg Schwinger, Laurent Bopp, Olivier Boucher, Patricia Cadule, Matthew A. Chamberlain, James R. Christian, Christine Delire, Rosie A. Fisher, Tomohiro Hajima, Tatiana Ilyina, Emilie Joetzjer, Michio Kawamiya, Charles D. Koven, John P. Krasting, Rachel M. Law, David M. Lawrence, Andrew Lenton, Keith Lindsay, Julia Pongratz, Thomas Raddatz, Roland Séférian, Kaoru Tachiiri, Jerry F. Tjiputra, Andy Wiltshire, Tongwen Wu, and Tilo Ziehn
Biogeosciences, 17, 4173–4222,Short summary
Since the preindustrial period, land and ocean have taken up about half of the carbon emitted into the atmosphere by humans. Comparison of different earth system models with the carbon cycle allows us to assess how carbon uptake by land and ocean differs among models. This yields an estimate of uncertainty in our understanding of how land and ocean respond to increasing atmospheric CO2. This paper summarizes results from two such model intercomparison projects that use an idealized scenario.
Stijn Hantson, Douglas I. Kelley, Almut Arneth, Sandy P. Harrison, Sally Archibald, Dominique Bachelet, Matthew Forrest, Thomas Hickler, Gitta Lasslop, Fang Li, Stephane Mangeon, Joe R. Melton, Lars Nieradzik, Sam S. Rabin, I. Colin Prentice, Tim Sheehan, Stephen Sitch, Lina Teckentrup, Apostolos Voulgarakis, and Chao Yue
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 3299–3318,Short summary
Global fire–vegetation models are widely used, but there has been limited evaluation of how well they represent various aspects of fire regimes. Here we perform a systematic evaluation of simulations made by nine FireMIP models in order to quantify their ability to reproduce a range of fire and vegetation benchmarks. While some FireMIP models are better at representing certain aspects of the fire regime, no model clearly outperforms all other models across the full range of variables assessed.
Marielle Saunois, Ann R. Stavert, Ben Poulter, Philippe Bousquet, Josep G. Canadell, Robert B. Jackson, Peter A. Raymond, Edward J. Dlugokencky, Sander Houweling, Prabir K. Patra, Philippe Ciais, Vivek K. Arora, David Bastviken, Peter Bergamaschi, Donald R. Blake, Gordon Brailsford, Lori Bruhwiler, Kimberly M. Carlson, Mark Carrol, Simona Castaldi, Naveen Chandra, Cyril Crevoisier, Patrick M. Crill, Kristofer Covey, Charles L. Curry, Giuseppe Etiope, Christian Frankenberg, Nicola Gedney, Michaela I. Hegglin, Lena Höglund-Isaksson, Gustaf Hugelius, Misa Ishizawa, Akihiko Ito, Greet Janssens-Maenhout, Katherine M. Jensen, Fortunat Joos, Thomas Kleinen, Paul B. Krummel, Ray L. Langenfelds, Goulven G. Laruelle, Licheng Liu, Toshinobu Machida, Shamil Maksyutov, Kyle C. McDonald, Joe McNorton, Paul A. Miller, Joe R. Melton, Isamu Morino, Jurek Müller, Fabiola Murguia-Flores, Vaishali Naik, Yosuke Niwa, Sergio Noce, Simon O'Doherty, Robert J. Parker, Changhui Peng, Shushi Peng, Glen P. Peters, Catherine Prigent, Ronald Prinn, Michel Ramonet, Pierre Regnier, William J. Riley, Judith A. Rosentreter, Arjo Segers, Isobel J. Simpson, Hao Shi, Steven J. Smith, L. Paul Steele, Brett F. Thornton, Hanqin Tian, Yasunori Tohjima, Francesco N. Tubiello, Aki Tsuruta, Nicolas Viovy, Apostolos Voulgarakis, Thomas S. Weber, Michiel van Weele, Guido R. van der Werf, Ray F. Weiss, Doug Worthy, Debra Wunch, Yi Yin, Yukio Yoshida, Wenxin Zhang, Zhen Zhang, Yuanhong Zhao, Bo Zheng, Qing Zhu, Qiuan Zhu, and Qianlai Zhuang
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1561–1623,Short summary
Understanding and quantifying the global methane (CH4) budget is important for assessing realistic pathways to mitigate climate change. We have established a consortium of multidisciplinary scientists under the umbrella of the Global Carbon Project to synthesize and stimulate new research aimed at improving and regularly updating the global methane budget. This is the second version of the review dedicated to the decadal methane budget, integrating results of top-down and bottom-up estimates.
Joe R. Melton, Vivek K. Arora, Eduard Wisernig-Cojoc, Christian Seiler, Matthew Fortier, Ed Chan, and Lina Teckentrup
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 2825–2850,Short summary
We transitioned the CLASS-CTEM land surface model to an open-source community model format by modernizing the code base to make the model easier to use and understand, providing a complete software environment to run the model within, developing a benchmarking suite for model evaluation, and creating an infrastructure to support community involvement. The new model, the Canadian Land Surface Scheme including Biogeochemical Cycles (CLASSIC), is now available for the community to use and develop.
Matthew J. Cooper, Randall V. Martin, Daven K. Henze, and Dylan B. A. Jones
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 7231–7241,Short summary
Comparisons between satellite-retrieved and model-simulated NO2 columns are affected by differences between the model vertical profile and the assumed profile used in the retrieval process. We examine how such differences impact NOx emission estimates from satellite observations. Larger differences between the simulated and assumed profile shape correspond to larger emission errors. This reveals the importance of using consistent profile information when comparing satellite columns to models.
Andrew H. MacDougall, Thomas L. Frölicher, Chris D. Jones, Joeri Rogelj, H. Damon Matthews, Kirsten Zickfeld, Vivek K. Arora, Noah J. Barrett, Victor Brovkin, Friedrich A. Burger, Micheal Eby, Alexey V. Eliseev, Tomohiro Hajima, Philip B. Holden, Aurich Jeltsch-Thömmes, Charles Koven, Nadine Mengis, Laurie Menviel, Martine Michou, Igor I. Mokhov, Akira Oka, Jörg Schwinger, Roland Séférian, Gary Shaffer, Andrei Sokolov, Kaoru Tachiiri, Jerry Tjiputra, Andrew Wiltshire, and Tilo Ziehn
Biogeosciences, 17, 2987–3016,Short summary
The Zero Emissions Commitment (ZEC) is the change in global temperature expected to occur following the complete cessation of CO2 emissions. Here we use 18 climate models to assess the value of ZEC. For our experiment we find that ZEC 50 years after emissions cease is between −0.36 to +0.29 °C. The most likely value of ZEC is assessed to be close to zero. However, substantial continued warming for decades or centuries following cessation of CO2 emission cannot be ruled out.
Shufen Pan, Naiqing Pan, Hanqin Tian, Pierre Friedlingstein, Stephen Sitch, Hao Shi, Vivek K. Arora, Vanessa Haverd, Atul K. Jain, Etsushi Kato, Sebastian Lienert, Danica Lombardozzi, Julia E. M. S. Nabel, Catherine Ottlé, Benjamin Poulter, Sönke Zaehle, and Steven W. Running
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 1485–1509,Short summary
Evapotranspiration (ET) links global water, carbon and energy cycles. We used 4 remote sensing models, 2 machine-learning algorithms and 14 land surface models to analyze the changes in global terrestrial ET. These three categories of approaches agreed well in terms of ET intensity. For 1982–2011, all models showed that Earth greening enhanced terrestrial ET. The small interannual variability of global terrestrial ET suggests it has a potential planetary boundary of around 600 mm yr-1.
Jinwoong Kim, Saroja M. Polavarapu, Douglas Chan, and Michael Neish
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 269–295,Short summary
GEM–MACH–GHG is a coupled weather and greenhouse gas transport model at Environment and Climate Change Canada. We have developed the regional version of GEM–MACH–GHG, mainly focusing on Canada and the United States, as a follow-up to the global version of GEM–MACH–GHG. The regional model is superior to our global model in terms of weather forecasts and CO2 simulation.
Pierre Friedlingstein, Matthew W. Jones, Michael O'Sullivan, Robbie M. Andrew, Judith Hauck, Glen P. Peters, Wouter Peters, Julia Pongratz, Stephen Sitch, Corinne Le Quéré, Dorothee C. E. Bakker, Josep G. Canadell, Philippe Ciais, Robert B. Jackson, Peter Anthoni, Leticia Barbero, Ana Bastos, Vladislav Bastrikov, Meike Becker, Laurent Bopp, Erik Buitenhuis, Naveen Chandra, Frédéric Chevallier, Louise P. Chini, Kim I. Currie, Richard A. Feely, Marion Gehlen, Dennis Gilfillan, Thanos Gkritzalis, Daniel S. Goll, Nicolas Gruber, Sören Gutekunst, Ian Harris, Vanessa Haverd, Richard A. Houghton, George Hurtt, Tatiana Ilyina, Atul K. Jain, Emilie Joetzjer, Jed O. Kaplan, Etsushi Kato, Kees Klein Goldewijk, Jan Ivar Korsbakken, Peter Landschützer, Siv K. Lauvset, Nathalie Lefèvre, Andrew Lenton, Sebastian Lienert, Danica Lombardozzi, Gregg Marland, Patrick C. McGuire, Joe R. Melton, Nicolas Metzl, David R. Munro, Julia E. M. S. Nabel, Shin-Ichiro Nakaoka, Craig Neill, Abdirahman M. Omar, Tsuneo Ono, Anna Peregon, Denis Pierrot, Benjamin Poulter, Gregor Rehder, Laure Resplandy, Eddy Robertson, Christian Rödenbeck, Roland Séférian, Jörg Schwinger, Naomi Smith, Pieter P. Tans, Hanqin Tian, Bronte Tilbrook, Francesco N. Tubiello, Guido R. van der Werf, Andrew J. Wiltshire, and Sönke Zaehle
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 1783–1838,Short summary
The Global Carbon Budget 2019 describes the data sets and methodology used to quantify the emissions of carbon dioxide and their partitioning among the atmosphere, land, and ocean. These living data are updated every year to provide the highest transparency and traceability in the reporting of CO2, the key driver of climate change.
Neil C. Swart, Jason N. S. Cole, Viatcheslav V. Kharin, Mike Lazare, John F. Scinocca, Nathan P. Gillett, James Anstey, Vivek Arora, James R. Christian, Sarah Hanna, Yanjun Jiao, Warren G. Lee, Fouad Majaess, Oleg A. Saenko, Christian Seiler, Clint Seinen, Andrew Shao, Michael Sigmond, Larry Solheim, Knut von Salzen, Duo Yang, and Barbara Winter
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 4823–4873,Short summary
The Canadian Earth System Model version 5 (CanESM5) is a global model developed to simulate historical climate change and variability, to make centennial-scale projections of future climate, and to produce initialized seasonal and decadal predictions. This paper describes the model components and quantifies the model performance. CanESM5 simulations contribute to the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 6 (CMIP6) and will be employed for climate science applications in Canada.
Joe R. Melton, Diana L. Verseghy, Reinel Sospedra-Alfonso, and Stephan Gruber
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 4443–4467,Short summary
Soils in cold regions store large amounts of carbon that could be released to the atmosphere if the soils thaw. To best simulate these soils, we explored different configurations and parameterizations of the CLASS-CTEM model and compared to observations. The revised model with a deeper soil column, new soil depth dataset, and inclusion of moss simulated greatly improved annual thaw depths and ground temperatures. We estimate subgrid-scale features limit further improvements against observations.
Brendan Byrne, Dylan B. A. Jones, Kimberly Strong, Saroja M. Polavarapu, Anna B. Harper, David F. Baker, and Shamil Maksyutov
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 13017–13035,Short summary
Interannual variations in net ecosystem exchange (NEE) estimated from the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) XCO2 measurements are shown to be correlated (P < 0.05) with temperature and FLUXCOM NEE anomalies. Furthermore, the GOSAT-informed NEE anomalies are found to be better correlated with temperature and FLUXCOM anomalies than NEE estimates from most terrestrial biosphere models, suggesting that GOSAT CO2 measurements provide a useful constraint on NEE interannual variability.
Jacob K. Hedelius, Tai-Long He, Dylan B. A. Jones, Bianca C. Baier, Rebecca R. Buchholz, Martine De Mazière, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Manvendra K. Dubey, Dietrich G. Feist, David W. T. Griffith, Frank Hase, Laura T. Iraci, Pascal Jeseck, Matthäus Kiel, Rigel Kivi, Cheng Liu, Isamu Morino, Justus Notholt, Young-Suk Oh, Hirofumi Ohyama, David F. Pollard, Markus Rettinger, Sébastien Roche, Coleen M. Roehl, Matthias Schneider, Kei Shiomi, Kimberly Strong, Ralf Sussmann, Colm Sweeney, Yao Té, Osamu Uchino, Voltaire A. Velazco, Wei Wang, Thorsten Warneke, Paul O. Wennberg, Helen M. Worden, and Debra Wunch
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5547–5572,Short summary
We seek ways to improve the accuracy of column measurements of carbon monoxide (CO) – an important tracer of pollution – made from the MOPITT satellite instrument. We devise a filtering scheme which reduces the scatter and also eliminates bias among the MOPITT detectors. Compared to ground-based observations, MOPITT measurements are about 6 %–8 % higher. When MOPITT data are implemented in a global assimilation model, they tend to reduce the model mismatch with aircraft measurements.
Fang Li, Maria Val Martin, Meinrat O. Andreae, Almut Arneth, Stijn Hantson, Johannes W. Kaiser, Gitta Lasslop, Chao Yue, Dominique Bachelet, Matthew Forrest, Erik Kluzek, Xiaohong Liu, Stephane Mangeon, Joe R. Melton, Daniel S. Ward, Anton Darmenov, Thomas Hickler, Charles Ichoku, Brian I. Magi, Stephen Sitch, Guido R. van der Werf, Christine Wiedinmyer, and Sam S. Rabin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12545–12567,Short summary
Fire emissions are critical for atmospheric composition, climate, carbon cycle, and air quality. We provide the first global multi-model fire emission reconstructions for 1700–2012, including carbon and 33 species of trace gases and aerosols, based on the nine state-of-the-art global fire models that participated in FireMIP. We also provide information on the recent status and limitations of the model-based reconstructions and identify the main uncertainty sources in their long-term changes.
Lina Teckentrup, Sandy P. Harrison, Stijn Hantson, Angelika Heil, Joe R. Melton, Matthew Forrest, Fang Li, Chao Yue, Almut Arneth, Thomas Hickler, Stephen Sitch, and Gitta Lasslop
Biogeosciences, 16, 3883–3910,Short summary
This study compares simulated burned area of seven global vegetation models provided by the Fire Model Intercomparison Project (FireMIP) since 1900. We investigate the influence of five forcing factors: atmospheric CO2, population density, land–use change, lightning and climate. We find that the anthropogenic factors lead to the largest spread between models. Trends due to climate are mostly not significant but climate strongly influences the inter-annual variability of burned area.
Sean Crowell, David Baker, Andrew Schuh, Sourish Basu, Andrew R. Jacobson, Frederic Chevallier, Junjie Liu, Feng Deng, Liang Feng, Kathryn McKain, Abhishek Chatterjee, John B. Miller, Britton B. Stephens, Annmarie Eldering, David Crisp, David Schimel, Ray Nassar, Christopher W. O'Dell, Tomohiro Oda, Colm Sweeney, Paul I. Palmer, and Dylan B. A. Jones
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 9797–9831,Short summary
Space-based retrievals of carbon dioxide offer the potential to provide dense data in regions that are sparsely observed by the surface network. We find that flux estimates that are informed by the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) show different character from that inferred using surface measurements in tropical land regions, particularly in Africa, with a much larger total emission and larger amplitude seasonal cycle.
Matthäus Kiel, Christopher W. O'Dell, Brendan Fisher, Annmarie Eldering, Ray Nassar, Cameron G. MacDonald, and Paul O. Wennberg
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 2241–2259,
Debra Wunch, Dylan B. A. Jones, Geoffrey C. Toon, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Frank Hase, Justus Notholt, Ralf Sussmann, Thorsten Warneke, Jeroen Kuenen, Hugo Denier van der Gon, Jenny A. Fisher, and Joannes D. Maasakkers
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 3963–3980,Short summary
We used five atmospheric observatories in Europe measuring total column dry-air mole fractions of methane and carbon monoxide to infer methane emissions in the area between the observatories. We find that the methane emissions are overestimated by the state-of-the-art inventories, and that this is likely due, at least in part, to the inventory disaggregation. We find that there is significant uncertainty in the carbon monoxide inventories that requires further investigation.
Benjamin Gaubert, Britton B. Stephens, Sourish Basu, Frédéric Chevallier, Feng Deng, Eric A. Kort, Prabir K. Patra, Wouter Peters, Christian Rödenbeck, Tazu Saeki, David Schimel, Ingrid Van der Laan-Luijkx, Steven Wofsy, and Yi Yin
Biogeosciences, 16, 117–134,Short summary
We have compared global carbon budgets calculated from numerical inverse models and CO2 observations, and evaluated how these systems reproduce vertical gradients in atmospheric CO2 from aircraft measurements. We found that available models have converged on near-neutral tropical total fluxes for several decades, implying consistent sinks in intact tropical forests, and that assumed fossil fuel emissions and predicted atmospheric growth rates are now the dominant axes of disagreement.
Matthias Forkel, Niels Andela, Sandy P. Harrison, Gitta Lasslop, Margreet van Marle, Emilio Chuvieco, Wouter Dorigo, Matthew Forrest, Stijn Hantson, Angelika Heil, Fang Li, Joe Melton, Stephen Sitch, Chao Yue, and Almut Arneth
Biogeosciences, 16, 57–76,Short summary
Weather, humans, and vegetation control the occurrence of fires. In this study we find that global fire–vegetation models underestimate the strong increase of burned area with higher previous-season plant productivity in comparison to satellite-derived relationships.
Corinne Le Quéré, Robbie M. Andrew, Pierre Friedlingstein, Stephen Sitch, Judith Hauck, Julia Pongratz, Penelope A. Pickers, Jan Ivar Korsbakken, Glen P. Peters, Josep G. Canadell, Almut Arneth, Vivek K. Arora, Leticia Barbero, Ana Bastos, Laurent Bopp, Frédéric Chevallier, Louise P. Chini, Philippe Ciais, Scott C. Doney, Thanos Gkritzalis, Daniel S. Goll, Ian Harris, Vanessa Haverd, Forrest M. Hoffman, Mario Hoppema, Richard A. Houghton, George Hurtt, Tatiana Ilyina, Atul K. Jain, Truls Johannessen, Chris D. Jones, Etsushi Kato, Ralph F. Keeling, Kees Klein Goldewijk, Peter Landschützer, Nathalie Lefèvre, Sebastian Lienert, Zhu Liu, Danica Lombardozzi, Nicolas Metzl, David R. Munro, Julia E. M. S. Nabel, Shin-ichiro Nakaoka, Craig Neill, Are Olsen, Tsueno Ono, Prabir Patra, Anna Peregon, Wouter Peters, Philippe Peylin, Benjamin Pfeil, Denis Pierrot, Benjamin Poulter, Gregor Rehder, Laure Resplandy, Eddy Robertson, Matthias Rocher, Christian Rödenbeck, Ute Schuster, Jörg Schwinger, Roland Séférian, Ingunn Skjelvan, Tobias Steinhoff, Adrienne Sutton, Pieter P. Tans, Hanqin Tian, Bronte Tilbrook, Francesco N. Tubiello, Ingrid T. van der Laan-Luijkx, Guido R. van der Werf, Nicolas Viovy, Anthony P. Walker, Andrew J. Wiltshire, Rebecca Wright, Sönke Zaehle, and Bo Zheng
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 2141–2194,Short summary
The Global Carbon Budget 2018 describes the data sets and methodology used to quantify the emissions of carbon dioxide and their partitioning among the atmosphere, land, and ocean. These living data are updated every year to provide the highest transparency and traceability in the reporting of CO2, the key driver of climate change.
Ali Asaadi, Vivek K. Arora, Joe R. Melton, and Paul Bartlett
Biogeosciences, 15, 6885–6907,Short summary
Non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs), which play a central role in a plant's life processes and its response to environmental conditions, are typically not included in terrestrial biogeochemistry models used in Earth system models (ESMs). In this study, we include NSC pools in the framework of the land component of the Canadian ESM and show how they help address the long-standing problem of delayed leaf phenology.
Saroja M. Polavarapu, Feng Deng, Brendan Byrne, Dylan B. A. Jones, and Michael Neish
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 12011–12044,Short summary
A new diagnostic reveals how fluxes constrained by two different CO2 observing systems inform atmospheric CO2 simulations. The potential for GOSAT data to better resolve zonally asymmetric structures in the tropics year-round and in the northern extratropics in most seasons is shown. Using in situ data yields a better match to independent observations on the global, annual scale. Such complementarity of the observing systems can be exploited in greenhouse gas data assimilation systems.
Vivek K. Arora, Joe R. Melton, and David Plummer
Biogeosciences, 15, 4683–4709,Short summary
Earth system models (ESMs) project future changes in climate in response to changes in anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs). However, before this can be achieved the natural fluxes of a given GHG must also be modelled. This paper evaluates the natural methane fluxes simulated by the CLASS-CTEM model (which is the land component of the Canadian ESM) against observations to show that the simulated methane emissions from wetlands and fires, and soil uptake of methane are realistic.
Corinne Le Quéré, Robbie M. Andrew, Pierre Friedlingstein, Stephen Sitch, Julia Pongratz, Andrew C. Manning, Jan Ivar Korsbakken, Glen P. Peters, Josep G. Canadell, Robert B. Jackson, Thomas A. Boden, Pieter P. Tans, Oliver D. Andrews, Vivek K. Arora, Dorothee C. E. Bakker, Leticia Barbero, Meike Becker, Richard A. Betts, Laurent Bopp, Frédéric Chevallier, Louise P. Chini, Philippe Ciais, Catherine E. Cosca, Jessica Cross, Kim Currie, Thomas Gasser, Ian Harris, Judith Hauck, Vanessa Haverd, Richard A. Houghton, Christopher W. Hunt, George Hurtt, Tatiana Ilyina, Atul K. Jain, Etsushi Kato, Markus Kautz, Ralph F. Keeling, Kees Klein Goldewijk, Arne Körtzinger, Peter Landschützer, Nathalie Lefèvre, Andrew Lenton, Sebastian Lienert, Ivan Lima, Danica Lombardozzi, Nicolas Metzl, Frank Millero, Pedro M. S. Monteiro, David R. Munro, Julia E. M. S. Nabel, Shin-ichiro Nakaoka, Yukihiro Nojiri, X. Antonio Padin, Anna Peregon, Benjamin Pfeil, Denis Pierrot, Benjamin Poulter, Gregor Rehder, Janet Reimer, Christian Rödenbeck, Jörg Schwinger, Roland Séférian, Ingunn Skjelvan, Benjamin D. Stocker, Hanqin Tian, Bronte Tilbrook, Francesco N. Tubiello, Ingrid T. van der Laan-Luijkx, Guido R. van der Werf, Steven van Heuven, Nicolas Viovy, Nicolas Vuichard, Anthony P. Walker, Andrew J. Watson, Andrew J. Wiltshire, Sönke Zaehle, and Dan Zhu
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 405–448,Short summary
The Global Carbon Budget 2017 describes data sets and methodology to quantify the five major components of the global carbon budget and their uncertainties. It is the 12th annual update and the 6th published in this journal.
Nian Bie, Liping Lei, ZhaoCheng Zeng, Bofeng Cai, Shaoyuan Yang, Zhonghua He, Changjiang Wu, and Ray Nassar
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 1251–1272,Short summary
The results imply that XCO2 from satellite observations could be reliably applied in the assessment of atmospheric CO2 enhancements induced by anthropogenic CO2 emissions. The large inconsistency among different algorithms presented in western deserts with a high albedo and dust aerosols demonstrates that further improvement is still necessary in such regions, even though many algorithms have endeavored to minimize the effects of aerosols and albedo.
Jenny A. Fisher, Lee T. Murray, Dylan B. A. Jones, and Nicholas M. Deutscher
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 4129–4144,Short summary
Carbon monoxide (CO) simulation in atmospheric chemistry models is used for source–receptor analysis, emission inversion, and interpretation of observations. We introduce a major update to CO simulation in the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model that removes fundamental inconsistencies relative to the standard model, resolving biases of more than 100 ppb and errors in vertical structure. We also add source tagging of secondary CO and demonstrate it provides added value in low-emission regions.
Rudra K. Shrestha, Vivek K. Arora, Joe R. Melton, and Laxmi Sushama
Biogeosciences, 14, 4733–4753,Short summary
Computer models of vegetation provide a tool to assess how future changes in climate may the affect geographical distribution of vegetation. However, such models must first be assessed for their ability to reproduce the present-day geographical distribution of vegetation. Here, we assess the ability of one such dynamic vegetation model. We find that while the model is broadly successful in reproducing the geographical distribution of trees and grasses in North America some limitations remain.
Marielle Saunois, Philippe Bousquet, Ben Poulter, Anna Peregon, Philippe Ciais, Josep G. Canadell, Edward J. Dlugokencky, Giuseppe Etiope, David Bastviken, Sander Houweling, Greet Janssens-Maenhout, Francesco N. Tubiello, Simona Castaldi, Robert B. Jackson, Mihai Alexe, Vivek K. Arora, David J. Beerling, Peter Bergamaschi, Donald R. Blake, Gordon Brailsford, Lori Bruhwiler, Cyril Crevoisier, Patrick Crill, Kristofer Covey, Christian Frankenberg, Nicola Gedney, Lena Höglund-Isaksson, Misa Ishizawa, Akihiko Ito, Fortunat Joos, Heon-Sook Kim, Thomas Kleinen, Paul Krummel, Jean-François Lamarque, Ray Langenfelds, Robin Locatelli, Toshinobu Machida, Shamil Maksyutov, Joe R. Melton, Isamu Morino, Vaishali Naik, Simon O'Doherty, Frans-Jan W. Parmentier, Prabir K. Patra, Changhui Peng, Shushi Peng, Glen P. Peters, Isabelle Pison, Ronald Prinn, Michel Ramonet, William J. Riley, Makoto Saito, Monia Santini, Ronny Schroeder, Isobel J. Simpson, Renato Spahni, Atsushi Takizawa, Brett F. Thornton, Hanqin Tian, Yasunori Tohjima, Nicolas Viovy, Apostolos Voulgarakis, Ray Weiss, David J. Wilton, Andy Wiltshire, Doug Worthy, Debra Wunch, Xiyan Xu, Yukio Yoshida, Bowen Zhang, Zhen Zhang, and Qiuan Zhu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 11135–11161,Short summary
Following the Global Methane Budget 2000–2012 published in Saunois et al. (2016), we use the same dataset of bottom-up and top-down approaches to discuss the variations in methane emissions over the period 2000–2012. The changes in emissions are discussed both in terms of trends and quasi-decadal changes. The ensemble gathered here allows us to synthesise the robust changes in terms of regional and sectorial contributions to the increasing methane emissions.
Joe R. Melton, Reinel Sospedra-Alfonso, and Kelly E. McCusker
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 2761–2783,Short summary
Climate models have large grid cells due to the computational cost of running these complex models. Within grid cells like these, the land surface can vary dramatically impacting the exchange of water, carbon, and energy between the atmosphere and land. We use a technique to determine natural clusters of high-resolution soil texture within large grid cells and use them as inputs to our model. We find relatively low sensitivity to soil texture changes except in very dry regions and peatlands.
Yuanqiao Wu, Ed Chan, Joe R. Melton, and Diana L. Verseghy
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
Peatlands are an important component of the carbon cycle that is expected to change under climate change, but accurate information on the global distribution of peatlands is presently unavailable. We use a machine-learning method to create a map of global peatland extent suitable for use in an Earth system model. For areas where data exists we find excellent agreement with observations and our method has greater skill than solely using soil datasets to estimate peatland coverage.
Zhe Jiang, Helen Worden, John R. Worden, Daven K. Henze, Dylan B. A. Jones, Avelino F. Arellano, Emily V. Fischer, Liye Zhu, Kazuyuki Miyazaki, K. Folkert Boersma, and Vivienne H. Payne
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
We investigated the variation of US tropospheric NO2 in the past decade. We demonstrated significant divergence between the time variation in tropospheric NO2 columns from OMI retrievals and surface measurements. Our analysis suggests limited contributions from local effects such as fossil fuel emissions, lightning, or instrument artifacts, and indicates possible important contributions from long-range transport of Asian emissions that are modulated by ENSO.
Zhe Jiang, John R. Worden, Helen Worden, Merritt Deeter, Dylan B. A. Jones, Avelino F. Arellano, and Daven K. Henze
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 4565–4583,Short summary
We constrain the long-term variation in global CO emissions for 2001–2015. Our results confirm that the decreasing trend of tropospheric CO in the Northern Hemisphere is due to decreasing CO emissions from anthropogenic and biomass burning sources. In particular, we find decreasing CO emissions from the United States and China in the past 15 years, unchanged anthropogenic CO emissions from Europe since 2008, and likely a positive trend from India and southeast Asia.
Sam S. Rabin, Joe R. Melton, Gitta Lasslop, Dominique Bachelet, Matthew Forrest, Stijn Hantson, Jed O. Kaplan, Fang Li, Stéphane Mangeon, Daniel S. Ward, Chao Yue, Vivek K. Arora, Thomas Hickler, Silvia Kloster, Wolfgang Knorr, Lars Nieradzik, Allan Spessa, Gerd A. Folberth, Tim Sheehan, Apostolos Voulgarakis, Douglas I. Kelley, I. Colin Prentice, Stephen Sitch, Sandy Harrison, and Almut Arneth
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 1175–1197,Short summary
Global vegetation models are important tools for understanding how the Earth system will change in the future, and fire is a critical process to include. A number of different methods have been developed to represent vegetation burning. This paper describes the protocol for the first systematic comparison of global fire models, which will allow the community to explore various drivers and evaluate what mechanisms are important for improving performance. It also includes equations for all models.
Jing M. Chen, Gang Mo, and Feng Deng
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 1131–1156,Short summary
A joint inversion system is developed for estimating the carbon fluxes in 39 land and 11 ocean regions of the globe using both atmospheric CO2 and 13CO2 stable isotope data. In particular, a biospheric model is developed to model both CO2 and 13CO2 fluxes over land to constrain the inversion. Relative to CO2-only inversion, the joint inversion system improved the partition between land and ocean carbon fluxes and possibly the distribution of the fluxes among land regions as well.
Marielle Saunois, Philippe Bousquet, Ben Poulter, Anna Peregon, Philippe Ciais, Josep G. Canadell, Edward J. Dlugokencky, Giuseppe Etiope, David Bastviken, Sander Houweling, Greet Janssens-Maenhout, Francesco N. Tubiello, Simona Castaldi, Robert B. Jackson, Mihai Alexe, Vivek K. Arora, David J. Beerling, Peter Bergamaschi, Donald R. Blake, Gordon Brailsford, Victor Brovkin, Lori Bruhwiler, Cyril Crevoisier, Patrick Crill, Kristofer Covey, Charles Curry, Christian Frankenberg, Nicola Gedney, Lena Höglund-Isaksson, Misa Ishizawa, Akihiko Ito, Fortunat Joos, Heon-Sook Kim, Thomas Kleinen, Paul Krummel, Jean-François Lamarque, Ray Langenfelds, Robin Locatelli, Toshinobu Machida, Shamil Maksyutov, Kyle C. McDonald, Julia Marshall, Joe R. Melton, Isamu Morino, Vaishali Naik, Simon O'Doherty, Frans-Jan W. Parmentier, Prabir K. Patra, Changhui Peng, Shushi Peng, Glen P. Peters, Isabelle Pison, Catherine Prigent, Ronald Prinn, Michel Ramonet, William J. Riley, Makoto Saito, Monia Santini, Ronny Schroeder, Isobel J. Simpson, Renato Spahni, Paul Steele, Atsushi Takizawa, Brett F. Thornton, Hanqin Tian, Yasunori Tohjima, Nicolas Viovy, Apostolos Voulgarakis, Michiel van Weele, Guido R. van der Werf, Ray Weiss, Christine Wiedinmyer, David J. Wilton, Andy Wiltshire, Doug Worthy, Debra Wunch, Xiyan Xu, Yukio Yoshida, Bowen Zhang, Zhen Zhang, and Qiuan Zhu
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 8, 697–751,Short summary
An accurate assessment of the methane budget is important to understand the atmospheric methane concentrations and trends and to provide realistic pathways for climate change mitigation. The various and diffuse sources of methane as well and its oxidation by a very short lifetime radical challenge this assessment. We quantify the methane sources and sinks as well as their uncertainties based on both bottom-up and top-down approaches provided by a broad international scientific community.
Corinne Le Quéré, Robbie M. Andrew, Josep G. Canadell, Stephen Sitch, Jan Ivar Korsbakken, Glen P. Peters, Andrew C. Manning, Thomas A. Boden, Pieter P. Tans, Richard A. Houghton, Ralph F. Keeling, Simone Alin, Oliver D. Andrews, Peter Anthoni, Leticia Barbero, Laurent Bopp, Frédéric Chevallier, Louise P. Chini, Philippe Ciais, Kim Currie, Christine Delire, Scott C. Doney, Pierre Friedlingstein, Thanos Gkritzalis, Ian Harris, Judith Hauck, Vanessa Haverd, Mario Hoppema, Kees Klein Goldewijk, Atul K. Jain, Etsushi Kato, Arne Körtzinger, Peter Landschützer, Nathalie Lefèvre, Andrew Lenton, Sebastian Lienert, Danica Lombardozzi, Joe R. Melton, Nicolas Metzl, Frank Millero, Pedro M. S. Monteiro, David R. Munro, Julia E. M. S. Nabel, Shin-ichiro Nakaoka, Kevin O'Brien, Are Olsen, Abdirahman M. Omar, Tsuneo Ono, Denis Pierrot, Benjamin Poulter, Christian Rödenbeck, Joe Salisbury, Ute Schuster, Jörg Schwinger, Roland Séférian, Ingunn Skjelvan, Benjamin D. Stocker, Adrienne J. Sutton, Taro Takahashi, Hanqin Tian, Bronte Tilbrook, Ingrid T. van der Laan-Luijkx, Guido R. van der Werf, Nicolas Viovy, Anthony P. Walker, Andrew J. Wiltshire, and Sönke Zaehle
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 8, 605–649,Short summary
The Global Carbon Budget 2016 is the 11th annual update of emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) and their partitioning among the atmosphere, land, and ocean. This data synthesis brings together measurements, statistical information, and analyses of model results in order to provide an assessment of the global carbon budget and their uncertainties for years 1959 to 2015, with a projection for year 2016.
Saroja M. Polavarapu, Michael Neish, Monique Tanguay, Claude Girard, Jean de Grandpré, Kirill Semeniuk, Sylvie Gravel, Shuzhan Ren, Sébastien Roche, Douglas Chan, and Kimberly Strong
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 12005–12038,Short summary
CO2 predictions are used to compute model–data mismatches when estimating surfaces fluxes using atmospheric observations together with an atmospheric transport model. By isolating the component of transport error which is due to uncertain meteorological analyses, it is demonstrated that CO2 can only be defined on large spatial scales. Thus, there is a spatial scale below which we cannot infer fluxes simply due to the fact that meteorological analyes are imperfect.
Chris D. Jones, Vivek Arora, Pierre Friedlingstein, Laurent Bopp, Victor Brovkin, John Dunne, Heather Graven, Forrest Hoffman, Tatiana Ilyina, Jasmin G. John, Martin Jung, Michio Kawamiya, Charlie Koven, Julia Pongratz, Thomas Raddatz, James T. Randerson, and Sönke Zaehle
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 2853–2880,Short summary
How the carbon cycle interacts with climate will affect future climate change and how society plans emissions reductions to achieve climate targets. The Coupled Climate Carbon Cycle Model Intercomparison Project (C4MIP) is an endorsed activity of CMIP6 and aims to quantify these interactions and feedbacks in state-of-the-art climate models. This paper lays out the experimental protocol for modelling groups to follow to contribute to C4MIP. It is a contribution to the CMIP6 GMD Special Issue.
Yuanqiao Wu, Diana L. Verseghy, and Joe R. Melton
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 2639–2663,Short summary
About 20 % of the carbon stored in global soils occurs in peatlands. Warmer and drier conditions will both tend to stimulate the decomposition of peat and increase CO2 and methane emissions, thus potentially enhancing the warming trend. It is important that this feedback mechanism be captured in climate models. This work integrated peatlands into the Canadian Earth system model (CanESM) for global climate predictions and represent a valuable enhancement to the family of Earth system models.
Vivek K. Arora and John F. Scinocca
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 2357–2376,Short summary
This paper uses observed features of the global carbon cycle to constrain how much carbon the land should take up in an Earth system model in response to increasing fossil fuel CO2 emissions since the start of the industrial era. These models are the only tool available to us for projecting future climate change. Despite their uncertainties, if current observations can be used to constrain models then more confidence can be places in models' future climate change projections.
Stijn Hantson, Almut Arneth, Sandy P. Harrison, Douglas I. Kelley, I. Colin Prentice, Sam S. Rabin, Sally Archibald, Florent Mouillot, Steve R. Arnold, Paulo Artaxo, Dominique Bachelet, Philippe Ciais, Matthew Forrest, Pierre Friedlingstein, Thomas Hickler, Jed O. Kaplan, Silvia Kloster, Wolfgang Knorr, Gitta Lasslop, Fang Li, Stephane Mangeon, Joe R. Melton, Andrea Meyn, Stephen Sitch, Allan Spessa, Guido R. van der Werf, Apostolos Voulgarakis, and Chao Yue
Biogeosciences, 13, 3359–3375,Short summary
Our ability to predict the magnitude and geographic pattern of past and future fire impacts rests on our ability to model fire regimes. A large variety of models exist, and it is unclear which type of model or degree of complexity is required to model fire adequately at regional to global scales. In this paper we summarize the current state of the art in fire-regime modelling and model evaluation, and outline what lessons may be learned from the Fire Model Intercomparison Project – FireMIP.
Zhe Jiang, Kazuyuki Miyazaki, John R. Worden, Jane J. Liu, Dylan B. A. Jones, and Daven K. Henze
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 6537–6546,Short summary
We quantify the impacts of anthropogenic and natural sources on free tropospheric ozone over the Middle East, using the adjoint of the GEOS-Chem model with updated NOx emissions estimates from an ensemble Kalman filter. We show that the global total contribution of lightning NOx on free tropospheric O3 over the Middle East is about 2 times larger than that from global anthropogenic sources. The summertime free tropospheric O3 enhancement is primarily due to Asian NOx emissions.
Scot M. Miller, Roisin Commane, Joe R. Melton, Arlyn E. Andrews, Joshua Benmergui, Edward J. Dlugokencky, Greet Janssens-Maenhout, Anna M. Michalak, Colm Sweeney, and Doug E. J. Worthy
Biogeosciences, 13, 1329–1339,Short summary
We use atmospheric data from the US and Canada to examine seven wetland methane flux estimates. Relative to existing estimates, we find a methane source that is smaller in magnitude with a broader seasonal cycle. Furthermore, we estimate the largest fluxes over the Hudson Bay Lowlands, a spatial distribution that differs from commonly used remote sensing estimates of wetland location.
J. R. Melton and V. K. Arora
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 323–361,Short summary
We use a modified form of the Lotka–Volterra (L–V) equations to simulate competition between plant functional types (PFTs) on a global scale with the Canadian Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (CTEM) version 2.0. Our modified L–V simulations compare well against observation-based records of PFT distributions, while simulations with unmodified L–V equations show significant biases. We include an appendix detailing all aspects of CTEM v. 2.0.
F. Deng, D. B. A. Jones, T. W. Walker, M. Keller, K. W. Bowman, D. K. Henze, R. Nassar, E. A. Kort, S. C. Wofsy, K. A. Walker, A. E. Bourassa, and D. A. Degenstein
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 11773–11788,Short summary
The upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) is characterized by strong gradients in the distribution of long-lived tracers, which are sensitive to discrepancies in transport in models. We found that our model overestimates CO2 in the polar UTLS through comparison of modeled CO2 with aircraft observations. We then corrected the modeled CO2 and quantified the impact of the correction on the flux estimates using an atmospheric model together with atmospheric CO2 measured from a satellite.
C. D. Koven, J. Q. Chambers, K. Georgiou, R. Knox, R. Negron-Juarez, W. J. Riley, V. K. Arora, V. Brovkin, P. Friedlingstein, and C. D. Jones
Biogeosciences, 12, 5211–5228,Short summary
Terrestrial carbon feedbacks are a large uncertainty in climate change. We separate modeled feedback responses into those governed by changed carbon inputs (productivity) and changed outputs (turnover). The disaggregated responses show that both are important in controlling inter-model uncertainty. Interactions between productivity and turnover are also important, and research must focus on these interactions for more accurate projections of carbon cycle feedbacks.
Y. H. Mao, Q. B. Li, D. K. Henze, Z. Jiang, D. B. A. Jones, M. Kopacz, C. He, L. Qi, M. Gao, W.-M. Hao, and K.-N. Liou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 7685–7702,
Z. Jiang, D. B. A. Jones, J. Worden, H. M. Worden, D. K. Henze, and Y. X. Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 6801–6814,Short summary
We present a high-resolution (0.5 x 0.667) regional CO inversion over North America in the period of June 2004–May 2005, using a combination of GEOS-Chem model and MOPITT CO observations. With optimized lateral boundary conditions, we show that regional inversion analyses can reduce the sensitivity of the CO source estimates to errors in long-range transport and in the distributions of the hydroxyl radical (OH), and consequently, provide better quantification on regional CO source estimates.
T. J. Bohn, J. R. Melton, A. Ito, T. Kleinen, R. Spahni, B. D. Stocker, B. Zhang, X. Zhu, R. Schroeder, M. V. Glagolev, S. Maksyutov, V. Brovkin, G. Chen, S. N. Denisov, A. V. Eliseev, A. Gallego-Sala, K. C. McDonald, M.A. Rawlins, W. J. Riley, Z. M. Subin, H. Tian, Q. Zhuang, and J. O. Kaplan
Biogeosciences, 12, 3321–3349,Short summary
We evaluated 21 forward models and 5 inversions over western Siberia in terms of CH4 emissions and simulated wetland areas and compared these results to an intensive in situ CH4 flux data set, several wetland maps, and two satellite inundation products. In addition to assembling a definitive collection of methane emissions estimates for the region, we were able to identify the types of wetland maps and model features necessary for accurate simulations of high-latitude wetlands.
J. Huang, H. Liu, J. H. Crawford, C. Chan, D. B. Considine, Y. Zhang, X. Zheng, C. Zhao, V. Thouret, S. J. Oltmans, S. C. Liu, D. B. A. Jones, S. D. Steenrod, and M. R. Damon
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 5161–5179,Short summary
High ozone concentrations (up to 94.7ppbv) were frequently observed at an altitude of ~1.5--2km over Beijing during April--May 2005. Ozone due to Asian anthropogenic pollution made major contributions to the observed ozone enhancements. These enhancements typically occurred under southerly wind and warmer conditions. An earlier onset of the Asian summer monsoon would cause more ozone enhancement events in the lower troposphere over the North China Plain in late spring and early summer.
J. R. Melton, R. K. Shrestha, and V. K. Arora
Biogeosciences, 12, 1151–1168,Short summary
Net ecosystem productivity (NEP) in seasonally dry Amazon forests varies greatly between sites with similar precipitation patterns. We ran CLASS-CTEM at two LBA Amazon sites (Tapajós 83km & Jarú Reserve) that exhibit opposite seasonal NEP cycles despite reasonably similar meteorological conditions. We find the influence of soil texture and depth, through soil moisture, on seasonal patterns of GPP and, especially, heterotrophic respiration is important for correctly simulating NEP seasonality.
Z. Jiang, D. B. A. Jones, H. M. Worden, and D. K. Henze
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 1521–1537,Short summary
Using MOPITT (version 5) tropospheric profile and surface layer retrievals, we constrain global CO emissions in the period of June 2004 – May 2005. The inversions suggest a reduction in CO emission in the tropics and an increase in emissions at middle and high latitudes. The results demonstrate that the use of the surface layer retrievals from MOPITT can significantly mitigate the potential impacts of model bias in OH and long-range transport on CO emission estimates.
Z. Jiang, J. R. Worden, D. B. A. Jones, J.-T. Lin, W. W. Verstraeten, and D. K. Henze
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 99–112,Short summary
We use satellite measurements of O3, CO and NO2 from TES, MOPITT and OMI to quantify O3 precursor emissions for 2006 and their impact on free tropospheric O3 over northeastern Asia. Using the adjoint of GEOS-Chem, we found that Chinese emissions have the largest influence on the free tropospheric O3. The contributions from lightning NOx in summer and India and southeastern Asia emissions in winter are sizable, comparable with Chinese emissions.
L. R. Boysen, V. Brovkin, V. K. Arora, P. Cadule, N. de Noblet-Ducoudré, E. Kato, J. Pongratz, and V. Gayler
Earth Syst. Dynam., 5, 309–319,
J. B. Fisher, M. Sikka, W. C. Oechel, D. N. Huntzinger, J. R. Melton, C. D. Koven, A. Ahlström, M. A. Arain, I. Baker, J. M. Chen, P. Ciais, C. Davidson, M. Dietze, B. El-Masri, D. Hayes, C. Huntingford, A. K. Jain, P. E. Levy, M. R. Lomas, B. Poulter, D. Price, A. K. Sahoo, K. Schaefer, H. Tian, E. Tomelleri, H. Verbeeck, N. Viovy, R. Wania, N. Zeng, and C. E. Miller
Biogeosciences, 11, 4271–4288,
V. K. Arora and G. J. Boer
Biogeosciences, 11, 4157–4171,
C. E. Sioris, C. D. Boone, R. Nassar, K. J. Sutton, I. E. Gordon, K. A. Walker, and P. F. Bernath
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 2243–2262,
K. E. O. Todd-Brown, J. T. Randerson, F. Hopkins, V. Arora, T. Hajima, C. Jones, E. Shevliakova, J. Tjiputra, E. Volodin, T. Wu, Q. Zhang, and S. D. Allison
Biogeosciences, 11, 2341–2356,
F. Deng, D. B. A. Jones, D. K. Henze, N. Bousserez, K. W. Bowman, J. B. Fisher, R. Nassar, C. O'Dell, D. Wunch, P. O. Wennberg, E. A. Kort, S. C. Wofsy, T. Blumenstock, N. M. Deutscher, D. W. T. Griffith, F. Hase, P. Heikkinen, V. Sherlock, K. Strong, R. Sussmann, and T. Warneke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 3703–3727,
J. R. Melton and V. K. Arora
Biogeosciences, 11, 1021–1036,
Y. Peng, V. K. Arora, W. A. Kurz, R. A. Hember, B. J. Hawkins, J. C. Fyfe, and A. T. Werner
Biogeosciences, 11, 635–649,
F. Deng, J. M. Chen, Y. Pan, W. Peters, R. Birdsey, K. McCullough, and J. Xiao
Biogeosciences, 10, 5335–5348,
R. Wania, J. R. Melton, E. L. Hodson, B. Poulter, B. Ringeval, R. Spahni, T. Bohn, C. A. Avis, G. Chen, A. V. Eliseev, P. O. Hopcroft, W. J. Riley, Z. M. Subin, H. Tian, P. M. van Bodegom, T. Kleinen, Z. C. Yu, J. S. Singarayer, S. Zürcher, D. P. Lettenmaier, D. J. Beerling, S. N. Denisov, C. Prigent, F. Papa, and J. O. Kaplan
Geosci. Model Dev., 6, 617–641,
J. R. Melton, R. Wania, E. L. Hodson, B. Poulter, B. Ringeval, R. Spahni, T. Bohn, C. A. Avis, D. J. Beerling, G. Chen, A. V. Eliseev, S. N. Denisov, P. O. Hopcroft, D. P. Lettenmaier, W. J. Riley, J. S. Singarayer, Z. M. Subin, H. Tian, S. Zürcher, V. Brovkin, P. M. van Bodegom, T. Kleinen, Z. C. Yu, and J. O. Kaplan
Biogeosciences, 10, 753–788,
Related subject area
BiogeosciencesFABM-NflexPD 2.0: testing an instantaneous acclimation approach for modeling the implications of phytoplankton eco-physiology for the carbon and nutrient cyclesEvaluating the vegetation–atmosphere coupling strength of ORCHIDEE land surface model (v7266)Non-Redfieldian carbon model for the Baltic Sea (ERGOM version 1.2) – implementation and budget estimatesImplementation of a new crop phenology and irrigation scheme in the ISBA land surface model using SURFEX_v8.1Simulating long-term responses of soil organic matter turnover to substrate stoichiometry by abstracting fast and small-scale microbial processes: the Soil Enzyme Steady Allocation Model (SESAM; v3.0)Modeling demographic-driven vegetation dynamics and ecosystem biogeochemical cycling in NASA GISS's Earth system model (ModelE-BiomeE v.1.0)Forest fluxes and mortality response to drought: model description (ORCHIDEE-CAN-NHA r7236) and evaluation at the Caxiuanã drought experimentMatrix representation of lateral soil movements: scaling and calibrating CE-DYNAM (v2) at a continental levelCANOPS-GRB v1.0: a new Earth system model for simulating the evolution of ocean–atmosphere chemistry over geologic timescalesLow sensitivity of three terrestrial biosphere models to soil texture over the South American tropicsFESDIA (v1.0): exploring temporal variations of sediment biogeochemistry under the influence of flood events using numerical modellingImpact of changes in climate and CO2 on the carbon storage potential of vegetation under limited water availability using SEIB-DGVM version 3.02FORCCHN V2.0: an individual-based model for predicting multiscale forest carbon dynamicsGlobal agricultural ammonia emissions simulated with the ORCHIDEE land surface modelClimate and parameter sensitivity and induced uncertainties in carbon stock projections for European forests (using LPJ-GUESS 4.0)ForamEcoGENIE 2.0: Incorporating symbiosis and spine traits into a trait-based global planktic foraminifera modelUse of genetic algorithms for ocean model parameter optimisation: a case study using PISCES-v2_RC for North Atlantic particulate organic carbonSurEau-Ecos v2.0: a trait-based plant hydraulics model for simulations of plant water status and drought-induced mortality at the ecosystem levelImproved representation of plant physiology in the JULES-vn5.6 land surface model: photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and thermal acclimationRepresentation of the phosphorus cycle in the Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (vn5.5_JULES-CNP)CLM5-FruitTree: a new sub-model for deciduous fruit trees in the Community Land Model (CLM5)The impact of hurricane disturbances on a tropical forest: implementing a palm plant functional type and hurricane disturbance module in ED2-HuDi V1.0A validation standard for area of habitat maps for terrestrial birds and mammalsSoil Cycles of Elements simulator for Predicting TERrestrial regulation of greenhouse gases: SCEPTER v0.9Using terrestrial laser scanning to constrain forest ecosystem structure and functions in the Ecosystem Demography model (ED2.2)A map of global peatland extent created using machine learning (Peat-ML)Implementation and evaluation of the unified stomatal optimization approach in the Functionally Assembled Terrestrial Ecosystem Simulator (FATES)ECOSMO II(CHL): a marine biogeochemical model for the North Atlantic and the ArcticWater Ecosystems Tool (WET) 1.0 – a new generation of flexible aquatic ecosystem modelDevelopment of an open-source regional data assimilation system in PEcAn v. 1.7.2: application to carbon cycle reanalysis across the contiguous US using SIPNETPredicting global terrestrial biomes with the LeNet convolutional neural networkKGML-ag: a modeling framework of knowledge-guided machine learning to simulate agroecosystems: a case study of estimating N2O emission using data from mesocosm experimentsAssessing methane emissions for northern peatlands in ORCHIDEE-PEAT revision 7020A dynamic local-scale vegetation model for lycopsids (LYCOm v1.0)Soil-related developments of the Biome-BGCMuSo v6.2 terrestrial ecosystem modelGlobal evaluation of the Ecosystem Demography model (ED v3.0)A new snow module improves predictions of the isotope-enabled MAIDENiso forest growth modelCalibrating the soil organic carbon model Yasso20 with multiple datasetsThe PFLOTRAN Reaction SandboxA new approach to simulate peat accumulation, degradation and stability in a global land surface scheme (JULES vn5.8_accumulate_soil) for northern and temperate peatlandsDefinitions and methods to estimate regional land carbon fluxes for the second phase of the REgional Carbon Cycle Assessment and Processes Project (RECCAP-2)Locating trees to mitigate outdoor radiant load of humans in urban areas using a metaheuristic hill-climbing algorithm – introducing TreePlanter v1.0Sensitivity of asymmetric oxygen minimum zones to mixing intensity and stoichiometry in the tropical Pacific using a basin-scale model (OGCM-DMEC V1.4)The importance of turbulent ocean–sea ice nutrient exchanges for simulation of ice algal biomass and production with CICE6.1 and Icepack 1.2Modeling symbiotic biological nitrogen fixation in grain legumes globally with LPJ-GUESS (v4.0, r10285)Afforestation impact on soil temperature in regional climate model simulations over EuropeBioRT-Flux-PIHM v1.0: a biogeochemical reactive transport model at the watershed scaleModeling the short-term fire effects on vegetation dynamics and surface energy in southern Africa using the improved SSiB4/TRIFFID-Fire modelExplicit silicate cycling in the Kiel Marine Biogeochemistry Model version 3 (KMBM3) embedded in the UVic ESCM version 2.9Performance analysis of regional AquaCrop (v6.1) biomass and surface soil moisture simulations using satellite and in situ observations
Onur Kerimoglu, Markus Pahlow, Prima Anugerahanti, and Sherwood Lan Smith
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 95–108,Short summary
In classical models that track the changes in the elemental composition of phytoplankton, additional state variables are required for each element resolved. In this study, we show how the behavior of such an explicit model can be approximated using an
instantaneous acclimationapproach, in which the elemental composition of the phytoplankton is assumed to adjust to an optimal value instantaneously. Through rigorous tests, we evaluate the consistency of this scheme.
Yuan Zhang, Devaraju Narayanappa, Philippe Ciais, Wei Li, Daniel Goll, Nicolas Vuichard, Martin G. De Kauwe, Laurent Li, and Fabienne Maignan
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 9111–9125,Short summary
There are a few studies to examine if current models correctly represented the complex processes of transpiration. Here, we use a coefficient Ω, which indicates if transpiration is mainly controlled by vegetation processes or by turbulence, to evaluate the ORCHIDEE model. We found a good performance of ORCHIDEE, but due to compensation of biases in different processes, we also identified how different factors control Ω and where the model is wrong. Our method is generic to evaluate other models.
Thomas Neumann, Hagen Radtke, Bronwyn Cahill, Martin Schmidt, and Gregor Rehder
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 8473–8540,Short summary
Marine ecosystem models are usually constrained by the elements nitrogen and phosphorus and consider carbon in organic matter in a fixed ratio. Recent observations show a substantial deviation from the simulated carbon cycle variables. In this study, we present a marine ecosystem model for the Baltic Sea which allows for a flexible uptake ratio for carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus. With this extension, the model reflects much more reasonable variables of the marine carbon cycle.
Arsène Druel, Simon Munier, Anthony Mucia, Clément Albergel, and Jean-Christophe Calvet
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 8453–8471,Short summary
Crop phenology and irrigation is implemented into a land surface model able to work at a global scale. A case study is presented over Nebraska (USA). Simulations with and without the new scheme are compared to different satellite-based observations. The model is able to produce a realistic yearly irrigation water amount. The irrigation scheme improves the simulated leaf area index, gross primary productivity, evapotransipiration, and land surface temperature.
Thomas Wutzler, Lin Yu, Marion Schrumpf, and Sönke Zaehle
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 8377–8393,Short summary
Soil microbes process soil organic matter and affect carbon storage and plant nutrition at the ecosystem scale. We hypothesized that decadal dynamics is constrained by the ratios of elements in litter inputs, microbes, and matter and that microbial community optimizes growth. This allowed the SESAM model to descibe decadal-term carbon sequestration in soils and other biogeochemical processes explicitly accounting for microbial processes but without its problematic fine-scale parameterization.
Ensheng Weng, Igor Aleinov, Ram Singh, Michael J. Puma, Sonali S. McDermid, Nancy Y. Kiang, Maxwell Kelley, Kevin Wilcox, Ray Dybzinski, Caroline E. Farrior, Stephen W. Pacala, and Benjamin I. Cook
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 8153–8180,Short summary
We develop a demographic vegetation model to improve the representation of terrestrial vegetation dynamics and ecosystem biogeochemical cycles in the Goddard Institute for Space Studies ModelE. The individual-based competition for light and soil resources makes the modeling of eco-evolutionary optimality possible. This model will enable ModelE to simulate long-term biogeophysical and biogeochemical feedbacks between the climate system and land ecosystems at decadal to centurial temporal scales.
Yitong Yao, Emilie Joetzjer, Philippe Ciais, Nicolas Viovy, Fabio Cresto Aleina, Jerome Chave, Lawren Sack, Megan Bartlett, Patrick Meir, Rosie Fisher, and Sebastiaan Luyssaert
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 7809–7833,Short summary
To facilitate more mechanistic modeling of drought effects on forest dynamics, our study implements a hydraulic module to simulate the vertical water flow, change in water storage and percentage loss of stem conductance (PLC). With the relationship between PLC and tree mortality, our model can successfully reproduce the large biomass drop observed under throughfall exclusion. Our hydraulic module provides promising avenues benefiting the prediction for mortality under future drought events.
Arthur Nicolaus Fendrich, Philippe Ciais, Emanuele Lugato, Marco Carozzi, Bertrand Guenet, Pasquale Borrelli, Victoria Naipal, Matthew McGrath, Philippe Martin, and Panos Panagos
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 7835–7857,Short summary
Currently, spatially explicit models for soil carbon stock can simulate the impacts of several changes. However, they do not incorporate the erosion, lateral transport, and deposition (ETD) of soil material. The present work developed ETD formulation, illustrated model calibration and validation for Europe, and presented the results for a depositional site. We expect that our work advances ETD models' description and facilitates their reproduction and incorporation in land surface models.
Kazumi Ozaki, Devon B. Cole, Christopher T. Reinhard, and Eiichi Tajika
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 7593–7639,Short summary
A new biogeochemical model (CANOPS-GRB v1.0) for assessing the redox stability and dynamics of the ocean–atmosphere system on geologic timescales has been developed. In this paper, we present a full description of the model and its performance. CANOPS-GRB is a useful tool for understanding the factors regulating atmospheric O2 level and has the potential to greatly refine our current understanding of Earth's oxygenation history.
Félicien Meunier, Wim Verbruggen, Hans Verbeeck, and Marc Peaucelle
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 7573–7591,Short summary
Drought stress occurs in plants when water supply (i.e. root water uptake) is lower than the water demand (i.e. atmospheric demand). It is strongly related to soil properties and expected to increase in intensity and frequency in the tropics due to climate change. In this study, we show that contrary to the expectations, state-of-the-art terrestrial biosphere models are mostly insensitive to soil texture and hence probably inadequate to reproduce in silico the plant water status in drying soils.
Stanley I. Nmor, Eric Viollier, Lucie Pastor, Bruno Lansard, Christophe Rabouille, and Karline Soetaert
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 7325–7351,Short summary
The coastal marine environment serves as a transition zone in the land–ocean continuum and is susceptible to episodic phenomena such as flash floods, which cause massive organic matter deposition. Here, we present a model of sediment early diagenesis that explicitly describes this type of deposition while also incorporating unique flood deposit characteristics. This model can be used to investigate the temporal evolution of marine sediments following abrupt changes in environmental conditions.
Shanlin Tong, Weiguang Wang, Jie Chen, Chong-Yu Xu, Hisashi Sato, and Guoqing Wang
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 7075–7098,Short summary
Plant carbon storage potential is central to moderate atmospheric CO2 concentration buildup and mitigation of climate change. There is an ongoing debate about the main driver of carbon storage. To reconcile this discrepancy, we use SEIB-DGVM to investigate the trend and response mechanism of carbon stock fractions among water limitation regions. Results show that the impact of CO2 and temperature on carbon stock depends on water limitation, offering a new perspective on carbon–water coupling.
Jing Fang, Herman H. Shugart, Feng Liu, Xiaodong Yan, Yunkun Song, and Fucheng Lv
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 6863–6872,Short summary
Our study provided a detailed description and a package of an individual tree-based carbon model, FORCCHN2. This model used non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) pools to couple tree growth and phenology. The model could reproduce daily carbon fluxes across Northern Hemisphere forests. Given the potential importance of the application of this model, there is substantial scope for using FORCCHN2 in fields as diverse as forest ecology, climate change, and carbon estimation.
Maureen Beaudor, Nicolas Vuichard, Juliette Lathière, Nikolaos Evangeliou, Martin Van Damme, Lieven Clarisse, and Didier Hauglustaine
Ammonia mainly comes from the agricultural sector and its volatilization relies on environmental variables. Our approach aims at benefiting from an Earth System Model framework to estimate it. By doing so, we represent a consistent spatial distribution of the emissions replying to environmental changes. We greatly improved the seasonal cycle of the emissions compared to previous works. In addition, our model includes natural soil emissions, almost never represented in the modeling approaches.
Johannes Oberpriller, Christine Herschlein, Peter Anthoni, Almut Arneth, Andreas Krause, Anja Rammig, Mats Lindeskog, Stefan Olin, and Florian Hartig
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 6495–6519,Short summary
Understanding uncertainties of projected ecosystem dynamics under environmental change is of immense value for research and climate change policy. Here, we analyzed these across European forests. We find that uncertainties are dominantly induced by parameters related to water, mortality, and climate, with an increasing importance of climate from north to south. These results highlight that climate not only contributes uncertainty but also modifies uncertainties in other ecosystem processes.
Rui Ying, Fanny M. Monteiro, Jamie D. Wilson, and Daniela N. Schmidt
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for GMDShort summary
Planktic foraminifera are marine calcifying zooplankton and their shell are widely used as to measure past temperature and productivity. Here we developed ForamECOGENIE model to simulate the four subgroups of this organism. We found the relative abundance distribution agrees with core top data and carbon flux is comparable to sediment trap observation. This model provides opportunity to study foraminifera ecology in any geological time.
Marcus Falls, Raffaele Bernardello, Miguel Castrillo, Mario Acosta, Joan Llort, and Martí Galí
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 5713–5737,Short summary
This paper describes and tests a method which uses a genetic algorithm (GA), a type of optimisation algorithm, on an ocean biogeochemical model. The aim is to produce a set of numerical parameters that best reflect the observed data of particulate organic carbon in a specific region of the ocean. We show that the GA can provide optimised model parameters in a robust and efficient manner and can also help detect model limitations, ultimately leading to a reduction in the model uncertainties.
Julien Ruffault, François Pimont, Hervé Cochard, Jean-Luc Dupuy, and Nicolas Martin-StPaul
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 5593–5626,Short summary
A widespread increase in tree mortality has been observed around the globe, and this trend is likely to continue because of ongoing climate change. Here we present SurEau-Ecos, a trait-based plant hydraulic model to predict tree desiccation and mortality. SurEau-Ecos can help determine the areas and ecosystems that are most vulnerable to drying conditions.
Rebecca J. Oliver, Lina M. Mercado, Doug B. Clark, Chris Huntingford, Christopher M. Taylor, Pier Luigi Vidale, Patrick C. McGuire, Markus Todt, Sonja Folwell, Valiyaveetil Shamsudheen Semeena, and Belinda E. Medlyn
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 5567–5592,Short summary
We introduce new representations of plant physiological processes into a land surface model. Including new biological understanding improves modelled carbon and water fluxes for the present in tropical and northern-latitude forests. Future climate simulations demonstrate the sensitivity of photosynthesis to temperature is important for modelling carbon cycle dynamics in a warming world. Accurate representation of these processes in models is necessary for robust predictions of climate change.
Mahdi André Nakhavali, Lina M. Mercado, Iain P. Hartley, Stephen Sitch, Fernanda V. Cunha, Raffaello di Ponzio, Laynara F. Lugli, Carlos A. Quesada, Kelly M. Andersen, Sarah E. Chadburn, Andy J. Wiltshire, Douglas B. Clark, Gyovanni Ribeiro, Lara Siebert, Anna C. M. Moraes, Jéssica Schmeisk Rosa, Rafael Assis, and José L. Camargo
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 5241–5269,Short summary
In tropical ecosystems, the availability of rock-derived elements such as P can be very low. Thus, without a representation of P cycling, tropical forest responses to rising atmospheric CO2 conditions in areas such as Amazonia remain highly uncertain. We introduced P dynamics and its interactions with the N and P cycles into the JULES model. Our results highlight the potential for high P limitation and therefore lower CO2 fertilization capacity in the Amazon forest with low-fertility soils.
Olga Dombrowski, Cosimo Brogi, Harrie-Jan Hendricks Franssen, Damiano Zanotelli, and Heye Bogena
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 5167–5193,Short summary
Soil carbon storage and food production of fruit orchards will be influenced by climate change. However, they lack representation in models that study such processes. We developed and tested a new sub-model, CLM5-FruitTree, that describes growth, biomass distribution, and management practices in orchards. The model satisfactorily predicted yield and exchange of carbon, energy, and water in an apple orchard and can be used to study land surface processes in fruit orchards at different scales.
Jiaying Zhang, Rafael L. Bras, Marcos Longo, and Tamara Heartsill Scalley
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 5107–5126,Short summary
We implemented hurricane disturbance in a vegetation dynamics model and calibrated the model with observations of a tropical forest. We used the model to study forest recovery from hurricane disturbance and found that a single hurricane disturbance enhances AGB and BA in the long term compared with a no-hurricane situation. The model developed and results presented in this study can be utilized to understand the impact of hurricane disturbances on forest recovery under the changing climate.
Prabhat Raj Dahal, Maria Lumbierres, Stuart H. M. Butchart, Paul F. Donald, and Carlo Rondinini
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 5093–5105,Short summary
This paper describes the validation of area of habitat (AOH) maps produced for terrestrial birds and mammals. The main objective was to assess the accuracy of the maps based on independent data. We used open access data from repositories, such as ebird and gbif to check if our maps were a better reflection of species' distribution than random. When points were not available we used logistic models to validate the AOH maps. The majority of AOH maps were found to have a high accuracy.
Yoshiki Kanzaki, Shuang Zhang, Noah J. Planavsky, and Christopher T. Reinhard
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 4959–4990,Short summary
Increasing carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is an urgent issue in the coming century. Enhanced rock weathering in soils can be one of the most efficient C capture strategies. On the basis as a weathering simulator, the newly developed SCEPTER model implements bio-mixing by fauna/humans and enables organic matter and crushed rocks/minerals at the soil surface with an option to track their particle size distributions. Those features can be useful for evaluating the carbon capture efficiency.
Félicien Meunier, Sruthi M. Krishna Moorthy, Marc Peaucelle, Kim Calders, Louise Terryn, Wim Verbruggen, Chang Liu, Ninni Saarinen, Niall Origo, Joanne Nightingale, Mathias Disney, Yadvinder Malhi, and Hans Verbeeck
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 4783–4803,Short summary
We integrated state-of-the-art observations of the structure of the vegetation in a temperate forest to constrain a vegetation model that aims to reproduce such an ecosystem in silico. We showed that the use of this information helps to constrain the model structure, its critical parameters, as well as its initial state. This research confirms the critical importance of the representation of the vegetation structure in vegetation models and proposes a method to overcome this challenge.
Joe R. Melton, Ed Chan, Koreen Millard, Matthew Fortier, R. Scott Winton, Javier M. Martín-López, Hinsby Cadillo-Quiroz, Darren Kidd, and Louis V. Verchot
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 4709–4738,Short summary
Peat-ML is a high-resolution global peatland extent map generated using machine learning techniques. Peatlands are important in the global carbon and water cycles, but their extent is poorly known. We generated Peat-ML using drivers of peatland formation including climate, soil, geomorphology, and vegetation data, and we train the model with regional peatland maps. Our accuracy estimation approaches suggest Peat-ML is of similar or higher quality than other available peatland mapping products.
Qianyu Li, Shawn P. Serbin, Julien Lamour, Kenneth J. Davidson, Kim S. Ely, and Alistair Rogers
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 4313–4329,Short summary
Stomatal conductance is the rate of water release from leaves’ pores. We implemented an optimal stomatal conductance model in a vegetation model. We then tested and compared it with the existing empirical model in terms of model responses to key environmental variables. We also evaluated the model with measurements at a tropical forest site. Our study suggests that the parameterization of conductance models and current model response to drought are the critical areas for improving models.
Veli Çağlar Yumruktepe, Annette Samuelsen, and Ute Daewel
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 3901–3921,Short summary
We describe the coupled bio-physical model ECOSMO II(CHL), which is used for regional configurations for the North Atlantic and the Arctic hind-casting and operational purposes. The model is consistent with the large-scale climatological nutrient settings and is capable of representing regional and seasonal changes, and model primary production agrees with previous measurements. For the users of this model, this paper provides the underlying science, model evaluation and its development.
Nicolas Azaña Schnedler-Meyer, Tobias Kuhlmann Andersen, Fenjuan Rose Schmidt Hu, Karsten Bolding, Anders Nielsen, and Dennis Trolle
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 3861–3878,Short summary
We present the Water Ecosystems Tool (WET) – a new modular aquatic ecosystem model configurable to a wide array of physical setups, ecosystems and research questions based on the popular FABM–PCLake model. We aim for the model to become a community staple, thus helping to consolidate the state of the art under a few flexible models, with the aim of improving comparability across studies and preventing the
re-inventions of the wheelthat are common to our scientific modeling community.
Hamze Dokoohaki, Bailey D. Morrison, Ann Raiho, Shawn P. Serbin, Katie Zarada, Luke Dramko, and Michael Dietze
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 3233–3252,Short summary
We present a new terrestrial carbon cycle data assimilation system, built on the PEcAn model–data eco-informatics system, and its application for the development of a proof-of-concept carbon
reanalysisproduct that harmonizes carbon pools (leaf, wood, soil) and fluxes (GPP, Ra, Rh, NEE) across the contiguous United States from 1986–2019. Here, we build on a decade of work on uncertainty propagation to generate the most complete and robust uncertainty accounting available to date.
Hisashi Sato and Takeshi Ise
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 3121–3132,Short summary
Accurately predicting global coverage of terrestrial biome is one of the earliest ecological concerns, and many empirical schemes have been proposed to characterize their relationship. Here, we demonstrate an accurate and practical method to construct empirical models for operational biome mapping via a convolutional neural network (CNN) approach.
Licheng Liu, Shaoming Xu, Jinyun Tang, Kaiyu Guan, Timothy J. Griffis, Matthew D. Erickson, Alexander L. Frie, Xiaowei Jia, Taegon Kim, Lee T. Miller, Bin Peng, Shaowei Wu, Yufeng Yang, Wang Zhou, Vipin Kumar, and Zhenong Jin
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 2839–2858,Short summary
By incorporating the domain knowledge into a machine learning model, KGML-ag overcomes the well-known limitations of process-based models due to insufficient representations and constraints, and unlocks the “black box” of machine learning models. Therefore, KGML-ag can outperform existing approaches on capturing the hot moment and complex dynamics of N2O flux. This study will be a critical reference for the new generation of modeling paradigm for biogeochemistry and other geoscience processes.
Elodie Salmon, Fabrice Jégou, Bertrand Guenet, Line Jourdain, Chunjing Qiu, Vladislav Bastrikov, Christophe Guimbaud, Dan Zhu, Philippe Ciais, Philippe Peylin, Sébastien Gogo, Fatima Laggoun-Défarge, Mika Aurela, M. Syndonia Bret-Harte, Jiquan Chen, Bogdan H. Chojnicki, Housen Chu, Colin W. Edgar, Eugenie S. Euskirchen, Lawrence B. Flanagan, Krzysztof Fortuniak, David Holl, Janina Klatt, Olaf Kolle, Natalia Kowalska, Lars Kutzbach, Annalea Lohila, Lutz Merbold, Włodzimierz Pawlak, Torsten Sachs, and Klaudia Ziemblińska
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 2813–2838,Short summary
A methane model that features methane production and transport by plants, the ebullition process and diffusion in soil, oxidation to CO2, and CH4 fluxes to the atmosphere has been embedded in the ORCHIDEE-PEAT land surface model, which includes an explicit representation of northern peatlands. This model, ORCHIDEE-PCH4, was calibrated and evaluated on 14 peatland sites. Results show that the model is sensitive to temperature and substrate availability over the top 75 cm of soil depth.
Suman Halder, Susanne K. M. Arens, Kai Jensen, Tais W. Dahl, and Philipp Porada
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 2325–2343,Short summary
A dynamic vegetation model, designed to estimate potential impacts of early vascular vegetation, namely, lycopsids, on the biogeochemical cycle at a local scale. Lycopsid Model (LYCOm) estimates the productivity and physiological properties of lycopsids across a broad climatic range along with natural selection, which is then utilized to adjudge their weathering potential. It lays the foundation for estimation of their impacts during their long evolutionary history starting from the Ordovician.
Dóra Hidy, Zoltán Barcza, Roland Hollós, Laura Dobor, Tamás Ács, Dóra Zacháry, Tibor Filep, László Pásztor, Dóra Incze, Márton Dencső, Eszter Tóth, Katarína Merganičová, Peter Thornton, Steven Running, and Nándor Fodor
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 2157–2181,Short summary
Biogeochemical models used by the scientific community can support society in the quantification of the expected environmental impacts caused by global climate change. The Biome-BGCMuSo v6.2 biogeochemical model has been created by implementing a lot of developments related to soil hydrology as well as the soil carbon and nitrogen cycle and by integrating crop model components. Detailed descriptions of developments with case studies are presented in this paper.
Lei Ma, George Hurtt, Lesley Ott, Ritvik Sahajpal, Justin Fisk, Rachel Lamb, Hao Tang, Steve Flanagan, Louise Chini, Abhishek Chatterjee, and Joseph Sullivan
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 1971–1994,Short summary
We present a global version of the Ecosystem Demography (ED) model which can track vegetation 3-D structure and scale up ecological processes from individual vegetation to ecosystem scale. Model evaluation against multiple benchmarking datasets demonstrated the model’s capability to simulate global vegetation dynamics across a range of temporal and spatial scales. With this version, ED has the potential to be linked with remote sensing observations to address key scientific questions.
Ignacio Hermoso de Mendoza, Etienne Boucher, Fabio Gennaretti, Aliénor Lavergne, Robert Field, and Laia Andreu-Hayles
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 1931–1952,Short summary
We modify the numerical model of forest growth MAIDENiso by explicitly simulating snow. This allows us to use the model in boreal environments, where snow is dominant. We tested the performance of the model before and after adding snow, using it at two Canadian sites to simulate tree-ring isotopes and comparing with local observations. We found that modelling snow improves significantly the simulation of the hydrological cycle, the plausibility of the model and the simulated isotopes.
Toni Viskari, Janne Pusa, Istem Fer, Anna Repo, Julius Vira, and Jari Liski
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 1735–1752,Short summary
We wanted to examine how the chosen measurement data and calibration process affect soil organic carbon model calibration. In our results we found that there is a benefit in using data from multiple litter-bag decomposition experiments simultaneously, even with the required assumptions. Additionally, due to the amount of noise and uncertainties in the system, more advanced calibration methods should be used to parameterize the models.
Glenn E. Hammond
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 1659–1676,Short summary
This paper describes a simplified interface for implementing and testing new chemical reactions within the reactive transport simulator PFLOTRAN. The paper describes the interface, providing example code for the interface. The paper includes several chemical reactions implemented through the interface.
Sarah E. Chadburn, Eleanor J. Burke, Angela V. Gallego-Sala, Noah D. Smith, M. Syndonia Bret-Harte, Dan J. Charman, Julia Drewer, Colin W. Edgar, Eugenie S. Euskirchen, Krzysztof Fortuniak, Yao Gao, Mahdi Nakhavali, Włodzimierz Pawlak, Edward A. G. Schuur, and Sebastian Westermann
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 1633–1657,Short summary
We present a new method to include peatlands in an Earth system model (ESM). Peatlands store huge amounts of carbon that accumulates very slowly but that can be rapidly destabilised, emitting greenhouse gases. Our model captures the dynamic nature of peat by simulating the change in surface height and physical properties of the soil as carbon is added or decomposed. Thus, we model, for the first time in an ESM, peat dynamics and its threshold behaviours that can lead to destabilisation.
Philippe Ciais, Ana Bastos, Frédéric Chevallier, Ronny Lauerwald, Ben Poulter, Josep G. Canadell, Gustaf Hugelius, Robert B. Jackson, Atul Jain, Matthew Jones, Masayuki Kondo, Ingrid T. Luijkx, Prabir K. Patra, Wouter Peters, Julia Pongratz, Ana Maria Roxana Petrescu, Shilong Piao, Chunjing Qiu, Celso Von Randow, Pierre Regnier, Marielle Saunois, Robert Scholes, Anatoly Shvidenko, Hanqin Tian, Hui Yang, Xuhui Wang, and Bo Zheng
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 1289–1316,Short summary
The second phase of the Regional Carbon Cycle Assessment and Processes (RECCAP) will provide updated quantification and process understanding of CO2, CH4, and N2O emissions and sinks for ten regions of the globe. In this paper, we give definitions, review different methods, and make recommendations for estimating different components of the total land–atmosphere carbon exchange for each region in a consistent and complete approach.
Nils Wallenberg, Fredrik Lindberg, and David Rayner
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 1107–1128,Short summary
Exposure to solar radiation on clear and warm days can lead to heat stress and thermal discomfort. This can be alleviated by planting trees providing shade in particularly warm areas. Here, we use a model to locate trees and optimize their blocking of solar radiation. Our results show that locations can differ depending, e.g., tree size (juvenile or mature) and number of trees that are positioned simultaneously. The model is available as a tool for accessibility by researchers and others.
Kai Wang, Xiujun Wang, Raghu Murtugudde, Dongxiao Zhang, and Rong-Hua Zhang
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 1017–1035,Short summary
We use observational data of dissolved oxygen (DO) and organic nitrogen to calibrate a basin-scale model (OGCM-DEMC V1.4) and then evaluate model capacity for simulating mid-depth DO in the tropical Pacific. Sensitivity studies show that enhanced vertical mixing combined with reduced biological consumption performs well in reproducing asymmetric oxygen minimum zones (OMZs). We find that DO is more sensitive to biological processes in the upper OMZs but to physical processes in the lower OMZs.
Pedro Duarte, Philipp Assmy, Karley Campbell, and Arild Sundfjord
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 841–857,Short summary
Sea ice modeling is an important part of Earth system models (ESMs). The results of ESMs are used by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change in their reports. In this study we present an improvement to calculate the exchange of nutrients between the ocean and the sea ice. This nutrient exchange is an essential process to keep the ice-associated ecosystem functioning. We found out that previous calculation methods may underestimate the primary production of the ice-associated ecosystem.
Jianyong Ma, Stefan Olin, Peter Anthoni, Sam S. Rabin, Anita D. Bayer, Sylvia S. Nyawira, and Almut Arneth
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 815–839,Short summary
The implementation of the biological N fixation process in LPJ-GUESS in this study provides an opportunity to quantify N fixation rates between legumes and to better estimate grain legume production on a global scale. It also helps to predict and detect the potential contribution of N-fixing plants as
green manureto reducing or removing the use of N fertilizer in global agricultural systems, considering different climate conditions, management practices, and land-use change scenarios.
Giannis Sofiadis, Eleni Katragkou, Edouard L. Davin, Diana Rechid, Nathalie de Noblet-Ducoudre, Marcus Breil, Rita M. Cardoso, Peter Hoffmann, Lisa Jach, Ronny Meier, Priscilla A. Mooney, Pedro M. M. Soares, Susanna Strada, Merja H. Tölle, and Kirsten Warrach Sagi
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 595–616,Short summary
Afforestation is currently promoted as a greenhouse gas mitigation strategy. In our study, we examine the differences in soil temperature and moisture between grounds covered either by forests or grass. The main conclusion emerged is that forest-covered grounds are cooler but drier than open lands in summer. Therefore, afforestation disrupts the seasonal cycle of soil temperature, which in turn could trigger changes in crucial chemical processes such as soil carbon sequestration.
Wei Zhi, Yuning Shi, Hang Wen, Leila Saberi, Gene-Hua Crystal Ng, Kayalvizhi Sadayappan, Devon Kerins, Bryn Stewart, and Li Li
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 315–333,Short summary
Watersheds are the fundamental Earth surface functioning unit that connects the land to aquatic systems. Here we present the recently developed BioRT-Flux-PIHM v1.0, a watershed-scale biogeochemical reactive transport model, to improve our ability to understand and predict solute export and water quality. The model has been verified against the benchmark code CrunchTope and has recently been applied to understand reactive transport processes in multiple watersheds of different conditions.
Huilin Huang, Yongkang Xue, Ye Liu, Fang Li, and Gregory S. Okin
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 7639–7657,Short summary
This study applies a fire-coupled dynamic vegetation model to quantify fire impact at monthly to annual scales. We find fire reduces grass cover by 4–8 % annually for widespread areas in south African savanna and reduces tree cover by 1 % at the periphery of tropical Congolese rainforest. The grass cover reduction peaks at the beginning of the rainy season, which quickly diminishes before the next fire season. In contrast, the reduction of tree cover is irreversible within one growing season.
Karin Kvale, David P. Keller, Wolfgang Koeve, Katrin J. Meissner, Christopher J. Somes, Wanxuan Yao, and Andreas Oschlies
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 7255–7285,Short summary
We present a new model of biological marine silicate cycling for the University of Victoria Earth System Climate Model (UVic ESCM). This new model adds diatoms, which are a key aspect of the biological carbon pump, to an existing ecosystem model. Our modifications change how the model responds to warming, with net primary production declining more strongly than in previous versions. Diatoms in particular are simulated to decline with climate warming due to their high nutrient requirements.
Shannon de Roos, Gabriëlle J. M. De Lannoy, and Dirk Raes
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 7309–7328,Short summary
A spatially distributed version of the field-scale crop model AquaCrop v6.1 was developed for applications at various spatial scales. Multi-year 1 km simulations over central Europe were evaluated against biomass and surface soil moisture products derived from optical and microwave satellite missions, as well as in situ observations of soil moisture. The regional version of the AquaCrop model provides a suitable setup for subsequent satellite-based data assimilation.
Agustí-Panareda, A., Massart, S., Chevallier, F., Boussetta, S., Balsamo, G., Beljaars, A., Ciais, P., Deutscher, N. M., Engelen, R., Jones, L., Kivi, R., Paris, J.-D., Peuch, V.-H., Sherlock, V., Vermeulen, A. T., Wennberg, P. O., and Wunch, D.: Forecasting global atmospheric CO2, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 11959–11983, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-14-11959-2014, 2014. a
Agusti-Panareda, A., Diamantakis, M., Bayona, V., Klappenbach, F., and Butz, A.: Improving the inter-hemispheric gradient of total column atmospheric CO2 and CH4 in simulations with the ECMWF semi-Lagrangian atmospheric global model, Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 1–18, https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-10-1-2017, 2017. a
Anav, A., Friedlingstein, P., Kidston, M., Bopp, L., Ciais, P., Cox, P., Jones, C., Jung, M., Myneni, R., and Zhu, Z.: Evaluating the Land and Ocean Components of the Global Carbon Cycle in the CMIP5 Earth System Models, J. Climate, 26, 6801–6843, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00417.1, 2013. a, b
Anav, A., Friedlingstein, P., Beer, C., Ciais, P., Harper, A., Jones, C., Murray-Tortarolo, G., Papale, D., Parazoo, N. C., Peylin, P., Piao, S., Sitch, S., Viovy, N., Wiltshire, A., and Zhao, M.: Spatiotemporal patterns of terrestrial gross primary production: A review, Rev. Geophys., 53, 785–818, https://doi.org/10.1002/2015RG000483, 2015. a, b, c
Arora, V. K., Boer, G. J., Christian, J. R., Curry, C. L., Denman, K. L., Zahariev, K., Flato, G. M., Scinocca, J. F., Merryfield, W. J., and Lee, W. G.: The Effect of Terrestrial Photosynthesis Down Regulation on the Twentieth-Century Carbon Budget Simulated with the CCCma Earth System Model, J. Climate, 22, 6066–6088, https://doi.org/10.1175/2009JCLI3037.1, 2009. a, b
Arora, V. K., Boer, G. J., Friedlingstein, P., Eby, M., Jones, C. D., Christian, J. R., Bonan, G., Bopp, L., Brovkin, V., Cadule, P., Hajima, T., Ilyina, T., Lindsay, K., Tjiputra, J. F., and Wu, T.: Carbon-Concentration and Carbon-Climate Feedbacks in CMIP5 Earth System Models, J. Climate, 26, 5289–5314, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00494.1, 2013. a
Balsamo, G., Boussetta, S., Lopez, P., and Ferranti, L.: Evaluation of ERA-Interim and ERA-Interim GPCP-rescaled precipitation over the U.S.A., ERA Report Series 5, ECMWF, Reading, England, 10 pp., 2010. a
Beer, C., Reichstein, M., Tomelleri, E., Ciais, P., Jung, M., Carvalhais, N., Rodenbeck, C., Arain, M. A., Baldocchi, D., Bonan, G. B., Bondeau, A., Cescatti, A., Lasslop, G., Lindroth, A., Lomas, M., Luyssaert, S., Margolis, H., Oleson, K. W., Roupsard, O., Veenendaal, E., Viovy, N., Williams, C., Woodward, F. I., and Papale, D.: Terrestrial Gross Carbon Dioxide Uptake: Global Distribution and Covariation with Climate, Science, 329, 834–838, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1184984, 2010. a, b, c, d, e, f
Berrisford, P., Dee, D., Poli, P., Brugge, R., Fielding, K., Fuentes, M., Kållberg, P., Kobayashi, S., Uppala, S., and Simmons, A.: The ERA-Interim archive Version 2.0, Shinfield Park, Reading, 2011. a
Blumenstock, T., Hase, F., Schneider, M., Garcia, O., and Sepulveda, E.: TCCON data from Izana, Tenerife, Spain, Release GGG2014R0, https://doi.org/10.14291/tccon.ggg2014.izana01.R0/1149295, TCCON data archive, hosted by the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A., 2014. a
Carvalhais, N., Reichstein, M., Seixas, J., Collatz, G. J., Pereira, J. S., Berbigier, P., Carrara, A., Granier, A., Montagnani, L., Papale, D., Rambal, S., Sanz, M. J., and Valentini, R.: Implications of the carbon cycle steady state assumption for biogeochemical modeling performance and inverse parameter retrieval, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 22, gB2007, https://doi.org/10.1029/2007GB003033, 2008. a, b, c
Carvalhais, N., Reichstein, M., Ciais, P., Collatz, G. J., Mahecha, M. D., Montagnani, L., Papale, D., Rambal, S., and Seixas, J.: Identification of vegetation and soil carbon pools out of equilibrium in a process model via eddy covariance and biometric constraints, Glob. Change Biol., 16, 2813–2829, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2486.2010.02173.x, 2010. a, b, c, d
Charron, M., Polavarapu, S., Buehner, M., Vaillancourt, P. A., Charette, C., Roch, M., Morneau, J., Garand, L., Aparicio, J. M., MacPherson, S., Pellerin, S., St-James, J., and Heilliette, S.: The Stratospheric Extension of the Canadian Global Deterministic Medium-Range Weather Forecasting System and Its Impact on Tropospheric Forecasts, Mon. Weather Rev., 140, 1924–1944, https://doi.org/10.1175/MWR-D-11-00097.1, 2012. a
Côté, J., Gravel, S., Méthot, A., Patoine, A., Roch, M., and Staniforth, A.: The Operational CMC-MRB Global Environmental Multiscale (GEM) Model. Part I: Design Considerations and Formulation, Mon. Weather Rev., 126, 1373–1395, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1998)126<1373:TOCMGE>2.0.CO;2, 1998a. a
Dalmonech, D., Zaehle, S., Schuermann, G. J., Brovkin, V., Reick, C., and Schnur, R.: Separation of the Effects of Land and Climate Model Errors on Simulated Contemporary Land Carbon Cycle Trends in the MPI Earth System Model version 1, J. Climate, 28, 272–291, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00593.1, 2015. a, b, c
Dee, D. P., Uppala, S. M., Simmons, A. J., Berrisford, P., Poli, P., Kobayashi, S., Andrae, U., Balmaseda, M. A., Balsamo, G., Bauer, P., Bechtold, P., Beljaars, A. C. M., van de Berg, L., Bidlot, J., Bormann, N., Delsol, C., Dragani, R., Fuentes, M., Geer, A. J., Haimberger, L., Healy, S. B., Hersbach, H., Hólm, E. V., Isaksen, L., Kallberg, P., Köhler, M., Matricardi, M., McNally, A. P., Monge-Sanz, B. M., Morcrette, J.-J., Park, B.-K., Peubey, C., de Rosnay, P., Tavolato, C., Thépaut, J.-N., and Vitart, F.: The ERA-Interim reanalysis: configuration and performance of the data assimilation system, Q. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 137, 553–597, https://doi.org/10.1002/qj.828, 2011. a, b, c
Deng, F., Jones, D. B. A., Henze, D. K., Bousserez, N., Bowman, K. W., Fisher, J. B., Nassar, R., O'Dell, C., Wunch, D., Wennberg, P. O., Kort, E. A., Wofsy, S. C., Blumenstock, T., Deutscher, N. M., Griffith, D. W. T., Hase, F., Heikkinen, P., Sherlock, V., Strong, K., Sussmann, R., and Warneke, T.: Inferring regional sources and sinks of atmospheric CO2 from GOSAT XCO2 data, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 3703–3727, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-14-3703-2014, 2014. a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j
Deutscher, N., Notholt, J., Messerschmidt, J., Weinzierl, C., Warneke, T., Petri, C., Grupe, P., and Katrynski, K.: TCCON data from Bialystok, Poland, Release GGG2014R1, https://doi.org/10.14291/tccon.ggg2014.bialystok01.R1/1183984, TCCON data archive, hosted by the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA, 2014. a
Dlugokencky, E., Lang, P., Masarie, K., Crotwell, A., and Crotwell, M.: Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Dry Air Mole Fractions from the NOAA ESRL Carbon Cycle Cooperative Global Air Sampling Network, 1968–2014, Version: 2015-08-03, available at: ftp://aftp.cmdl.noaa.gov/data/trace_gases/co2/flask/surface/ (last access: November 2017), 2015. a, b
Friedlingstein, P., Cox, P., Betts, R., Bopp, L., von Bloh, W., Brovkin, V., Cadule, P., Doney, S., Eby, M., Fung, I., Bala, G., John, J., Jones, C., Joos, F., Kato, T., Kawamiya, M., Knorr, W., Lindsay, K., Matthews, H. D., Raddatz, T., Rayner, P., Reick, C., Roeckner, E., Schnitzler, K.-G., Schnur, R., Strassmann, K., Weaver, A. J., Yoshikawa, C., and Zeng, N.: Climate-Carbon Cycle Feedback Analysis: Results from the C4MIP Model Intercomparison, J. Climate, 19, 3337–3353, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI3800.1, 2006. a
Girard, C., Plante, A.and Desgagné, M., McTaggart-Cowan, R., Côté, J., Charron, M., Gravel, S., Lee, V., Patoine, A., Qaddouri, A., Roch, M., Spacek, L., Tanguay, M., Vaillancourt, P. A., and Zadra, A.: Staggered Vertical Discretization of the Canadian Environmental Multiscale (GEM) Model Using a Coordinate of the Log-Hydrostatic-Pressure Type, Mon. Weather Rev., 142, 1183–1196, https://doi.org/10.1175/MWR-D-13-00255.1, 2013. a
Griffith, D. W. T., Deutscher, N., Velazco, V. A., Wennberg, P. O., Yavin, Y., Aleks, G. K., Washenfelder, R., Toon, G. C., Blavier, J.-F., Murphy, C., Jones, N., Kettlewell, G., Connor, B., Macatangay, R., Roehl, C., Ryczek, M., Glowacki, J., Culgan, T., and Bryant, G.: TCCON data from Darwin, Australia, Release GGG2014R0, https://doi.org/10.14291/tccon.ggg2014.darwin01.R0/1149290, TCCON data archive, hosted by the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA, 2014a. a
Griffith, D. W. T., Velazco, V. A., Deutscher, N., Murphy, C., Jones, N., Wilson, S., Macatangay, R., Kettlewell, G., Buchholz, R. R., and Riggenbach, M.: TCCON data from Wollongong, Australia, Release GGG2014R0, https://doi.org/10.14291/tccon.ggg2014.wollongong01.R0/1149291, TCCON data archive, hosted by the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA, 2014b. a
Gurney, K. R., Law, R. M., Denning, A. S., Rayner, P. J., Baker, D., Bousquet, P., Bruhwiler, L., Chen, Y.-H., Ciais, P., Fan, S. M., Fung, I. Y., Gloor, M., Heimann, M., Higuchi, K., John, J., Kowalczyk, E., Maki, T., Maksyutov, S., Peylin, P., Prather, M., Pak, B. C., Sarmiento, J., Taguchi, S., Takahashi, T., and Yuen, C.-W.: TransCom 3 CO2 inversion intercomparison: 1. Annual mean control results and sensitivity to transport and prior flux information, Tellus B, 55, 555–579, 2003. a, b
Gurney, K. R., Law, R. M., Denning, A. S., Rayner, P. J., Pak, B. C., Baker, D., Bousquet, P., Bruhwiler, L., Chen, Y.-H., Ciais, P., Fung, I. Y., Heimann, M., John, J., Maki, T., Maksyutov, S., Peylin, P., Prather, M., and Taguchi, S.: Transcom 3 inversion intercomparison: Model mean results for the estimation of seasonal carbon sources and sinks, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 18, GB1010, https://doi.org/10.1029/2003GB002111, 2004. a, b
Hase, F., Blumenstock, T., Dohe, S., Gross, J., and Kiel, M.: TCCON data from Karlsruhe, Germany, Release GGG2014R1, https://doi.org/10.14291/tccon.ggg2014.karlsruhe01.R1/1182416, TCCON data archive, hosted by the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA, 2014. a
Huntzinger, D., Post, W., Wei, Y., Michalak, A., West, T., Jacobson, A., Baker, I., Chen, J., Davis, K., Hayes, D., Hoffman, F., Jain, A., Liu, S., McGuire, A., Neilson, R., Potter, C., Poulter, B., Price, D., Raczka, B., Tian, H., Thornton, P., Tomelleri, E., Viovy, N., Xiao, J., Yuan, W., Zeng, N., Zhao, M., and Cook, R.: North American Carbon Program (NACP) regional interim synthesis: Terrestrial biospheric model intercomparison, Ecological Modelling, 232, 144–157, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2012.02.004, 2012. a
Huntzinger, D. N., Schwalm, C., Michalak, A. M., Schaefer, K., King, A. W., Wei, Y., Jacobson, A., Liu, S., Cook, R. B., Post, W. M., Berthier, G., Hayes, D., Huang, M., Ito, A., Lei, H., Lu, C., Mao, J., Peng, C. H., Peng, S., Poulter, B., Riccuito, D., Shi, X., Tian, H., Wang, W., Zeng, N., Zhao, F., and Zhu, Q.: The North American Carbon Program Multi-Scale Synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project – Part 1: Overview and experimental design, Geosci. Model Dev., 6, 2121–2133, https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-6-2121-2013, 2013. a
Hurtt, G., Chini, L., Frolking, S., Betts, R., Feddema, J., Fischer, G., Fisk, J., Hibbard, K., Houghton, R., Janetos, A., Jones, C., Kindermann, G., Kinoshita, T., Klein Goldewijk, K., Riahi, K., Shevliakova, E., Smith, S., Stehfest, E., Thomson, A., Thornton, P., van Vuuren, D., and Wang, Y.: Harmonization of land-use scenarios for the period 1500-2100: 600 years of global gridded annual land-use transitions, wood harvest, and resulting secondary lands, Climatic Change, 109, 117–161, 2011. a
Joiner, J., Guanter, L., Lindstrot, R., Voigt, M., Vasilkov, A. P., Middleton, E. M., Huemmrich, K. F., Yoshida, Y., and Frankenberg, C.: Global monitoring of terrestrial chlorophyll fluorescence from moderate-spectral-resolution near-infrared satellite measurements: methodology, simulations, and application to GOME-2, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 2803–2823, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-6-2803-2013, 2013. a
Jung, M., Vetter, M., Herold, M., Churkina, G., Reichstein, M., Zaehle, S., Ciais, P., Viovy, N., Bondeau, A., Chen, Y., Trusilova, K., Feser, F., and Heimann, M.: Uncertainties of modeling gross primary productivity over Europe: A systematic study on the effects of using different drivers and terrestrial biosphere models, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 21, gB4021, https://doi.org/10.1029/2006GB002915, 2007. a, b
Jung, M., Reichstein, M., Schwalm, C. R., Huntingford, C., Sitch, S., Ahlström, A., Arneth, A., Camps-Valls, G., Ciais, P., Friedlingstein, P., Gans, F., Ichii, K., Jain, A. K., Kato, E., Papale, D., Poulter, B., Raduly, B., Rödenbeck, C., Tramontana, G., Viovy, N., Wang, Y.-P., Weber, U., Zaehle, S., and Zeng, N.: Compensatory water effects link yearly global land CO2 sink changes to temperature, Nature, 541, 516–520, https://doi.org/10.1038/nature20780, 2017. a, b
Kalnay, E., Kanamitsu, M., Kistler, R., Collins, W., Deaven, D., Gandin, L., Iredell, M., Saha, S., White, G., Woollen, J., Zhu, Y., Chelliah, M., Ebisuzaki, W., Higgins, W., Janowiak, J., Mo, K. C., Ropelewski, C., Wang, J., Leetmaa, A., Reynolds, R., Jenne, R., and Joseph, D.: The NCEP/NCAR 40-year reanalysis project, B. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 77, 437–471, 1996. a, b
Kaminski, T., Knorr, W., Schürmann, G., Scholze, M., Rayner, P. J., Zaehle, S., Blessing, S., Dorigo, W., Gayler, V., Giering, R., Gobron, N., Grant, J. P., Heimann, M., Hooker-Stroud, A., Houweling, S., Kato, T., Kattge, J., Kelley, D., Kemp, S., Koffi, E. N., Köstler, C., Mathieu, P.-P., Pinty, B., Reick, C. H., Rödenbeck, C., Schnur, R., Scipal, K., Sebald, C., Stacke, T., van Scheltinga, A. T., Vossbeck, M., Widmann, H., and Ziehn, T.: The BETHY/JSBACH Carbon Cycle Data Assimilation System: experiences and challenges, J. Geophys. Res.-Biogeo., 118, 1414–1426, https://doi.org/10.1002/jgrg.20118, 2013. a, b
Kivi, R., Heikkinen, P., and Kyro, E.: TCCON data from Sodankyla, Finland, Release GGG2014R0, https://doi.org/10.14291/tccon.ggg2014.sodankyla01.R0/1149280, TCCON data archive, hosted by the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA, 2014. a
Koffi, E. N., Rayner, P. J., Scholze, M., Chevallier, F., and Kaminski, T.: Quantifying the constraint of biospheric process parameters by CO2 concentration and flux measurement networks through a carbon cycle data assimilation system, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 10555–10572, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-13-10555-2013, 2013. a, b
Krinner, G., Viovy, N., de Noblet-Ducoudré, N., Ogée, J., Polcher, J., Friedlingstein, P., Ciais, P., Sitch, S., and Prentice, I. C.: A dynamic global vegetation model for studies of the coupled atmosphere-biosphere system, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 19, GB1015, https://doi.org/10.1029/2003GB002199, 2005. a
Le Quéré, C., Moriarty, R., Andrew, R. M., Canadell, J. G., Sitch, S., Korsbakken, J. I., Friedlingstein, P., Peters, G. P., Andres, R. J., Boden, T. A., Houghton, R. A., House, J. I., Keeling, R. F., Tans, P., Arneth, A., Bakker, D. C. E., Barbero, L., Bopp, L., Chang, J., Chevallier, F., Chini, L. P., Ciais, P., Fader, M., Feely, R. A., Gkritzalis, T., Harris, I., Hauck, J., Ilyina, T., Jain, A. K., Kato, E., Kitidis, V., Klein Goldewijk, K., Koven, C., Landschützer, P., Lauvset, S. K., Lefèvre, N., Lenton, A., Lima, I. D., Metzl, N., Millero, F., Munro, D. R., Murata, A., Nabel, J. E. M. S., Nakaoka, S., Nojiri, Y., O'Brien, K., Olsen, A., Ono, T., Pérez, F. F., Pfeil, B., Pierrot, D., Poulter, B., Rehder, G., Rödenbeck, C., Saito, S., Schuster, U., Schwinger, J., Séférian, R., Steinhoff, T., Stocker, B. D., Sutton, A. J., Takahashi, T., Tilbrook, B., van der Laan-Luijkx, I. T., van der Werf, G. R., van Heuven, S., Vandemark, D., Viovy, N., Wiltshire, A., Zaehle, S., and Zeng, N.: Global Carbon Budget 2015, Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 7, 349–396, https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-7-349-2015, 2015. a, b
Makar, P., Gong, W., Milbrandt, J., Hogrefe, C., Zhang, Y., Curci, G., Žabkar, R., Im, U., Balzarini, A., Baró, R., Bianconi, R., Cheung, P., Forkel, R., Gravel, S., Hirtl, M., Honzak, L., Hou, A., Jiménez-Guerrero, P., Langer, M., Moran, M., Pabla, B., Pérez, J., Pirovano, G., José, R. S., Tuccella, P., Werhahn, J., Zhang, J., and Galmarini, S.: Feedbacks between air pollution and weather, Part 1: Effects on weather, Atmos. Environ., 115, 442–469, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2014.12.003, 2015. a
McGuire, A. D., Sitch, S., Clein, J. S., Dargaville, R., Esser, G., Foley, J., Heimann, M., Joos, F., Kaplan, J., Kicklighter, D. W., Meier, R. A., Melillo, J. M., Moore III, B., Prentice, I. C., Ramankutty, N., Reichenau, T., Schloss, A., Tian, H., Williams, L. J., and Wittenberg, U.: Carbon balance of the terrestrial biosphere in the twentieth century: Analyses of CO2, climate and land use effects with four process-based ecosystem models, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 15, 183–206, 2001. a, b
Meinshausen, M., Smith, S., Calvin, K., Daniel, J., Kainuma, M., Lamarque, J.-F., Matsumoto, K., Montzka, S., Raper, S., Riahi, K., Thomson, A., Velders, G., and van Vuuren, D.: The RCP greenhouse gas concentrations and their extensions from 1765 to 2300, Climatic Change, 109, 213–241, 2011. a
Moran, M., Meńard, S., Talbot, D., Huang, P., Makar, P., Gong, W., Landry, H., Gravel, S., Gong, S., Crevier, L., Kallaur, A., and Sassi, M.: Particulate-matter forecasting with GEM-MACH15, a new Canadian air-quality forecast model, in: Air Pollution Modelling and Its Application XX, edited by: Steyn, D. G. and Rao, S. T., Springer, Dordrecht, 2010. a
Nassar, R., Jones, D. B. A., Suntharalingam, P., Chen, J. M., Andres, R. J., Wecht, K. J., Yantosca, R. M., Kulawik, S. S., Bowman, K. W., Worden, J. R., Machida, T., and Matsueda, H.: Modeling global atmospheric CO2 with improved emission inventories and CO2 production from the oxidation of other carbon species, Geosci. Model Dev., 3, 689–716, https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-3-689-2010, 2010. a, b
Nemani, R. R., Keeling, C. D., Hashimoto, H., Jolly, W. M., Piper, S. C., Tucker, C. J., Myneni, R. B., and Running, S. W.: Climate-driven increases in global terrestrial net primary production from 1982 to 1999, Science, 300, 1560–1563, 2003. a
Niwa, Y., Machida, T., Sawa, Y., Matsueda, H., Schuck, T. J., Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M., Imasu, R., and Satoh, M.: Imposing strong constraints on tropical terrestrial CO2fluxes using passenger aircraft based measurements, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 117, D11303, https://doi.org/10.1029/2012jd017474, 2012. a
Notholt, J., Petri, C., Warneke, T., Deutscher, N., Buschmann, M., Weinzierl, C., Macatangay, R., and Grupe, P.: TCCON data from Bremen, Germany, Release GGG2014R0, https://doi.org/10.14291/tccon.ggg2014.bremen01.R0/1149275, TCCON data archive, hosted by the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA, 2014. a
Ott, L. E., Pawson, S., Collatz, G. J., Gregg, W. W., Menemenlis, D., Brix, H., Rousseaux, C. S., Bowman, K. W., Liu, J., Eldering, A., Gunson, M. R., and Kawa, S. R.: Assessing the magnitude of CO2 flux uncertainty in atmospheric CO2 records using products from NASA's Carbon Monitoring Flux Pilot Project, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 120, 734–765, https://doi.org/10.1002/2014JD022411, 2015. a, b, c
Peters, W., Miller, J. B., Whitaker, J., Denning, A. S., Hirsch, A., Krol, M. C., Zupanski, D., Bruhwiler, L., and Tans, P. P.: An ensemble data assimilation system to estimate CO2 surface fluxes from atmospheric trace gas observations, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 110, D24304, https://doi.org/10.1029/2005JD006157, 2005. a
Peters, W., Jacobson, A. R., Sweeney, C., Andrews, A. E., Conway, T. J., Masarie, K., Miller, J. B., Bruhwiler, L. M. P., Pétron, G., Hirsch, A. I., Worthy, D. E. J., van der Werf, G. R., Randerson, J. T., Wennberg, P. O., Krol, M. C., and Tans, P. P.: An atmospheric perspective on North American carbon dioxide exchange: CarbonTracker, P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 104, 18925–18930, 2007. a, b, c, d, e, f, g
Peylin, P., Law, R. M., Gurney, K. R., Chevallier, F., Jacobson, A. R., Maki, T., Niwa, Y., Patra, P. K., Peters, W., Rayner, P. J., Rödenbeck, C., van der Laan-Luijkx, I. T., and Zhang, X.: Global atmospheric carbon budget: results from an ensemble of atmospheric CO2 inversions, Biogeosciences, 10, 6699–6720, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-10-6699-2013, 2013. a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i
Peylin, P., Bacour, C., MacBean, N., Leonard, S., Rayner, P., Kuppel, S., Koffi, E., Kane, A., Maignan, F., Chevallier, F., Ciais, P., and Prunet, P.: A new stepwise carbon cycle data assimilation system using multiple data streams to constrain the simulated land surface carbon cycle, Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 3321–3346, https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-9-3321-2016, 2016. a, b, c
Piao, S., Sitch, S., Ciais, P., Friedlingstein, P., Peylin, P., Wang, X., Ahlstrom, A., Anav, A., Canadell, J. G., Cong, N., Huntingford, C., Jung, M., Levis, S., Levy, P. E., Li, J., Lin, X., Lomas, M. R., Lu, M., Luo, Y., Ma, Y., Myneni, R. B., Poulter, B., Sun, Z., Wang, T., Viovy, N., Zaehle, S., and Zeng, N.: Evaluation of terrestrial carbon cycle models for their response to climate variability and to CO2 trends, Glob. Change Biol., 19, 2117–2132, https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.12187, 2013. a, b, c, d, e
Polavarapu, S. M., Neish, M., Tanguay, M., Girard, C., de Grandpré, J., Semeniuk, K., Gravel, S., Ren, S., Roche, S., Chan, D., and Strong, K.: Greenhouse gas simulations with a coupled meteorological and transport model: the predictability of CO2, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 12005–12038, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-16-12005-2016, 2016. a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h
Rienecker, M. M., Suarez, M. J., Gelaro, R., Todling, R., Bacmeister, J., Liu, E., Bosilovich, M. G., Schubert, S. D., Takacs, L., Kim, G.-K., Bloom, S., Chen, J., Collins, D., Conaty, A., da Silva, A., Gu, W., Joiner, J., Koster, R. D., Lucchesi, R., Molod, A., Owens, T., Pawson, S., Pegion, P., Redder, C. R., Reichle, R., Robertson, F. R., Ruddick, A. G., Sienkiewicz, M., and Woollen, J.: MERRA: NASA's Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications, J. Climate, 24, 3624–3648, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00015.1, 2011. a
Sellers, P. J., Randall, D. A., Collatz, G. J., Berry, J. A., Field, C. B., Dazlich, D. A., Zhang, C., Collelo, C. D., and Bounoua, L.: A revised land surface parameterization (SiB2) for atmospheric GCMs: Part 1. Model formulation, J. Climate, 9, 676–705, 1996. a
Sherlock, V., Connor, B., Robinson, J., Shiona, H., Smale, D., and Pollard, D.: TCCON data from Lauder, New Zealand, 125HR, Release GGG2014R0, https://doi.org/10.14291/tccon.ggg2014.lauder02.R0/1149298, TCCON data archive, hosted by the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA, 2014. a
Shirai, T., Ishizawa, M., Zhuravlev, R., Ganshin, A., Belikov, D., Saito, M., Oda, T., Valsala, V., Gomez-Pelaez, A., Langenfelds, R., and Maksyutov, S.: A decadal inversion of CO2using the Global Eulerian–Lagrangian Coupled Atmospheric model (GELCA): sensitivity to the ground-based observation network, Tellus B, 69, 1291158, https://doi.org/10.1080/16000889.2017.1291158, 2017. a
Simmons, A. J., Willett, K. M., Jones, P. D., Thorne, P. W., and Dee, D. P.: Low-frequency variations in surface atmospheric humidity, temperature, and precipitation: Inferences from reanalyses and monthly gridded observational data sets, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 115, d01110, https://doi.org/10.1029/2009JD012442, 2010. a
Sitch, S., Smith, B., Prentice, I. C., Arneth, A., Bondeau, A., Cramer, W., Kaplan, J. O., Levis, S., Lucht, W., Sykes, M. T., Thonicke, K., and Venevsky, S.: Evaluation of ecosystem dynamics, plant geography and terrestrial carbon cycling in the LPJ dynamic global vegetation model, Glob. Change Biol., 9, 161–185, 2003. a
Sitch, S., Friedlingstein, P., Gruber, N., Jones, S. D., Murray-Tortarolo, G., Ahlström, A., Doney, S. C., Graven, H., Heinze, C., Huntingford, C., Levis, S., Levy, P. E., Lomas, M., Poulter, B., Viovy, N., Zaehle, S., Zeng, N., Arneth, A., Bonan, G., Bopp, L., Canadell, J. G., Chevallier, F., Ciais, P., Ellis, R., Gloor, M., Peylin, P., Piao, S. L., Le Quéré, C., Smith, B., Zhu, Z., and Myneni, R.: Recent trends and drivers of regional sources and sinks of carbon dioxide, Biogeosciences, 12, 653-679, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-12-653-2015, 2015. a, b
Strong, K., Mendonca, J., Weaver, D., Fogal, P., Drummond, J., Batchelor, R., and Lindenmaier, R.: TCCON data from Eureka, Canada, Release GGG2014R0, https://doi.org/10.14291/tccon.ggg2014.eureka01.R0/1149271, TCCON data archive, hosted by the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA, 2014. a
Suntharalingam, P., Jacob, D. J., Palmer, P. I., Logan, J. A., Yantosca, R. M., Xiao, Y. P., Evans, M. J., Streets, D. G., Vay, S. L., and Sachse, G. W.: Improved quantification of Chinese carbon fluxes using CO2/CO correlations in Asian outflow, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 109, D18S18, https://doi.org/10.1029/2003JD004362, 2004. a
Sussmann, R. and Rettinger, M.: TCCON data from Garmisch, Germany, Release GGG2014R0, https://doi.org/10.14291/tccon.ggg2014.garmisch01.R0/1149299, TCCON data archive, hosted by the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA, 2014. a
Thornton, P. E., Cook, R. B., Braswell, B. H., Law, B. E., Post, W. M., Shugart, H. H., Rhyne, B. T., and Hook, L. A.: Archiving numerical models of biogeochemical dynamics, EOS Transactions, American Geophysical Union, 86, 431 pp., 2005. a
Tian, H., Lu, C., Yang, J., Banger, K., Huntzinger, D. N., Schwalm, C. R., Michalak, A. M., Cook, R., Ciais, P., Hayes, D., Huang, M., Ito, A., Jain, A. K., Lei, H., Mao, J., Pan, S., Post, W. M., Peng, S., Poulter, B., Ren, W., Ricciuto, D., Schaefer, K., Shi, X., Tao, B., Wang, W., Wei, Y., Yang, Q., Zhang, B., and Zeng, N.: Global patterns and controls of soil organic carbon dynamics as simulated by multiple terrestrial biosphere models: Current status and future directions, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 29, 775–792, https://doi.org/10.1002/2014GB005021, 2015. a, b
Tramontana, G., Jung, M., Schwalm, C. R., Ichii, K., Camps-Valls, G., Ráduly, B., Reichstein, M., Arain, M. A., Cescatti, A., Kiely, G., Merbold, L., Serrano-Ortiz, P., Sickert, S., Wolf, S., and Papale, D.: Predicting carbon dioxide and energy fluxes across global FLUXNET sites with regression algorithms, Biogeosciences, 13, 4291–4313, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-13-4291-2016, 2016. a
Viovy, N.: CRUNCEP data set version 6, available at: https://vesg.ipsl.upmc.fr/thredds/catalog/store/p529viov/cruncep/V6_1901_2014/catalog.html, last access: June 2016. a
Warneke, T., Messerschmidt, J., Notholt, J., Weinzierl, C., Deutscher, N., Petri, C., Grupe, P., Vuillemin, C., Truong, F., Schmidt, M., Ramonet, M., and Parmentier, E.: TCCON data from Orleans, France, Release GGG2014R0, https://doi.org/10.14291/tccon.ggg2014.orleans01.R0/1149276, TCCON data archive, hosted by the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA, 2014. a
Wei, Y., Liu, S., Huntzinger, D. N., Michalak, A. M., Viovy, N., Post, W. M., Schwalm, C. R., Schaefer, K., Jacobson, A. R., Lu, C., Tian, H., Ricciuto, D. M., Cook, R. B., Mao, J., and Shi, X.: The North American Carbon Program Multi-scale Synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project – Part 2: Environmental driver data, Geosci. Model Dev., 7, 2875–2893, https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-7-2875-2014, 2014. a, b, c
Wennberg, P. O., Roehl, C., Wunch, D., Toon, G. C., Blavier, J.-F., Washenfelder, R., Keppel-Aleks, G., Allen, N., and Ayers, J.: TCCON data from Park Falls, Wisconsin, USA, Release GGG2014R0, https://doi.org/10.14291/tccon.ggg2014.parkfalls01.R0/1149161, TCCON data archive, hosted by the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA, 2014a. a
Wennberg, P. O., Wunch, D., Roehl, C., Blavier, J.-F., Toon, G. C., Allen, N., Dowell, P., Teske, K., Martin, C., and Martin., J.: TCCON data from Lamont, Oklahoma, USA, Release GGG2014R0, https://doi.org/10.14291/tccon.ggg2014.lamont01.R0/1149159, TCCON data archive, hosted by the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA, 2014b. a
Wofsy, S., Daube, B., Jimenez, R., Kort, E., Pittman, J., Park, S., Commane, R., Xiang, B., Santoni, G., Jacob, D., Fisher, J., Pickett-Heaps, C., Wang, H., Wecht, K., Wang, Q.-Q., Stephens, B., Shertz, S., Watt, A., Romashkin, P., Campos, T., Haggerty, J., Cooper, W., Rogers, D., Beaton, S., Hendershot, R., Elkins, J., Fahey, D., Gao, R., Moore, F., Montzka, S., Schwarz, J., Perring, A., Hurst, D., Miller, B., Sweeney, C., Oltmans, S., Nance, D., Hintsa, E., Dutton, G., Watts, L., Spackman, J., Rosenlof, K., Ray, E., Hall, B., Zondlo, M., Diao, M., Keeling, R., Bent, J., Atlas, E., Lueb, R., and Mahoney, M.: HIPPO Merged 10-second Meteorology, Atmospheric Chemistry, and Aerosol Data (R20121129), https://doi.org/10.3334/cdiac/hippo_010, 2012. a
Wofsy, S. C.: HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations (HIPPO): fine-grained, global-scale measurements of climatically important atmospheric gases and aerosols, Philos. T. R. Soc. A, 369, 2073–2086, 2011. a
Worthy, D. E. J., Chan, E., Ishizawa, M., Chan, D., Poss, C., Dlugokencky, E. J., Maksyutov, S., and Levin, I.: Decreasing anthropogenic methane emissions in Europe and Siberia inferred from continuous carbon dioxide and methane observations at Alert, Canada, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 114, d10301, https://doi.org/10.1029/2008JD011239, 2009. a, b
Zobler, L.: A World Soil File for Global Climate Modeling, NASA Technical Memorandum 87802, 32 pp.,1986. a
We assess the impact of using the meteorological fields from GEM-MACH-GHG to drive CLASS-CTEM. This coupling is considered an important step toward understanding how meteorological uncertainties affect both CO2 flux estimates and modeled atmospheric transport. Ultimately, such an approach will provide more direct feedback to the CLASS-CTEM developers and thus help to improve the performance of CLASS-CTEM by identifying the model limitations based on atmospheric constraints.
We assess the impact of using the meteorological fields from GEM-MACH-GHG to drive CLASS-CTEM....