Articles | Volume 8, issue 9
Development and technical paper 11 Sep 2015
Development and technical paper | 11 Sep 2015
GNAQPMS-Hg v1.0, a global nested atmospheric mercury transport model: model description, evaluation and application to trans-boundary transport of Chinese anthropogenic emissions
H. S. Chen et al.
No articles found.
Syuichi Itahashi, Baozhu Ge, Keiichi Sato, Zhe Wang, Junichi Kurokawa, Jiani Tan, Kan Huang, Joshua S. Fu, Xuemei Wang, Kazuyo Yamaji, Tatsuya Nagashima, Jie Li, Mizuo Kajino, Gregory R. Carmichael, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8709–8734,Short summary
This study presents the detailed analysis of acid deposition over southeast Asia based on the Model Inter-Comparison Study for Asia (MICS-Asia) phase III. Simulated wet deposition is evaluated with observation data from the Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia (EANET). The difficulties of models to capture observations are related to the model performance on precipitation. The precipitation-adjusted approach was applied, and the distribution of wet deposition was successfully revised.
Weiqi Xu, Chun Chen, Yanmei Qiu, Ying Li, Zhiqiang Zhang, Eleni Karnezi, Spyros N. Pandis, Conghui Xie, Zhijie Li, Jiaxing Sun, Nan Ma, Wanyun Xu, Pingqing Fu, Zifa Wang, Jiang Zhu, Douglas R. Worsnop, Nga Lee Ng, and Yele Sun
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5463–5476,Short summary
Here aerosol volatility and viscosity at a rural site (Gucheng) and an urban site (Beijing) in the North China Plain (NCP) were investigated in summer and winter. Our results showed that organic aerosol (OA) in winter in the NCP is more volatile than that in summer due to enhanced primary emissions from coal combustion and biomass burning. We also found that OA existed mainly as a solid in winter in Beijing but as semisolids in Beijing in summer and Gucheng in winter.
Santosh Kumar Verma, Kimitaka Kawamura, Fei Yang, Pingqing Fu, Yugo Kanaya, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4959–4978,Short summary
We studied aerosol samples collected in autumn 2007 with day and night intervals in a rural site of Mangshan, north of Beijing, for sugar compounds (SCs) that are abundant organic aerosol components and can influence the air quality and climate. We found higher concentrations of biomass burning (BB) products at nighttime than daytime, whereas pollen tracers and other SCs showed an opposite diurnal trend, because this site is meteorologically characterized by a mountain/valley breeze.
Hui Wang, Qizhong Wu, Alex B. Guenther, Xiaochun Yang, Lanning Wang, Tang Xiao, Jie Li, Jinming Feng, Qi Xu, and Huaqiong Cheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4825–4848,Short summary
We assessed the influence of the greening trend on BVOC emission in China. The comparison among different scenarios showed that vegetation changes resulting from land cover management are the main driver of BVOC emission change in China. Climate variability contributed significantly to interannual variations but not much to the long-term trend during the study period.
Tabish Umar Ansari, Oliver Wild, Edmund Ryan, Ying Chen, Jie Li, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4471–4485,Short summary
We use novel modelling approaches to quantify the lingering effects of 1 d local and regional emission controls on subsequent days, the effects of longer continuous emission controls of individual sectors over different regions, and the effects of combined emission controls of multiple sectors and regions on air quality in Beijing under varying weather conditions to inform precise short-term emission control policies for avoiding heavy haze pollution in Beijing.
Tie Dai, Yueming Cheng, Daisuke Goto, Yingruo Li, Xiao Tang, Guangyu Shi, and Teruyuki Nakajima
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4357–4379,Short summary
The anthropogenic emission of sulfur dioxide (SO2) over China has significantly declined as a consequence of the clean air actions. We have developed a new emission inversion system to dynamically update the SO2 emission grid by grid over China by assimilating ground-based SO2 observations. The inverted SO2 emission over China in November 2016 on average had declined by 49.4 % since 2010, which is well in agreement with the bottom-up estimation of 48.0 %.
Paul T. Griffiths, Lee T. Murray, Guang Zeng, Youngsub Matthew Shin, N. Luke Abraham, Alexander T. Archibald, Makoto Deushi, Louisa K. Emmons, Ian E. Galbally, Birgit Hassler, Larry W. Horowitz, James Keeble, Jane Liu, Omid Moeini, Vaishali Naik, Fiona M. O'Connor, Naga Oshima, David Tarasick, Simone Tilmes, Steven T. Turnock, Oliver Wild, Paul J. Young, and Prodromos Zanis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4187–4218,Short summary
We analyse the CMIP6 Historical and future simulations for tropospheric ozone, a species which is important for many aspects of atmospheric chemistry. We show that the current generation of models agrees well with observations, being particularly successful in capturing trends in surface ozone and its vertical distribution in the troposphere. We analyse the factors that control ozone and show that they evolve over the period of the CMIP6 experiments.
Behrooz Roozitalab, Gregory R. Carmichael, and Sarath K. Guttikunda
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2837–2860,Short summary
We used air quality modeling to study an extreme pollution episode in November 2017 in India. We found both local and regional emissions contribute to high pollution levels. The extreme pollution values were the result of agricultural fires in the northwest of India. Ozone should be considered in future air quality management strategies.
Edmund Ryan and Oliver Wild
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for GMD
Lei Kong, Xiao Tang, Jiang Zhu, Zifa Wang, Jianjun Li, Huangjian Wu, Qizhong Wu, Huansheng Chen, Lili Zhu, Wei Wang, Bing Liu, Qian Wang, Duohong Chen, Yuepeng Pan, Tao Song, Fei Li, Haitao Zheng, Guanglin Jia, Miaomiao Lu, Lin Wu, and Gregory R. Carmichael
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 529–570,Short summary
China's air pollution has changed substantially since 2013. Here we have developed a 6-year-long high-resolution air quality reanalysis dataset over China from 2013 to 2018 to illustrate such changes and to provide a basic dataset for relevant studies. Surface fields of PM2.5, PM10, SO2, NO2, CO, and O3 concentrations are provided, and the evaluation results indicate that the reanalysis dataset has excellent performance in reproducing the magnitude and variation of air pollution in China.
Hong Ren, Wei Hu, Lianfang Wei, Siyao Yue, Jian Zhao, Linjie Li, Libin Wu, Wanyu Zhao, Lujie Ren, Mingjie Kang, Qiaorong Xie, Sihui Su, Xiaole Pan, Zifa Wang, Yele Sun, Kimitaka Kawamura, and Pingqing Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
This study presents vertical profiles of biogenic and anthropogenic secondary organic aerosols (SOA) in the urban boundary layer based on a 325-m tower in Beijing in late summer. The increases in the isoprene and toluene SOA with height were found to be more related to regional transport whereas the decrease in those from monoterpenes and sesquiterpene were more subject to local emissions. Such complicated vertical distributions of SOA should be considered in future modeling work.
Qiaorong Xie, Sihui Su, Jing Chen, Yuqing Dai, Siyao Yue, Hang Su, Haijie Tong, Wanyu Zhao, Lujie Ren, Yisheng Xu, Dong Cao, Ying Li, Yele Sun, Zifa Wang, Cong-Qiang Liu, Kimitaka Kawamura, Guibin Jiang, Yafang Cheng, and Pingqing Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
This study investigated the role of nighttime chemistry during the Chinese New Year that enhances the formation of nitrooxy-organosulfates in the aerosol phase. Results demonstrate that anthropogenic precursors, together with biogenic ones, considerably contribute to the formation of low-volatile nitrooxy-OSs. Our study provides detailed molecular composition of firework-related aerosols, which gives new insights into the physicochemical properties and potential health effects of urban aerosols.
Zhenze Liu, Ruth M. Doherty, Oliver Wild, Michael Hollaway, and Fiona M. O'Connor
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for ACPShort summary
Surface ozone (O3) has become the main cause of atmospheric pollution in the summertime in China since 2013. We find that 70 % reductions in NOx emissions are required to reduce O3 pollution in most of industrial regions of China, and controls in VOC emissions are very important. The new chemical scheme developed for a global chemistry-climate model not only captures the regional air pollution but also benefits the future studies of regional air quality-climate interactions.
Jens Redemann, Robert Wood, Paquita Zuidema, Sarah J. Doherty, Bernadette Luna, Samuel E. LeBlanc, Michael S. Diamond, Yohei Shinozuka, Ian Y. Chang, Rei Ueyama, Leonhard Pfister, Ju-Mee Ryoo, Amie N. Dobracki, Arlindo M. da Silva, Karla M. Longo, Meloë S. Kacenelenbogen, Connor J. Flynn, Kristina Pistone, Nichola M. Knox, Stuart J. Piketh, James M. Haywood, Paola Formenti, Marc Mallet, Philip Stier, Andrew S. Ackerman, Susanne E. Bauer, Ann M. Fridlind, Gregory R. Carmichael, Pablo E. Saide, Gonzalo A. Ferrada, Steven G. Howell, Steffen Freitag, Brian Cairns, Brent N. Holben, Kirk D. Knobelspiesse, Simone Tanelli, Tristan S. L'Ecuyer, Andrew M. Dzambo, Ousmane O. Sy, Greg M. McFarquhar, Michael R. Poellot, Siddhant Gupta, Joseph R. O'Brien, Athanasios Nenes, Mary Kacarab, Jenny P. S. Wong, Jennifer D. Small-Griswold, Kenneth L. Thornhill, David Noone, James R. Podolske, K. Sebastian Schmidt, Peter Pilewskie, Hong Chen, Sabrina P. Cochrane, Arthur J. Sedlacek, Timothy J. Lang, Eric Stith, Michal Segal-Rozenhaimer, Richard A. Ferrare, Sharon P. Burton, Chris A. Hostetler, David J. Diner, Felix C. Seidel, Steven E. Platnick, Jeffrey S. Myers, Kerry G. Meyer, Douglas A. Spangenberg, Hal Maring, and Lan Gao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1507–1563,Short summary
Southern Africa produces significant biomass burning emissions whose impacts on regional and global climate are poorly understood. ORACLES (ObseRvations of Aerosols above CLouds and their intEractionS) is a 5-year NASA investigation designed to study the key processes that determine these climate impacts. The main purpose of this paper is to familiarize the broader scientific community with the ORACLES project, the dataset it produced, and the most important initial findings.
Ying Wei, Xueshun Chen, Huansheng Chen, Yele Sun, Wenyi Yang, Huiyun Du, Qizhong Wu, Dan Chen, Xiujuan Zhao, Jie Li, and Zifa Wang
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for GMDShort summary
The sub-grid particle formation (SGPF) in plume plays an important role in air pollution and climate effect. We coupled a SGPF scheme into a chemical transport model with aerosol microphysics module and applied it to investigate the SGPF impact over China. The scheme clearly improved the model performance in simulating aerosol components and particle number at typical sites influenced by point sources. The results indicate the significant effects of SGPF on aerosol particles in industrial areas.
Rutambhara Joshi, Dantong Liu, Eiko Nemitz, Ben Langford, Neil Mullinger, Freya Squires, James Lee, Yunfei Wu, Xiaole Pan, Pingqing Fu, Simone Kotthaus, Sue Grimmond, Qiang Zhang, Ruili Wu, Oliver Wild, Michael Flynn, Hugh Coe, and James Allan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 147–162,Short summary
Black carbon (BC) is a component of particulate matter which has significant effects on climate and human health. Sources of BC include biomass burning, transport, industry and domestic cooking and heating. In this study, we measured BC emissions in Beijing, finding a dominance of traffic emissions over all other sources. The quantitative method presented here has benefits for revising widely used emissions inventories and for understanding BC sources with impacts on air quality and climate.
W. Joe F. Acton, Zhonghui Huang, Brian Davison, Will S. Drysdale, Pingqing Fu, Michael Hollaway, Ben Langford, James Lee, Yanhui Liu, Stefan Metzger, Neil Mullinger, Eiko Nemitz, Claire E. Reeves, Freya A. Squires, Adam R. Vaughan, Xinming Wang, Zhaoyi Wang, Oliver Wild, Qiang Zhang, Yanli Zhang, and C. Nicholas Hewitt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15101–15125,Short summary
Air quality in Beijing is of concern to both policy makers and the general public. In order to address concerns about air quality it is vital that the sources of atmospheric pollutants are understood. This work presents the first top-down measurement of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions in Beijing. These measurements are used to evaluate the emissions inventory and assess the impact of VOC emission from the city centre on atmospheric chemistry.
Hajime Akimoto, Tatsuya Nagashima, Natsumi Kawano, Li Jie, Joshua S. Fu, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15003–15014,Short summary
In order to perform proper model simulation of ozone near the ground in the coastal area of northeastern Asia, it has been found that it is very important to select appropriate dry deposition velocities of ozone on the oceanic water of specific area of the northwestern Pacific. Empirical measurement of the mixing ratios and dry deposition flux of ozone over the ocean in this area is highly recommended.
Baozhu Ge, Danhui Xu, Oliver Wild, Xuefeng Yao, Junhua Wang, Xuechun Chen, Qixin Tan, Xiaole Pan, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
In this study, an improved sequential sampling method is developed and implemented to estimate the contribution of below-cloud and in-cloud wet deposition over the four-year measurements in Beijing. We find that the contribution of below-cloud scavenging for Ca2+, SO42− and NH4+ decreases from above 50 % in 2014 to below 40 % in 2017. This suggests that the Action Plan has mitigated PM pollution in the surface layer and hence decreased scavenging due to the washout process.
Michael Biggart, Jenny Stocker, Ruth M. Doherty, Oliver Wild, David Carruthers, Sue Grimmond, Yiqun Han, Pingqing Fu, and Simone Kotthaus
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
Heat-related illnesses are of increasing concern in China given its rapid urbanisation and our ever-warming climate. We examine the relative impacts that land surface properties and anthropogenic heat have on the urban heat island (UHI) in Beijing using ADMS-Urban. Air temperature measurements and satellite-derived land surface temperatures provide valuable means of evaluating modelled spatiotemporal variations. This work provides critical information for urban planners and UHI mitigation.
Baozhu Ge, Syuichi Itahashi, Keiichi Sato, Danhui Xu, Junhua Wang, Fan Fan, Qixin Tan, Joshua S. Fu, Xuemei Wang, Kazuyo Yamaji, Tatsuya Nagashima, Jie Li, Mizuo Kajino, Hong Liao, Meigen Zhang, Zhe Wang, Meng Li, Jung-Hun Woo, Junichi Kurokawa, Yuepeng Pan, Qizhong Wu, Xuejun Liu, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10587–10610,Short summary
Performances of the simulated deposition for different reduced N (Nr) species in China were conducted with the Model Inter-Comparison Study for Asia. Results showed that simulated wet deposition of oxidized N was overestimated in northeastern China and underestimated in south China, but Nr was underpredicted in all regions by all models. Oxidized N has larger uncertainties than Nr, indicating that the chemical reaction process is one of the most importance factors affecting model performance.
Wanyu Zhao, Hong Ren, Kimitaka Kawamura, Huiyun Du, Xueshun Chen, Siyao Yue, Qiaorong Xie, Lianfang Wei, Ping Li, Xin Zeng, Shaofei Kong, Yele Sun, Zifa Wang, and Pingqing Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10331–10350,Short summary
Our observations provide detailed information on the abundance and vertical distribution of dicarboxylic acids, oxoacids and α-dicarbonyls in PM2.5 collected at three heights based on a 325 m meteorological tower in Beijing in summer. Our results demonstrate that organic acids at the ground surface are largely associated with local traffic emissions, while long-range atmospheric transport followed by photochemical ageing contributes more in the urban boundary layer than the ground surface.
Xueshun Chen, Fangqun Yu, Wenyi Yang, Yele Sun, Huansheng Chen, Wei Du, Jian Zhao, Ying Wei, Lianfang Wei, Huiyun Du, Zhe Wang, Qizhong Wu, Jie Li, Junling An, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
The atmospheric aerosol particles have significant climate and health effects, which depend on aerosol size, composition, and mixing state. A new global-regional nested aerosol model with an advanced particle microphysics module and a volatility basis-set organic aerosol module was developed to simulate the aerosol microphysical processes. Simulations strongly suggest the important role of anthropogenic organic species in particle formation over the areas influenced by anthropogenic sources.
Freya A. Squires, Eiko Nemitz, Ben Langford, Oliver Wild, Will S. Drysdale, W. Joe F. Acton, Pingqing Fu, C. Sue B. Grimmond, Jacqueline F. Hamilton, C. Nicholas Hewitt, Michael Hollaway, Simone Kotthaus, James Lee, Stefan Metzger, Natchaya Pingintha-Durden, Marvin Shaw, Adam R. Vaughan, Xinming Wang, Ruili Wu, Qiang Zhang, and Yanli Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8737–8761,Short summary
Significant air quality problems exist in megacities like Beijing, China. To manage air pollution, legislators need a clear understanding of pollutant emissions. However, emissions inventories have large uncertainties, and reliable field measurements of pollutant emissions are required to constrain them. This work presents the first measurements of traffic-dominated emissions in Beijing which suggest that inventories overestimate these emissions in the region during both winter and summer.
Jiani Tan, Joshua S. Fu, Gregory R. Carmichael, Syuichi Itahashi, Zhining Tao, Kan Huang, Xinyi Dong, Kazuyo Yamaji, Tatsuya Nagashima, Xuemei Wang, Yiming Liu, Hyo-Jung Lee, Chuan-Yao Lin, Baozhu Ge, Mizuo Kajino, Jia Zhu, Meigen Zhang, Hong Liao, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 7393–7410,Short summary
This study evaluated the performance of 12 chemical transport models from MICS-Asia III for predicting the particulate matter (PM) over East Asia. Four model processes were investigated as the possible reasons for model bias with measurements and the factors causing inconsistent predictions of PM from different models: (1) model inputs, (2) gas–particle conversion, (3) dust emission modules and (4) removal mechanisms (wet and dry depositions). The influence of each process was discussed.
Weiqi Xu, Yao He, Yanmei Qiu, Chun Chen, Conghui Xie, Lu Lei, Zhijie Li, Jiaxing Sun, Junyao Li, Pingqing Fu, Zifa Wang, Douglas R. Worsnop, and Yele Sun
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3205–3219,Short summary
We characterized mass spectral features of organic aerosol (OA) and water-soluble OA (WSOA) from 21 cooking, crop straw, wood, and coal burning experiments using aerosol mass spectrometers with standard and capture vaporizers, and we demonstrated the applications of source spectral profiles in improving source apportionment of ambient OA at a highly polluted rural site in the North China Plain in winter.
Jing Yang, Wanyu Zhao, Lianfang Wei, Qiang Zhang, Yue Zhao, Wei Hu, Libin Wu, Xiaodong Li, Chandra Mouli Pavuluri, Xiaole Pan, Yele Sun, Zifa Wang, Cong-Qiang Liu, Kimitaka Kawamura, and Pingqing Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 6841–6860,Short summary
Our observations provide novel detailed information on the atmospheric abundances and spatial distributions of dicarboxylic acids, oxoacids, and α-dicarbonyls in marine aerosols collected from the South China Sea to the East Indian Ocean. Our results demonstrate that the continental outflow of both biogenic and anthropogenic precursors followed by photochemical aging is one of the main sources and formation processes of marine organic aerosols over the tropical oceanic regions.
Qiaorong Xie, Sihui Su, Shuang Chen, Yisheng Xu, Dong Cao, Jing Chen, Lujie Ren, Siyao Yue, Wanyu Zhao, Yele Sun, Zifa Wang, Haijie Tong, Hang Su, Yafang Cheng, Kimitaka Kawamura, Guibin Jiang, Cong-Qiang Liu, and Pingqing Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 6803–6820,Short summary
Current knowledge on firework-related organic aerosols is very limited. Here the detailed molecular composition of organics in urban aerosols was characterized using ultrahigh-resolution FT-ICR mass spectrometry. Our findings highlight that firework emission leads to a sharp increase in CHO, CHNO, and CHOS containing high-molecular-weight species, particularly aromatic-like substances, which affect the physicochemical properties such as the light absorption and health effects of urban aerosols.
Hang Liu, Xiaole Pan, Dantong Liu, Xiaoyong Liu, Xueshun Chen, Yu Tian, Yele Sun, Pingqing Fu, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5771–5785,Short summary
The bare black carbon (BC) was in a fractal structure. With coating thickness increasing, BC changed from a fractal structure to a core–shell structure. In the ambient atmosphere, plenty of BC particles were not in a perfect core–shell structure. This study brought attention to the combined effects of morphology and coating thickness on the absorption enhancement of BC-containing particles, which is helpful for determining the climatic effects of BC.
Oliver Wild, Apostolos Voulgarakis, Fiona O'Connor, Jean-François Lamarque, Edmund M. Ryan, and Lindsay Lee
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4047–4058,Short summary
Global models of tropospheric chemistry and transport show a persistent diversity in results that has not been fully explained. We demonstrate the first use of global sensitivity analysis consistently across three independent models to explore these differences and reveal both clear similarities and surprising differences which have important implications for our assessment of future atmospheric composition change.
Shaofeng Xu, Lujie Ren, Yunchao Lang, Shengjie Hou, Hong Ren, Lianfang Wei, Libin Wu, Junjun Deng, Wei Hu, Xiaole Pan, Yele Sun, Zifa Wang, Hang Su, Yafang Cheng, and Pingqing Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 3623–3644,Short summary
Current knowledge on the size distribution of biogenic primary organic aerosols in urban regions with heavy haze pollution is very limited. Here we performed a year-round study focusing on the organic molecular composition of size-segregated aerosol samples collected in urban Beijing during haze and non-haze days to elucidate the seasonal contributions of biomass burning, fungal spores, and plant debris to organic carbon as well as the influences from local emissions and long-range transport.
Alexander T. Archibald, Fiona M. O'Connor, Nathan Luke Abraham, Scott Archer-Nicholls, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Mohit Dalvi, Gerd A. Folberth, Fraser Dennison, Sandip S. Dhomse, Paul T. Griffiths, Catherine Hardacre, Alan J. Hewitt, Richard S. Hill, Colin E. Johnson, James Keeble, Marcus O. Köhler, Olaf Morgenstern, Jane P. Mulcahy, Carlos Ordóñez, Richard J. Pope, Steven T. Rumbold, Maria R. Russo, Nicholas H. Savage, Alistair Sellar, Marc Stringer, Steven T. Turnock, Oliver Wild, and Guang Zeng
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 1223–1266,Short summary
Here we present a description and evaluation of the UKCA stratosphere–troposphere chemistry scheme (StratTrop vn 1.0) implemented in the UK Earth System Model (UKESM1). UKCA StratTrop represents a substantial step forward compared to previous versions of UKCA. We show here that it is fully suited to the challenges of representing interactions in a coupled Earth system model and identify key areas and components for future development that will make it even better in the future.
Lu Lei, Conghui Xie, Dawei Wang, Yao He, Qingqing Wang, Wei Zhou, Wei Hu, Pingqing Fu, Yong Chen, Xiaole Pan, Zifa Wang, Douglas R. Worsnop, and Yele Sun
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2877–2890,Short summary
We characterized aerosol composition and sources near two steel plants in a coastal region in fall and spring seasons. Our results showed substantially different aerosol composition and sources between the two seasons. We observed significant impacts of steel plant emissions on aerosol chemistry nearby, and we found that aerosol particles emitted from the steel plants were dominated by ammonium sulfate/bisulfate; NOx/CO and NOx/SO2 were distinct from those in the absence of industrial plumes.
Marios Panagi, Zoë L. Fleming, Paul S. Monks, Matthew J. Ashfold, Oliver Wild, Michael Hollaway, Qiang Zhang, Freya A. Squires, and Joshua D. Vande Hey
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2825–2838,Short summary
In this paper, using dispersion modelling with emission inventories it was determined that on average 45 % of the total CO pollution that affects Beijing is transported from other areas. About half of the CO comes from beyond the immediate surrounding areas. Finally three classification types of pollution were identified and used to analyse the APHH winter campaign. The results can inform targeted control measures to be implemented in Beijing and the other regions to tackle air quality problems.
Michael Biggart, Jenny Stocker, Ruth M. Doherty, Oliver Wild, Michael Hollaway, David Carruthers, Jie Li, Qiang Zhang, Ruili Wu, Simone Kotthaus, Sue Grimmond, Freya A. Squires, James Lee, and Zongbo Shi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2755–2780,Short summary
Ambient air pollution is a major cause of premature death in China. We examine the street-scale variation of pollutant levels in Beijing using air pollution dispersion and chemistry model ADMS-Urban. Campaign measurements are compared with simulated pollutant levels, providing a valuable means of evaluating the impact of key processes on urban air quality. Air quality modelling at such fine scales is essential for human exposure studies and for informing choices on future emission controls.
Syuichi Itahashi, Baozhu Ge, Keiichi Sato, Joshua S. Fu, Xuemei Wang, Kazuyo Yamaji, Tatsuya Nagashima, Jie Li, Mizuo Kajino, Hong Liao, Meigen Zhang, Zhe Wang, Meng Li, Junichi Kurokawa, Gregory R. Carmichael, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2667–2693,Short summary
This study gives an overview of acid deposition from the Model Inter-Comparison Study for Asia (MICS-Asia) phase III. Wet deposition simulated by a total of nine models is evaluated with observation data from the Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia (EANET). The total deposition maps comparing to emissions over Asia are presented. To seek a way to improve the model performance, ensemble approaches and the precipitation-adjusted method are discussed.
Zhining Tao, Mian Chin, Meng Gao, Tom Kucsera, Dongchul Kim, Huisheng Bian, Jun-ichi Kurokawa, Yuesi Wang, Zirui Liu, Gregory R. Carmichael, Zifa Wang, and Hajime Akimoto
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2319–2339,Short summary
One goal of the Model Inter-Comparison Study for Asia (MICS-Asia) Phase III is to identify strengths and weaknesses of current air quality models to provide insights into reducing uncertainties. This study identified that a 15 km grid would be the optimal horizontal resolution in terms of performance and resource usage to capture average and extreme air quality over East Asia and is thus suggested for use in future MICS-Asia modeling activities if the investigation domain remains the same.
Meng Gao, Zirui Liu, Bo Zheng, Dongsheng Ji, Peter Sherman, Shaojie Song, Jinyuan Xin, Cheng Liu, Yuesi Wang, Qiang Zhang, Jia Xing, Jingkun Jiang, Zifa Wang, Gregory R. Carmichael, and Michael B. McElroy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1497–1505,Short summary
We quantified the relative influences of anthropogenic emissions and meteorological conditions on PM2.5 concentrations in Beijing over the winters of 2002–2016. Meteorological conditions over the study period would have led to an increase of haze in Beijing, but the strict emission control measures have suppressed the unfavorable influences of the recent climate.
Meng Gao, Zhiwei Han, Zhining Tao, Jiawei Li, Jeong-Eon Kang, Kan Huang, Xinyi Dong, Bingliang Zhuang, Shu Li, Baozhu Ge, Qizhong Wu, Hyo-Jung Lee, Cheol-Hee Kim, Joshua S. Fu, Tijian Wang, Mian Chin, Meng Li, Jung-Hun Woo, Qiang Zhang, Yafang Cheng, Zifa Wang, and Gregory R. Carmichael
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1147–1161,Short summary
Topic 3 of the Model Inter-Comparison Study for Asia (MICS-Asia) Phase III examines how online coupled air quality models perform in simulating high aerosol pollution in the North China Plain region during wintertime haze events and evaluates the importance of aerosol radiative feedbacks. This paper discusses the estimates of aerosol radiative forcing, aerosol feedbacks, and possible causes for the differences among the models.
Ying Chen, Oliver Wild, Edmund Ryan, Saroj Kumar Sahu, Douglas Lowe, Scott Archer-Nicholls, Yu Wang, Gordon McFiggans, Tabish Ansari, Vikas Singh, Ranjeet S. Sokhi, Alex Archibald, and Gufran Beig
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 499–514,Short summary
PM2.5 and O3 are two major air pollutants. Some mitigation strategies focusing on reducing PM2.5 may lead to substantial increase in O3. We use statistical emulation combined with atmospheric transport model to perform thousands of sensitivity numerical studies to identify the major sources of PM2.5 and O3 and to develop strategies targeted at both pollutants. Our scientific evidence suggests that regional coordinated emission control is required to mitigate PM2.5 whilst preventing O3 increase.
Lei Kong, Xiao Tang, Jiang Zhu, Zifa Wang, Joshua S. Fu, Xuemei Wang, Syuichi Itahashi, Kazuyo Yamaji, Tatsuya Nagashima, Hyo-Jung Lee, Cheol-Hee Kim, Chuan-Yao Lin, Lei Chen, Meigen Zhang, Zhining Tao, Jie Li, Mizuo Kajino, Hong Liao, Zhe Wang, Kengo Sudo, Yuesi Wang, Yuepeng Pan, Guiqian Tang, Meng Li, Qizhong Wu, Baozhu Ge, and Gregory R. Carmichael
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 181–202,Short summary
Evaluation and uncertainty investigation of NO2, CO and NH3 modeling over China were conducted in this study using 14 chemical transport model results from MICS-Asia III. All models largely underestimated CO concentrations and showed very poor performance in reproducing the observed monthly variations of NH3 concentrations. Potential factors related to such deficiencies are investigated and discussed in this paper.
Yanbing Fan, Cong-Qiang Liu, Linjie Li, Lujie Ren, Hong Ren, Zhimin Zhang, Qinkai Li, Shuang Wang, Wei Hu, Junjun Deng, Libin Wu, Shujun Zhong, Yue Zhao, Chandra Mouli Pavuluri, Xiaodong Li, Xiaole Pan, Yele Sun, Zifa Wang, Kimitaka Kawamura, Zongbo Shi, and Pingqing Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 117–137,Short summary
This study provides useful knowledge on the abundance, sources, and formation processes of organic aerosols in the coastal megacity of Tianjin, North China, based on the investigation of the molecular composition, diurnal variation, and winter/summer differences under the influence of land/sea breezes and the Asian summer monsoon.
Danhui Xu, Baozhu Ge, Xueshun Chen, Yele Sun, Nianliang Cheng, Mei Li, Xiaole Pan, Zhiqiang Ma, Yuepeng Pan, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 15569–15581,Short summary
Wet deposition is one of the most important and efficient removal mechanisms in the evolution of the air pollution. Due to the lack of a localized parameterization scheme and some mechanisms being neglected in theoretical estimations and modeling calculations, below-cloud wet scavenging coefficients (BWSC) have large uncertainties. We compare the BWSCs under the same conditions to perform a multi-method evaluation in order to describe their characteristics.
Hang Liu, Xiaole Pan, Yu Wu, Dawei Wang, Yu Tian, Xiaoyong Liu, Lu Lei, Yele Sun, Pingqing Fu, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 14791–14804,Short summary
The relationship among the effective density, rBC's coating thickness, and rBC's morphology was investigated. rBC with larger effective density adopted a more regular shape due to more coating thickness. The effective density distribution of ambient rBC was also measured. From the information of effective density, the ambient rBC mainly adopts an irregular shape, which can cause large uncertainties in the rBC's optical properties.
Jie Li, Tatsuya Nagashima, Lei Kong, Baozhu Ge, Kazuyo Yamaji, Joshua S. Fu, Xuemei Wang, Qi Fan, Syuichi Itahashi, Hyo-Jung Lee, Cheol-Hee Kim, Chuan-Yao Lin, Meigen Zhang, Zhining Tao, Mizuo Kajino, Hong Liao, Meng Li, Jung-Hun Woo, Jun-ichi Kurokawa, Zhe Wang, Qizhong Wu, Hajime Akimoto, Gregory R. Carmichael, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12993–13015,Short summary
This study evaluated and intercompared 14 CTMs with ozone observations in East Asia, within the framework of the Model Inter-Comparison Study for ASIA Phase III (MICS-Asia III). Potential causes of the discrepancies between model results and observation were investigated by assessing the planetary boundary layer heights, emission fluxes, dry deposition, chemistry and vertical transport among models. Finally, a multi-model estimate of pollution distributions was provided.
Lei Chen, Yi Gao, Meigen Zhang, Joshua S. Fu, Jia Zhu, Hong Liao, Jialin Li, Kan Huang, Baozhu Ge, Xuemei Wang, Yun Fat Lam, Chuan-Yao Lin, Syuichi Itahashi, Tatsuya Nagashima, Mizuo Kajino, Kazuyo Yamaji, Zifa Wang, and Jun-ichi Kurokawa
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 11911–11937,Short summary
Simulated aerosol concentrations from 14 CTMs within the framework of MICS-Asia III are detailedly evaluated with an extensive set of measurements in East Asia. Similarities and differences among model performances are also analyzed. Although more considerable capacities for reproducing the aerosol concentrations and their variations are shown in current CTMs than those in MICS-Asia II, more efforts are needed to reduce diversities of simulated aerosol concentrations among air quality models.
Weiqi Xu, Conghui Xie, Eleni Karnezi, Qi Zhang, Junfeng Wang, Spyros N. Pandis, Xinlei Ge, Jingwei Zhang, Junling An, Qingqing Wang, Jian Zhao, Wei Du, Yanmei Qiu, Wei Zhou, Yao He, Ying Li, Jie Li, Pingqing Fu, Zifa Wang, Douglas R. Worsnop, and Yele Sun
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 10205–10216,Short summary
We present the first aerosol volatility measurements in Beijing in summer using a thermodenuder coupled with aerosol mass spectrometers. Our results showed that organic aerosol (OA) comprised mainly semi-volatile organic compounds in summer, and the freshly oxidized secondary OA was the most volatile component. We also found quite different volatility distributions in black-carbon-containing primary and secondary OA, ambient OA, ambient secondary OA and the WRF-Chem model.
Michael Hollaway, Oliver Wild, Ting Yang, Yele Sun, Weiqi Xu, Conghui Xie, Lisa Whalley, Eloise Slater, Dwayne Heard, and Dantong Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 9699–9714,Short summary
This study, for the first time, uses combinations of aerosol and lidar data to drive an offline photolysis scheme. Absorbing species are shown to have the greatest impact on photolysis rate constants in the winter and scattering aerosol are shown to dominate responses in the summer. During haze episodes, aerosols are shown to produce a greater impact than cloud cover. The findings demonstrate the potential photochemical impacts of haze pollution in a highly polluted urban environment.
Huiyun Du, Jie Li, Xueshun Chen, Zifa Wang, Yele Sun, Pingqing Fu, Jianjun Li, Jian Gao, and Ying Wei
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 9351–9370,Short summary
Regional transport and heterogeneous reactions play crucial roles in haze formation. Using a chemical transport model, we found that chemical transformation of SO2 along the transport pathway from source regions to Beijing was the major source of sulfate. Heterogeneous chemistry had a stronger effect under high humidity and high pollution levels. Aerosols underwent aging during transport which altered the aerosol size and the degree of aging.
Tabish Umar Ansari, Oliver Wild, Jie Li, Ting Yang, Weiqi Xu, Yele Sun, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 8651–8668,Short summary
We explore the effectiveness of short-term emission controls on haze events in Beijing in October–November 2014 with high-resolution model studies. The model captures observed hourly variation in key pollutants well, but representation of boundary layer processes remains a key constraint. The controls contributed to improved air quality in early November but would not have been sufficient had the meteorology been less favourable. We quantify the much more stringent controls needed in that case.
Xiaole Pan, Hang Liu, Yu Wu, Yu Tian, Yele Sun, Conghui Xie, Xiaoyong Liu, Tianhai Cheng, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
Ying Wei, Xueshun Chen, Huansheng Chen, Jie Li, Zifa Wang, Wenyi Yang, Baozhu Ge, Huiyun Du, Jianqi Hao, Wei Wang, Jianjun Li, Yele Sun, and Huili Huang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 8269–8296,Short summary
This study presents a full description and evaluation of a global–regional nested aerosol and atmospheric chemistry model (IAP-AACM). The simulation for 2014 is evaluated against model datasets and a range of observational datasets. The results show that IAP-AACM is within the range of other models, and reproduces both spatial and seasonal variation of trace gases and aerosols over most areas well. In future, we recommend improving the model's ability to capture high spatial variation of PM2.5.
Zongbo Shi, Tuan Vu, Simone Kotthaus, Roy M. Harrison, Sue Grimmond, Siyao Yue, Tong Zhu, James Lee, Yiqun Han, Matthias Demuzere, Rachel E. Dunmore, Lujie Ren, Di Liu, Yuanlin Wang, Oliver Wild, James Allan, W. Joe Acton, Janet Barlow, Benjamin Barratt, David Beddows, William J. Bloss, Giulia Calzolai, David Carruthers, David C. Carslaw, Queenie Chan, Lia Chatzidiakou, Yang Chen, Leigh Crilley, Hugh Coe, Tie Dai, Ruth Doherty, Fengkui Duan, Pingqing Fu, Baozhu Ge, Maofa Ge, Daobo Guan, Jacqueline F. Hamilton, Kebin He, Mathew Heal, Dwayne Heard, C. Nicholas Hewitt, Michael Hollaway, Min Hu, Dongsheng Ji, Xujiang Jiang, Rod Jones, Markus Kalberer, Frank J. Kelly, Louisa Kramer, Ben Langford, Chun Lin, Alastair C. Lewis, Jie Li, Weijun Li, Huan Liu, Junfeng Liu, Miranda Loh, Keding Lu, Franco Lucarelli, Graham Mann, Gordon McFiggans, Mark R. Miller, Graham Mills, Paul Monk, Eiko Nemitz, Fionna O'Connor, Bin Ouyang, Paul I. Palmer, Carl Percival, Olalekan Popoola, Claire Reeves, Andrew R. Rickard, Longyi Shao, Guangyu Shi, Dominick Spracklen, David Stevenson, Yele Sun, Zhiwei Sun, Shu Tao, Shengrui Tong, Qingqing Wang, Wenhua Wang, Xinming Wang, Xuejun Wang, Zifang Wang, Lianfang Wei, Lisa Whalley, Xuefang Wu, Zhijun Wu, Pinhua Xie, Fumo Yang, Qiang Zhang, Yanli Zhang, Yuanhang Zhang, and Mei Zheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 7519–7546,Short summary
APHH-Beijing is a collaborative international research programme to study the sources, processes and health effects of air pollution in Beijing. This introduction to the special issue provides an overview of (i) the APHH-Beijing programme, (ii) the measurement and modelling activities performed as part of it and (iii) the air quality and meteorological conditions during joint intensive field campaigns as a core activity within APHH-Beijing.
Yue Liu, Mei Zheng, Mingyuan Yu, Xuhui Cai, Huiyun Du, Jie Li, Tian Zhou, Caiqing Yan, Xuesong Wang, Zongbo Shi, Roy M. Harrison, Qiang Zhang, and Kebin He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 6595–6609,Short summary
This study is part of the UK–China APHH campaign. To identify both source types and source regions at the same time, this study developed a combined method including receptor model, footprint model, and air quality model for the first time to investigate sources of PM2.5 during haze episodes in Beijing. It is an expansion of the application of the receptor model and is helpful for formulating effective control strategies to improve air quality in this region.
Hui Wang, Junmin Lin, Qizhong Wu, Huansheng Chen, Xiao Tang, Zifa Wang, Xueshun Chen, Huaqiong Cheng, and Lanning Wang
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 749–764,Short summary
A new framework was designed for the widely used Carbon Bond Mechanism Z (CBM-Z) gas-phase chemical kinetics kernel to adapt the single-instruction, multiple-data (SIMD) technology in next-generation processors like Knights Landing (KNL) to improve their calculation performance. The optimization is aimed at implementing the fine-grain level parallelization of CBM-Z. The test results showed significant acceleration with our optimization on both CPU and KNL platforms.
Hajime Akimoto, Tatsuya Nagashima, Jie Li, Joshua S. Fu, Dongsheng Ji, Jiani Tan, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 603–615,Short summary
The regional model intercomparison study called MICS-Asia III revealed that substantial discrepancy still exists for surface ozone simulation in East Asia, even though common emissions, meteorological field, and boundary conditions have been used among the models. Three factors have been identified as possible causes of such discrepancy, (1) chemistry sub-models, (2) heterogeneous reactions, and (3) vertical transport parameters, and each component has been discussed.
Xiaole Pan, Baozhu Ge, Zhe Wang, Yu Tian, Hang Liu, Lianfang Wei, Siyao Yue, Itsushi Uno, Hiroshi Kobayashi, Tomoaki Nishizawa, Atsushi Shimizu, Pingqing Fu, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 219–232,
Conghui Xie, Weiqi Xu, Junfeng Wang, Qingqing Wang, Dantong Liu, Guiqian Tang, Ping Chen, Wei Du, Jian Zhao, Yingjie Zhang, Wei Zhou, Tingting Han, Qingyun Bian, Jie Li, Pingqing Fu, Zifa Wang, Xinlei Ge, James Allan, Hugh Coe, and Yele Sun
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 165–179,Short summary
We present the first simultaneous real-time online measurements of aerosol optical properties at ground level and at 260 m on a meteorological tower in urban Beijing in winter. The vertical similarities and differences in scattering and absorption coefficients were characterized. The increases in MAC of BC were mainly associated with the coating materials on rBC. Coal combustion was the dominant source contribution of brown carbon followed by biomass burning and SOA in winter in Beijing.
Yu Tian, Xiaole Pan, Tomoaki Nishizawa, Hiroshi Kobayashi, Itsushi Uno, Xiquan Wang, Atsushi Shimizu, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 18203–18217,Short summary
East Asia is characterized by severe anthropogenic pollution and dust storms due to fuel consumption and the downwind location of dust sources. We studied the mixing states of dust and pollutants using an optical particle counter equipped with a polarization detection module, providing a deeper understanding of possible mechanisms of aerosols’ morphological change. In Beijing, the heterogeneous processes in the mixture of dust and emitted pollutants have a great influence on smog formation.
Arlene M. Fiore, Emily V. Fischer, George P. Milly, Shubha Pandey Deolal, Oliver Wild, Daniel A. Jaffe, Johannes Staehelin, Olivia E. Clifton, Dan Bergmann, William Collins, Frank Dentener, Ruth M. Doherty, Bryan N. Duncan, Bernd Fischer, Stefan Gilge, Peter G. Hess, Larry W. Horowitz, Alexandru Lupu, Ian A. MacKenzie, Rokjin Park, Ludwig Ries, Michael G. Sanderson, Martin G. Schultz, Drew T. Shindell, Martin Steinbacher, David S. Stevenson, Sophie Szopa, Christoph Zellweger, and Guang Zeng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 15345–15361,Short summary
We demonstrate a proof-of-concept approach for applying northern midlatitude mountaintop peroxy acetyl nitrate (PAN) measurements and a multi-model ensemble during April to constrain the influence of continental-scale anthropogenic precursor emissions on PAN. Our findings imply a role for carefully coordinated multi-model ensembles in helping identify observations for discriminating among widely varying (and poorly constrained) model responses of atmospheric constituents to changes in emissions.
Hansen Cao, Tzung-May Fu, Lin Zhang, Daven K. Henze, Christopher Chan Miller, Christophe Lerot, Gonzalo González Abad, Isabelle De Smedt, Qiang Zhang, Michel van Roozendael, François Hendrick, Kelly Chance, Jie Li, Junyu Zheng, and Yuanhong Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 15017–15046,Short summary
Our top-down estimates for annual total Chinese NMVOC emissions was 30.7 to 49.5 Tg y−1, including 16.4 to 23.6 Tg y−1 from anthropogenic sources, 12.2 to 22.8 Tg y−1 from biogenic sources, and 2.08 to 3.13 Tg y−1 from biomass burning. Our four inversions consistently showed that the emissions of Chinese anthropogenic NMVOC precursors of glyoxal were larger than the a priori estimates. The glyoxal and formaldehyde constraints helped distinguish the NMVOC species from different sources.
Lei Liu, Jian Zhang, Liang Xu, Qi Yuan, Dao Huang, Jianmin Chen, Zongbo Shi, Yele Sun, Pingqing Fu, Zifa Wang, Daizhou Zhang, and Weijun Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 14681–14693,Short summary
Using transmission electron microscopy, we studied individual cloud droplet residual and interstitial particles collected in cloud events at Mt. Tai in the polluted North China region. We found that individual cloud droplets were an extremely complicated mixture containing abundant refractory soot (i.e., black carbon), fly ash, and metals. The complicated cloud droplets have not been reported in clean continental or marine air before.
Mingjie Kang, Pingqing Fu, Kimitaka Kawamura, Fan Yang, Hongliang Zhang, Zhengchen Zang, Hong Ren, Lujie Ren, Ye Zhao, Yele Sun, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 13947–13967,Short summary
Molecular characterization and spatial distribution of biogenic primary organic aerosol (POA) and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in the marine atmosphere are not well known. Here, we analysed the organic molecular composition of marine aerosols collected during a marine cruise in the East China Sea during May–June 2014. Our results suggest that the Asian continent can be a natural emitter of biogenic POA and SOA, which can be transported to the downwind marine atmosphere.
Wei Zhou, Jian Zhao, Bin Ouyang, Archit Mehra, Weiqi Xu, Yuying Wang, Thomas J. Bannan, Stephen D. Worrall, Michael Priestley, Asan Bacak, Qi Chen, Conghui Xie, Qingqing Wang, Junfeng Wang, Wei Du, Yingjie Zhang, Xinlei Ge, Penglin Ye, James D. Lee, Pingqing Fu, Zifa Wang, Douglas Worsnop, Roderic Jones, Carl J. Percival, Hugh Coe, and Yele Sun
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11581–11597,Short summary
We present measurements of gas-phase N2O5 and ClNO2 by ToF-CIMS during summer in urban Beijing as part of the APHH campaign. High reactivity of N2O5 indicative of active nocturnal chemistry was observed. The lifetime of N2O5 as a function of aerosol surface area and relative humidity was characterized, and N2O5 uptake coefficients were estimated. We also found that the N2O5 loss in this study is mainly attributed to its indirect loss via reactions of NO3 with VOCs and NO.
Edmund Ryan, Oliver Wild, Apostolos Voulgarakis, and Lindsay Lee
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 3131–3146,Short summary
Global sensitivity analysis (GSA) identifies which parameters of a model most affect its output. We performed GSA using statistical emulators as surrogates of two slow-running atmospheric chemistry transport models. Due to the high dimension of the model outputs, we considered two alternative methods: one that reduced the output dimension and one that did not require an emulator. The alternative methods accurately performed the GSA but were significantly faster than the emulator-only method.
Steven T. Turnock, Oliver Wild, Frank J. Dentener, Yanko Davila, Louisa K. Emmons, Johannes Flemming, Gerd A. Folberth, Daven K. Henze, Jan E. Jonson, Terry J. Keating, Sudo Kengo, Meiyun Lin, Marianne Lund, Simone Tilmes, and Fiona M. O'Connor
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 8953–8978,Short summary
A simple parameterisation was developed in this study to provide a rapid assessment of the impacts and uncertainties associated with future emission control strategies by predicting changes to surface ozone air quality and near-term climate forcing of ozone. Future emissions scenarios based on currently implemented legislation are shown to worsen surface ozone air quality and enhance near-term climate warming, with changes in methane becoming increasingly important in the future.
Yele Sun, Weiqi Xu, Qi Zhang, Qi Jiang, Francesco Canonaco, André S. H. Prévôt, Pingqing Fu, Jie Li, John Jayne, Douglas R. Worsnop, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 8469–8489,Short summary
We present a 2–year analysis of organic aerosol (OA) from highly time–resolved measurements by an aerosol chemical speciation monitor in the megacity of Beijing. The sources of OA were analyzed with the advanced factor analysis of a multilinear engine (ME-2). Our results showed very different seasonal patterns, relative humidity and temperature dependence, and sources regions among different OA factors. The sources and processes of OA factors, and their roles in haze pollution are elucidated.
Xiao-Xiao Zhang, Brenton Sharratt, Lian-You Liu, Zi-Fa Wang, Xiao-Le Pan, Jia-Qiang Lei, Shi-Xin Wu, Shuang-Yan Huang, Yu-Hong Guo, Jie Li, Xiao Tang, Ting Yang, Yu Tian, Xue-Shun Chen, Jian-Qi Hao, Hai-Tao Zheng, Yan-Yan Yang, and Yan-Li Lyu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 8353–8371,Short summary
The impact of a strong East Asian dust event during 2–7 May 2017 was quantified and assessed based upon environmental observations, lidar measurements, and satellite products along with simulation techniques. This dust storm impacted a wide area of China and other Asian nations and reached North America within 1 week. Dust storms are a significant contributor to the global dust budget. Asian dust storms such as that observed in early May 2017 may lead to wider climate forcing on a global scale.
Fernando Iglesias-Suarez, Douglas E. Kinnison, Alexandru Rap, Amanda C. Maycock, Oliver Wild, and Paul J. Young
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 6121–6139,Short summary
This study explores future ozone radiative forcing (RF) and the relative contribution due to different drivers. Climate-induced ozone RF is largely the result of the interplay between lightning-produced ozone and enhanced ozone destruction in a warmer and wetter atmosphere. These results demonstrate the importance of stratospheric–tropospheric interactions and the stratosphere as a key region controlling a large fraction of the tropospheric ozone RF.
Meng Gao, Zhiwei Han, Zirui Liu, Meng Li, Jinyuan Xin, Zhining Tao, Jiawei Li, Jeong-Eon Kang, Kan Huang, Xinyi Dong, Bingliang Zhuang, Shu Li, Baozhu Ge, Qizhong Wu, Yafang Cheng, Yuesi Wang, Hyo-Jung Lee, Cheol-Hee Kim, Joshua S. Fu, Tijian Wang, Mian Chin, Jung-Hun Woo, Qiang Zhang, Zifa Wang, and Gregory R. Carmichael
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4859–4884,Short summary
Topic 3 of the Model Inter-Comparison Study for Asia (MICS-Asia) Phase III examines how online coupled air quality models perform in simulating high aerosol pollution in the North China Plain region during wintertime haze events and evaluates the importance of aerosol radiative and microphysical feedbacks. A comprehensive overview of the MICS-ASIA III Topic 3 study design is presented.
Wei Zhou, Qingqing Wang, Xiujuan Zhao, Weiqi Xu, Chen Chen, Wei Du, Jian Zhao, Francesco Canonaco, André S. H. Prévôt, Pingqing Fu, Zifa Wang, Douglas R. Worsnop, and Yele Sun
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 3951–3968,Short summary
We present a 3-month analysis of submicron aerosols that were measured at 260 m on a meteorological tower in Beijing, China. The sources of organic aerosol (OA) were analyzed by using a multi-linear engine (ME-2). Our results showed significant changes in both primary and secondary OA composition from the non-heating season to the heating season. We also observed a considerable contribution (10–13%) of cooking OA at 260 m and very different OA composition between ground level and 260 m.
Wanyu Zhao, Kimitaka Kawamura, Siyao Yue, Lianfang Wei, Hong Ren, Yu Yan, Mingjie Kang, Linjie Li, Lujie Ren, Senchao Lai, Jie Li, Yele Sun, Zifa Wang, and Pingqing Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2749–2767,Short summary
In this paper, we investigate the seasonal trends in concentrations and compound-specific stable carbon isotope ratios of low molecular weight dicarboxylic acids (C2–C12) and related compounds in fine aerosols (PM2.5) in Beijing. Our study demonstrates that, in addition to the production via photo-oxidation, high abundances of diacids and related compounds in Beijing are largely associated with anthropogenic primary emissions such as biomass burning, fossil fuel combustion and plastic burning.
Qingqing Wang, Yele Sun, Weiqi Xu, Wei Du, Libo Zhou, Guiqian Tang, Chen Chen, Xueling Cheng, Xiujuan Zhao, Dongsheng Ji, Tingting Han, Zhe Wang, Jie Li, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2495–2509,Short summary
We conducted the first real-time continuous vertical measurements of particle extinction, NO2, and BC from ground level to 260 m during two severe winter haze episodes in urban Beijing, China. Our results show very complex and dynamic vertical profiles that interact closely with boundary layer and meteorological conditions. Further analysis demonstrate that vertical convection, temperature inversion, and local emissions are three major factors affecting the changes in vertical profiles.
Ruth M. Doherty, Clara Orbe, Guang Zeng, David A. Plummer, Michael J. Prather, Oliver Wild, Meiyun Lin, Drew T. Shindell, and Ian A. Mackenzie
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 14219–14237,Short summary
We investigate how climate change impacts global air pollution transport. To study transport changes, we use a carbon monoxide (CO) tracer species emitted from global sources. We find robust and consistent changes in CO-tracer distributions in climate change simulations performed by four chemistry–climate models in different seasons. We highlight the importance of the co-location of emission source regions and controlling transport processes in determining future pollution transport.
Xiaole Pan, Yugo Kanaya, Fumikazu Taketani, Takuma Miyakawa, Satoshi Inomata, Yuichi Komazaki, Hiroshi Tanimoto, Zhe Wang, Itsushi Uno, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 13001–13016,Short summary
Characteristics of refractory black carbon (rBC) from open biomass burning (OBB) have a great impact on regional pollution and climate, in particular in East Asia. However, experimental study on characteristics of rBC from agricultural residue burning in East China was limited. This study performed laboratory experiments: we found that emission of rBC is highly related to flaming burning, and non-rBC to smoldering burning. Rapid condensation of semi-volatile organics resulted in coated rBC.
Yujiao Zhu, Caiqing Yan, Renyi Zhang, Zifa Wang, Mei Zheng, Huiwang Gao, Yang Gao, and Xiaohong Yao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 9469–9484,Short summary
This study reports the distinct effects of street canyons on new particle formation (NPF) under warm or cold ambient temperature conditions because of on-road vehicle emissions; i.e., stronger condensation sinks are responsible for the reduced NPF in the springtime, but efficient nucleation and partitioning of gaseous species contribute to the enhanced NPF in the wintertime. The oxidization of biogenic organics is suggested to play an important role in growing new particles.
Hui Wang, Huansheng Chen, Qizhong Wu, Junmin Lin, Xueshun Chen, Xinwei Xie, Rongrong Wang, Xiao Tang, and Zifa Wang
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 2891–2904,Short summary
We introduced some methods to port our Global Nested Air Quality Prediction Modeling System (GNAQPMS) model on Intel Knight Landing (KNL). In this paper, we introduced both common and specific methods to accelerate out model better. With the guidance of the resources material on Intel Websites (http://www.intel.com/content/www/us/en/products/processors/xeon-phi.html) and relative books, this paper could be an example for the model developers to take advantage of KNL for their model.
Jing Zheng, Min Hu, Zhuofei Du, Dongjie Shang, Zhaoheng Gong, Yanhong Qin, Jingyao Fang, Fangting Gu, Mengren Li, Jianfei Peng, Jie Li, Yuqia Zhang, Xiaofeng Huang, Lingyan He, Yusheng Wu, and Song Guo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 6853–6864,Short summary
By monitoring aerosol properties as a function of high-resolution chemical composition, this study sheds light on the evolution processes of particles in the Tibetan Plateau background environment during the pre-monsoon season. A positive matrix factorization analysis integrated with a mesoscale meteorological model clearly shows that the southeastern edge of the Tibetan Plateau was affected by air pollutants transported from active biomass burning areas in South Asia.
Wei Du, Jian Zhao, Yuying Wang, Yingjie Zhang, Qingqing Wang, Weiqi Xu, Chen Chen, Tingting Han, Fang Zhang, Zhanqing Li, Pingqing Fu, Jie Li, Zifa Wang, and Yele Sun
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 6797–6811,Short summary
We conducted the first simultaneous measurements of size-resolved particle number concentrations at ground level and 260 m in urban Beijing. The vertical differences strongly depend on particle sizes, with accumulation-mode particles being highly correlated at the two heights. We further demonstrated that regional emission controls have a dominant impact on accumulation-mode particles, while the influences on Aitken particles were much smaller due to the enhanced NPF events.
Ting Yang, Zifa Wang, Wei Zhang, Alex Gbaguidi, Nobuo Sugimoto, Xiquan Wang, Ichiro Matsui, and Yele Sun
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 6215–6225,Short summary
Predicting air pollution events over megacities requires, notably, continuous and accurate determination of the boundary layer height (BLH). Based on gravity wave theory, a new approach (CRGM) is developed to overcome existing algorithms' weakness in order to accurately reproduce the fluctuations of the BLH under various atmospheric pollution conditions from lidar observation. Comprehensive evaluation highlights strong effectiveness of this new method.
Jian Zhao, Wei Du, Yingjie Zhang, Qingqing Wang, Chen Chen, Weiqi Xu, Tingting Han, Yuying Wang, Pingqing Fu, Zifa Wang, Zhanqing Li, and Yele Sun
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 3215–3232,Short summary
We conducted aerosol particle composition measurements at ground level and 260 m with two aerosol mass spectrometers in Beijing during the 2015 China Victory Day parade. Our results showed a stronger impact of emission controls on inorganic aerosol than OA. A larger decrease in more oxidized SOA than the less oxidized one during the control period was also observed. Our results indicate that emission controls and the changes in meteorological conditions have affected SOA formation mechanisms.
Xiao-Xiao Zhang, Brenton Sharratt, Xi Chen, Zi-Fa Wang, Lian-You Liu, Yu-Hong Guo, Jie Li, Huan-Sheng Chen, and Wen-Yi Yang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 1699–1711,Short summary
To improve our understanding of the fate and transport of airborne dust, there is a need for long-term records of dust deposition and concentration. This study characterized the spatial and temporal distribution in dust deposition and concentration in central Asia. The occurrence of high dust deposition and concentration suggests this region is a potential contributor to the global dust budget. This work will strengthen our comprehension of aerosol transport in global desertification regions.
Stefano Galmarini, Brigitte Koffi, Efisio Solazzo, Terry Keating, Christian Hogrefe, Michael Schulz, Anna Benedictow, Jan Jurgen Griesfeller, Greet Janssens-Maenhout, Greg Carmichael, Joshua Fu, and Frank Dentener
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 1543–1555,Short summary
We present an overview of the coordinated global numerical modelling experiments performed during 2012–2016 by the Task Force on Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution (TF HTAP), the regional experiments by the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII) over Europe and North America, and the Model Intercomparison Study for Asia (MICS-Asia). Given the organizational complexity of bringing together these three initiatives, the experiment organization is presented.
Shurui Chen, Liang Xu, Yinxiao Zhang, Bing Chen, Xinfeng Wang, Xiaoye Zhang, Mei Zheng, Jianmin Chen, Wenxing Wang, Yele Sun, Pingqing Fu, Zifa Wang, and Weijun Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 1259–1270,Short summary
Many studies have focused on the unusually severe hazes instead of the more frequent light and moderate hazes (22–63 %) in winter in the North China Plain (NCP). The morphology, mixing state, and size of organic aerosols in the L & M hazes were characterized. We conclude that the direct emissions from residential coal stoves without any pollution controls in rural and urban outskirts contribute large amounts of primary OM particles to the regional L & M hazes in winter in the NCP.
Meng Li, Qiang Zhang, Jun-ichi Kurokawa, Jung-Hun Woo, Kebin He, Zifeng Lu, Toshimasa Ohara, Yu Song, David G. Streets, Gregory R. Carmichael, Yafang Cheng, Chaopeng Hong, Hong Huo, Xujia Jiang, Sicong Kang, Fei Liu, Hang Su, and Bo Zheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 935–963,Short summary
An anthropogenic emission inventory for Asia is developed for the years 2008 and 2010 to support the Model Inter-Comparison Study for Asia (MICS-Asia) and the Task Force on Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution (TF HTAP) projects by a mosaic of up-to-date regional emission inventories. The total Asian emissions in 2010 are estimated as follows: 51.3 Tg SO2, 52.1 Tg NOx, 336.5 Tg CO, 67.0 Tg NMVOC, 28.7 Tg NH3, 31.7 Tg PM10, 22.7 Tg PM2.5, 3.5 Tg BC, 8.3 Tg OC, and 17.3 Pg CO2.
Meng Gao, Gregory R. Carmichael, Pablo E. Saide, Zifeng Lu, Man Yu, David G. Streets, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11837–11851,Short summary
The WRF-Chem model was used to examine how the winter PM2.5 concentrations change in response to changes in emissions and meteorology in North China from 1960 to 2010. The discussions in this study indicate that dramatic changes in emissions are the main cause of increasing haze events in North China, and long-term trends in atmospheric circulations maybe another important cause. We also found aerosol feedbacks have been significantly enhanced from 1960 to 2010, due to higher aerosol loadings.
Xiaole Pan, Itsushi Uno, Yukari Hara, Kazuo Osada, Shigekazu Yamamoto, Zhe Wang, Nobuo Sugimoto, Hiroshi Kobayashi, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 9863–9873,Short summary
Polarization properties of aerosol particles at a suburban site in the western Japan was studied on the basis of long-term observation and trajectory analysis. This study provides the detailed information on the polarization characteristics of particles from different origins, and proposed a reliable criterion to classify spherical and non-spherical particles. This study introduced a new method to investigate the mixed state of dust particle with anthropogenic pollutant.
Yele Sun, Wei Du, Pingqing Fu, Qingqing Wang, Jie Li, Xinlei Ge, Qi Zhang, Chunmao Zhu, Lujie Ren, Weiqi Xu, Jian Zhao, Tingting Han, Douglas R. Worsnop, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 8309–8329,Short summary
We have a comprehensive characterization of the sources, variations and processes of submicron aerosols in Beijing in winter using HR-AMS and GC/MS measurements. The primary sources including traffic, cooking, biomass burning and coal combustion emissions, and secondary components were separated and quantified with PMF. Our results elucidated the important roles of primary emissions, particularly coal combustion, and aqueous-phase processing in the formation of severe air pollution in winter.
D. L. Finney, R. M. Doherty, O. Wild, and N. L. Abraham
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 7507–7522,Short summary
Lightning is a source of nitric oxide (NO) and, through chemical reactions of NO, impacts ozone production. A new method for modelling global lightning markedly alters ozone concentration in the upper troposphere and frequency characteristics of ozone production compared to earlier treatments. Simulated lightning and ozone concentrations now better match observations. Reducing uncertainties associated with lightning NO is important for understanding atmospheric composition and radiative forcing.
Xiao Tang, Jiang Zhu, ZiFa Wang, Alex Gbaguidi, CaiYan Lin, JinYuan Xin, Tao Song, and Bo Hu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 6395–6405,Short summary
Chemical data assimilation through adjusting precursor emissions has brought out notable impacts on improving ozone forecasts in previous studies. This paper, from another point of view, investigated in detail the impacts of adjusting nitrogen oxide emissions on the forecasts of nitrogen dioxide through assimilating ozone observations. Limitations of the existing chemical data assimilation methods in a highly nonlinear system were identified and highlighted.
M. Gao, G. R. Carmichael, Y. Wang, P. E. Saide, M. Yu, J. Xin, Z. Liu, and Z. Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1673–1691,Short summary
The WRF-Chem model was applied to study the 2010 winter haze in North China. Air pollutants outside Beijing contributed about 64.5 % to the PM2.5 levels in Beijing during this haze event, and most of them are from south Hebei, Tianjin city, Shandong and Henan provinces. In addition, aerosol feedback has important impacts on surface temperature, Relative Humidity (RH) and wind speeds, and these meteorological variables affect aerosol distribution and formation in turn.
F. Iglesias-Suarez, P. J. Young, and O. Wild
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 343–363,
W. Q. Xu, Y. L. Sun, C. Chen, W. Du, T. T. Han, Q. Q. Wang, P. Q. Fu, Z. F. Wang, X. J. Zhao, L. B. Zhou, D. S. Ji, P. C. Wang, and D. R. Worsnop
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 13681–13698,Short summary
We have investigated the response of aerosol composition, size distributions, and oxidation properties to emission controls during the 2014 Asia- Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) summit in Beijing. Our results showed substantial changes of aerosol bulk composition during APEC with the most reductions in secondary aerosols in large accumulation modes, demonstrating that that emission controls over regional scales can substantially reduce secondary particulates.
W. J. Li, S. R. Chen, Y. S. Xu, X. C. Guo, Y. L. Sun, X. Y. Yang, Z. F. Wang, X. D. Zhao, J. M. Chen, and W. X. Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 13365–13376,Short summary
We found that anthropogenic soot, fly ash, and visible organic particles likely adhere to the surface of secondary inorganic particles larger than 200nm due to coagulation. Biomass burning and coal combustion both constantly contribute to anthropogenic particles in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) background atmosphere. Organic coating and soot on the surface of the aged particles could have different impacts on their hygroscopic and optical properties in the QTP compared to the urban aerosols.
C. Chen, Y. L. Sun, W. Q. Xu, W. Du, L. B. Zhou, T. T. Han, Q. Q. Wang, P. Q. Fu, Z. F. Wang, Z. Q. Gao, Q. Zhang, and D. R. Worsnop
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 12879–12895,Short summary
A comprehensive characterization of submicron aerosol composition and sources at 260m in urban Beijing during APEC 2014 is presented. Aerosol species were shown to decrease substantially by 40–80% during APEC, whereas the bulk composition was relatively similar to the result of synergetic controls of secondary precursors. Our results elucidated that the good air quality during APEC was the combined result of emission controls and meteorological effects, with the former playing the dominant role.
J. Zheng, J. Zhu, Z. Wang, F. Fang, C. C. Pain, and J. Xiang
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 3421–3440,Short summary
A new anisotropic hr-adaptive mesh technique has been applied to modelling of multiscale transport phenomena. Over existing air quality models typically based on static-structured grids using a locally nesting technique, the advantage of the anisotropic hr-adaptive model has the ability to adapt the mesh according to the evolving pollutant distribution and flow features. To illustrate its capability, comparisons have been made between the results obtained using adaptive and uniform meshes.
L. Zhang, D. K. Henze, G. A. Grell, G. R. Carmichael, N. Bousserez, Q. Zhang, O. Torres, C. Ahn, Z. Lu, J. Cao, and Y. Mao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 10281–10308,Short summary
We attempt to reduce uncertainties in BC emissions and improve BC model simulations by developing top-down, spatially resolved, estimates of BC emissions through assimilation of OMI observations of aerosol absorption optical depth (AAOD) with the GEOS-Chem model and its adjoint for April and October of 2006. Despite the limitations and uncertainties, using OMI AAOD to constrain BC sources we are able to improve model representation of BC distributions, particularly over China.
Y. L. Sun, Z. F. Wang, W. Du, Q. Zhang, Q. Q. Wang, P. Q. Fu, X. L. Pan, J. Li, J. Jayne, and D. R. Worsnop
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 10149–10165,Short summary
We conducted the first long-term real-time measurement of submicron aerosol composition in Beijing using an ACSM for 1 year. The seasonal variations of mass concentrations and chemical composition of submicron aerosol were investigated in detail, and the meteorological effects on aerosol chemistry, particularly temperature and relative humidity, were elucidated. Finally, the potential source areas of aerosol species during four seasons were identified.
P. S. Monks, A. T. Archibald, A. Colette, O. Cooper, M. Coyle, R. Derwent, D. Fowler, C. Granier, K. S. Law, G. E. Mills, D. S. Stevenson, O. Tarasova, V. Thouret, E. von Schneidemesser, R. Sommariva, O. Wild, and M. L. Williams
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 8889–8973,Short summary
Ozone holds a certain fascination in atmospheric science. It is ubiquitous in the atmosphere, central to tropospheric oxidation chemistry, and yet harmful to human and ecosystem health as well as being an important greenhouse gas. It is not emitted into the atmosphere but is a byproduct of the very oxidation chemistry it largely initiates. This review examines current understanding of the processes regulating tropospheric ozone at global to local scales from both measurements and models.
C. Hardacre, O. Wild, and L. Emberson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 6419–6436,Short summary
The dry deposition of ozone to the Earth's surface is an important process as it controls both the removal of this potent pollutant from the atmosphere and its uptake by vegetation. It is necessary to use numerical models to study this process at the global scale, but many models to represent dry deposition lag behind current understanding. In this paper we study the dry deposition process in global models and highlight measures that will allow these models to be critically evaluated.
X. Pan, Y. Kanaya, H. Tanimoto, S. Inomata, Z. Wang, S. Kudo, and I. Uno
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 6101–6111,
Q. Jiang, Y. L. Sun, Z. Wang, and Y. Yin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 6023–6034,Short summary
Aerosol composition and sources during the Chinese spring festival are characterized in detail. The roles of fireworks and secondary aerosol in fine particle pollution were elucidated. We observed large reductions of primary species, whereas changes of secondary aerosol during the holiday period were minor. This has significant implications; reducing primary emissions on a local scale during severe haze episodes might have a limited effect on improving air quality in megacities.
R. Kumar, M. C. Barth, V. S. Nair, G. G. Pfister, S. Suresh Babu, S. K. Satheesh, K. Krishna Moorthy, G. R. Carmichael, Z. Lu, and D. G. Streets
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 5415–5428,Short summary
We examine differences in the surface BC between the Bay of Bengal (BoB) and the Arabian Sea (AS) and identify dominant sources of BC in South Asia during ICARB. Anthropogenic emissions were the main source of BC during ICARB and had about 5 times stronger influence on the BoB compared to the AS. Regional-scale transport contributes up to 25% of BC mass concentrations in western and eastern India, suggesting that surface BC mass concentrations cannot be linked directly to the local emissions.
M. C. Wyant, C. S. Bretherton, R. Wood, G. R. Carmichael, A. Clarke, J. Fast, R. George, W. I. Gustafson Jr., C. Hannay, A. Lauer, Y. Lin, J.-J. Morcrette, J. Mulcahy, P. E. Saide, S. N. Spak, and Q. Yang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 153–172,Short summary
Simulations from a group of GCMs, forecast models, and regional models are compared with aircraft and ship observations of the marine boundary layer (MBL) in the southeast Pacific region during the VOCALS-REx field campaign of October-November 2008. Gradients of cloud, aerosol, and chemical properties in and above the MBL extending from the Peruvian coast westward along 20 degrees south are compared during the period.
T. Amnuaylojaroen, M. C. Barth, L. K. Emmons, G. R. Carmichael, J. Kreasuwun, S. Prasitwattanaseree, and S. Chantara
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 12983–13012,
D. L. Finney, R. M. Doherty, O. Wild, H. Huntrieser, H. C. Pumphrey, and A. M. Blyth
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 12665–12682,Short summary
Lightning is important in atmospheric chemistry models as a source of nitrogen oxides which affect the greenhouse gases ozone and methane. We present a new approach to modelling lightning using the upward movement of ice in clouds, an essential part of the charging mechanism in thunderstorms. The new approach performs well compared to those already in use and provides a novel, physically based scheme that has the potential to improve the robustness of simulated flash rates and emissions.
S. Nordmann, Y. F. Cheng, G. R. Carmichael, M. Yu, H. A. C. Denier van der Gon, Q. Zhang, P. E. Saide, U. Pöschl, H. Su, W. Birmili, and A. Wiedensohler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 12683–12699,
P. Marrapu, Y. Cheng, G. Beig, S. Sahu, R. Srinivas, and G. R. Carmichael
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 10619–10630,
Q. Z. Wu, W. S. Xu, A. J. Shi, Y. T. Li, X. J. Zhao, Z. F. Wang, J. X. Li, and L. N. Wang
Geosci. Model Dev., 7, 2243–2259,
A. Baklanov, K. Schlünzen, P. Suppan, J. Baldasano, D. Brunner, S. Aksoyoglu, G. Carmichael, J. Douros, J. Flemming, R. Forkel, S. Galmarini, M. Gauss, G. Grell, M. Hirtl, S. Joffre, O. Jorba, E. Kaas, M. Kaasik, G. Kallos, X. Kong, U. Korsholm, A. Kurganskiy, J. Kushta, U. Lohmann, A. Mahura, A. Manders-Groot, A. Maurizi, N. Moussiopoulos, S. T. Rao, N. Savage, C. Seigneur, R. S. Sokhi, E. Solazzo, S. Solomos, B. Sørensen, G. Tsegas, E. Vignati, B. Vogel, and Y. Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 317–398,
P. E. Saide, G. R. Carmichael, Z. Liu, C. S. Schwartz, H. C. Lin, A. M. da Silva, and E. Hyer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 10425–10444,
Y. Kanaya, H. Akimoto, Z.-F. Wang, P. Pochanart, K. Kawamura, Y. Liu, J. Li, Y. Komazaki, H. Irie, X.-L. Pan, F. Taketani, K. Yamaji, H. Tanimoto, S. Inomata, S. Kato, J. Suthawaree, K. Okuzawa, G. Wang, S. G. Aggarwal, P. Q. Fu, T. Wang, J. Gao, Y. Wang, and G. Zhuang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 8265–8283,
K. Kawamura, E. Tachibana, K. Okuzawa, S. G. Aggarwal, Y. Kanaya, and Z. F. Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 8285–8302,
Y. Zhang, K. Sartelet, S. Zhu, W. Wang, S.-Y. Wu, X. Zhang, K. Wang, P. Tran, C. Seigneur, and Z.-F. Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 6845–6875,
N. He, K. Kawamura, K. Okuzawa, Y. Kanaya, and Z. F. Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
K. Kawamura, K. Okuzawa, S. G. Aggarwal, H. Irie, Y. Kanaya, and Z. Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 5369–5380,
Y. L. Sun, Z. F. Wang, P. Q. Fu, T. Yang, Q. Jiang, H. B. Dong, J. Li, and J. J. Jia
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 4577–4592,
D. S. Stevenson, P. J. Young, V. Naik, J.-F. Lamarque, D. T. Shindell, A. Voulgarakis, R. B. Skeie, S. B. Dalsoren, G. Myhre, T. K. Berntsen, G. A. Folberth, S. T. Rumbold, W. J. Collins, I. A. MacKenzie, R. M. Doherty, G. Zeng, T. P. C. van Noije, A. Strunk, D. Bergmann, P. Cameron-Smith, D. A. Plummer, S. A. Strode, L. Horowitz, Y. H. Lee, S. Szopa, K. Sudo, T. Nagashima, B. Josse, I. Cionni, M. Righi, V. Eyring, A. Conley, K. W. Bowman, O. Wild, and A. Archibald
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 3063–3085,
A. Voulgarakis, V. Naik, J.-F. Lamarque, D. T. Shindell, P. J. Young, M. J. Prather, O. Wild, R. D. Field, D. Bergmann, P. Cameron-Smith, I. Cionni, W. J. Collins, S. B. Dalsøren, R. M. Doherty, V. Eyring, G. Faluvegi, G. A. Folberth, L. W. Horowitz, B. Josse, I. A. MacKenzie, T. Nagashima, D. A. Plummer, M. Righi, S. T. Rumbold, D. S. Stevenson, S. A. Strode, K. Sudo, S. Szopa, and G. Zeng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 2563–2587,
P. J. Young, A. T. Archibald, K. W. Bowman, J.-F. Lamarque, V. Naik, D. S. Stevenson, S. Tilmes, A. Voulgarakis, O. Wild, D. Bergmann, P. Cameron-Smith, I. Cionni, W. J. Collins, S. B. Dalsøren, R. M. Doherty, V. Eyring, G. Faluvegi, L. W. Horowitz, B. Josse, Y. H. Lee, I. A. MacKenzie, T. Nagashima, D. A. Plummer, M. Righi, S. T. Rumbold, R. B. Skeie, D. T. Shindell, S. A. Strode, K. Sudo, S. Szopa, and G. Zeng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 2063–2090,
M. Huang, G. R. Carmichael, T. Chai, R. B. Pierce, S. J. Oltmans, D. A. Jaffe, K. W. Bowman, A. Kaduwela, C. Cai, S. N. Spak, A. J. Weinheimer, L. G. Huey, and G. S. Diskin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 359–391,
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Max Kulinich, Yanan Fan, Spiridon Penev, Jason P. Evans, and Roman Olson
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 3539–3551,Short summary
We present a novel stochastic approach based on Markov chains to estimate climate model weights of multi-model ensemble means. This approach showed improved performance (better correlation with observations) over existing alternatives during cross-validation and model-as-truth tests. The results of this comparative analysis should serve to motivate further studies in applications of Markov chain and other nonlinear methods to find optimal model weights for constructing ensemble means.
Jens Pfafferott, Sascha Rißmann, Matthias Sühring, Farah Kanani-Sühring, and Björn Maronga
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 3511–3519,Short summary
The building model is integrated via an urban surface model into the urban climate model. There is a strong interaction between the built environment and the urban climate. According to the building energy concept, the energy demand results in a waste heat; this is directly transferred to the urban environment. The impact of buildings on the urban climate is defined by different physical building parameters with different technical facilities for ventilation, heating and cooling.
Anna B. Harper, Karina E. Williams, Patrick C. McGuire, Maria Carolina Duran Rojas, Debbie Hemming, Anne Verhoef, Chris Huntingford, Lucy Rowland, Toby Marthews, Cleiton Breder Eller, Camilla Mathison, Rodolfo L. B. Nobrega, Nicola Gedney, Pier Luigi Vidale, Fred Otu-Larbi, Divya Pandey, Sebastien Garrigues, Azin Wright, Darren Slevin, Martin G. De Kauwe, Eleanor Blyth, Jonas Ardö, Andrew Black, Damien Bonal, Nina Buchmann, Benoit Burban, Kathrin Fuchs, Agnès de Grandcourt, Ivan Mammarella, Lutz Merbold, Leonardo Montagnani, Yann Nouvellon, Natalia Restrepo-Coupe, and Georg Wohlfahrt
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 3269–3294,Short summary
We evaluated 10 representations of soil moisture stress in the JULES land surface model against site observations of GPP and latent heat flux. Increasing the soil depth and plant access to deep soil moisture improved many aspects of the simulations, and we recommend these settings in future work using JULES. In addition, using soil matric potential presents the opportunity to include parameters specific to plant functional type to further improve modeled fluxes.
Katja Weigel, Lisa Bock, Bettina K. Gier, Axel Lauer, Mattia Righi, Manuel Schlund, Kemisola Adeniyi, Bouwe Andela, Enrico Arnone, Peter Berg, Louis-Philippe Caron, Irene Cionni, Susanna Corti, Niels Drost, Alasdair Hunter, Llorenç Lledó, Christian Wilhelm Mohr, Aytaç Paçal, Núria Pérez-Zanón, Valeriu Predoi, Marit Sandstad, Jana Sillmann, Andreas Sterl, Javier Vegas-Regidor, Jost von Hardenberg, and Veronika Eyring
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 3159–3184,Short summary
This work presents new diagnostics for the Earth System Model Evaluation Tool (ESMValTool) v2.0 on the hydrological cycle, extreme events, impact assessment, regional evaluations, and ensemble member selection. The ESMValTool v2.0 diagnostics are developed by a large community of scientists aiming to facilitate the evaluation and comparison of Earth system models (ESMs) with a focus on the ESMs participating in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP).
Jun'ya Takakura, Shinichiro Fujimori, Kiyoshi Takahashi, Naota Hanasaki, Tomoko Hasegawa, Yukiko Hirabayashi, Yasushi Honda, Toshichika Iizumi, Chan Park, Makoto Tamura, and Yasuaki Hijioka
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 3121–3140,Short summary
To simplify calculating economic impacts of climate change, statistical methods called emulators are developed and evaluated. There are trade-offs between model complexity and emulation performance. Aggregated economic impacts can be approximated by relatively simple emulators, but complex emulators are necessary to accommodate finer-scale economic impacts.
Meng-Zhuo Zhang, Zhongfeng Xu, Ying Han, and Weidong Guo
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 3079–3094,Short summary
The Multivariable Integrated Evaluation Tool (MVIETool) is a simple-to-use and straightforward tool designed for evaluation and intercomparison of climate models in terms of vector fields or multiple fields. The tool incorporates some new improvements in vector field evaluation (VFE) and multivariable integrated evaluation (MVIE) methods, which are introduced in this paper.
Sam J. Silva, Po-Lun Ma, Joseph C. Hardin, and Daniel Rothenberg
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 3067–3077,Short summary
The activation of aerosol into cloud droplets is an important but uncertain process in the Earth system. The physical and chemical interactions that govern this process are too computationally expensive to explicitly resolve in modern Earth system models. Here, we demonstrate how hybrid machine learning approaches can provide a potential path forward, enabling the representation of the more detailed physics and chemistry at a reduced computational cost while still retaining physical information.
Nicholas J. Leach, Stuart Jenkins, Zebedee Nicholls, Christopher J. Smith, John Lynch, Michelle Cain, Tristram Walsh, Bill Wu, Junichi Tsutsui, and Myles R. Allen
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 3007–3036,Short summary
This paper presents an update of the FaIR simple climate model, which can estimate the impact of anthropogenic greenhouse gas and aerosol emissions on the global climate. This update aims to significantly increase the structural simplicity of the model, making it more understandable and transparent. This simplicity allows it to be implemented in a wide range of environments, including Excel. We suggest that it could be used widely in academia, corporate research, and education.
Tongwen Wu, Rucong Yu, Yixiong Lu, Weihua Jie, Yongjie Fang, Jie Zhang, Li Zhang, Xiaoge Xin, Laurent Li, Zaizhi Wang, Yiming Liu, Fang Zhang, Fanghua Wu, Min Chu, Jianglong Li, Weiping Li, Yanwu Zhang, Xueli Shi, Wenyan Zhou, Junchen Yao, Xiangwen Liu, He Zhao, Jinghui Yan, Min Wei, Wei Xue, Anning Huang, Yaocun Zhang, Yu Zhang, Qi Shu, and Aixue Hu
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 2977–3006,Short summary
This paper presents the high-resolution version of the Beijing Climate Center (BCC) Climate System Model, BCC-CSM2-HR, and describes its climate simulation performance including the atmospheric temperature and wind; precipitation; and the tropical climate phenomena such as TC, MJO, QBO, and ENSO. BCC-CSM2-HR is our model version contributing to the HighResMIP. We focused on its updates and differential characteristics from its predecessor, the medium-resolution version BCC-CSM2-MR.
Olivier Marti, Sébastien Nguyen, Pascale Braconnot, Sophie Valcke, Florian Lemarié, and Eric Blayo
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 2959–2975,Short summary
State-of-the-art Earth system models, like the ones used in CMIP6, suffer from temporal inconsistencies at the ocean–atmosphere interface. In this study, a mathematically consistent iterative Schwarz method is used as a reference. Its tremendous computational cost makes it unusable for production runs, but it allows us to evaluate the error made when using legacy coupling schemes. The impact on the climate at longer timescales of days to decades is not evaluated.
Steven R. Brus, Phillip J. Wolfram, Luke P. Van Roekel, and Jessica D. Meixner
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 2917–2938,Short summary
Wind-generated waves are an important process in the global climate system. They mediate many interactions between the ocean, atmosphere, and sea ice. Models which describe these waves are computationally expensive and have often been excluded from coupled Earth system models. To address this, we have developed a capability for the WAVEWATCH III model which allows model resolution to be varied globally across the coastal open ocean. This allows for improved accuracy at reduced computing time.
Elisa Ziegler and Kira Rehfeld
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 2843–2866,Short summary
Past climate changes are the only record of how the climate responds to changes in conditions on Earth, but simulations with complex climate models are challenging. We extended a simple climate model such that it simulates the development of temperatures over time. In the model, changes in carbon dioxide and ice distribution affect the simulated temperatures the most. The model is very efficient and can therefore be used to examine past climate changes happening over long periods of time.
Qun Liu, Matthew Collins, Penelope Maher, Stephen I. Thomson, and Geoffrey K. Vallis
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 2801–2826,Short summary
Clouds play an vital role in Earth's energy budget, and even a small change in cloud fields can have a large impact on the climate system. They also bring lots of uncertainties to climate models. Here we implement a simple diagnostic cloud scheme in order to reproduce the general radiative properties of clouds. The scheme can capture some key features of the cloud fraction and cloud radiative properties and thus provide a useful tool to explore unsolved problems relating to clouds.
Martina Messmer, Santos J. González-Rojí, Christoph C. Raible, and Thomas F. Stocker
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 2691–2711,Short summary
Sensitivity experiments with the WRF model are run to find an optimal parameterization setup for precipitation around Mount Kenya at a scale that resolves convection (1 km). Precipitation is compared against many weather stations and gridded observational data sets. Both the temporal correlation of precipitation sums and pattern correlations show that fewer nests lead to a more constrained simulation with higher correlation. The Grell–Freitas cumulus scheme obtains the most accurate results.
Pengfei Wang, Jinrong Jiang, Pengfei Lin, Mengrong Ding, Junlin Wei, Feng Zhang, Lian Zhao, Yiwen Li, Zipeng Yu, Weipeng Zheng, Yongqiang Yu, Xuebin Chi, and Hailong Liu
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 2781–2799,Short summary
Global ocean general circulation models are a fundamental tool for oceanography research, ocean forecast, and climate change research. The increasing resolution will greatly improve simulations of the models, but it also demands much more computing resources. In this study, we have ported an ocean general circulation model to a heterogeneous computing system and have developed a 3–5 km model version. A 14-year integration has been conducted and the preliminary results have been evaluated.
Chao Sun, Li Liu, Ruizhe Li, Xinzhu Yu, Hao Yu, Biao Zhao, Guansuo Wang, Juanjuan Liu, Fangli Qiao, and Bin Wang
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 2635–2657,Short summary
Data assimilation (DA) provides better initial states of model runs by combining observations and models. This work focuses on the technical challenges in developing a coupled ensemble-based DA system and proposes a new DA framework DAFCC1 based on C-Coupler2. DAFCC1 enables users to conveniently integrate a DA method into a model with automatic and efficient data exchanges. A sample DA system that combines GSI/EnKF and FIO-AOW demonstrates the effectiveness of DAFCC1.
Andrew J. Wiltshire, Eleanor J. Burke, Sarah E. Chadburn, Chris D. Jones, Peter M. Cox, Taraka Davies-Barnard, Pierre Friedlingstein, Anna B. Harper, Spencer Liddicoat, Stephen Sitch, and Sönke Zaehle
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 2161–2186,Short summary
Limited nitrogen availbility can restrict the growth of plants and their ability to assimilate carbon. It is important to include the impact of this process on the global land carbon cycle. This paper presents a model of the coupled land carbon and nitrogen cycle, which is included within the UK Earth System model to improve projections of climate change and impacts on ecosystems.
Pirkka Ollinaho, Glenn D. Carver, Simon T. K. Lang, Lauri Tuppi, Madeleine Ekblom, and Heikki Järvinen
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 2143–2160,Short summary
OpenEnsemble 1.0 is a novel dataset that aims to open ensemble or probabilistic weather forecasting research up to the academic community. The dataset contains atmospheric states that are required for running model forecasts of atmospheric evolution. Our capacity to observe the atmosphere is limited; thus, a single reconstruction of the atmospheric state contains some errors. Our dataset provides sets of 50 slightly different atmospheric states so that these errors can be taken into account.
Yan Sun, Daniel S. Goll, Jinfeng Chang, Philippe Ciais, Betrand Guenet, Julian Helfenstein, Yuanyuan Huang, Ronny Lauerwald, Fabienne Maignan, Victoria Naipal, Yilong Wang, Hui Yang, and Haicheng Zhang
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1987–2010,Short summary
We evaluated the performance of the nutrient-enabled version of the land surface model ORCHIDEE-CNP v1.2 against remote sensing, ground-based measurement networks and ecological databases. The simulated carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus fluxes among different spatial scales are generally in good agreement with data-driven estimates. However, the recent carbon sink in the Northern Hemisphere is substantially underestimated. Potential causes and model development priorities are discussed.
Hui Wan, Shixuan Zhang, Philip J. Rasch, Vincent E. Larson, Xubin Zeng, and Huiping Yan
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1921–1948,Short summary
Numerical models used in weather and climate research and prediction unavoidably contain numerical errors resulting from temporal discretization, and the impact of such errors can be substantial. Complex process interactions often make it difficult to pinpoint the exact sources of such errors. This study uses a series of sensitivity experiments to identify components in a global atmosphere model that are responsible for time step sensitivities in various cloud regimes.
Johannes Horak, Marlis Hofer, Ethan Gutmann, Alexander Gohm, and Mathias W. Rotach
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1657–1680,Short summary
This process-based evaluation of the atmospheric model ICAR is conducted to derive recommendations to increase the likelihood of its results being correct for the right reasons. We conclude that a different diagnosis of the atmospheric background state is necessary, as well as a model top at an elevation of at least 10 km. Alternative boundary conditions at the top were not found to be effective in reducing this model top elevation. The results have wide implications for future ICAR studies.
Cléa Denamiel, Petra Pranić, Damir Ivanković, Iva Tojčić, and Ivica Vilibić
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for GMDShort summary
The atmospheric results of the Adriatic Sea and Coast (AdriSC) climate simulation (1987–2017) are evaluated against available observational datasets in the Adriatic region. Generally, the AdriSC model performs better than the regional climate models with 4 time coarser resolutions, except for the summer temperatures which are systematically underestimated. High-resolution climate models may thus provide new insights about the local impacts of global warming in the Adriatic Sea.
Yong Wang, Guang J. Zhang, Shaocheng Xie, Wuyin Lin, George C. Craig, Qi Tang, and Hsi-Yen Ma
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1575–1593,Short summary
A stochastic deep convection parameterization is implemented into the US Department of Energy Energy Exascale Earth System Model Atmosphere Model version 1 (EAMv1). Compared to the default model, the well-known problem of
too much light rain and too little heavy rainis largely alleviated over the tropics with the stochastic scheme. Results from this study provide important insights into the model performance of EAMv1 when stochasticity is included in the deep convective parameterization.
Sonia Jerez, Laura Palacios-Peña, Claudia Gutiérrez, Pedro Jiménez-Guerrero, Jose María López-Romero, Enrique Pravia-Sarabia, and Juan Pedro Montávez
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1533–1551,Short summary
This research explores the role of aerosols when modeling surface solar radiation at regional scales (over Europe). A set of model experiments was performed with and without dynamical modeling of atmospheric aerosols and their direct and indirect effects on radiation. Results showed significant differences in the simulated solar radiation, mainly driven by the aerosol impact on cloudiness, which calls for caution when interpreting model experiments that do not include aerosols.
Sara Top, Lola Kotova, Lesley De Cruz, Svetlana Aniskevich, Leonid Bobylev, Rozemien De Troch, Natalia Gnatiuk, Anne Gobin, Rafiq Hamdi, Arne Kriegsmann, Armelle Reca Remedio, Abdulla Sakalli, Hans Van De Vyver, Bert Van Schaeybroeck, Viesturs Zandersons, Philippe De Maeyer, Piet Termonia, and Steven Caluwaerts
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1267–1293,Short summary
Detailed climate data are needed to assess the impact of climate change on human and natural systems. The performance of two high-resolution regional climate models, ALARO-0 and REMO2015, was investigated over central Asia, a vulnerable region where detailed climate information is scarce. In certain subregions the produced climate data are suitable for impact studies, but bias adjustment is required for subregions where significant biases have been identified.
Yaqiong Lu and Xianyu Yang
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1253–1265,Short summary
Crop growth in land surface models normally requires high-temporal-resolution climate data, but such high-temporal-resolution climate data are not provided by many climate model simulations due to expensive storage, which limits modeling choices if there is an interest in a particular climate simulation that only saved monthly outputs. Our work provides an alternative way to use the monthly climate for crop yield projections. Such an approach could be easily adopted by other crop models.
Rumi Ohgaito, Akitomo Yamamoto, Tomohiro Hajima, Ryouta O'ishi, Manabu Abe, Hiroaki Tatebe, Ayako Abe-Ouchi, and Michio Kawamiya
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1195–1217,Short summary
Using the MIROC-ES2L Earth system model, selected time periods of the past were simulated. The ability to simulate the past is also an evaluation of the performance of the model in projecting global warming. Simulations for 21 000, 6000, and 127 000 years ago, and a simulation for 1000 years starting in 850 CE were simulated. The results showed that the model can generally describe past climate change.
Qiong Zhang, Ellen Berntell, Josefine Axelsson, Jie Chen, Zixuan Han, Wesley de Nooijer, Zhengyao Lu, Qiang Li, Qiang Zhang, Klaus Wyser, and Shuting Yang
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1147–1169,Short summary
Paleoclimate modelling has long been regarded as a strong out-of-sample test bed of the climate models that are used for the projection of future climate changes. Here, we document the model experimental setups for the three past warm periods with EC-Earth3-LR and present the results on the large-scale features. The simulations demonstrate good performance of the model in capturing the climate response under different climate forcings.
Gill M. Martin, Richard C. Levine, José M. Rodriguez, and Michael Vellinga
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1007–1035,Short summary
Our study highlights a number of different techniques that can be employed to investigate the sources of model error. We demonstrate how this methodology can be used to identify the regions and model components responsible for the development of long-standing errors in the Asian summer monsoon. Once these are known, further work can be done to explore the local processes contributing to this behaviour and their sensitivity to changes in physical parameterisations and/or model resolution.
Trang Van Pham, Christian Steger, Burkhardt Rockel, Klaus Keuler, Ingo Kirchner, Mariano Mertens, Daniel Rieger, Günther Zängl, and Barbara Früh
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 985–1005,Short summary
A new regional climate model was prepared based on a weather forecast model. Slow processes of the climate system such as ocean state development and greenhouse gas emissions were implemented. A model infrastructure and evaluation tools were also prepared to facilitate long-term simulations and model evalution. The first ICON-CLM results were close to observations and comparable to those from COSMO-CLM, the recommended model being used at the Deutscher Wetterdienst and CLM Community.
Markus Drüke, Werner von Bloh, Stefan Petri, Boris Sakschewski, Sibyll Schaphoff, Matthias Forkel, Willem Huiskamp, Georg Feulner, and Kirsten Thonicke
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for GMDShort summary
In this study we couple the well established and comprehensively validated state-of-the-art Dynamic Global Vegetation Model LPJmL5 to the coupled climate model CM2Mc (CM2Mc-LPJmL v.1.0). Several improvements to LPJmL5 were implemented to allow a fully functional biophysical coupling.The new climate model is able to capture important biosphere processes, including fire, mortality, permafrost, hydrological cycling, and the the impacts of managed land (crop growth and irrigation).
Klaus Wyser, Torben Koenigk, Uwe Fladrich, Ramon Fuentes-Franco, Mehdi Pasha Karami, and Tim Kruschke
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for GMDShort summary
This paper describes the large ensemble done by SMHI with the EC-Earth3 climate model. The ensemble comprises 50 realisations of the historical experiment and four different future projections for CMIP6. We describe the creation of the initial states for the large ensemble and the reduced set of output variables. A first look at the results illustrates the changes in the climate during this century and puts them in relation to the uncertainty from the model's internal variability.
Klaus Klingmüller and Jos Lelieveld
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,Short summary
Soil moisture is of great importance for weather and climate. We present a machine learning model that produces accurate predictions of satellite-observed surface soil moisture, based on meteorological data from a climate model. It can be used as soil moisture parametrisation in climate models and to produce comprehensive global soil moisture datasets. Moreover, it may motivate similar applications of machine learning in climate science.
Michael Steiner, Beiping Luo, Thomas Peter, Michael C. Pitts, and Andrea Stenke
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 935–959,Short summary
We evaluate polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) as simulated by the chemistry–climate model (CCM) SOCOLv3.1 in comparison with measurements by the CALIPSO satellite. A cold bias results in an overestimated PSC area and mountain-wave ice is underestimated, but we find overall good temporal and spatial agreement of PSC occurrence and composition. This work confirms previous studies indicating that simplified PSC schemes may also achieve good approximations of the fundamental properties of PSCs.
Zhaoyuan Yu, Dongshuang Li, Zhengfang Zhang, Wen Luo, Yuan Liu, Zengjie Wang, and Linwang Yuan
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 875–887,Short summary
Few lossy compression methods consider both the global and local multidimensional coupling correlations, which could lead to information loss in data compression. Here we develop an adaptive lossy compression method, Adaptive-HGFDR, to capture both the global and local variation of multidimensional coupling correlations and improve approximation accuracy. The method can achieve good compression performances for most flux variables with significant spatiotemporal heterogeneity.
Franziska Winterstein and Patrick Jöckel
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 661–674,Short summary
Atmospheric methane is currently a hot topic in climate research. This is partly due to its chemically active nature. We introduce a simplified approach to simulate methane in climate models to enable large sensitivity studies by reducing computational cost but including the crucial feedback of methane on stratospheric water vapour. We further provide options to simulate the isotopic content of methane and to generate output for an inverse optimization technique for emission estimation.
Ruth Petrie, Sébastien Denvil, Sasha Ames, Guillaume Levavasseur, Sandro Fiore, Chris Allen, Fabrizio Antonio, Katharina Berger, Pierre-Antoine Bretonnière, Luca Cinquini, Eli Dart, Prashanth Dwarakanath, Kelsey Druken, Ben Evans, Laurent Franchistéguy, Sébastien Gardoll, Eric Gerbier, Mark Greenslade, David Hassell, Alan Iwi, Martin Juckes, Stephan Kindermann, Lukasz Lacinski, Maria Mirto, Atef Ben Nasser, Paola Nassisi, Eric Nienhouse, Sergey Nikonov, Alessandra Nuzzo, Clare Richards, Syazwan Ridzwan, Michel Rixen, Kim Serradell, Kate Snow, Ag Stephens, Martina Stockhause, Hans Vahlenkamp, and Rick Wagner
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 629–644,Short summary
This paper describes the infrastructure that is used to distribute Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6) data around the world for analysis by the climate research community. It is expected that there will be ~20 PB (petabytes) of data available for analysis. The operations team performed a series of preparation "data challenges" to ensure all components of the infrastructure were operational for when the data became available for timely data distribution and subsequent analysis.
Camilla Mathison, Andrew J. Challinor, Chetan Deva, Pete Falloon, Sébastien Garrigues, Sophie Moulin, Karina Williams, and Andy Wiltshire
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 437–471,Short summary
Sequential cropping (also known as multiple or double cropping) is a common cropping system, particularly in tropical regions. Typically, land surface models only simulate a single crop per year. To understand how sequential crops influence surface fluxes, we implement sequential cropping in JULES to simulate all the crops grown within a year at a given location in a seamless way. We demonstrate the method using a site in Avignon, four locations in India and a regional run for two Indian states.
Chao Wang, Xingqin An, Qing Hou, Zhaobin Sun, Yanjun Li, and Jiangtao Li
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 337–350,
Kalyn Dorheim, Steven J. Smith, and Ben Bond-Lamberty
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 365–375,Short summary
Simple climate models are frequently used in research and decision-making communities because of their tractability and low computational cost. Simple climate models are diverse, including highly idealized and process-based models. Here we present a hybrid approach that combines the strength of two types of simple climate models in a flexible framework. This hybrid approach has provided insights into the climate system and opens an avenue for investigating radiative forcing uncertainties.
David N. Bresch and Gabriela Aznar-Siguan
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 351–363,Short summary
Climate change is a fact and adaptation a necessity. The Economics of Climate Adaptation methodology provides a framework to integrate risk and reward perspectives of different stakeholders, underpinned by the CLIMADA impact modelling platform. This extended version of CLIMADA enables risk assessment and options appraisal in a modular form and occasionally bespoke fashion yet with high reusability of functionalities to foster usage in interdisciplinary studies and international collaboration.
Adam T. Blaker, Manoj Joshi, Bablu Sinha, David P. Stevens, Robin S. Smith, and Joël J.-M. Hirschi
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 275–293,Short summary
FORTE 2.0 is a flexible coupled atmosphere–ocean general circulation model that can be run on modest hardware. We present two 2000-year simulations which show that FORTE 2.0 is capable of producing a stable climate. Earlier versions of FORTE were used for a wide range of studies, ranging from aquaplanet configurations to investigating the cold European winters of 2009–2010. This paper introduces the updated model for which the code and configuration are now publicly available.
Ah-Hyun Kim, Seong Soo Yum, Dong Yeong Chang, and Minsu Park
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 259–273,Short summary
A new method to estimate the sulfate aerosol hygroscopicity parameter (κSO4) is suggested that can consider κSO4 for two different sulfate species instead of prescribing a single κSO4 value, as in most previous studies. The new method simulates more realistic cloud droplet concentrations and, thus, a more realistic cloud albedo effect than the original method. The new method is simple and readily applicable to modeling studies investigating sulfate aerosols’ effect in aerosol–cloud interactions.
Brigitta Szabó, Melanie Weynants, and Tobias K. D. Weber
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 151–175,Short summary
This paper presents updated European prediction algorithms (euptf2) to compute soil hydraulic parameters from easily available soil properties. The new algorithms lead to significantly better predictions and provide a built-in prediction uncertainty computation. The influence of predictor variables on predicted soil hydraulic properties is explored and practical guidance on how to use the derived PTFs is provided. A website and an R package facilitate easy application of the updated predictions.
Zhanshan Ma, Chuanfeng Zhao, Jiandong Gong, Jin Zhang, Zhe Li, Jian Sun, Yongzhu Liu, Jiong Chen, and Qingu Jiang
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 205–221,Short summary
The spin-up in GRAPES_GFS, under different initial fields, goes through a dramatic adjustment in the first half-hour of integration and slow dynamic and thermal adjustments afterwards. It lasts for at least 6 h, with model adjustment gradually completed from lower to upper layers in the model. Thus, the forecast results, at least in the first 6 h, should be avoided when used. In addition, the spin-up process should repeat when the model simulation is interrupted.
Chein-Jung Shiu, Yi-Chi Wang, Huang-Hsiung Hsu, Wei-Ting Chen, Hua-Lu Pan, Ruiyu Sun, Yi-Hsuan Chen, and Cheng-An Chen
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 177–204,Short summary
A cloud macrophysics scheme utilizing grid-mean hydrometeor information is developed and evaluated for climate models. The GFS–TaiESM–Sundqvist (GTS) scheme can simulate variations of cloud fraction associated with relative humidity (RH) in a more consistent way than the default scheme of CAM5.3. Through better cloud–RH distributions, the GTS scheme helps to better represent cloud fraction, cloud radiative forcing, and thermodynamic-related climatic fields in climate simulations.
Katherine A. Crichton, Jamie D. Wilson, Andy Ridgwell, and Paul N. Pearson
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 125–149,Short summary
Temperature is a controller of metabolic processes and therefore also a controller of the ocean's biological carbon pump (BCP). We calibrate a temperature-dependent version of the BCP in the cGENIE Earth system model. Since the pre-industrial period, warming has intensified near-surface nutrient recycling, supporting production and largely offsetting stratification-induced surface nutrient limitation. But at the same time less carbon that sinks out of the surface then reaches the deep ocean.
Dawn L. Woodard, Alexey N. Shiklomanov, Ben Kravitz, Corinne Hartin, and Ben Bond-Lamberty
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for GMDShort summary
We have added a representation of the permafrost carbon feedback to the simple, open-source global carbon-climate model Hector and calibrated the results to be consistent with historical data and Earth system model (ESM) projections. Our results closely match previous work, estimating around 110 Pg C emitted from permafrost this century. This capability will be useful to explore uncertainties in this feedback and for coupling with integrated assessment models for policy and economic analysis.
Alessandro Anav, Adriana Carillo, Massimiliano Palma, Maria Vittoria Struglia, Ufuk Utku Turuncoglu, and Gianmaria Sannino
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for GMDShort summary
The Mediterranean basin is a complex region, characterized by the presence of pronounced topography and a complex land-sea distribution including a considerable number of islands and straits; these features generate strong local atmosphere–sea interactions. Regional Earth System models have been developed and used to study both present and future Mediterranean climate system. The main aims of this paper are to present and evaluate the newly developed regional Earth system model ENEA-REG.
Jane P. Mulcahy, Colin Johnson, Colin G. Jones, Adam C. Povey, Catherine E. Scott, Alistair Sellar, Steven T. Turnock, Matthew T. Woodhouse, Nathan Luke Abraham, Martin B. Andrews, Nicolas Bellouin, Jo Browse, Ken S. Carslaw, Mohit Dalvi, Gerd A. Folberth, Matthew Glover, Daniel P. Grosvenor, Catherine Hardacre, Richard Hill, Ben Johnson, Andy Jones, Zak Kipling, Graham Mann, James Mollard, Fiona M. O'Connor, Julien Palmiéri, Carly Reddington, Steven T. Rumbold, Mark Richardson, Nick A. J. Schutgens, Philip Stier, Marc Stringer, Yongming Tang, Jeremy Walton, Stephanie Woodward, and Andrew Yool
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 6383–6423,Short summary
Aerosols are an important component of the Earth system. Here, we comprehensively document and evaluate the aerosol schemes as implemented in the physical and Earth system models, HadGEM3-GC3.1 and UKESM1. This study provides a useful characterisation of the aerosol climatology in both models, facilitating the understanding of the numerous aerosol–climate interaction studies that will be conducted for CMIP6 and beyond.
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AMAP/UNEP: Technical Background Report for the Global Mercury Assessment 2013, Tech. rep., Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme AMAP and United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Chemicals Branch, available at: http://www.unep.org/hazardoussubstances/Mercury/Informationmaterials/ReportsandPublications/tabid/3593/Default.aspx (last access: 9 September 2015), 2013.
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A new global nested atmospheric mercury transport model was developed and introduced. Model performance was found significantly better in North America and Europe than in East Asia. Nested simulation has been conducted in East Asia and shows improved skill at capturing the high spatial variability of Hg concentrations and deposition. The trans-boundary transport of Chinese primary anthropogenic mercury emissions was quantified for the first time.
A new global nested atmospheric mercury transport model was developed and introduced. Model...