Articles | Volume 16, issue 3
© Author(s) 2023. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
© Author(s) 2023. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Isoprene and monoterpene simulations using the chemistry–climate model EMAC (v2.55) with interactive vegetation from LPJ-GUESS (v4.0)
Senckenberg Biodiversity and Climate Research Centre (SBiK-F), Frankfurt am Main, Germany
Atmospheric Chemistry Department, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mainz, Germany
Climate and Atmosphere Research Center, The Cyprus Institute, Nicosia, Cyprus
Ryan Vella, Andrea Pozzer, Matthew Forrest, Jos Lelieveld, Thomas Hickler, and Holger Tost
Biogeosciences, 20, 4391–4412,Short summary
We investigated the effect of the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions from plants. ENSO events can cause a significant increase in these emissions, which have a long-term impact on the Earth's atmosphere. Persistent ENSO conditions can cause long-term changes in vegetation, resulting in even higher BVOC emissions. We link ENSO-induced emission anomalies with driving atmospheric and vegetational variables.
Linda Ort, Lenard Lukas Röder, Uwe Parchatka, Rainer Königstedt, Daniel Crowley, Frank Kunz, Ralf Wittkowski, Jos Lelieveld, and Horst Fischer
This preprint is open for discussion and under review for Atmospheric Measurement Techniques (AMT).Short summary
Airborne in-situ measurements are of great importance to collect valuable atmospheric data to improve our knowledge of existing processes, but also hold challenges which demand specific designs. This study presents an IR spectrometer for airborne trace gas measurements with high data efficiency and a simple, compact design. Its performance is characterized with the help of a test flight and a comparison with another spectrometer. Moreover, results from its first campaign highlight its benefits.
Dana A. Lapides, W. Jesse Hahm, Matthew Forrest, Daniella M. Rempe, Thomas Hickler, and David N. Dralle
Water stored in weathered bedrock is rarely incorporated into vegetation and Earth system models, despite increasing recognition of its importance. Here, we add a weathered bedrock component to a widely used vegetation model. Using a case study of two sites in California and model runs across the United States, we show that more accurately representing subsurface water storage and hydrology increases summer plant water use so that it better matches patterns in distributed data products.
Simon Rosanka, Holger Tost, Rolf Sander, Patrick Jöckel, Astrid Kerkweg, and Domenico Taraborrelli
The capabilities of the Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy) are extended to account for non-equilibrium aqueous-phase chemistry in the representation of deliquescent aerosols. When applying the new development in a global simulation we find that MESSy’s bias in modelling routinely observed inorganic aerosol mass concentrations is reduced. Furthermore, the representation of fine aerosol pH is particularly improved in the marine boundary layer.
Ryan Vella, Andrea Pozzer, Matthew Forrest, Jos Lelieveld, Thomas Hickler, and Holger Tost
Biogeosciences, 20, 4391–4412,Short summary
We investigated the effect of the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions from plants. ENSO events can cause a significant increase in these emissions, which have a long-term impact on the Earth's atmosphere. Persistent ENSO conditions can cause long-term changes in vegetation, resulting in even higher BVOC emissions. We link ENSO-induced emission anomalies with driving atmospheric and vegetational variables.
Zaneta Hamryszczak, Antonia Hartmann, Dirk Dienhart, Sascha Hafermann, Bettina Brendel, Rainer Königstedt, Uwe Parchatka, Jos Lelieveld, and Horst Fischer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 4741–4756,Short summary
Hydroperoxide measurements improve the understanding of atmospheric oxidation processes. We introduce an instrumental setup for airborne measurements. The aim of the work is the characterization of the measurement method with emphasis on interferences impacting instrumental uncertainty. Technical and physical challenges do not critically impact the instrumental performance. The instrument resolves dynamic processes, such as convective transport, as shown based on the CAFE-Brazil campaign.
Matthias Kohl, Jos Lelieveld, Sourangsu Chowdhury, Sebastian Ehrhart, Disha Sharma, Yafang Cheng, Sachchida Nand Tripathi, Mathew Sebastian, Govindan Pandithurai, Hongli Wang, and Andrea Pozzer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 13191–13215,Short summary
Knowledge on atmospheric ultrafine particles (UFPs) with a diameter smaller than 100 nm is crucial for public health and the hydrological cycle. We present a new global dataset of UFP concentrations at the Earth's surface derived with a comprehensive chemistry–climate model and evaluated with ground-based observations. The evaluation results are combined with high-resolution primary emissions to downscale UFP concentrations to an unprecedented horizontal resolution of 0.1° × 0.1°.
Clara M. Nussbaumer, Horst Fischer, Jos Lelieveld, and Andrea Pozzer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 12651–12669,Short summary
Ozone is a greenhouse gas and contributes to the earth’s radiative energy budget and therefore to global warming. This effect is the largest in the upper troposphere. In this study, we investigate the processes controlling ozone formation and the sensitivity to its precursors in the upper tropical troposphere based on model simulations by the ECHAM5/MESSy2 Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC) model. We find that NO𝑥 emissions from lightning most importantly affect ozone chemistry at these altitudes.
Sarah Brüning, Stefan Niebler, and Holger Tost
This study applies a Res-UNet to derive a comprehensive 3D cloud tomography from 2D satellite data over heterogeneous landscapes. We combine observational data from passive and active remote sensing sensors by an automated matching algorithm. This data is fed into a neural network to predict cloud reflectivities on the whole satellite domain between 5–24 km height. With an average RMSE of 3.41 dBZ, we contribute to closing existing data gaps in the representation of real-world cloud structures.
Imran A. Girach, Narendra Ojha, Prabha R. Nair, Kandula V. Subrahmanyam, Neelakantan Koushik, Mohammed M. Nazeer, Nadimpally Kiran Kumar, Surendran Nair Suresh Babu, Jos Lelieveld, and Andrea Pozzer
We investigated surface ozone variability at East Antarctica based on the measurements and EMAC global model simulations during austral summer. Nearly half of the surface ozone is found to be of stratospheric origin. The east coast of Antarctica acts as a stronger sink of ozone than surrounding regions. Photochemical loss of ozone is counterbalanced by downward transport of ozone. Study highlights intertwined role of chemistry and dynamics in governing the ozone variations over East Antarctica.
Seyed Omid Nabavi, Theodoros Christoudias, Yiannis Proestos, Christos Fountoukis, Huda Al-Sulaiti, and Jos Lelieveld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 7719–7739,Short summary
The objective of our study is to comprehensively assess the timing of radioactive material transportation and deposition, along with the associated population exposure in the designated region. We employed diverse meteorological inputs, emission specifics, and simulation codes, aiming to quantify the level of uncertainty.
Edward Groot and Holger Tost
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 6065–6081,Short summary
It is shown that the outflow from cumulonimbus clouds or thunderstorms in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere in idealized high-resolution simulations (LESs) depends linearly on the net amount of latent heat released by the cloud for fixed geometry of the clouds. However, it is shown that, in more realistic situations, convective organization and aggregation (collecting mechanisms of cumulonimbus clouds) affect the amount of outflow non-linearly through non-idealized geometry.
Klaus Klingmüller and Jos Lelieveld
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 3013–3028,Short summary
Desert dust has significant impacts on climate, public health, infrastructure and ecosystems. An impact assessment requires numerical predictions, which are challenging because the dust emissions are not well known. We present a novel approach using satellite observations and machine learning to more accurately estimate the emissions and to improve the model simulations.
Zaneta Hamryszczak, Dirk Dienhart, Bettina Brendel, Roland Rohloff, Daniel Marno, Monica Martinez, Hartwig Harder, Andrea Pozzer, Birger Bohn, Martin Zöger, Jos Lelieveld, and Horst Fischer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 5929–5943,Short summary
Hydrogen peroxide is a key contributor to the oxidative chemistry of the atmosphere through its link to the most prominent oxidants controlling its self-cleansing capacity, HOx. During the CAFE-Africa campaign, H2O2 was measured over the Atlantic Ocean and western Africa in August/September 2018. The study gives an overview of the distribution of H2O2 in the upper tropical troposphere and investigates the impact of convective processes in the Intertropical Convergence Zone on the budget of H2O2.
Edward Groot, Patrick Kuntze, Annette Katharina Miltenberger, and Holger Tost
Deep convective clouds systems are often associated with severe weather conditions. They can organise into coherent convective cloud systems. Accurate representation in numerical weather prediction is challenging due to the dynamics of the systems and its dependency on resolution. Here, the effect of convective organisation and geometry on outflow winds (altitudes of 7–14 km) is investigated. The divergent outflow originating from these systems is represented in more detail at higher resolution.
Katja Frieler, Jan Volkholz, Stefan Lange, Jacob Schewe, Matthias Mengel, María del Rocío Rivas López, Christian Otto, Christopher P. O. Reyer, Dirk Nikolaus Karger, Johanna T. Malle, Simon Treu, Christoph Menz, Julia L. Blanchard, Cheryl S. Harrison, Colleen M. Petrik, Tyler D. Eddy, Kelly Ortega-Cisneros, Camilla Novaglio, Yannick Rousseau, Reg A. Watson, Charles Stock, Xiao Liu, Ryan Heneghan, Derek Tittensor, Olivier Maury, Matthias Büchner, Thomas Vogt, Tingting Wang, Fubao Sun, Inga J. Sauer, Johannes Koch, Inne Vanderkelen, Jonas Jägermeyr, Christoph Müller, Jochen Klar, Iliusi D. Vega del Valle, Gitta Lasslop, Sarah Chadburn, Eleanor Burke, Angela Gallego-Sala, Noah Smith, Jinfeng Chang, Stijn Hantson, Chantelle Burton, Anne Gädeke, Fang Li, Simon N. Gosling, Hannes Müller Schmied, Fred Hattermann, Jida Wang, Fangfang Yao, Thomas Hickler, Rafael Marcé, Don Pierson, Wim Thiery, Daniel Mercado-Bettín, Matthew Forrest, and Michel Bechtold
Our paper provides an overview of all observational climate-related and socio-economic forcing data used as input for the impact model evaluation and impact attribution experiments within the third round of the Inter Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project. The experiments are designed to test our understanding of observed changes in natural and human systems and to quantify to what degree these changes are already induced by climate change.
Lenard L. Röder, Patrick Dewald, Clara M. Nussbaumer, Jan Schuladen, John N. Crowley, Jos Lelieveld, and Horst Fischer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 1167–1178,Short summary
Field experiments in atmospheric chemistry provide insights into chemical interactions of our atmosphere. However, high data coverage and accuracy are needed to enable further analysis. In this study, we explore a statistical method that combines knowledge about the chemical reactions with information from measurements to increase the quality of field experiment datasets. We test the algorithm for several applications and discuss limitations that depend on the specific variable and the dynamics.
Jennifer Schallock, Christoph Brühl, Christine Bingen, Michael Höpfner, Landon Rieger, and Jos Lelieveld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 1169–1207,Short summary
We characterized the inﬂuence of volcanic aerosols for the period 1990–2019 and established a volcanic SO2 emission inventory that includes more than 500 eruptions. From limb-based satellite observations of SO2 and extinction, we derive 3D plumes of SO2 perturbations and injected mass by a novel method. We calculate instantaneous radiative forcing with a comprehensive chemisty climate model. Our results show that smaller eruptions can also contribute to the stratospheric aerosol forcing.
Edward Groot and Holger Tost
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 565–585,Short summary
Thunderstorm systems play an important role in the dynamics of the Earth’s atmosphere, and some of them form a well-organised line: squall lines. Simulations of such squall lines with very small initial perturbations are compared to a reference simulation. The evolution of perturbations and processes amplifying them are analysed. It is shown that the formation of new secondary thunderstorm cells (after the initial primary cells) directly ahead of the line affects the spread strongly.
Mohamed Abdelkader, Georgiy Stenchikov, Andrea Pozzer, Holger Tost, and Jos Lelieveld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 471–500,Short summary
We study the effect of injected volcanic ash, water vapor, and SO2 on the development of the volcanic cloud and the stratospheric aerosol optical depth (AOD). Both are sensitive to the initial injection height and to the aging of the volcanic ash shaped by heterogeneous chemistry coupled with the ozone cycle. The paper explains the large differences in AOD for different injection scenarios, which could improve the estimate of the radiative forcing of volcanic eruptions.
Dirk Dienhart, Bettina Brendel, John N. Crowley, Philipp G. Eger, Hartwig Harder, Monica Martinez, Andrea Pozzer, Roland Rohloff, Jan Schuladen, Sebastian Tauer, David Walter, Jos Lelieveld, and Horst Fischer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 119–142,Short summary
Formaldehyde and hydroperoxide measurements were performed in the marine boundary layer around the Arabian Peninsula and highlight the Suez Canal and Arabian (Persian) Gulf as a hotspot of photochemical air pollution. A comparison with the EMAC model shows that the formaldehyde results match within a factor of 2, while hydrogen peroxide was overestimated by more than a factor of 5, which revealed enhanced HOx (OH+HO2) radicals in the simulation and an underestimation of dry deposition velocites.
Laura Tomsche, Andreas Marsing, Tina Jurkat-Witschas, Johannes Lucke, Stefan Kaufmann, Katharina Kaiser, Johannes Schneider, Monika Scheibe, Hans Schlager, Lenard Röder, Horst Fischer, Florian Obersteiner, Andreas Zahn, Martin Zöger, Jos Lelieveld, and Christiane Voigt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 15135–15151,Short summary
The detection of sulfur compounds in the upper troposphere (UT) and lower stratosphere (LS) is a challenge. In-flight measurements of SO2 and sulfate aerosol were performed during the BLUESKY mission in spring 2020 under exceptional atmospheric conditions. Reduced sinks in the dry UTLS and lower but still significant air traffic influenced the enhanced SO2 in the UT, and aged volcanic plumes enhanced the LS sulfate aerosol impacting the atmospheric radiation budget and global climate.
Charlotte M. Beall, Thomas C. J. Hill, Paul J. DeMott, Tobias Köneman, Michael Pikridas, Frank Drewnick, Hartwig Harder, Christopher Pöhlker, Jos Lelieveld, Bettina Weber, Minas Iakovides, Roman Prokeš, Jean Sciare, Meinrat O. Andreae, M. Dale Stokes, and Kimberly A. Prather
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 12607–12627,Short summary
Ice-nucleating particles (INPs) are rare aerosols that can trigger ice formation in clouds and affect climate-relevant cloud properties such as phase, reflectivity and lifetime. Dust is the dominant INP source, yet few measurements have been reported near major dust sources. We report INP observations within hundreds of kilometers of the biggest dust source regions globally: the Sahara and the Arabian Peninsula. Results show that at temperatures > −15 °C, INPs are dominated by organics.
Mengze Li, Andrea Pozzer, Jos Lelieveld, and Jonathan Williams
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 4351–4364,Short summary
We present a northern hemispheric airborne measurement dataset of atmospheric ethane, propane and methane and temporal trends for the time period 2006–2016 in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. The growth rates of ethane, methane, and propane in the upper troposphere are -2.24, 0.33, and -0.78 % yr-1, respectively, and in the lower stratosphere they are -3.27, 0.26, and -4.91 % yr-1, respectively, in 2006–2016.
Simon F. Reifenberg, Anna Martin, Matthias Kohl, Sara Bacer, Zaneta Hamryszczak, Ivan Tadic, Lenard Röder, Daniel J. Crowley, Horst Fischer, Katharina Kaiser, Johannes Schneider, Raphael Dörich, John N. Crowley, Laura Tomsche, Andreas Marsing, Christiane Voigt, Andreas Zahn, Christopher Pöhlker, Bruna A. Holanda, Ovid Krüger, Ulrich Pöschl, Mira Pöhlker, Patrick Jöckel, Marcel Dorf, Ulrich Schumann, Jonathan Williams, Birger Bohn, Joachim Curtius, Hardwig Harder, Hans Schlager, Jos Lelieveld, and Andrea Pozzer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10901–10917,Short summary
In this work we use a combination of observational data from an aircraft campaign and model results to investigate the effect of the European lockdown due to COVID-19 in spring 2020. Using model results, we show that the largest relative changes to the atmospheric composition caused by the reduced emissions are located in the upper troposphere around aircraft cruise altitude, while the largest absolute changes are present at the surface.
Zaneta T. Hamryszczak, Andrea Pozzer, Florian Obersteiner, Birger Bohn, Benedikt Steil, Jos Lelieveld, and Horst Fischer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9483–9497,Short summary
Hydrogen peroxide plays a pivotal role in the chemistry of the atmosphere. Together with organic hydroperoxides, it forms a reservoir for peroxy radicals, which are known to be the key contributors to the self-cleaning processes of the atmosphere. Hydroperoxides were measured over Europe during the BLUESKY campaign in May–June 2020. The paper gives an overview of the distribution of the species in the troposphere and investigates the impact of wet scavenging and deposition on the budget of H2O2.
Marco Wietzoreck, Marios Kyprianou, Benjamin A. Musa Bandowe, Siddika Celik, John N. Crowley, Frank Drewnick, Philipp Eger, Nils Friedrich, Minas Iakovides, Petr Kukučka, Jan Kuta, Barbora Nežiková, Petra Pokorná, Petra Přibylová, Roman Prokeš, Roland Rohloff, Ivan Tadic, Sebastian Tauer, Jake Wilson, Hartwig Harder, Jos Lelieveld, Ulrich Pöschl, Euripides G. Stephanou, and Gerhard Lammel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8739–8766,Short summary
A unique dataset of concentrations and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their alkylated, oxygenated and nitrated derivatives, in total 74 individual species, in the marine atmosphere is presented. Exposure to these substances poses a major health risk. We found very low concentrations over the Arabian Sea, while both local and long-range-transported pollution caused elevated levels over the Mediterranean Sea and the Arabian Gulf.
Ovid O. Krüger, Bruna A. Holanda, Sourangsu Chowdhury, Andrea Pozzer, David Walter, Christopher Pöhlker, Maria Dolores Andrés Hernández, John P. Burrows, Christiane Voigt, Jos Lelieveld, Johannes Quaas, Ulrich Pöschl, and Mira L. Pöhlker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8683–8699,Short summary
The abrupt reduction in human activities during the first COVID-19 lockdown created unprecedented atmospheric conditions. We took the opportunity to quantify changes in black carbon (BC) as a major anthropogenic air pollutant. Therefore, we measured BC on board a research aircraft over Europe during the lockdown and compared the results to measurements from 2017. With model simulations we account for different weather conditions and find a lockdown-related decrease in BC of 41 %.
Patrick Dewald, Clara M. Nussbaumer, Jan Schuladen, Akima Ringsdorf, Achim Edtbauer, Horst Fischer, Jonathan Williams, Jos Lelieveld, and John N. Crowley
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7051–7069,Short summary
We measured the gas-phase reactivity of the NO3 radical on the summit (825 m a.s.l.) of a semi-rural mountain in southwestern Germany in July 2021. The impact of VOC-induced NO3 losses (mostly monoterpenes) competing with a loss by reaction with NO and photolysis throughout the diel cycle was estimated. Besides chemistry, boundary layer dynamics and plant-physiological processes presumably have a great impact on our observations, which were compared to previous NO3 measurements at the same site.
George K. Georgiou, Theodoros Christoudias, Yiannis Proestos, Jonilda Kushta, Michael Pikridas, Jean Sciare, Chrysanthos Savvides, and Jos Lelieveld
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 4129–4146,Short summary
We evaluate the skill of the WRF-Chem model to perform high-resolution air quality forecasts (including ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and fine particulate matter) over the Eastern Mediterranean, during winter and summer. We compare the forecast output to observational data from background and urban locations and the forecast output from CAMS. WRF-Chem was found to forecast the concentrations and diurnal profiles of gas-phase pollutants in urban areas with higher accuracy.
Clara M. Nussbaumer, Andrea Pozzer, Ivan Tadic, Lenard Röder, Florian Obersteiner, Hartwig Harder, Jos Lelieveld, and Horst Fischer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6151–6165,Short summary
The European COVID-19 lockdowns have significantly reduced the emission of primary pollutants such as NOx, which impacts the tropospheric photochemical processes and the abundance of O3. In this study, we present how the lockdowns have affected tropospheric trace gases and ozone production based on in situ observations and modeling simulations. We additionally show that the chemical regime shifted from a transition point to a NOx limitation in the upper troposphere.
Wenyu Sun, Matias Berasategui, Andrea Pozzer, Jos Lelieveld, and John N. Crowley
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 4969–4984,Short summary
The reaction between OH and SO2 is a termolecular process that in the atmosphere results in the formation of H2SO4 and thus aerosols. We present the first temperature- and pressure-dependent measurements of the rate coefficients in N2. This is also the first study to examine the effects of water vapour on the kinetics of this reaction. Our results indicate the rate coefficient is larger than that recommended by evaluation panels, with deviations of up to 30 % in some parts of the atmosphere.
Andrea Pozzer, Simon F. Reifenberg, Vinod Kumar, Bruno Franco, Matthias Kohl, Domenico Taraborrelli, Sergey Gromov, Sebastian Ehrhart, Patrick Jöckel, Rolf Sander, Veronica Fall, Simon Rosanka, Vlassis Karydis, Dimitris Akritidis, Tamara Emmerichs, Monica Crippa, Diego Guizzardi, Johannes W. Kaiser, Lieven Clarisse, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Holger Tost, and Alexandra Tsimpidi
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 2673–2710,Short summary
A newly developed setup of the chemistry general circulation model EMAC (ECHAM5/MESSy for Atmospheric Chemistry) is evaluated here. A comprehensive organic degradation mechanism is used and coupled with a volatility base model. The results show that the model reproduces most of the tracers and aerosols satisfactorily but shows discrepancies for oxygenated organic gases. It is also shown that this model configuration can be used for further research in atmospheric chemistry.
Clara M. Nussbaumer, John N. Crowley, Jan Schuladen, Jonathan Williams, Sascha Hafermann, Andreas Reiffs, Raoul Axinte, Hartwig Harder, Cheryl Ernest, Anna Novelli, Katrin Sala, Monica Martinez, Chinmay Mallik, Laura Tomsche, Christian Plass-Dülmer, Birger Bohn, Jos Lelieveld, and Horst Fischer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 18413–18432,Short summary
HCHO is an important atmospheric trace gas influencing the photochemical processes in the Earth’s atmosphere, including the budget of HOx and the abundance of tropospheric O3. This research presents the photochemical calculations of HCHO and O3 based on three field campaigns across Europe. We show that HCHO production via the oxidation of only four volatile organic compound precursors, i.e., CH4, CH3CHO, C5H8 and CH3OH, can balance the observed loss at all sites well.
Dirk Dienhart, John N. Crowley, Efstratios Bourtsoukidis, Achim Edtbauer, Philipp G. Eger, Lisa Ernle, Hartwig Harder, Bettina Hottmann, Monica Martinez, Uwe Parchatka, Jean-Daniel Paris, Eva Y. Pfannerstill, Roland Rohloff, Jan Schuladen, Christof Stönner, Ivan Tadic, Sebastian Tauer, Nijing Wang, Jonathan Williams, Jos Lelieveld, and Horst Fischer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 17373–17388,Short summary
We present the first ship-based in situ measurements of formaldehyde (HCHO), hydroxyl radicals (OH) and the OH reactivity around the Arabian Peninsula. Regression analysis of the HCHO production rate and the related OH chemistry revealed the regional HCHO yield αeff, which represents the different chemical regimes encountered. Highest values were found for the Arabian Gulf (also known as the Persian Gulf), which highlights this region as a hotspot of photochemical air pollution.
Clara M. Nussbaumer, Uwe Parchatka, Ivan Tadic, Birger Bohn, Daniel Marno, Monica Martinez, Roland Rohloff, Hartwig Harder, Flora Kluge, Klaus Pfeilsticker, Florian Obersteiner, Martin Zöger, Raphael Doerich, John N. Crowley, Jos Lelieveld, and Horst Fischer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6759–6776,Short summary
NO2 plays a central role in atmospheric photochemical processes and requires accurate measurements. This research presents NO2 data obtained via chemiluminescence using a photolytic converter from airborne studies around Cabo Verde and laboratory investigations. We show the limits and error-proneness of a conventional blue light converter in aircraft measurements affected by humidity and NO levels and suggest the use of an alternative quartz converter for more reliable results.
Vlassis A. Karydis, Alexandra P. Tsimpidi, Andrea Pozzer, and Jos Lelieveld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14983–15001,Short summary
Aerosol particle pH is well-buffered by alkaline compounds, notably NH3 and crustal elements. NH3 is found to supply remarkable buffering capacity on a global scale, from the polluted continents to the remote oceans. Potential future changes in agricultural NH3 must be accompanied by strong reductions of SO2 and NOx to avoid particles becoming highly acidic, with implications for human health (aerosol toxicity), ecosystems (acid deposition), clouds, and climate (aerosol hygroscopicity).
Philipp G. Eger, Luc Vereecken, Rolf Sander, Jan Schuladen, Nicolas Sobanski, Horst Fischer, Einar Karu, Jonathan Williams, Ville Vakkari, Tuukka Petäjä, Jos Lelieveld, Andrea Pozzer, and John N. Crowley
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14333–14349,Short summary
We determine the impact of pyruvic acid photolysis on the formation of acetaldehyde and peroxy radicals during summer and autumn in the Finnish boreal forest using a data-constrained box model. Our results are dependent on the chosen scenario in which the overall quantum yield and the photolysis products are varied. We highlight that pyruvic acid photolysis can be an important contributor to acetaldehyde and peroxy radical formation in remote, forested regions.
Ralf Weigel, Christoph Mahnke, Manuel Baumgartner, Martina Krämer, Peter Spichtinger, Nicole Spelten, Armin Afchine, Christian Rolf, Silvia Viciani, Francesco D'Amato, Holger Tost, and Stephan Borrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13455–13481,Short summary
In July and August 2017, the StratoClim mission took place in Nepal with eight flights of the M-55 Geophysica at up to 20 km in the Asian monsoon anticyclone. New particle formation (NPF) next to cloud ice was detected in situ by abundant nucleation-mode aerosols (> 6 nm) along with ice particles (> 3 µm). NPF was observed mainly below the tropopause, down to 15 % being non-volatile residues. Observed intra-cloud NPF indicates its importance for the composition in the tropical tropopause layer.
Jean-Daniel Paris, Aurélie Riandet, Efstratios Bourtsoukidis, Marc Delmotte, Antoine Berchet, Jonathan Williams, Lisa Ernle, Ivan Tadic, Hartwig Harder, and Jos Lelieveld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12443–12462,Short summary
We measured atmospheric methane and CO2 by ship in the Middle East. We probe the origin of methane with a combination of light alkane measurements and modeling. We find strong influence from nearby oil and gas production over the Arabian Gulf. Comparing our data to inventories indicates that inventories overestimate sources from the upstream gas industry but underestimate emissions from oil extraction and processing. The Red Sea was under a complex mixture of sources due to human activity.
Patrick Dewald, Raphael Dörich, Jan Schuladen, Jos Lelieveld, and John N. Crowley
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5501–5519,Short summary
Organic nitrates generated from the reaction between isoprene and the nitrate radical (ISOP-NITs) were detected via their thermal dissociation in heated quartz inlets to nitrogen dioxide monitored by cavity ring-down spectroscopy. The temperature-dependent dissociation profiles of ISOP-NITs in the presence of ozone (O3) are broad in contrast to narrow profiles of common reference compounds. We demonstrate that this broadening is caused by O3-assisted reactions of ISOP-NITs on quartz surfaces.
Raphael Dörich, Philipp Eger, Jos Lelieveld, and John N. Crowley
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5319–5332,Short summary
We demonstrate in laboratory experiments that the formation of IOx anions (formed in reactions of I− with O3) or acetate anions (formed e.g. by the reaction of I− with peracetic acid) results in unexpected sensitivity of an iodide chemical ionisation mass spectrometer (I-CIMS) to HNO3 at a mass-to-charge ratio of 62. This helps explain observations of apparent high daytime levels of N2O5. Airborne measurements using I-CIMS confirm these conclusions.
Vinod Kumar, Julia Remmers, Steffen Beirle, Joachim Fallmann, Astrid Kerkweg, Jos Lelieveld, Mariano Mertens, Andrea Pozzer, Benedikt Steil, Marc Barra, Holger Tost, and Thomas Wagner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5241–5269,Short summary
We present high-resolution regional atmospheric chemistry model simulations focused around Germany. We highlight the importance of spatial resolution of the model itself as well as the input emissions inventory and short-scale temporal variability of emissions for simulations. We propose a consistent approach for evaluating the simulated vertical distribution of NO2 using MAX-DOAS measurements while also considering its spatial sensitivity volume and change in sensitivity within this volume.
Klaus Klingmüller and Jos Lelieveld
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 4429–4441,Short summary
Soil moisture is of great importance for weather and climate. We present a machine learning model that produces accurate predictions of satellite-observed surface soil moisture, based on meteorological data from a climate model. It can be used as soil moisture parametrisation in climate models and to produce comprehensive global soil moisture datasets. Moreover, it may motivate similar applications of machine learning in climate science.
Ivan Tadic, Clara M. Nussbaumer, Birger Bohn, Hartwig Harder, Daniel Marno, Monica Martinez, Florian Obersteiner, Uwe Parchatka, Andrea Pozzer, Roland Rohloff, Martin Zöger, Jos Lelieveld, and Horst Fischer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8195–8211,Short summary
Although mechanisms of tropospheric ozone (O3) formation are well understood, studies reporting on ozone formation derived from field measurements are challenging and remain sparse in number. We use airborne measurements to quantify nitric oxide (NO) and O3 distributions in the upper troposphere over the Atlantic Ocean and western Africa and compare our measurements to model simulations. Our results show that NO and ozone formation are greatest over the tropical areas of western Africa.
Clara M. Nussbaumer, Ivan Tadic, Dirk Dienhart, Nijing Wang, Achim Edtbauer, Lisa Ernle, Jonathan Williams, Florian Obersteiner, Isidoro Gutiérrez-Álvarez, Hartwig Harder, Jos Lelieveld, and Horst Fischer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7933–7945,Short summary
Lightning over continental and coastal areas is frequent and accompanied by deep convection, while lightning over marine areas and particularly in tropical cyclones is rare. This research presents in situ observations of the tropical storm Florence 2018 near Cabo Verde. We show the absence of lightning in the tropical storm despite the occurrence of deep convective processes by atmospheric trace gas measurements of O3, NO, CO, H2O2, DMS and CH2I.
Nils Friedrich, Philipp Eger, Justin Shenolikar, Nicolas Sobanski, Jan Schuladen, Dirk Dienhart, Bettina Hottmann, Ivan Tadic, Horst Fischer, Monica Martinez, Roland Rohloff, Sebastian Tauer, Hartwig Harder, Eva Y. Pfannerstill, Nijing Wang, Jonathan Williams, James Brooks, Frank Drewnick, Hang Su, Guo Li, Yafang Cheng, Jos Lelieveld, and John N. Crowley
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7473–7498,Short summary
This paper uses NOx and NOz measurements from the 2017 AQABA ship campaign in the Mediterranean Sea and around the Arabian Peninsula to examine the influence e.g. of emissions from shipping and oil and gas production. Night-time losses of NOx dominated in the Arabian Gulf and in the Red Sea, whereas daytime losses were more important in the Mediterranean Sea. Nitric acid and organic nitrates were the most prevalent components of NOz.
Einar Karu, Mengze Li, Lisa Ernle, Carl A. M. Brenninkmeijer, Jos Lelieveld, and Jonathan Williams
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1817–1831,Short summary
A gas measurement device was developed to measure trace gases (ppt level) in the air based on an atomic emission detector. It combines a cryogenic pre-concentrator (CryoTrap), a gas chromatograph (GC), and a new high-resolution atomic emission detector (AED). The CryoTrap–GC–AED instrumental setup, limits of detection, and elemental performance are presented and discussed. Two measurement case studies are reported: one in a Finnish boreal forest and the other based on an aircraft campaign.
Domenico Taraborrelli, David Cabrera-Perez, Sara Bacer, Sergey Gromov, Jos Lelieveld, Rolf Sander, and Andrea Pozzer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2615–2636,Short summary
Atmospheric pollutants from anthropogenic activities and biomass burning are usually regarded as ozone precursors. Monocyclic aromatics are no exception. Calculations with a comprehensive atmospheric model are consistent with this view but only for air masses close to pollution source regions. However, the same model predicts that aromatics, when transported to remote areas, may effectively destroy ozone. This loss of tropospheric ozone rivals the one attributed to bromine.
Sara Bacer, Sylvia C. Sullivan, Odran Sourdeval, Holger Tost, Jos Lelieveld, and Andrea Pozzer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1485–1505,Short summary
We investigate the relative importance of the rates of both microphysical processes and unphysical correction terms that act as sources or sinks of ice crystals in cold clouds. By means of numerical simulations performed with a global chemistry–climate model, we assess the relevance of these rates at global and regional scales. This estimation is of fundamental importance to assign priority to the development of microphysics parameterizations and compare model output with observations.
Klaus Klingmüller, Vlassis A. Karydis, Sara Bacer, Georgiy L. Stenchikov, and Jos Lelieveld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15285–15295,Short summary
Particulate air pollution cools the climate and partially masks the greenhouse warming by reflecting sunlight and enhancing the reflection by clouds. The intensity of this cooling depends on interactions between pollution and desert dust within the atmosphere. Our simulations with a global atmospheric chemistry-climate model indicate that these interactions significantly weaken the cooling.
Edward Groot and Holger Tost
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Publication in ACP not foreseenShort summary
Sensitivities and variability of upper tropospheric flow (~10 km height) resulting immediately and as a direct consequence of (thunder)storm activity have been modeled in detail down to resolutions of 100–200 m and explored for different (organisation/) storm types. It is shown that the amount of water condensation explains much of emerging variability in upper atmospheric flow. Part of the effects on the nearby upper atmospheric flow is suggested to be explained by (organisation/) storm type.
Matias Berasategui, Damien Amedro, Luc Vereecken, Jos Lelieveld, and John N. Crowley
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13541–13555,Short summary
Peracetic acid is one of the most abundant organic peroxides in the atmosphere. We combine experiments and theory to show that peracetic acid reacts orders of magnitude more slowly with OH than presently accepted, which results in a significant extension of its atmospheric lifetime.
Bettina Hottmann, Sascha Hafermann, Laura Tomsche, Daniel Marno, Monica Martinez, Hartwig Harder, Andrea Pozzer, Marco Neumaier, Andreas Zahn, Birger Bohn, Greta Stratmann, Helmut Ziereis, Jos Lelieveld, and Horst Fischer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12655–12673,Short summary
During OMO we observed enhanced mixing ratios of hydroperoxides (ROOH) in the Asian monsoon anticyclone (AMA) relative to the background. The observed mixing ratios are higher than steady-state calculations and EMAC simulations, especially in the AMA, indicating atmospheric transport of ROOH. Uncertainties in the scavenging efficiencies likely cause deviations from EMAC. Longitudinal gradients indicate a pool of ROOH towards the center of the AMA associated with upwind convection over India.
Nils Friedrich, Ivan Tadic, Jan Schuladen, James Brooks, Eoghan Darbyshire, Frank Drewnick, Horst Fischer, Jos Lelieveld, and John N. Crowley
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5739–5761,Short summary
We present a new instrument for the measurement of NOx and NOy based on a combination of the thermal dissociation of NOy to NOx and cavity ring-down spectroscopic detection of NO2. It features a denuder to separate the contributions of gas-phase and particulate nitrates to NOy. We provide a detailed characterization of the instrument and briefly outline results from first deployments.
Nijing Wang, Achim Edtbauer, Christof Stönner, Andrea Pozzer, Efstratios Bourtsoukidis, Lisa Ernle, Dirk Dienhart, Bettina Hottmann, Horst Fischer, Jan Schuladen, John N. Crowley, Jean-Daniel Paris, Jos Lelieveld, and Jonathan Williams
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10807–10829,Short summary
Carbonyl compounds were measured on a ship travelling around the Arabian Peninsula in summer 2017, crossing both highly polluted and extremely clean regions of the marine boundary layer. We investigated the sources and sinks of carbonyls. The results from a global model showed a significant model underestimation for acetaldehyde, a molecule that can influence regional air chemistry. By adding a diurnal oceanic source, the model estimation was highly improved.
Patrick Dewald, Jonathan M. Liebmann, Nils Friedrich, Justin Shenolikar, Jan Schuladen, Franz Rohrer, David Reimer, Ralf Tillmann, Anna Novelli, Changmin Cho, Kangming Xu, Rupert Holzinger, François Bernard, Li Zhou, Wahid Mellouki, Steven S. Brown, Hendrik Fuchs, Jos Lelieveld, and John N. Crowley
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10459–10475,Short summary
We present direct measurements of NO3 reactivity resulting from the oxidation of isoprene by NO3 during an intensive simulation chamber study. Measurements were in excellent agreement with values calculated from measured isoprene amounts and the rate coefficient for the reaction of NO3 with isoprene. Comparison of the measurement with NO3 reactivities from non-steady-state and model calculations suggests that isoprene-derived RO2 and HO2 radicals account to ~ 50 % of overall NO3 losses.
Stijn Hantson, Douglas I. Kelley, Almut Arneth, Sandy P. Harrison, Sally Archibald, Dominique Bachelet, Matthew Forrest, Thomas Hickler, Gitta Lasslop, Fang Li, Stephane Mangeon, Joe R. Melton, Lars Nieradzik, Sam S. Rabin, I. Colin Prentice, Tim Sheehan, Stephen Sitch, Lina Teckentrup, Apostolos Voulgarakis, and Chao Yue
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 3299–3318,Short summary
Global fire–vegetation models are widely used, but there has been limited evaluation of how well they represent various aspects of fire regimes. Here we perform a systematic evaluation of simulations made by nine FireMIP models in order to quantify their ability to reproduce a range of fire and vegetation benchmarks. While some FireMIP models are better at representing certain aspects of the fire regime, no model clearly outperforms all other models across the full range of variables assessed.
Dominik Stolzenburg, Mario Simon, Ananth Ranjithkumar, Andreas Kürten, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Hamish Gordon, Sebastian Ehrhart, Henning Finkenzeller, Lukas Pichelstorfer, Tuomo Nieminen, Xu-Cheng He, Sophia Brilke, Mao Xiao, António Amorim, Rima Baalbaki, Andrea Baccarini, Lisa Beck, Steffen Bräkling, Lucía Caudillo Murillo, Dexian Chen, Biwu Chu, Lubna Dada, António Dias, Josef Dommen, Jonathan Duplissy, Imad El Haddad, Lukas Fischer, Loic Gonzalez Carracedo, Martin Heinritzi, Changhyuk Kim, Theodore K. Koenig, Weimeng Kong, Houssni Lamkaddam, Chuan Ping Lee, Markus Leiminger, Zijun Li, Vladimir Makhmutov, Hanna E. Manninen, Guillaume Marie, Ruby Marten, Tatjana Müller, Wei Nie, Eva Partoll, Tuukka Petäjä, Joschka Pfeifer, Maxim Philippov, Matti P. Rissanen, Birte Rörup, Siegfried Schobesberger, Simone Schuchmann, Jiali Shen, Mikko Sipilä, Gerhard Steiner, Yuri Stozhkov, Christian Tauber, Yee Jun Tham, António Tomé, Miguel Vazquez-Pufleau, Andrea C. Wagner, Mingyi Wang, Yonghong Wang, Stefan K. Weber, Daniela Wimmer, Peter J. Wlasits, Yusheng Wu, Qing Ye, Marcel Zauner-Wieczorek, Urs Baltensperger, Kenneth S. Carslaw, Joachim Curtius, Neil M. Donahue, Richard C. Flagan, Armin Hansel, Markku Kulmala, Jos Lelieveld, Rainer Volkamer, Jasper Kirkby, and Paul M. Winkler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 7359–7372,Short summary
Sulfuric acid is a major atmospheric vapour for aerosol formation. If new particles grow fast enough, they can act as cloud droplet seeds or affect air quality. In a controlled laboratory set-up, we demonstrate that van der Waals forces enhance growth from sulfuric acid. We disentangle the effects of ammonia, ions and particle hydration, presenting a complete picture of sulfuric acid growth from molecular clusters onwards. In a climate model, we show its influence on the global aerosol budget.
Harald Rybka and Holger Tost
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 2671–2694,Short summary
Simulating cloud processes and their interactions with their environment is one of the biggest challenges in atmospheric science. This study couples a cloud-resolving model with a global climate model to improve the representation of small-scale processes for climate simulations. Unlike conventional approaches, tropical precipitation is better simulated with the new model setup. However, the diurnal cycle of precipitation and cloud amounts can be significantly influenced by the chosen setup.
Ivan Tadic, John N. Crowley, Dirk Dienhart, Philipp Eger, Hartwig Harder, Bettina Hottmann, Monica Martinez, Uwe Parchatka, Jean-Daniel Paris, Andrea Pozzer, Roland Rohloff, Jan Schuladen, Justin Shenolikar, Sebastian Tauer, Jos Lelieveld, and Horst Fischer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 6769–6787,Short summary
We present shipborne observations of NO, NO2, O3, HCHO, OH, HO2, H2O and the actinic flux obtained in the marine boundary layer (MBL) around the Arabian Peninsula during the summer 2017 AQABA ship campaign. NOx (NO+NO2) and O3 observations clearly showed anthropogenic influence in the MBL around the Arabian Peninsula. The observations were also used to calculate net O3 production in the MBL around the Arabian Peninsula, which was greatest over the northern Red Sea, Oman Gulf and Arabian Gulf.
Daniel Marno, Cheryl Ernest, Korbinian Hens, Umar Javed, Thomas Klimach, Monica Martinez, Markus Rudolf, Jos Lelieveld, and Hartwig Harder
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2711–2731,Short summary
In this study, a calibration device for OH and HO2 instruments is characterized at pressures of 275 to 1000 mbar, allowing instrument pressure sensitivity to be quantified to an accuracy of 22 % (1σ). Computational fluid dynamic simulations supporting the understanding of interactions between generated HOx and the instrument inlet led to enhanced determination of factors affecting instrument sensitivity.
Achim Edtbauer, Christof Stönner, Eva Y. Pfannerstill, Matias Berasategui, David Walter, John N. Crowley, Jos Lelieveld, and Jonathan Williams
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 6081–6094,Short summary
Marine regions where deep nutrient-rich water is pushed towards the surface are called upwelling regions. In these nutrient-rich waters large algal blooms form which are the basis of the marine food web. We measured methane sulfonamide, a molecule containing sulfur and nitrogen, for the first time in ambient air and could show that the origin of this emission is an algal bloom near the Somalia upwelling. Sulfur-containing compounds from algae can promote particle formation over the oceans.
Peter H. Zimmermann, Carl A. M. Brenninkmeijer, Andrea Pozzer, Patrick Jöckel, Franziska Winterstein, Andreas Zahn, Sander Houweling, and Jos Lelieveld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5787–5809,Short summary
The atmospheric abundance of the greenhouse gas methane is determined by interacting emission sources and sinks in a dynamic global environment. In this study, its global budget from 1997 to 2016 is simulated with a general circulation model using emission estimates of 11 source categories. The model results are evaluated against 17 ground station and 320 intercontinental flight observation series. Deviations are used to re-scale the emission quantities with the aim of matching observations.
Philipp G. Eger, Jan Schuladen, Nicolas Sobanski, Horst Fischer, Einar Karu, Jonathan Williams, Matthieu Riva, Qiaozhi Zha, Mikael Ehn, Lauriane L. J. Quéléver, Simon Schallhart, Jos Lelieveld, and John N. Crowley
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 3697–3711,Short summary
Pyruvic acid, CH3C(O)C(O)OH, is an organic acid of biogenic origin that plays a crucial role in plant metabolism, is present in tropospheric air in both gas-phase and aerosol-phase, and is implicated in the formation of secondary organic aerosols. From the first gas-phase measurements of pyruvic acid in the Finnish boreal forest in September 2016 we derive its source strength and discuss potential sources and sinks, with a focus on the relevance of gas-phase pyruvic acid for radical chemistry.
Matthew Forrest, Holger Tost, Jos Lelieveld, and Thomas Hickler
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 1285–1309,Short summary
We have integrated the LPJ-GUESS dynamic global vegetation model into the EMAC atmospheric chemistry-enabled GCM (general circulation model). This combined framework will enable the investigation of many land–atmosphere interactions and feedbacks with state-of-the-art simulation models. Initial results show that using the climate produced by EMAC together with LPJ-GUESS produces an acceptable representation of the global vegetation.
Angelica Feurdean, Boris Vannière, Walter Finsinger, Dan Warren, Simon C. Connor, Matthew Forrest, Johan Liakka, Andrei Panait, Christian Werner, Maja Andrič, Premysl Bobek, Vachel A. Carter, Basil Davis, Andrei-Cosmin Diaconu, Elisabeth Dietze, Ingo Feeser, Gabriela Florescu, Mariusz Gałka, Thomas Giesecke, Susanne Jahns, Eva Jamrichová, Katarzyna Kajukało, Jed Kaplan, Monika Karpińska-Kołaczek, Piotr Kołaczek, Petr Kuneš, Dimitry Kupriyanov, Mariusz Lamentowicz, Carsten Lemmen, Enikö K. Magyari, Katarzyna Marcisz, Elena Marinova, Aidin Niamir, Elena Novenko, Milena Obremska, Anna Pędziszewska, Mirjam Pfeiffer, Anneli Poska, Manfred Rösch, Michal Słowiński, Miglė Stančikaitė, Marta Szal, Joanna Święta-Musznicka, Ioan Tanţău, Martin Theuerkauf, Spassimir Tonkov, Orsolya Valkó, Jüri Vassiljev, Siim Veski, Ildiko Vincze, Agnieszka Wacnik, Julian Wiethold, and Thomas Hickler
Biogeosciences, 17, 1213–1230,Short summary
Our study covers the full Holocene (the past 11 500 years) climate variability and vegetation composition and provides a test on how vegetation and climate interact to determine fire hazard. An important implication of this test is that percentage of tree cover can be used as a predictor of the probability of fire occurrence. Biomass burned is highest at ~ 45 % tree cover in temperate forests and at ~ 60–65 % tree cover in needleleaf-dominated forests.
Matias Berasategui, Damien Amedro, Achim Edtbauer, Jonathan Williams, Jos Lelieveld, and John N. Crowley
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2695–2707,Short summary
We have determined the rate coefficient and mechanism for the reaction of the OH radical with methane sulphonamide, a trace gas which has recently been found in the atmosphere. The rate coefficient is 1.4 × 10−13 cm3 molec.−1 s−1, which indicates a tropospheric lifetime of > 2 months. The observation of CO, CO2, SO2, HNO3, HCOOH, and N2O products enabled us to derive a detailed reaction mechanism for the reaction, which proceeds predominantly by H abstraction from the CH3 group.
Julie M. Nicely, Bryan N. Duncan, Thomas F. Hanisco, Glenn M. Wolfe, Ross J. Salawitch, Makoto Deushi, Amund S. Haslerud, Patrick Jöckel, Béatrice Josse, Douglas E. Kinnison, Andrew Klekociuk, Michael E. Manyin, Virginie Marécal, Olaf Morgenstern, Lee T. Murray, Gunnar Myhre, Luke D. Oman, Giovanni Pitari, Andrea Pozzer, Ilaria Quaglia, Laura E. Revell, Eugene Rozanov, Andrea Stenke, Kane Stone, Susan Strahan, Simone Tilmes, Holger Tost, Daniel M. Westervelt, and Guang Zeng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1341–1361,Short summary
Differences in methane lifetime among global models are large and poorly understood. We use a neural network method and simulations from the Chemistry Climate Model Initiative to quantify the factors influencing methane lifetime spread among models and variations over time. UV photolysis, tropospheric ozone, and nitrogen oxides drive large model differences, while the same factors plus specific humidity contribute to a decreasing trend in methane lifetime between 1980 and 2015.
Ying Chen, Yafang Cheng, Nan Ma, Chao Wei, Liang Ran, Ralf Wolke, Johannes Größ, Qiaoqiao Wang, Andrea Pozzer, Hugo A. C. Denier van der Gon, Gerald Spindler, Jos Lelieveld, Ina Tegen, Hang Su, and Alfred Wiedensohler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 771–786,Short summary
Particulate nitrate is one of the most important climate cooling agents. Our results show that interaction with sea-salt aerosol can shift nitrate to larger sized particles (redistribution effect), weakening its direct cooling effect. The modelling results indicate strong redistribution over coastal and offshore regions worldwide as well as continental Europe. Improving the consideration of the redistribution effect in global models fosters a better understanding of climate change.
Fang Li, Maria Val Martin, Meinrat O. Andreae, Almut Arneth, Stijn Hantson, Johannes W. Kaiser, Gitta Lasslop, Chao Yue, Dominique Bachelet, Matthew Forrest, Erik Kluzek, Xiaohong Liu, Stephane Mangeon, Joe R. Melton, Daniel S. Ward, Anton Darmenov, Thomas Hickler, Charles Ichoku, Brian I. Magi, Stephen Sitch, Guido R. van der Werf, Christine Wiedinmyer, and Sam S. Rabin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12545–12567,Short summary
Fire emissions are critical for atmospheric composition, climate, carbon cycle, and air quality. We provide the first global multi-model fire emission reconstructions for 1700–2012, including carbon and 33 species of trace gases and aerosols, based on the nine state-of-the-art global fire models that participated in FireMIP. We also provide information on the recent status and limitations of the model-based reconstructions and identify the main uncertainty sources in their long-term changes.
Lina Teckentrup, Sandy P. Harrison, Stijn Hantson, Angelika Heil, Joe R. Melton, Matthew Forrest, Fang Li, Chao Yue, Almut Arneth, Thomas Hickler, Stephen Sitch, and Gitta Lasslop
Biogeosciences, 16, 3883–3910,Short summary
This study compares simulated burned area of seven global vegetation models provided by the Fire Model Intercomparison Project (FireMIP) since 1900. We investigate the influence of five forcing factors: atmospheric CO2, population density, land–use change, lightning and climate. We find that the anthropogenic factors lead to the largest spread between models. Trends due to climate are mostly not significant but climate strongly influences the inter-annual variability of burned area.
Philipp G. Eger, Nils Friedrich, Jan Schuladen, Justin Shenolikar, Horst Fischer, Ivan Tadic, Hartwig Harder, Monica Martinez, Roland Rohloff, Sebastian Tauer, Frank Drewnick, Friederike Fachinger, James Brooks, Eoghan Darbyshire, Jean Sciare, Michael Pikridas, Jos Lelieveld, and John N. Crowley
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12121–12140,Short summary
Shipborne measurements of nitryl chloride (ClNO2) were made during the AQABA (Air Quality and climate change in the Arabian BAsin) ship campaign in summer 2017. The dataset includes measurements over the Mediterranean Sea and around the Arabian Peninsula with observed mixing ratios ranging from the limit of detection to 600 pptv. We examined the regional variability in the generation of ClNO2 and its importance for Cl atom generation in a marine boundary layer influenced by ships and industry.
Horst Fischer, Raoul Axinte, Heiko Bozem, John N. Crowley, Cheryl Ernest, Stefan Gilge, Sascha Hafermann, Hartwig Harder, Korbinian Hens, Ruud H. H. Janssen, Rainer Königstedt, Dagmar Kubistin, Chinmay Mallik, Monica Martinez, Anna Novelli, Uwe Parchatka, Christian Plass-Dülmer, Andrea Pozzer, Eric Regelin, Andreas Reiffs, Torsten Schmidt, Jan Schuladen, and Jos Lelieveld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 11953–11968,Short summary
We use in situ observations of H2O2 to study the interplay between photochemistry, transport and deposition processes. The data were obtained during five ground-based field campaigns across Europe. A budget calculation indicates that the photochemical production rate was much larger than photochemical loss and that dry deposition is the dominant loss process. To reproduce the change in H2O2 mixing ratios after sunrise, a variable contribution of entrainment from the residual layer is required.
Matthias Kippenberger, Gerhard Schuster, Jos Lelieveld, and John N. Crowley
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 11939–11951,Short summary
We investigated the uptake of several trace gases to growing ice surfaces at temperatures relevant to cirrus clouds. HCl, a strong inorganic acid that ionises at the surface, was efficiently trapped in the growing ice, whereas oxidised organic trace gases, which attach to ice by hydrogen bonding, were not. HCl can be efficiently and rapidly removed from the gas phase in supersaturated ice clouds.
Jianzhong Ma, Christoph Brühl, Qianshan He, Benedikt Steil, Vlassis A. Karydis, Klaus Klingmüller, Holger Tost, Bin Chen, Yufang Jin, Ningwei Liu, Xiangde Xu, Peng Yan, Xiuji Zhou, Kamal Abdelrahman, Andrea Pozzer, and Jos Lelieveld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 11587–11612,Short summary
We find a pronounced maximum in aerosol extinction in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere over the Tibetan Plateau during the Asian summer monsoon, caused mainly by mineral dust emitted from the northern Tibetan Plateau and slope area, lofted to and accumulating within the anticyclonic circulation. Mineral dust, water-soluble compounds, such as nitrate and sulfate, and associated liquid water dominate aerosol extinction around the tropopause within the Asian summer monsoon anticyclone.
Eva Y. Pfannerstill, Nijing Wang, Achim Edtbauer, Efstratios Bourtsoukidis, John N. Crowley, Dirk Dienhart, Philipp G. Eger, Lisa Ernle, Horst Fischer, Bettina Hottmann, Jean-Daniel Paris, Christof Stönner, Ivan Tadic, David Walter, Jos Lelieveld, and Jonathan Williams
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 11501–11523,Short summary
The Arabian Peninsula is a global hot spot of ozone pollution. Our measurements, made on a ship in summer 2017, indicate underlying reasons. Despite being at sea, we observed ozone-forming reactive trace gases (measured as so-called total OH reactivity) comparable to highly populated urban regions in amount and composition. This is due to strong emissions from oil extraction and ship traffic. These emissions were quickly converted to ozone due to intense solar irradiation and high temperatures.
Mega Octaviani, Holger Tost, and Gerhard Lammel
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 3585–3607,Short summary
This work presents a submodel description for the atmospheric cycling and air–surface exchange processes of semivolatile organic compounds. The submodel is meant to be applied within a global atmospheric chemistry–climate model. The simulation results for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons confirm progress in modelling semivolatile species, verified by comparison with surface monitoring data. The significance of new modelling features for tracer distributions was quantified in a sensitivity study.
Jonathan Liebmann, Nicolas Sobanski, Jan Schuladen, Einar Karu, Heidi Hellén, Hannele Hakola, Qiaozhi Zha, Mikael Ehn, Matthieu Riva, Liine Heikkinen, Jonathan Williams, Horst Fischer, Jos Lelieveld, and John N. Crowley
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 10391–10403,Short summary
The formation of alkyl nitrates in the boreal forest was dominated by reactions of the NO3 radical with terpenes, both during the day and the night, with fewer contributions from OH and ozone. The alkyl nitrates formed had lifetimes on the order of 2 h, reflecting efficient loss via uptake to aerosol and deposition.
Erin Evoy, Adrian M. Maclean, Grazia Rovelli, Ying Li, Alexandra P. Tsimpidi, Vlassis A. Karydis, Saeid Kamal, Jos Lelieveld, Manabu Shiraiwa, Jonathan P. Reid, and Allan K. Bertram
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 10073–10085,Short summary
We measured the diffusion rates of organic molecules in a number of proxies for secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and compared measured diffusion with predictions from two relations: the Stokes–Einstein relation and a fractional Stokes–Einstein relation. The fractional relation does a better job of predicting diffusion rates in this case. Output from an atmospheric model shows that mixing times predicted using the two relations differ by up to 1 order of magnitude at an altitude of ~ 3 km.
Klaus Klingmüller, Jos Lelieveld, Vlassis A. Karydis, and Georgiy L. Stenchikov
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 7397–7408,Short summary
Within the atmosphere, desert dust and anthropogenic pollution are mixed and interact, which affects the abundance and optical properties of the particulate matter. This results in an anthropogenic climate forcing associated with mineral dust notwithstanding the natural origin of most aeolian dust. With a global chemistry–climate model, we estimate this forcing to represent a considerable fraction of the total dust forcing.
Efstratios Bourtsoukidis, Lisa Ernle, John N. Crowley, Jos Lelieveld, Jean-Daniel Paris, Andrea Pozzer, David Walter, and Jonathan Williams
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 7209–7232,Short summary
We report on results that demonstrate the utility of non-methane hydrocarbons as source/sink identification tracers while providing their mixing ratios around the Arabian Peninsula. By introducing novel data-analysis approaches, we establish a new method for separating associated and non-associated (with liquids) gases. We formulate a relationship between hydrocarbon oxidative pairs that can be used to evaluate the relative abundance of the hydroxyl and chlorine radicals in the troposphere.
Meryem Tanarhte, Sara Bacer, Susannah M. Burrows, J. Alex Huffman, Kyle M. Pierce, Andrea Pozzer, Roland Sarda-Estève, Nicole J. Savage, and Jos Lelieveld
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Publication in ACP not foreseenShort summary
Bioaerosols have been an important topic in atmospheric science in the last two decades. This paper compares different emission parametrizations used in fungal spores modeling and compare their results to two sets of new observational datasets. It emphasises their uncertainties in order to improve their modeling in the future. This comparison is addressed primarily to the scientific community (publishing in ACP) interested in this type of modeling and the related experimental work in this field.
Philipp G. Eger, Frank Helleis, Gerhard Schuster, Gavin J. Phillips, Jos Lelieveld, and John N. Crowley
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 1935–1954,Short summary
We present a chemical ionization quadrupole mass spectrometer (CI-QMS) with a novel discharge ion source. In addition to the expected detection of PAN, peracetic acid and ClNO2, the instrument is also sensitive to SO2, HCl and acetic acid through ion chemistry unique for our ion source. We present ionization schemes along with illustrative datasets from field campaigns underlining the potential of the CI-QMS as an alternative to polonium, especially for application in the marine boundary layer.
Laura Tomsche, Andrea Pozzer, Narendra Ojha, Uwe Parchatka, Jos Lelieveld, and Horst Fischer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 1915–1939,Short summary
The Asian monsoon anticyclone (AMA) is an annual phenomenon in the northern hemispheric upper troposphere (UT) and lower stratosphere. We performed in situ measurements of carbon monoxide (CO) and methane (CH4) in the monsoon outflow region and in background air in the UT (Mediterranean, Arabian Peninsula, Arabian Sea) using airborne optical absorption spectroscopy during the Oxidation Mechanism Observations mission (summer 2015). The trace gases increased within the AMA, particularly CH4.
J. Christopher Kaiser, Johannes Hendricks, Mattia Righi, Patrick Jöckel, Holger Tost, Konrad Kandler, Bernadett Weinzierl, Daniel Sauer, Katharina Heimerl, Joshua P. Schwarz, Anne E. Perring, and Thomas Popp
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 541–579,Short summary
The implementation of the aerosol microphysics submodel MADE3 into the global atmospheric chemistry model EMAC is described and evaluated against an extensive pool of observational data, focusing on aerosol mass and number concentrations, size distributions, composition, and optical properties. EMAC (MADE3) is able to reproduce main aerosol properties reasonably well, in line with the performance of other global aerosol models.
Matthias Forkel, Niels Andela, Sandy P. Harrison, Gitta Lasslop, Margreet van Marle, Emilio Chuvieco, Wouter Dorigo, Matthew Forrest, Stijn Hantson, Angelika Heil, Fang Li, Joe Melton, Stephen Sitch, Chao Yue, and Almut Arneth
Biogeosciences, 16, 57–76,Short summary
Weather, humans, and vegetation control the occurrence of fires. In this study we find that global fire–vegetation models underestimate the strong increase of burned area with higher previous-season plant productivity in comparison to satellite-derived relationships.
Yingying Yan, David Cabrera-Perez, Jintai Lin, Andrea Pozzer, Lu Hu, Dylan B. Millet, William C. Porter, and Jos Lelieveld
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 111–130,Short summary
The GEOS-Chem model has been updated with the SAPRC-11 aromatics chemical mechanism to evaluate global and regional effects of aromatics on tropospheric oxidation capacity. Our results reveal relatively slight changes in ozone, hydroxyl radical, and nitrogen oxides on a global mean basis (1–4 %), although remarkable regional differences (5–20 %) exist near the source regions. Improved representation of aromatics is important to simulate the tropospheric oxidation.
Sebastian Ehrhart, Eimear M. Dunne, Hanna E. Manninen, Tuomo Nieminen, Jos Lelieveld, and Andrea Pozzer
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 4987–5001,
Christian Werner, Manuel Schmid, Todd A. Ehlers, Juan Pablo Fuentes-Espoz, Jörg Steinkamp, Matthew Forrest, Johan Liakka, Antonio Maldonado, and Thomas Hickler
Earth Surf. Dynam., 6, 829–858,Short summary
Vegetation is crucial for modulating rates of denudation and landscape evolution, and is directly influenced by climate conditions and atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Using transient climate data and a state-of-the-art dynamic vegetation model we simulate the vegetation composition and cover from the Last Glacial Maximum to present along the Coastal Cordillera of Chile. In part 2 we assess the landscape response to transient climate and vegetation cover using a landscape evolution model.
Sara Bacer, Sylvia C. Sullivan, Vlassis A. Karydis, Donifan Barahona, Martina Krämer, Athanasios Nenes, Holger Tost, Alexandra P. Tsimpidi, Jos Lelieveld, and Andrea Pozzer
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 4021–4041,Short summary
The complexity of ice nucleation mechanisms and aerosol--ice interactions makes their representation still challenging in atmospheric models. We have implemented a comprehensive ice crystal formation parameterization in the global chemistry-climate model EMAC to improve the representation of ice crystal number concentrations. The newly implemented parameterization takes into account processes which were previously neglected by the standard version of the model.
John N. Crowley, Nicolas Pouvesle, Gavin J. Phillips, Raoul Axinte, Horst Fischer, Tuukka Petäjä, Anke Nölscher, Jonathan Williams, Korbinian Hens, Hartwig Harder, Monica Martinez-Harder, Anna Novelli, Dagmar Kubistin, Birger Bohn, and Jos Lelieveld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 13457–13479,Short summary
Simultaneous observations of PAA, PAN and H2O2 are used to provide insight into processes influencing the HOx chemistry of the boreal forest, including two biomass-burning-impacted periods. A significant contribution from photolytic HOx sources was included in a box model analysis to align model predictions with measurements. The model predicts high levels of organic peroxy radicals, also at night-time.
Jonathan M. Liebmann, Jennifer B. A. Muller, Dagmar Kubistin, Anja Claude, Robert Holla, Christian Plass-Dülmer, Jos Lelieveld, and John N. Crowley
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 12045–12059,Short summary
We present direct measurements of the summertime total reactivity (inverse lifetime) of NO3 towards organic trace gases at a rural mountain site. High daytime and low night-time values were found. The reactivity was dominated by reaction with monoterpenes and sufficiently high to compete with photolysis and reaction with NO during daytime. NO3 radical measurements from one night are presented. For the first time, direct measurements of OH and NO3 reactivity are compared.
Alexandra P. Tsimpidi, Vlassis A. Karydis, Andrea Pozzer, Spyros N. Pandis, and Jos Lelieveld
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 3369–3389,Short summary
A new module, ORACLE 2-D, that calculates the concentrations of surrogate organic species in two-dimensional space defined by volatility and oxygen-to-carbon ratio has been developed and evaluated. ORACLE 2-D uses a simple photochemical aging scheme that efficiently simulates the net effects of fragmentation and functionalization. ORACLE 2-D can be used to compute the ability of organic particles to act as cloud condensation nuclei and serves as a tool to quantify their climatic impact.
Zacharias Marinou Nikolaou, Jyh-Yuan Chen, Yiannis Proestos, Jos Lelieveld, and Rolf Sander
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 3391–3407,Short summary
Chemistry is an important component of the atmosphere that describes many important physical processes. However, atmospheric chemical mechanisms include hundreds of species and reactions, posing a significant computational load. In this work, we use a powerful reduction method in order to develop a computationally faster chemical mechanism from a detailed mechanism. This enables accelerated simulations, which can be used to examine a wider range of processes in increased detail.
Chinmay Mallik, Laura Tomsche, Efstratios Bourtsoukidis, John N. Crowley, Bettina Derstroff, Horst Fischer, Sascha Hafermann, Imke Hüser, Umar Javed, Stephan Keßel, Jos Lelieveld, Monica Martinez, Hannah Meusel, Anna Novelli, Gavin J. Phillips, Andrea Pozzer, Andreas Reiffs, Rolf Sander, Domenico Taraborrelli, Carina Sauvage, Jan Schuladen, Hang Su, Jonathan Williams, and Hartwig Harder
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10825–10847,Short summary
OH and HO2 control the transformation of air pollutants and O3 formation. Their implication for air quality over the climatically sensitive Mediterranean region was studied during a field campaign in Cyprus. Production of OH, HO2, and recycled OH was lower in aged marine air masses. Box model simulations of OH and HO2 agreed with measurements except at high terpene concentrations when model RO2 due to terpenes caused large HO2 loss. Autoxidation schemes for RO2 improved the agreement.
Aristeidis K. Georgoulias, Athanasios Tsikerdekis, Vassilis Amiridis, Eleni Marinou, Angela Benedetti, Prodromos Zanis, Georgia Alexandri, Lucia Mona, Konstantinos A. Kourtidis, and Jos Lelieveld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 8601–8620,Short summary
In this work, the MACC reanalysis dust product is evaluated over Europe, Northern Africa and the Middle East using the EARLINET-optimized CALIOP/CALIPSO pure dust satellite-based product LIVAS (2007–2012). As dust plays a determinant role in processes related to weather and climate, human healt, and the economy, it is obvious that adequately simulating the amount of dust and its optical properties is essential. Our results could be used as a reference in future climate model evaluations.
Meryem Tanarhte, Sara Bacer, Susannah M. Burrows, J. Alex Huffman, Kyle M. Pierce, Andrea Pozzer, Roland Sarda-Estève, Nicole J. Savage, and Jos Lelieveld
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
Yingying Yan, Andrea Pozzer, Narendra Ojha, Jintai Lin, and Jos Lelieveld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 5589–5605,Short summary
Surface-based measurements from the EMEP network and EMAC model simulations are used to estimate the European surface ozone changes over 1995–2014. It shows a significantly decreasing trend in the 95th percentile ozone concentrations, while increasing in the 5th percentile ozone. Sensitivity simulations and statistical analysis show that a decrease in European anthropogenic emissions had contrasting effects on surface ozone trends between the 95th and 5th percentile levels.
Klaus Klingmüller, Swen Metzger, Mohamed Abdelkader, Vlassis A. Karydis, Georgiy L. Stenchikov, Andrea Pozzer, and Jos Lelieveld
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 989–1008,Short summary
More than 1 billion tons of mineral dust particles are raised into the atmosphere every year, which has a significant impact on climate, society and ecosystems. The location, time and amount of dust emissions depend on surface and wind conditions. In the atmospheric chemistry–climate model EMAC, we have updated the relevant surface data and equations. Our validation shows that the updates substantially improve the agreement of model results and observations.
Jonathan Liebmann, Einar Karu, Nicolas Sobanski, Jan Schuladen, Mikael Ehn, Simon Schallhart, Lauriane Quéléver, Heidi Hellen, Hannele Hakola, Thorsten Hoffmann, Jonathan Williams, Horst Fischer, Jos Lelieveld, and John N. Crowley
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 3799–3815,Short summary
Using a newly developed experimental setup, we have made the first direct measurements (during autumn 2016) of NO3 reactivity in the Finnish boreal forest. The NO3 reactivity was generally very high (maximum value of 0.94/s) so that daytime reaction with organics was a substantial fraction of the NO3 loss. Observations of biogenic hydrocarbons (BVOCs) suggested a dominant role for monoterpenes in determining the NO3 reactivity, which displayed a strong vertical gradient between 8.5 and 25 m.
George K. Georgiou, Theodoros Christoudias, Yiannis Proestos, Jonilda Kushta, Panos Hadjinicolaou, and Jos Lelieveld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 1555–1571,Short summary
We investigate the impact of the choice of gas-phase and aerosol mechanisms, on the simulated summertime concentrations of several pollutants over the eastern Mediterranean, using the WRF-Chem model. The selection of mechanisms significantly affects ozone and fine particulate matter concentrations, and to a lesser extent other gaseous pollutants (NOx, CO). Meteorological components are also affected by the choice of mechanisms due to the interaction of aerosols with radiation.
Hannah Meusel, Alexandra Tamm, Uwe Kuhn, Dianming Wu, Anna Lena Leifke, Sabine Fiedler, Nina Ruckteschler, Petya Yordanova, Naama Lang-Yona, Mira Pöhlker, Jos Lelieveld, Thorsten Hoffmann, Ulrich Pöschl, Hang Su, Bettina Weber, and Yafang Cheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 799–813,Short summary
The photolysis of nitrous acid (HONO) forms the OH radical. However, not all sources are known. Recent studies showed that HONO can be emitted from soil but they did not evaluate the importance to the HONO budget. In this work HONO emissions from 43 soil and biological soil crust samples from Cyprus were measured in a dynamic chamber and extrapolated to the real atmosphere. A large fraction of the local missing source (published earlier; Meusel et al., 2016) could be assigned to soil emissions.
Efstratios Bourtsoukidis, Frank Helleis, Laura Tomsche, Horst Fischer, Rolf Hofmann, Jos Lelieveld, and Jonathan Williams
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 5089–5105,
Amit Sharma, Narendra Ojha, Andrea Pozzer, Kathleen A. Mar, Gufran Beig, Jos Lelieveld, and Sachin S. Gunthe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 14393–14413,Short summary
We evaluate the numerical simulations of surface ozone during pre-monsoon season against a network of stations including clean, rural and polluted urban environments in the south Asian region. Significant effects of the employed emission inventory and chemical mechanism on the simulated ozone are found during the noon hours of intense photochemistry. The presented evaluation on the diurnal timescale would have implications for assessing ozone buildup and impacts on human health and crop yields.
Andrea Pozzer, Alexandra P. Tsimpidi, Vlassis A. Karydis, Alexander de Meij, and Jos Lelieveld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 12813–12826,Short summary
This study shows that agricultural emissions are important for air quality and their reduction can effectively reduce the concentration of fine particles and their associated premature mortality. Therefore, emission control policies, especially in North America and Europe, should also involve strong ammonia emission decreases to optimally reduce fine-particle concentration.
David Cabrera-Perez, Domenico Taraborrelli, Jos Lelieveld, Thorsten Hoffmann, and Andrea Pozzer
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
Aromatic compounds are present in rural and urban atmospheres. The aim of this work is to disentangle the impacts of these compounds in different important atmospheric chemical species with the help of a numerical model. Aromatics have low impact OH, NOx and Ozone concentrations in the global scale (below 4 %). The impact however is larger in the regional scale (up to 10 %). The largest impact is in glyoxal and NO3 concentrations, with changes up to 10 % globally and 40 % regionally.
Heiko Bozem, Andrea Pozzer, Hartwig Harder, Monica Martinez, Jonathan Williams, Jos Lelieveld, and Horst Fischer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 11835–11848,Short summary
We present a case study of deep convection over Germany in July 2007 within the framework of the HOOVER II project. Airborne in situ measurements within the in- and outflow regions of an isolated thunderstorm provide a unique data set to study the influence of deep convection on the transport efficiency of soluble and insoluble trace gases. Despite their high solubility HCHO and H2O2 show enhanced concentrations in the outflow presumably due to degassing from cloud droplets during freezing.
Hannah Meusel, Yasin Elshorbany, Uwe Kuhn, Thorsten Bartels-Rausch, Kathrin Reinmuth-Selzle, Christopher J. Kampf, Guo Li, Xiaoxiang Wang, Jos Lelieveld, Ulrich Pöschl, Thorsten Hoffmann, Hang Su, Markus Ammann, and Yafang Cheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 11819–11833,Short summary
In this study we investigated protein nitration and decomposition by light in the presence of NO2 via flow tube measurements. Nitrated proteins have an enhanced allergenic potential but so far nitration was only studied in dark conditions. Under irradiated conditions we found that proteins predominantly decompose while forming nitrous acid (HONO) an important precursor of the OH radical. Unlike other studies on heterogeneous NO2 conversion we found a stable HONO formation over a long period.
Margreet J. E. van Marle, Silvia Kloster, Brian I. Magi, Jennifer R. Marlon, Anne-Laure Daniau, Robert D. Field, Almut Arneth, Matthew Forrest, Stijn Hantson, Natalie M. Kehrwald, Wolfgang Knorr, Gitta Lasslop, Fang Li, Stéphane Mangeon, Chao Yue, Johannes W. Kaiser, and Guido R. van der Werf
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 3329–3357,Short summary
Fire emission estimates are a key input dataset for climate models. We have merged satellite information with proxy datasets and fire models to reconstruct fire emissions since 1750 AD. Our dataset indicates that, on a global scale, fire emissions were relatively constant over time. Since roughly 1950, declining emissions from savannas were approximately balanced by increased emissions from tropical deforestation zones.
Heiko Bozem, Tim M. Butler, Mark G. Lawrence, Hartwig Harder, Monica Martinez, Dagmar Kubistin, Jos Lelieveld, and Horst Fischer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 10565–10582,Short summary
We present airborne measurements and model simulations in the tropics and mid-latitudes during GABRIEL and HOOVER, respectively. Based only on in situ data net ozone formation/destruction tendencies (NOPR) are calculated and compared to a 3-D chemistry transport model. The NOPR is positive in the continental boundary layer and the upper troposphere above 6 km. In the marine boundary layer and the middle troposphere ozone destruction prevails. Fresh convection shows strong net ozone formation.
Bettina Derstroff, Imke Hüser, Efstratios Bourtsoukidis, John N. Crowley, Horst Fischer, Sergey Gromov, Hartwig Harder, Ruud H. H. Janssen, Jürgen Kesselmeier, Jos Lelieveld, Chinmay Mallik, Monica Martinez, Anna Novelli, Uwe Parchatka, Gavin J. Phillips, Rolf Sander, Carina Sauvage, Jan Schuladen, Christof Stönner, Laura Tomsche, and Jonathan Williams
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 9547–9566,Short summary
The aim of the study was to examine aged air masses being transported from the European continent towards Cyprus. Longer-lived oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) such as methanol were mainly impacted by long-distance transport and showed higher values in air masses from eastern Europe than in a flow regime from the west. The impact of the transport through the marine boundary layer as well as the influence of the residual layer/free troposphere on OVOCs were studied.
Stephan Keßel, David Cabrera-Perez, Abraham Horowitz, Patrick R. Veres, Rolf Sander, Domenico Taraborrelli, Maria Tucceri, John N. Crowley, Andrea Pozzer, Christof Stönner, Luc Vereecken, Jos Lelieveld, and Jonathan Williams
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 8789–8804,Short summary
In this study we identify an often overlooked stable oxide of carbon, namely carbon suboxide (C3O2), in ambient air. We have made C3O2 and in the laboratory determined its absorption cross section data and the rate of reaction with two important atmospheric oxidants, OH and O3. By incorporating known sources and sinks in a global model we have generated a first global picture of the distribution of this species in the atmosphere.
Anna Novelli, Korbinian Hens, Cheryl Tatum Ernest, Monica Martinez, Anke C. Nölscher, Vinayak Sinha, Pauli Paasonen, Tuukka Petäjä, Mikko Sipilä, Thomas Elste, Christian Plass-Dülmer, Gavin J. Phillips, Dagmar Kubistin, Jonathan Williams, Luc Vereecken, Jos Lelieveld, and Hartwig Harder
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 7807–7826,Short summary
The ambient concentration of stabilised Criegee intermediates (SCIs) was estimated for two environments using field data. The low concentrations predicted indicate that SCIs are unlikely to have a large impact on atmospheric chemistry. Concurrent measurements of an OH background signal using the Mainz IPI-LIF-FAGE instrument were found to be consistent with the chemistry of SCIs during the measurement campaigns.
Alexandra P. Tsimpidi, Vlassis A. Karydis, Spyros N. Pandis, and Jos Lelieveld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 7345–7364,Short summary
We analyzed the sensitivity of model-predicted global-scale OA to parameters and assumptions that control primary emissions, photochemical aging, and the scavenging efficiency of LVOCs, SVOCs, and IVOCs. The simulated OA concentrations were evaluated against a global dataset of AMS measurements. According to our analysis, a combination of increased IVOCs and decreased hygroscopicity of the freshly emitted IVOCs can help reduce discrepancies between simulated SOA and observed OOA concentrations.
Narendra Ojha, Andrea Pozzer, Dimitris Akritidis, and Jos Lelieveld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 6743–6757,Short summary
We investigate the processes, frequency of occurrence and seasonality, and effects of strongly enhanced ozone layers in the middle–upper troposphere (SOPs) over the Himalayas using a global model (EMAC). Rapid transport of stratospheric air masses is found as a key underlying process. Model predicts more frequent SOP events during the pre-monsoon. SOPs are found to significantly enhance the tropospheric ozone column over the Himalayas.
Vlassis A. Karydis, Alexandra P. Tsimpidi, Sara Bacer, Andrea Pozzer, Athanasios Nenes, and Jos Lelieveld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 5601–5621,Short summary
The importance of mineral dust for cloud droplet formation is studied by considering the adsorption activation of insoluble dust particles and the thermodynamic interactions between mineral cations and inorganic anions. This study demonstrates that a comprehensive treatment of the CCN activity of mineral dust and its chemical and thermodynamic interactions with inorganic species by chemistry climate models is important to realistically account for aerosol–chemistry–cloud–climate interaction.
Jonathan M. Liebmann, Gerhard Schuster, Jan B. Schuladen, Nicolas Sobanski, Jos Lelieveld, and John N. Crowley
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 1241–1258,Short summary
We describe the first instrument for measurement of the rate constant for reactive loss (i.e. the total reactivity) of NO3 in ambient air. This is essentially a measureement of the lifetime of NO3 and will help assess the role of NO3 and N2O5 in conversion of reactive nitrogen oxides to reservoir species in the troposphere.
Nicolas Sobanski, Jim Thieser, Jan Schuladen, Carina Sauvage, Wei Song, Jonathan Williams, Jos Lelieveld, and John N. Crowley
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 4115–4130,Short summary
We investigated the formation of gas-phase organic nitrates at a forested semi-urban site. This work constitutes the first detailed analysis of the sum of organic nitrate mixing ratios measured by thermal dissociation cavity ring-down spectroscopy in continental Europe. Day (OH-initiated) and night-time (NO3-initiated) production of alkyl nitrates proceed at similar rates.
Mohamed Abdelkader, Swen Metzger, Benedikt Steil, Klaus Klingmüller, Holger Tost, Andrea Pozzer, Georgiy Stenchikov, Leonard Barrie, and Jos Lelieveld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 3799–3821,Short summary
We present a modeling study on the impacts of the key processes (dust emission flux, convection and dust aging parameterizations) that control the transatlantic dust transport using an advanced version of the EMAC atmospheric chemistry general circulation model. We define the
direct effect of dust agingas an increase in the AOD as a result of hygroscopic growth. We define the
indirect effectas a reduction in the dust AOD due to the higher removal of the aged dust particles.
Sam S. Rabin, Joe R. Melton, Gitta Lasslop, Dominique Bachelet, Matthew Forrest, Stijn Hantson, Jed O. Kaplan, Fang Li, Stéphane Mangeon, Daniel S. Ward, Chao Yue, Vivek K. Arora, Thomas Hickler, Silvia Kloster, Wolfgang Knorr, Lars Nieradzik, Allan Spessa, Gerd A. Folberth, Tim Sheehan, Apostolos Voulgarakis, Douglas I. Kelley, I. Colin Prentice, Stephen Sitch, Sandy Harrison, and Almut Arneth
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 1175–1197,Short summary
Global vegetation models are important tools for understanding how the Earth system will change in the future, and fire is a critical process to include. A number of different methods have been developed to represent vegetation burning. This paper describes the protocol for the first systematic comparison of global fire models, which will allow the community to explore various drivers and evaluate what mechanisms are important for improving performance. It also includes equations for all models.
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 1125–1142,Short summary
The paper describes the impact of lightning and the associated NOx emissions on upper-tropospheric aerosol nitrate. The consequences for both the chemical composition of the atmosphere as well as climatic impacts, which originate from lightning and modified aerosol particles, are analysed and discussed.
Imran A. Girach, Narendra Ojha, Prabha R. Nair, Andrea Pozzer, Yogesh K. Tiwari, K. Ravi Kumar, and Jos Lelieveld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 257–275,Short summary
This study presents first ship-borne measurements of trace gases over the Bay of Bengal during summer monsoon. The observed variations in trace gases are shown to be due to dynamics/transport and en route photochemistry. Analysis of meteorological and chemical fields shows that significantly lower ozone during rainfall is associated with the downdrafts. A regional model reproduces the observed variations and revealed the rapid transport of ozone across the Bay of Bengal during an event.
Hannah Meusel, Uwe Kuhn, Andreas Reiffs, Chinmay Mallik, Hartwig Harder, Monica Martinez, Jan Schuladen, Birger Bohn, Uwe Parchatka, John N. Crowley, Horst Fischer, Laura Tomsche, Anna Novelli, Thorsten Hoffmann, Ruud H. H. Janssen, Oscar Hartogensis, Michael Pikridas, Mihalis Vrekoussis, Efstratios Bourtsoukidis, Bettina Weber, Jos Lelieveld, Jonathan Williams, Ulrich Pöschl, Yafang Cheng, and Hang Su
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14475–14493,Short summary
There are many studies which show discrepancies between modeled and measured nitrous acid (HONO, precursor of OH radical) in the troposphere but with no satisfactory explanation. Ideal conditions to study the unknown sources of HONO were found on Cyprus, a remote Mediterranean island. Budget analysis of trace gas measurements indicates a common source of NO and HONO, which is not related to anthropogenic activity and is most likely derived from biologic activity in soils and subsequent emission.
Dimitris Akritidis, Andrea Pozzer, Prodromos Zanis, Evangelos Tyrlis, Bojan Škerlak, Michael Sprenger, and Jos Lelieveld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14025–14039,Short summary
We investigate the contribution of tropopause folds in the summertime tropospheric ozone pool over the eastern Mediterranean and the Middle East. For this purpose we use the EMAC atmospheric chemistry–climate model and a fold identification algorithm. A clear increase of ozone is found in the middle troposphere due to fold activity. The interannual variability of near-surface ozone over the eastern Mediterranean is related to that of both tropopause folds and ozone in the free troposphere.
Aristeidis K. Georgoulias, Georgia Alexandri, Konstantinos A. Kourtidis, Jos Lelieveld, Prodromos Zanis, Ulrich Pöschl, Robert Levy, Vassilis Amiridis, Eleni Marinou, and Athanasios Tsikerdekis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 13853–13884,Short summary
In this work, single pixel observations from MODIS Terra and Aqua are analyzed together with data from other satellite sensors, reanalysis projects and a chemistry–aerosol-transport model to study the spatiotemporal variability of different aerosol types. The results are in accordance with previous works and are a good reference for future studies in the area focusing on aerosols, clouds, radiation and the effects of particle pollution on human health.
Gavin J. Phillips, Jim Thieser, Mingjin Tang, Nicolas Sobanski, Gerhard Schuster, Johannes Fachinger, Frank Drewnick, Stephan Borrmann, Heinz Bingemer, Jos Lelieveld, and John N. Crowley
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 13231–13249,Short summary
We use trace gas measurements (N2O5, ClNO2, NO3) and particle properties (surface area, nitrate content etc.) to derive uptake coefficients (the probability of removal from the gas-phase on a per-collision basis) for the interaction of N2O5 with ambient aerosol and also the efficiency of formation of ClNO2. The uptake coefficients show high variability but are reasonably well captured by parameterisations based on laboratory measurements.
Nicolas Sobanski, Jan Schuladen, Gerhard Schuster, Jos Lelieveld, and John N. Crowley
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 5103–5118,Short summary
We report the characteristics and performances of a cavity ring-down spectrometer (CRDS) designed for field measurements that uses light absorption at 662 and 405 nm to detect different reactive nitrogen species or group of species in the gas phase, either directly or after thermal decomposition. We report improvements compared to currently existing instruments, and describe the corrections applied to the raw data to account for chemical and optical interferences.
Jos Lelieveld, Sergey Gromov, Andrea Pozzer, and Domenico Taraborrelli
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 12477–12493,Short summary
The self-cleaning capacity of the atmosphere is controlled by hydroxyl (OH) radicals in the troposphere. There are primary and secondary OH sources, the former through the photodissociation of ozone, the latter through OH recycling. We used a global model, showing that secondary sources are larger than assumed previously, which buffers OH. Complementary OH formation mechanisms in pristine and polluted environments, connected through transport of ozone, can maintain stable global OH levels.
Mariano Mertens, Astrid Kerkweg, Patrick Jöckel, Holger Tost, and Christiane Hofmann
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 3545–3567,Short summary
This fourth part in a series of publications describing the newly developed regional chemistry–climate system MECO(n) is dedicated to the evaluation of MECO(n) with respect to tropospheric gas-phase chemistry. For this, a simulation incorporating two regional instances, one over Europe with 50 km resolution and one over Germany with 12 km resolution, is conducted. The model results are compared with satellite, ground-based and aircraft in situ observations.
Alexandra P. Tsimpidi, Vlassis A. Karydis, Spyros N. Pandis, and Jos Lelieveld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 8939–8962,Short summary
In this work we use a global chemistry climate model together with a comprehensive global AMS data set in order to provide valuable insights into the temporal and geographical variability of the contribution of the emitted particles and the chemically processed organic material from combustion sources to total OA. This study reveals the high importance of SOA from anthropogenic sources on global OA concentrations and identifies plausible sources of discrepancy between models and measurements.
Simone Dietmüller, Patrick Jöckel, Holger Tost, Markus Kunze, Catrin Gellhorn, Sabine Brinkop, Christine Frömming, Michael Ponater, Benedikt Steil, Axel Lauer, and Johannes Hendricks
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 2209–2222,Short summary
Four new radiation related submodels (RAD, AEROPT, CLOUDOPT, and ORBIT) are available within the MESSy framework now. They are largely based on the original radiation scheme of ECHAM5. RAD simulates radiative transfer, AEROPT calculates aerosol optical properties, CLOUDOPT calculates cloud optical properties, and ORBIT is responsible for Earth orbit calculations. Multiple diagnostic calls of the radiation routine are possible, so radiative forcing can be calculated during the model simulation.
Swen Metzger, Benedikt Steil, Mohamed Abdelkader, Klaus Klingmüller, Li Xu, Joyce E. Penner, Christos Fountoukis, Athanasios Nenes, and Jos Lelieveld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 7213–7237,Short summary
We introduce an unique single parameter framework to efficiently parameterize the aerosol water uptake for mixtures of semi-volatile and non-volatile compounds, being entirely based on the single solute specific coefficient introduced in Metzger et al. (2012).
Stijn Hantson, Almut Arneth, Sandy P. Harrison, Douglas I. Kelley, I. Colin Prentice, Sam S. Rabin, Sally Archibald, Florent Mouillot, Steve R. Arnold, Paulo Artaxo, Dominique Bachelet, Philippe Ciais, Matthew Forrest, Pierre Friedlingstein, Thomas Hickler, Jed O. Kaplan, Silvia Kloster, Wolfgang Knorr, Gitta Lasslop, Fang Li, Stephane Mangeon, Joe R. Melton, Andrea Meyn, Stephen Sitch, Allan Spessa, Guido R. van der Werf, Apostolos Voulgarakis, and Chao Yue
Biogeosciences, 13, 3359–3375,Short summary
Our ability to predict the magnitude and geographic pattern of past and future fire impacts rests on our ability to model fire regimes. A large variety of models exist, and it is unclear which type of model or degree of complexity is required to model fire adequately at regional to global scales. In this paper we summarize the current state of the art in fire-regime modelling and model evaluation, and outline what lessons may be learned from the Fire Model Intercomparison Project – FireMIP.
Klaus Klingmüller, Andrea Pozzer, Swen Metzger, Georgiy L. Stenchikov, and Jos Lelieveld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 5063–5073,Short summary
During the last decade, the Middle East experienced the strongest increase in atmospheric aerosol concentrations worldwide. Based on satellite observations, the present study corroborates this trend and reveals correlations with soil moisture and precipitation in and surrounding the Fertile Crescent. This suggests that the increasing drought conditions in this region have enhanced dust emissions, a tendency which is expected to be intensified by climate change.
N. Sobanski, M. J. Tang, J. Thieser, G. Schuster, D. Pöhler, H. Fischer, W. Song, C. Sauvage, J. Williams, J. Fachinger, F. Berkes, P. Hoor, U. Platt, J. Lelieveld, and J. N. Crowley
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 4867–4883,Short summary
The nitrate radical (NO3) is an important nocturnal oxidant. By measuring NO3, its precursors (nitrogen dioxide and ozone) and several trace gases with which it reacts, we examined the chemical and meteorological factors influencing the lifetime of NO3 at a semi-rural mountain site. Unexpectedly long lifetimes, approaching 1 h, were observed on several nights and were associated with a low-lying residual layer. We discuss the role of other reactions that convert NO2 to NO3.
Patrick Jöckel, Holger Tost, Andrea Pozzer, Markus Kunze, Oliver Kirner, Carl A. M. Brenninkmeijer, Sabine Brinkop, Duy S. Cai, Christoph Dyroff, Johannes Eckstein, Franziska Frank, Hella Garny, Klaus-Dirk Gottschaldt, Phoebe Graf, Volker Grewe, Astrid Kerkweg, Bastian Kern, Sigrun Matthes, Mariano Mertens, Stefanie Meul, Marco Neumaier, Matthias Nützel, Sophie Oberländer-Hayn, Roland Ruhnke, Theresa Runde, Rolf Sander, Dieter Scharffe, and Andreas Zahn
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 1153–1200,Short summary
With an advanced numerical global chemistry climate model (CCM) we performed several detailed combined hind-cast and projection simulations of the period 1950 to 2100 to assess the past, present, and potential future dynamical and chemical state of the Earth atmosphere. The manuscript documents the model and the various applied model set-ups and provides a first evaluation of the simulation results from a global perspective as a quality check of the data.
Armin Rauthe-Schöch, Angela K. Baker, Tanja J. Schuck, Carl A. M. Brenninkmeijer, Andreas Zahn, Markus Hermann, Greta Stratmann, Helmut Ziereis, Peter F. J. van Velthoven, and Jos Lelieveld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 3609–3629,Short summary
The flying laboratory CARIBIC onboard a passenger aircraft measured trace gases and aerosol particles in the upper tropospheric Indian summer monsoon anticyclone in summer 2008. We used the measurements together with meteorological analyses to investigate the chemical signature of the northern and southern part of the monsoon, the source regions from where the air was entrained into the monsoon and which parts of the world received polluted air that had been chemically processed in the monsoon.
N. I. Kristiansen, A. Stohl, D. J. L. Olivié, B. Croft, O. A. Søvde, H. Klein, T. Christoudias, D. Kunkel, S. J. Leadbetter, Y. H. Lee, K. Zhang, K. Tsigaridis, T. Bergman, N. Evangeliou, H. Wang, P.-L. Ma, R. C. Easter, P. J. Rasch, X. Liu, G. Pitari, G. Di Genova, S. Y. Zhao, Y. Balkanski, S. E. Bauer, G. S. Faluvegi, H. Kokkola, R. V. Martin, J. R. Pierce, M. Schulz, D. Shindell, H. Tost, and H. Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 3525–3561,Short summary
Processes affecting aerosol removal from the atmosphere are not fully understood. In this study we investigate to what extent atmospheric transport models can reproduce observed loss of aerosols. We compare measurements of radioactive isotopes, that attached to ambient sulfate aerosols during the 2011 Fukushima nuclear accident, to 19 models using identical emissions. Results indicate aerosol removal that is too fast in most models, and apply to aerosols that have undergone long-range transport.
Narendra Ojha, Andrea Pozzer, Armin Rauthe-Schöch, Angela K. Baker, Jongmin Yoon, Carl A. M. Brenninkmeijer, and Jos Lelieveld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 3013–3032,Short summary
We compare simulations of ozone and carbon monoxide using a regional chemistry transport model (WRF-Chem) with aircraft observations from CARIBIC program over India during monsoon period. Sensitivity simulations are conducted to assess the influences of regional emissions and long-range transport.
J. Thieser, G. Schuster, J. Schuladen, G. J. Phillips, A. Reiffs, U. Parchatka, D. Pöhler, J. Lelieveld, and J. N. Crowley
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 553–576,Short summary
We report on the use of thermal dissociation cavity ring-down spectroscopy to detect NO2, peroxy nitrates and alkyl nitrates. We present both laboratory studies that characterise the chemical formation and loss of NO2 in the heated inlets and also result from a first field deployment.
V. A. Karydis, A. P. Tsimpidi, A. Pozzer, M. Astitha, and J. Lelieveld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1491–1509,Short summary
We provide an assessment of the chemical composition and global aerosol load of aerosol nitrate and determine the effect of mineral dust on its formation due to thermodynamical interactions. For this purpose we used an explicit geographical representation of the emitted soil particle size distribution and chemical composition. We conclude mineral dust aerosol chemistry is important for nitrate aerosol formation and significantly affects its global distribution, especially in the coarse mode.
A. J. G. Baumgaertner, P. Jöckel, A. Kerkweg, R. Sander, and H. Tost
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 125–135,Short summary
The Community Earth System Model (CESM1) is connected to the the Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy) as a new base model. This allows MESSy users the option to utilize either the state-of-the art spectral element atmosphere dynamical core or the finite volume core of CESM1. Additionally, this makes several other component models available to MESSy users.
M. Forrest, J. T. Eronen, T. Utescher, G. Knorr, C. Stepanek, G. Lohmann, and T. Hickler
Clim. Past, 11, 1701–1732,Short summary
We simulated Late Miocene (11-7 Million years ago) vegetation using two plausible CO2 concentrations: 280ppm CO2 and 450ppm CO2. We compared the simulated vegetation to existing plant fossil data for the whole Northern Hemisphere. Our results suggest that during the Late Miocene the CO2 levels have been relatively low, or that other factors that are not included in the models maintained the seasonal temperate forests and open vegetation.
M. Abdelkader, S. Metzger, R. E. Mamouri, M. Astitha, L. Barrie, Z. Levin, and J. Lelieveld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 9173–9189,
H. G. Ouwersloot, A. Pozzer, B. Steil, H. Tost, and J. Lelieveld
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 2435–2445,
H. Fischer, A. Pozzer, T. Schmitt, P. Jöckel, T. Klippel, D. Taraborrelli, and J. Lelieveld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 6971–6980,
S. Zheng, A. Pozzer, C. X. Cao, and J. Lelieveld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 5715–5725,Short summary
The present study uses aerosol optical depth as proxy to estimate 12 years of PM2.5 data for the Beijing central area and calculate the yearly premature mortality by different diseases attributable to PM2.5. The estimated average total mortality due to PM2.5 is about 5100 individuals/year for the period 2001--2012 in the Beijing central area, and the per capita mortality for all ages due to PM2.5 is around 15 per 10,000 person-years for the period 2010--2012.
A. Pozzer, A. de Meij, J. Yoon, H. Tost, A. K. Georgoulias, and M. Astitha
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 5521–5535,Short summary
Thanks to numerical simulations and satellite observations, it is shown that aerosol optical depth (AOD) trends (2000--2010 period) over the US and Europe are due to emission decrease, while over the Sahara Desert and the Middle East they are due to meteorological changes. Over Southeast Asia, both meteorology and emission changes are important for the AOD trends. It is shown that soluble components strongly influence AOD, as their contribution is enhanced by the aerosol water content.
A. P. Tsimpidi, V. A. Karydis, A. Pozzer, S. N. Pandis, and J. Lelieveld
Geosci. Model Dev., 7, 3153–3172,Short summary
A computationally efficient module for the description of OA composition and evolution in the atmosphere has been developed. This module subdivides OA into several compounds based on their source of origin and volatility, allowing the quantification of POA vs. SOA as well as biogenic vs. anthropogenic contributions to OA concentrations. Such fundamental information can shed light on long-term changes in OA abundance, and hence project the effects of OA on future air quality and climate.
K. Klingmüller, B. Steil, C. Brühl, H. Tost, and J. Lelieveld
Geosci. Model Dev., 7, 2503–2516,
A. Novelli, K. Hens, C. Tatum Ernest, D. Kubistin, E. Regelin, T. Elste, C. Plass-Dülmer, M. Martinez, J. Lelieveld, and H. Harder
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 3413–3430,
H. Bozem, H. Fischer, C. Gurk, C. L. Schiller, U. Parchatka, R. Koenigstedt, A. Stickler, M. Martinez, H. Harder, D. Kubistin, J. Williams, G. Eerdekens, and J. Lelieveld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 8917–8931,
D. Y. Chang, H. Tost, B. Steil, and J. Lelieveld
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
K. Hens, A. Novelli, M. Martinez, J. Auld, R. Axinte, B. Bohn, H. Fischer, P. Keronen, D. Kubistin, A. C. Nölscher, R. Oswald, P. Paasonen, T. Petäjä, E. Regelin, R. Sander, V. Sinha, M. Sipilä, D. Taraborrelli, C. Tatum Ernest, J. Williams, J. Lelieveld, and H. Harder
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 8723–8747,
A. K. Mishra, K. Klingmueller, E. Fredj, J. Lelieveld, Y. Rudich, and I. Koren
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 7213–7231,
H. Rybka and H. Tost
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 5561–5576,
T. Christoudias, Y. Proestos, and J. Lelieveld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 4607–4616,
G. W. Mann, K. S. Carslaw, C. L. Reddington, K. J. Pringle, M. Schulz, A. Asmi, D. V. Spracklen, D. A. Ridley, M. T. Woodhouse, L. A. Lee, K. Zhang, S. J. Ghan, R. C. Easter, X. Liu, P. Stier, Y. H. Lee, P. J. Adams, H. Tost, J. Lelieveld, S. E. Bauer, K. Tsigaridis, T. P. C. van Noije, A. Strunk, E. Vignati, N. Bellouin, M. Dalvi, C. E. Johnson, T. Bergman, H. Kokkola, K. von Salzen, F. Yu, G. Luo, A. Petzold, J. Heintzenberg, A. Clarke, J. A. Ogren, J. Gras, U. Baltensperger, U. Kaminski, S. G. Jennings, C. D. O'Dowd, R. M. Harrison, D. C. S. Beddows, M. Kulmala, Y. Viisanen, V. Ulevicius, N. Mihalopoulos, V. Zdimal, M. Fiebig, H.-C. Hansson, E. Swietlicki, and J. S. Henzing
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 4679–4713,
J. A. Adame, M. Martínez, M. Sorribas, P. J. Hidalgo, H. Harder, J.-M. Diesch, F. Drewnick, W. Song, J. Williams, V. Sinha, M. A. Hernández-Ceballos, J. Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, R. Sander, Z. Hosaynali-Beygi, H. Fischer, J. Lelieveld, and B. De la Morena
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 2325–2342,
C. Liu, S. Beirle, T. Butler, P. Hoor, C. Frankenberg, P. Jöckel, M. Penning de Vries, U. Platt, A. Pozzer, M. G. Lawrence, J. Lelieveld, H. Tost, and T. Wagner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 1717–1732,
Y. F. Elshorbany, P. J. Crutzen, B. Steil, A. Pozzer, H. Tost, and J. Lelieveld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 1167–1184,
D. Giannadaki, A. Pozzer, and J. Lelieveld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 957–968,
P. Zanis, P. Hadjinicolaou, A. Pozzer, E. Tyrlis, S. Dafka, N. Mihalopoulos, and J. Lelieveld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 115–132,
J. Yoon, A. Pozzer, P. Hoor, D. Y. Chang, S. Beirle, T. Wagner, S. Schloegl, J. Lelieveld, and H. M. Worden
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 11307–11316,
E. Regelin, H. Harder, M. Martinez, D. Kubistin, C. Tatum Ernest, H. Bozem, T. Klippel, Z. Hosaynali-Beygi, H. Fischer, R. Sander, P. Jöckel, R. Königstedt, and J. Lelieveld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 10703–10720,
J. Lelieveld, C. Barlas, D. Giannadaki, and A. Pozzer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 7023–7037,
A.C. Nölscher, E. Bourtsoukidis, B. Bonn, J. Kesselmeier, J. Lelieveld, and J. Williams
Biogeosciences, 10, 4241–4257,
C. Brühl, J. Lelieveld, M. Höpfner, and H. Tost
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
D. Kunkel, H. Tost, and M. G. Lawrence
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 4203–4222,
G. J. Phillips, N. Pouvesle, J. Thieser, G. Schuster, R. Axinte, H. Fischer, J. Williams, J. Lelieveld, and J. N. Crowley
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 1129–1139,
J. Lelieveld, M. G. Lawrence, and D. Kunkel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 31–34,
A. Jugold, F. Althoff, M. Hurkuck, M. Greule, K. Lenhart, J. Lelieveld, and F. Keppler
Biogeosciences, 9, 5291–5301,
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Wenxing Jia, Xiaoye Zhang, Hong Wang, Yaqiang Wang, Deying Wang, Junting Zhong, Wenjie Zhang, Lei Zhang, Lifeng Guo, Yadong Lei, Jizhi Wang, Yuanqin Yang, and Yi Lin
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 6833–6856,Short summary
In addition to the dominant role of the PBL scheme on the results of the meteorological field, many factors in the model are influenced by large uncertainties. This study focuses on the uncertainties that influence numerical simulation results (including horizontal resolution, vertical resolution, near-surface scheme, initial and boundary conditions, underlying surface update, and update of model version), hoping to provide a reference for scholars conducting research on the model.
Owen K. Hughes and Christiane Jablonowski
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 6805–6831,Short summary
Atmospheric models benefit from idealized tests that assess their accuracy in a simpler simulation. A new test with artificial mountains is developed for models on a spherical earth. The mountains trigger the development of both planetary-scale and small-scale waves. These can be analyzed in dry or moist environments, with a simple rainfall mechanism. Four atmospheric models are intercompared. This sheds light on the pros and cons of the model design and the impact of mountains on the flow.
Zhongwei Luo, Yan Han, Kun Hua, Yufen Zhang, Jianhui Wu, Xiaohui Bi, Qili Dai, Baoshuang Liu, Yang Chen, Xin Long, and Yinchang Feng
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 6757–6771,Short summary
This study explores how the variation in the source profiles adopted in chemical transport models (CTMs) impacts the simulated results of chemical components in PM2.5 based on sensitivity analysis. The impact on PM2.5 components cannot be ignored, and its influence can be transmitted and linked between components. The representativeness and timeliness of the source profile should be paid adequate attention in air quality simulation.
Wenxing Jia, Xiaoye Zhang, Hong Wang, Yaqiang Wang, Deying Wang, Junting Zhong, Wenjie Zhang, Lei Zhang, Lifeng Guo, Yadong Lei, Jizhi Wang, Yuanqin Yang, and Yi Lin
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 6635–6670,Short summary
Most current studies on planetary boundary layer (PBL) parameterization schemes are relatively fragmented and lack systematic in-depth analysis and discussion. In this study, we comprehensively evaluate the performance capability of the PBL scheme in five typical regions of China in different seasons from the mechanism of the scheme and the effects of PBL schemes on the near-surface meteorological parameters, vertical structures of the PBL, PBL height, and turbulent diffusion.
William Rudisill, Alejandro Flores, and Rosemary Carroll
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 6531–6552,Short summary
It is important to know how well atmospheric models do in mountains, but there are not very many weather stations. We evaluate rain and snow from a model from 1987–2020 in the Upper Colorado River basin against the available data. The model works rather well, but there are still some uncertainties in remote locations. We then use snow maps collected by aircraft, streamflow measurements, and some advanced statistics to help identify how well the model works in ways we could not do before.
Angel Liduvino Vara-Vela, Christoffer Karoff, Noelia Rojas Benavente, and Janaina P. Nascimento
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 6413–6431,Short summary
A 1-year simulation of atmospheric CH4 over Europe is performed and evaluated against observations based on the TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI). A good general model–observation agreement is found, with discrepancies reaching their minimum and maximum values during the summer peak season and winter months, respectively. A huge and under-explored potential for CH4 inverse modeling using improved TROPOMI XCH4 data sets in large-scale applications is identified.
Zhaojun Tang, Zhe Jiang, Jiaqi Chen, Panpan Yang, and Yanan Shen
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 6377–6392,Short summary
We designed a new framework to facilitate emission inventory updates in the adjoint of GEOS-Chem model. It allows us to support Harmonized Emissions Component (HEMCO) emission inventories conveniently and to easily add more emission inventories following future updates in GEOS-Chem forward simulations. Furthermore, we developed new modules to support MERRA-2 meteorological data; this allows us to perform long-term analysis with consistent meteorological data.
Rui Zhu, Zhaojun Tang, Xiaokang Chen, Xiong Liu, and Zhe Jiang
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 6337–6354,Short summary
A single ozone (O3) tracer mode was developed in this work to build the capability of the GEOS-Chem model for rapid O3 simulation. It is combined with OMI and surface O3 observations to investigate the changes in tropospheric O3 in China in 2015–2020. The assimilations indicate rapid surface O3 increases that are underestimated by the a priori simulations. We find stronger increases in tropospheric O3 columns over polluted areas and a large discrepancy by assimilating different observations.
Ewa M. Bednarz, Ryan Hossaini, N. Luke Abraham, and Martyn P. Chipperfield
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 6187–6209,Short summary
Development and performance of the new DEST chemistry scheme of UM–UKCA is described. The scheme extends the standard StratTrop scheme by including important updates to the halogen chemistry, thus allowing process-oriented studies of stratospheric ozone depletion and recovery, including impacts from both controlled long-lived ozone-depleting substances and emerging issues around uncontrolled, very short-lived substances. It will thus aid studies in support of future ozone assessment reports.
Shaohui Zhou, Chloe Yuchao Gao, Zexia Duan, Xingya Xi, and Yubin Li
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 6247–6266,Short summary
The proposed wind speed correction model (VMD-PCA-RF) demonstrates the highest prediction accuracy and stability in the five southern provinces in nearly a year and at different heights. VMD-PCA-RF evaluation indices for 13 months remain relatively stable: the forecasting accuracy rate FA is above 85 %. In future research, the proposed VMD-PCA-RF algorithm can be extrapolated to the 3 km grid points of the five southern provinces to generate a 3 km grid-corrected wind speed product.
Simone Tilmes, Michael J. Mills, Yunqian Zhu, Charles G. Bardeen, Francis Vitt, Pengfei Yu, David Fillmore, Xiaohong Liu, Brian Toon, and Terry Deshler
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 6087–6125,Short summary
We implemented an alternative aerosol scheme in the high- and low-top model versions of the Community Earth System Model Version 2 (CESM2) with a more detailed description of tropospheric and stratospheric aerosol size distributions than the existing aerosol model. This development enables the comparison of different aerosol schemes with different complexity in the same model framework. It identifies improvements compared to a range of observations in both the troposphere and stratosphere.
Dien Wu, Joshua L. Laughner, Junjie Liu, Paul I. Palmer, John C. Lin, and Paul O. Wennberg
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 6161–6185,Short summary
To balance computational expenses and chemical complexity in extracting emission signals from tropospheric NO2 columns, we propose a simplified non-linear Lagrangian chemistry transport model and assess its performance against TROPOMI v2 over power plants and cities. Using this model, we then discuss how NOx chemistry affects the relationship between NOx and CO2 emissions and how studying NO2 columns helps quantify modeled biases in wind directions and prior emissions.
Jiangshan Zhu and Ross Noel Bannister
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 6067–6085,Short summary
We describe how condensation and evaporation are included in the existing (otherwise dry) simplified ABC model. The new model (Hydro-ABC) includes transport of vapour and condensate within a dynamical core, and it transitions between these two phases via a micro-physics scheme. The model shows the development of an anvil cloud and excitation of atmospheric waves over many frequencies. The covariances that develop between variables are also studied together with indicators of convective motion.
Jiangyong Li, Chunlin Zhang, Wenlong Zhao, Shijie Han, Yu Wang, Hao Wang, and Boguang Wang
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 6049–6066,Short summary
Photochemical box models, crucial for understanding tropospheric chemistry, face challenges due to slow computational efficiency with large chemical equations. The model introduced in this study, ROMAC, boosts efficiency by up to 96 % using an advanced atmospheric solver and an adaptive optimization algorithm. Moreover, ROMAC exceeds traditional box models in evaluating the impact of physical processes on pollutant concentrations.
Lina Vitali, Kees Cuvelier, Antonio Piersanti, Alexandra Monteiro, Mario Adani, Roberta Amorati, Agnieszka Bartocha, Alessandro D'Ausilio, Paweł Durka, Carla Gama, Giulia Giovannini, Stijn Janssen, Tomasz Przybyła, Michele Stortini, Stijn Vranckx, and Philippe Thunis
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 6029–6047,Short summary
Air quality forecasting models play a key role in fostering short-term measures aimed at reducing human exposure to air pollution. Together with this role comes the need for a thorough assessment of the model performances to build confidence in models’ capabilities, in particular when model applications support policymaking. In this paper, we propose an evaluation methodology and test it on several domains across Europe, highlighting its strengths and room for improvement.
Wenfu Tang, Louisa K. Emmons, Helen M. Worden, Rajesh Kumar, Cenlin He, Benjamin Gaubert, Zhonghua Zheng, Simone Tilmes, Rebecca R. Buchholz, Sara-Eva Martinez-Alonso, Claire Granier, Antonin Soulie, Kathryn McKain, Bruce C. Daube, Jeff Peischl, Chelsea Thompson, and Pieternel Levelt
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 6001–6028,Short summary
The new MUSICAv0 model enables the study of atmospheric chemistry across all relevant scales. We develop a MUSICAv0 grid for Africa. We evaluate MUSICAv0 with observations and compare it with a previously used model – WRF-Chem. Overall, the performance of MUSICAv0 is comparable to WRF-Chem. Based on model–satellite discrepancies, we find that future field campaigns in an eastern African region (30°E–45°E, 5°S–5°N) could substantially improve the predictive skill of air quality models.
Shuzhuang Feng, Fei Jiang, Zheng Wu, Hengmao Wang, Wei He, Yang Shen, Lingyu Zhang, Yanhua Zheng, Chenxi Lou, Ziqiang Jiang, and Weimin Ju
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 5949–5977,Short summary
We document the system development and application of a Regional multi-Air Pollutant Assimilation System (RAPAS v1.0). This system is developed to optimize gridded source emissions of CO, SO2, NOx, primary PM2.5, and coarse PM10 on a regional scale via simultaneously assimilating surface measurements of CO, SO2, NO2, PM2.5, and PM10. A series of sensitivity experiments demonstrates the advantage of the “two-step” inversion strategy and the robustness of the system in estimating the emissions.
Megan A. Stretton, William Morrison, Robin J. Hogan, and Sue Grimmond
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 5931–5947,Short summary
Cities' materials and forms impact radiative fluxes. We evaluate the SPARTACUS-Urban multi-layer approach to modelling longwave radiation, describing realistic 3D geometry statistically using the explicit DART (Discrete Anisotropic Radiative Transfer) model. The temperature configurations used are derived from thermal camera observations. SPARTACUS-Urban accurately predicts longwave fluxes, with a low computational time (cf. DART), but has larger errors with sunlit/shaded surface temperatures.
Daehyeon Han, Jungho Im, Yeji Shin, and Juhyun Lee
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 5895–5914,Short summary
To identify the key factors affecting quantitative precipitation nowcasting (QPN) using deep learning (DL), we carried out a comprehensive evaluation and analysis. We compared four key factors: DL model, length of the input sequence, loss function, and ensemble approach. Generally, U-Net outperformed ConvLSTM. Loss function and ensemble showed potential for improving performance when they synergized well. The length of the input sequence did not significantly affect the results.
Fabien Margairaz, Balwinder Singh, Jeremy A. Gibbs, Loren Atwood, Eric R. Pardyjak, and Rob Stoll
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 5729–5754,Short summary
The Quick Environmental Simulation (QES) tool is a low-computational-cost fast-response framework. It provides high-resolution wind and concentration information to study complex problems, such as spore or smoke transport, urban pollution, and air quality. This paper presents the particle dispersion model and its validation against analytical solutions and wind-tunnel data for a mock-urban setting. In all cases, the model provides accurate results with competitive computational performance.
Tao Wang, Hang Liu, Jie Li, Shuai Wang, Youngseob Kim, Yele Sun, Wenyi Yang, Huiyun Du, Zhe Wang, and Zifa Wang
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 5585–5599,Short summary
This paper developed a two-way coupled module in a new version of a regional urban–street network model, IAQMS-street v2.0, in which the mass flux from streets to background is considered. Test cases are defined to evaluate the performance of IAQMS-street v2.0 in Beijing by comparing it with that simulated by IAQMS-street v1.0 and a regional model. The contribution of local emissions and the influence of on-road vehicle control measures on air quality are evaluated by using IAQMS-street v2.0.
Denis E. Sergeev, Nathan J. Mayne, Thomas Bendall, Ian A. Boutle, Alex Brown, Iva Kavčič, James Kent, Krisztian Kohary, James Manners, Thomas Melvin, Enrico Olivier, Lokesh K. Ragta, Ben Shipway, Jon Wakelin, Nigel Wood, and Mohamed Zerroukat
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 5601–5626,Short summary
Three-dimensional climate models are one of the best tools we have to study planetary atmospheres. Here, we apply LFRic-Atmosphere, a new model developed by the Met Office, to seven different scenarios for terrestrial planetary climates, including four for the exoplanet TRAPPIST-1e, a primary target for future observations. LFRic-Atmosphere reproduces these scenarios within the spread of the existing models across a range of key climatic variables, justifying its use in future exoplanet studies.
Roland Eichinger, Sebastian Rhode, Hella Garny, Peter Preusse, Petr Pisoft, Aleš Kuchař, Patrick Jöckel, Astrid Kerkweg, and Bastian Kern
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 5561–5583,Short summary
The columnar approach of gravity wave (GW) schemes results in dynamical model biases, but parallel decomposition makes horizontal GW propagation computationally unfeasible. In the global model EMAC, we approximate it by GW redistribution at one altitude using tailor-made redistribution maps generated with a ray tracer. More spread-out GW drag helps reconcile the model with observations and close the 60°S GW gap. Polar vortex dynamics are improved, enhancing climate model credibility.
Xueying Liu, Yuxuan Wang, Shailaja Wasti, Wei Li, Ehsan Soleimanian, James Flynn, Travis Griggs, Sergio Alvarez, John T. Sullivan, Maurice Roots, Laurence Twigg, Guillaume Gronoff, Timothy Berkoff, Paul Walter, Mark Estes, Johnathan W. Hair, Taylor Shingler, Amy Jo Scarino, Marta Fenn, and Laura Judd
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 5493–5514,Short summary
With a comprehensive suite of ground-based and airborne remote sensing measurements during the 2021 TRacking Aerosol Convection ExpeRiment – Air Quality (TRACER-AQ) campaign in Houston, this study evaluates the simulation of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) height and the ozone vertical profile by a high-resolution (1.33 km) 3-D photochemical model Weather Research and Forecasting-driven GEOS-Chem (WRF-GC).
Stijn Van Leuven, Pieter De Meutter, Johan Camps, Piet Termonia, and Andy Delcloo
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 5323–5338,Short summary
Precipitation collects airborne particles and deposits these on the ground. This process is called wet deposition and greatly determines how airborne radioactive particles (released routinely or accidentally) contaminate the surface. In this work we present a new method to improve the calculation of wet deposition in computer models. We apply this method to the existing model FLEXPART by simulating the Fukushima nuclear accident (2011) and show that it improves the simulation of wet deposition.
Thibaud Sarica, Alice Maison, Yelva Roustan, Matthias Ketzel, Steen Solvang Jensen, Youngseob Kim, Christophe Chaillou, and Karine Sartelet
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 5281–5303,Short summary
A new version of the Model of Urban Network of Intersecting Canyons and Highways (MUNICH) is developed to represent heterogeneities of concentrations in streets. The street volume is discretized vertically and horizontally to limit the artificial dilution of emissions and concentrations. This new version is applied to street networks in Copenhagen and Paris. The comparisons to observations are improved, with higher concentrations of pollutants emitted by traffic at the bottom of the street.
Junsu Gil, Meehye Lee, Jeonghwan Kim, Gangwoong Lee, Joonyoung Ahn, and Cheol-Hee Kim
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 5251–5263,Short summary
In this study, the framework for calculating reactive nitrogen species using a deep neural network (RND) was developed. It works through simple Python codes and provides high-accuracy reactive nitrogen oxide data. In the first version (RNDv1.0), the model calculates the nitrous acid (HONO) in urban areas, which has an important role in producing O3 and fine aerosol.
Daniel Yazgi and Tinja Olenius
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 5237–5249,Short summary
We present flexible tools to implement aerosol formation rate predictions in climate and chemical transport models. New-particle formation is a significant but uncertain factor affecting aerosol numbers and an active field within molecular modeling which provides data for assessing formation rates for different chemical species. We introduce tools to generate and interpolate formation rate lookup tables for user-defined data, thus enabling the easy inclusion and testing of formation schemes.
Vineet Yadav, Subhomoy Ghosh, and Charles E. Miller
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 5219–5236,Short summary
Measuring the performance of inversions in linear Bayesian problems is crucial in real-life applications. In this work, we provide analytical forms of the local and global sensitivities of the estimated fluxes with respect to various inputs. We provide methods to uniquely map the observational signal to spatiotemporal domains. Utilizing this, we also show techniques to assess correlations between the Jacobians that naturally translate to nonstationary covariance matrix components.
Mingzhao Liu, Lars Hoffmann, Sabine Griessbach, Zhongyin Cai, Yi Heng, and Xue Wu
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 5197–5217,Short summary
We introduce new and revised chemistry and physics modules in the Massive-Parallel Trajectory Calculations (MPTRAC) Lagrangian transport model aiming to improve the representation of volcanic SO2 transport and depletion. We test these modules in a case study of the Ambae eruption in July 2018 in which the SO2 plume underwent wet removal and convection. The lifetime of SO2 shows highly variable and complex dependencies on the atmospheric conditions at different release heights.
Bernhard M. Enz, Jan P. Engelmann, and Ulrike Lohmann
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 5093–5112,Short summary
An algorithm to track tropical cyclones in model simulation data has been developed. The algorithm uses many combinations of varying parameter thresholds to detect weaker phases of tropical cyclones while still being resilient to false positives. It is shown that the algorithm performs well and adequately represents the tropical cyclone activity of the underlying simulation data. The impact of false positives on overall tropical cyclone activity is shown to be insignificant.
Sepehr Fathi, Mark Gordon, and Yongsheng Chen
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 5069–5091,Short summary
We have combined various capabilities within a WRF model to generate simulations of atmospheric pollutant dispersion at 50 m resolution. The study objective was to resolve transport processes at the scale of measurements to assess and optimize aircraft-based emission rate retrievals. Model performance evaluation resulted in agreement within 5 % of observed meteorological and within 1–2 standard deviations of observed wind fields. Mass was conserved in the model within 5 % of input emissions.
Dylan Reynolds, Ethan Gutmann, Bert Kruyt, Michael Haugeneder, Tobias Jonas, Franziska Gerber, Michael Lehning, and Rebecca Mott
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 5049–5068,Short summary
The challenge of running geophysical models is often compounded by the question of where to obtain appropriate data to give as input to a model. Here we present the HICAR model, a simplified atmospheric model capable of running at spatial resolutions of hectometers for long time series or over large domains. This makes physically consistent atmospheric data available at the spatial and temporal scales needed for some terrestrial modeling applications, for example seasonal snow forecasting.
Li Fang, Jianbing Jin, Arjo Segers, Hong Liao, Ke Li, Bufan Xu, Wei Han, Mijie Pang, and Hai Xiang Lin
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 4867–4882,Short summary
Machine learning models have gained great popularity in air quality prediction. However, they are only available at air quality monitoring stations. In contrast, chemical transport models (CTM) provide predictions that are continuous in the 3D field. Owing to complex error sources, they are typically biased. In this study, we proposed a gridded prediction with high accuracy by fusing predictions from our regional feature selection machine learning prediction (RFSML v1.0) and a CTM prediction.
Willem Elias van Caspel, David Simpson, Jan Eiof Jonson, Anna Maria Katarina Benedictow, Yao Ge, Alcide di Sarra, Giandomenico Pace, Massimo Vieno, Hannah Walker, and Mathew Heal
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for GMDShort summary
Radiation coming from the sun is essential to atmospheric chemistry, driving the break-up, or photo-dissociation, of atmospheric molecules. This in turn affects the chemical composition and reactivity of the atmosphere. The representation of these photo-dissociation effects is therefore essential in atmospheric chemistry modeling. One such models is the EMEP MSC-W model, for which in this paper a new way of calculating the photo-dissociation rates is tested and evaluated.
Manu Goudar, Juliëtte C. S. Anema, Rajesh Kumar, Tobias Borsdorff, and Jochen Landgraf
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 4835–4852,Short summary
A framework was developed to automatically detect plumes and compute emission estimates with cross-sectional flux method (CFM) for biomass burning events in TROPOMI CO datasets using Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite active fire data. The emissions were more reliable when changing plume height in downwind direction was used instead of constant injection height. The CFM had uncertainty even when the meteorological conditions were accurate; thus there is a need for better inversion models.
Drew C. Pendergrass, Daniel J. Jacob, Hannah Nesser, Daniel J. Varon, Melissa Sulprizio, Kazuyuki Miyazaki, and Kevin W. Bowman
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 4793–4810,Short summary
We have built a tool called CHEEREIO that allows scientists to use observations of pollutants or gases in the atmosphere, such as from satellites or surface stations, to update supercomputer models that simulate the Earth. CHEEREIO uses the difference between the model simulations of the atmosphere and real-world observations to come up with a good guess for the actual composition of our atmosphere, the true emissions of various pollutants, and whatever else they may want to study.
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 4749–4766,Short summary
The Earth's atmosphere can support various types of global-scale waves. Some waves propagate eastward and others westward, and they can have different zonal wavenumbers. The Fourier–wavelet analysis is a useful technique for identifying different components of global-scale waves and their temporal variability. This paper introduces an easy-to-implement method to derive Fourier–wavelet spectra from 2-D space–time data. Application examples are presented using atmospheric models.
Bok H. Baek, Carlie Coats, Siqi Ma, Chi-Tsan Wang, Yunyao Li, Jia Xing, Daniel Tong, Soontae Kim, and Jung-Hun Woo
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 4659–4676,Short summary
To enable the direct feedback effects of aerosols and local meteorology in an air quality modeling system without any computational bottleneck, we have developed an inline meteorology-induced emissions coupler module within the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Community Multiscale Air Quality modeling system to dynamically model the complex MOtor Vehicle Emission Simulator (MOVES) on-road mobile emissions inline without a separate dedicated emissions processing model like SMOKE.
Christoph Neuhauser, Maicon Hieronymus, Michael Kern, Marc Rautenhaus, Annika Oertel, and Rüdiger Westermann
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 4617–4638,Short summary
Numerical weather prediction models rely on parameterizations for sub-grid-scale processes, which are a source of uncertainty. We present novel visual analytics solutions to analyze interactively the sensitivities of a selected prognostic variable to multiple model parameters along trajectories regarding similarities in temporal development and spatiotemporal relationships. The proposed workflow is applied to cloud microphysical sensitivities along coherent strongly ascending trajectories.
Liangke Huang, Shengwei Lan, Ge Zhu, Fade Chen, Junyu Li, and Lilong Liu
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for GMDShort summary
The existing ZTD models have limitations such as using a single fitting function, neglecting daily cycle variations, and relying on only one resolution grid data for modeling. This model considers the daily-cycle variation and latitude factor of ZTD, using the sliding window algorithm based on ERA5 atmospheric reanalysis data. The ZTD data from 545 radiosonde stations and MERRA-2 atmospheric reanalysis data are used to validate the accuracy of the GGZTD-P model.
Yingqi Zheng, Minttu Havu, Huizhi Liu, Xueling Cheng, Yifan Wen, Hei Shing Lee, Joyson Ahongshangbam, and Leena Järvi
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 4551–4579,Short summary
The performance of the Surface Urban Energy and Water Balance Scheme (SUEWS) is evaluated against the observed surface exchanges (fluxes) of heat and carbon dioxide in a densely built neighborhood in Beijing. The heat flux modeling is noticeably improved by using the observed maximum conductance and by optimizing the vegetation phenology modeling. SUEWS also performs well in simulating carbon dioxide flux.
Marie-Adèle Magnaldo, Quentin Libois, Sébastien Riette, and Christine Lac
With the worlwide development of the solar energy sector, the need for reliable solar radiation forecasts has significantly increased. However meteorological models that predict among others things solar radiation, have errors. Therefore, we so wanted to know in which situtaions these errors are most significant. We found that errors mostly occurs in cloudy situations, and different errors were highlighted depending of the cloud altitude. Several potential sources of errors were identified.
Simone Dietmüller, Sigrun Matthes, Katrin Dahlmann, Hiroshi Yamashita, Abolfazl Simorgh, Manuel Soler, Florian Linke, Benjamin Lührs, Maximilian M. Meuser, Christian Weder, Volker Grewe, Feijia Yin, and Federica Castino
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 4405–4425,Short summary
Climate-optimized aircraft trajectories avoid atmospheric regions with a large climate impact due to aviation emissions. This requires spatially and temporally resolved information on aviation's climate impact. We propose using algorithmic climate change functions (aCCFs) for CO2 and non-CO2 effects (ozone, methane, water vapor, contrail cirrus). Merged aCCFs combine individual aCCFs by assuming aircraft-specific parameters and climate metrics. Technically this is done with a Python library.
Andreas A. Beckert, Lea Eisenstein, Annika Oertel, Tim Hewson, George C. Craig, and Marc Rautenhaus
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 4427–4450,Short summary
We investigate the benefit of objective 3-D front detection with modern interactive visual analysis techniques for case studies of extra-tropical cyclones and comparisons of frontal structures between different numerical weather prediction models. The 3-D frontal structures show agreement with 2-D fronts from surface analysis charts and augment them in the vertical dimension. We see great potential for more complex studies of atmospheric dynamics and for operational weather forecasting.
Zhenxin Liu, Yuanhao Chen, Yuhang Wang, Cheng Liu, Shuhua Liu, and Hong Liao
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 4385–4403,Short summary
The heterogeneous layout of urban buildings leads to the complex wind field in and over the urban canopy. Large discrepancies between the observations and the current simulations result from misunderstanding the character of the wind field. The Inhomogeneous Wind Scheme in Urban Street (IWSUS) was developed to simulate the heterogeneity of the wind speed in a typical street and then improve the simulated energy budget in the lower atmospheric layer over the urban canopy.
Kai Cao, Qizhong Wu, Lingling Wang, Nan Wang, Huaqiong Cheng, Xiao Tang, Dongqing Li, and Lanning Wang
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 4367–4383,Short summary
Offline performance experiment results show that the GPU-HADVPPM on a V100 GPU can achieve up to 1113.6 × speedups to its original version on an E5-2682 v4 CPU. A series of optimization measures are taken, and the CAMx-CUDA model improves the computing efficiency by 128.4 × on a single V100 GPU card. A parallel architecture with an MPI plus CUDA hybrid paradigm is presented, and it can achieve up to 4.5 × speedup when launching eight CPU cores and eight GPU cards.
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 4265–4281,Short summary
This study analyzes forecasts that were made in 2021 to help trigger measurements during the CADDIWA experiment. The WRF and CHIMERE models were run each day, and the first goal is to quantify the variability of the forecast as a function of forecast leads and forecast location. The possibility of using the different leads as an ensemble is also tested. For some locations, the correlation scores are better with this approach. This could be tested on operational forecast chains in the future.
Emily de Jong, John Ben Mackay, Oleksii Bulenok, Anna Jaruga, and Sylwester Arabas
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 4193–4211,Short summary
In clouds, collisional breakup occurs when two colliding droplets splinter into new, smaller fragments. Particle-based modeling approaches often do not represent breakup because of the computational demands of creating new droplets. We present a particle-based breakup method that preserves the computational efficiency of these methods. In a series of simple demonstrations, we show that this representation alters cloud processes in reasonable and expected ways.
Caiyi Jin, Qiangqiang Yuan, Tongwen Li, Yuan Wang, and Liangpei Zhang
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 4137–4154,Short summary
The semi-empirical physical approach derives PM2.5 with strong physical significance. However, due to the complex optical characteristic, the physical parameters are difficult to express accurately. Thus, combining the atmospheric physical mechanism and machine learning, we propose an optimized model. It creatively embeds the random forest model into the physical PM2.5 remote sensing approach to simulate a physical parameter. Our method shows great optimized performance in the validations.
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Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) are released by vegetation and have a major impact on atmospheric chemistry and aerosol formation. Non-interacting vegetation constrains the majority of numerical models used to estimate global BVOC emissions, and thus, the effects of changing vegetation on emissions are not addressed. In this work, we replace the offline vegetation with dynamic vegetation states by linking a chemistry–climate model with a global dynamic vegetation model.
Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) are released by vegetation and have a major impact...