Articles | Volume 9, issue 11
Model description paper 21 Nov 2016
Model description paper | 21 Nov 2016
A land surface model combined with a crop growth model for paddy rice (MATCRO-Rice v. 1) – Part 1: Model description
Yuji Masutomi et al.
Yuji Masutomi, Keisuke Ono, Takahiro Takimoto, Masayoshi Mano, Atsushi Maruyama, and Akira Miyata
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 4155–4167,Short summary
We conducted two types of validation for the simulations by MATCRO-Rice developed by Masutomi et al. (2016). The results of the validation indicate that MATCRO-Rice has a high ability to accurately and consistently simulate latent heat flux, sensible heat flux, net carbon uptake by crops, and crop yield.
Kyle B. Delwiche, Sara Helen Knox, Avni Malhotra, Etienne Fluet-Chouinard, Gavin McNicol, Sarah Feron, Zutao Ouyang, Dario Papale, Carlo Trotta, Eleonora Canfora, You-Wei Cheah, Danielle Christianson, Ma. Carmelita R. Alberto, Pavel Alekseychik, Mika Aurela, Dennis Baldocchi, Sheel Bansal, David P. Billesbach, Gil Bohrer, Rosvel Bracho, Nina Buchmann, David I. Campbell, Gerardo Celis, Jiquan Chen, Weinan Chen, Housen Chu, Higo J. Dalmagro, Sigrid Dengel, Ankur R. Desai, Matteo Detto, Han Dolman, Elke Eichelmann, Eugenie Euskirchen, Daniela Famulari, Kathrin Fuchs, Mathias Goeckede, Sébastien Gogo, Mangaliso J. Gondwe, Jordan P. Goodrich, Pia Gottschalk, Scott L. Graham, Martin Heimann, Manuel Helbig, Carole Helfter, Kyle S. Hemes, Takashi Hirano, David Hollinger, Lukas Hörtnagl, Hiroki Iwata, Adrien Jacotot, Gerald Jurasinski, Minseok Kang, Kuno Kasak, John King, Janina Klatt, Franziska Koebsch, Ken W. Krauss, Derrick Y. F. Lai, Annalea Lohila, Ivan Mammarella, Luca Belelli Marchesini, Giovanni Manca, Jaclyn Hatala Matthes, Trofim Maximov, Lutz Merbold, Bhaskar Mitra, Timothy H. Morin, Eiko Nemitz, Mats B. Nilsson, Shuli Niu, Walter C. Oechel, Patricia Y. Oikawa, Keisuke Ono, Matthias Peichl, Olli Peltola, Michele L. Reba, Andrew D. Richardson, William Riley, Benjamin R. K. Runkle, Youngryel Ryu, Torsten Sachs, Ayaka Sakabe, Camilo Rey Sanchez, Edward A. Schuur, Karina V. R. Schäfer, Oliver Sonnentag, Jed P. Sparks, Ellen Stuart-Haëntjens, Cove Sturtevant, Ryan C. Sullivan, Daphne J. Szutu, Jonathan E. Thom, Margaret S. Torn, Eeva-Stiina Tuittila, Jessica Turner, Masahito Ueyama, Alex C. Valach, Rodrigo Vargas, Andrej Varlagin, Alma Vazquez-Lule, Joseph G. Verfaillie, Timo Vesala, George L. Vourlitis, Eric J. Ward, Christian Wille, Georg Wohlfahrt, Guan Xhuan Wong, Zhen Zhang, Donatella Zona, Lisamarie Windham-Myers, Benjamin Poulter, and Robert B. Jackson
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 3607–3689,Short summary
Methane is an important greenhouse gas, yet we lack knowledge about its global emissions and drivers. We present FLUXNET-CH4, a new global collection of methane measurements and a critical resource for the research community. We use FLUXNET-CH4 data to quantify the seasonality of methane emissions from freshwater wetlands, finding that methane seasonality varies strongly with latitude. Our new database and analysis will improve wetland model accuracy and inform greenhouse gas budgets.
Yuji Masutomi, Keisuke Ono, Takahiro Takimoto, Masayoshi Mano, Atsushi Maruyama, and Akira Miyata
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 4155–4167,Short summary
We conducted two types of validation for the simulations by MATCRO-Rice developed by Masutomi et al. (2016). The results of the validation indicate that MATCRO-Rice has a high ability to accurately and consistently simulate latent heat flux, sensible heat flux, net carbon uptake by crops, and crop yield.
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Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1379–1407,Short summary
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Hongxing He, Per-Erik Jansson, and Annemieke I. Gärdenäs
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 735–761,Short summary
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Theresa Boas, Heye Bogena, Thomas Grünwald, Bernard Heinesch, Dongryeol Ryu, Marius Schmidt, Harry Vereecken, Andrew Western, and Harrie-Jan Hendricks Franssen
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 573–601,Short summary
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Kazuyuki Saito, Hirokazu Machiya, Go Iwahana, Tokuta Yokohata, and Hiroshi Ohno
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 521–542,Short summary
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Felix Leung, Karina Williams, Stephen Sitch, Amos P. K. Tai, Andy Wiltshire, Jemma Gornall, Elizabeth A. Ainsworth, Timothy Arkebauer, and David Scoby
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 6201–6213,Short summary
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Huilin Huang, Yongkang Xue, Fang Li, and Ye Liu
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 6029–6050,Short summary
We developed a fire-coupled dynamic vegetation model that captures the spatial distribution, temporal variability, and especially the seasonal variability of fire regimes. The fire model is applied to assess the long-term fire impact on ecosystems and surface energy. We find that fire is an important determinant of the structure and function of the tropical savanna. By changing the vegetation composition and ecosystem characteristics, fire significantly alters surface energy balance.
Virginie Moreaux, Simon Martel, Alexandre Bosc, Delphine Picart, David Achat, Christophe Moisy, Raphael Aussenac, Christophe Chipeaux, Jean-Marc Bonnefond, Soisick Figuères, Pierre Trichet, Rémi Vezy, Vincent Badeau, Bernard Longdoz, André Granier, Olivier Roupsard, Manuel Nicolas, Kim Pilegaard, Giorgio Matteucci, Claudy Jolivet, Andrew T. Black, Olivier Picard, and Denis Loustau
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 5973–6009,Short summary
The model GO+ describes the functioning of managed forests based upon biophysical and biogeochemical processes. It accounts for the impacts of forest operations on energy, water and carbon exchanges within the soil–vegetation–atmosphere continuum. It includes versatile descriptions of management operations. Its sensitivity and uncertainty are detailed and predictions are compared with observations about mass and energy exchanges, hydrological data, and tree growth variables from different sites.
Toni Viskari, Maisa Laine, Liisa Kulmala, Jarmo Mäkelä, Istem Fer, and Jari Liski
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 5959–5971,Short summary
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Christopher T. Reinhard, Stephanie L. Olson, Sandra Kirtland Turner, Cecily Pälike, Yoshiki Kanzaki, and Andy Ridgwell
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 5687–5706,Short summary
We provide documentation and testing of new developments for the oceanic and atmospheric methane cycles in the cGENIE Earth system model. The model is designed to explore Earth's methane cycle across a wide range of timescales and scenarios, in particular assessing the mean climate state and climate perturbations in Earth's deep past. We further document the impact of atmospheric oxygen levels and ocean chemistry on fluxes of methane to the atmosphere from the ocean biosphere.
Yuan Zhang, Ana Bastos, Fabienne Maignan, Daniel Goll, Olivier Boucher, Laurent Li, Alessandro Cescatti, Nicolas Vuichard, Xiuzhi Chen, Christof Ammann, M. Altaf Arain, T. Andrew Black, Bogdan Chojnicki, Tomomichi Kato, Ivan Mammarella, Leonardo Montagnani, Olivier Roupsard, Maria J. Sanz, Lukas Siebicke, Marek Urbaniak, Francesco Primo Vaccari, Georg Wohlfahrt, Will Woodgate, and Philippe Ciais
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 5401–5423,Short summary
We improved the ORCHIDEE LSM by distinguishing diffuse and direct light in canopy and evaluated the new model with observations from 159 sites. Compared with the old model, the new model has better sunny GPP and reproduced the diffuse light fertilization effect observed at flux sites. Our simulations also indicate different mechanisms causing the observed GPP enhancement under cloudy conditions at different times. The new model has the potential to study large-scale impacts of aerosol changes.
Petra Lasch-Born, Felicitas Suckow, Christopher P. O. Reyer, Martin Gutsch, Chris Kollas, Franz-Werner Badeck, Harald K. M. Bugmann, Rüdiger Grote, Cornelia Fürstenau, Marcus Lindner, and Jörg Schaber
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 5311–5343,Short summary
The process-based model 4C has been developed to study climate impacts on forests and is now freely available as an open-source tool. This paper provides a comprehensive description of the 4C version (v2.2) for scientific users of the model and presents an evaluation of 4C. The evaluation focused on forest growth, carbon water, and heat fluxes. We conclude that 4C is widely applicable, reliable, and ready to be released to the scientific community to use and further develop the model.
Zhengang Wang, Jianxiu Qiu, and Kristof Van Oost
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 4977–4992,Short summary
This study developed a spatially distributed carbon cycling model applicable in an eroding landscape. It includes all three carbon isotopes so that it is able to represent the carbon isotopic compositions. The model is able to represent the observations that eroding area is enriched in 13C and depleted of 14C compared to depositional area. Our simulations show that the spatial variability of carbon isotopic properties in an eroding landscape is mainly caused by the soil redistribution.
Brian N. Bailey, María A. Ponce de León, and E. Scott Krayenhoff
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 4789–4808,Short summary
Numerous models of plant radiation interception based on a range of assumptions are available in the literature, but the importance of each assumption is not well understood. In this work, we evaluate several assumptions common in simple models of radiation interception in canopies with widely spaced plants by comparing against a detailed 3-D model. This yielded a simple model based on readily measurable parameters that could accurately predict interception for a wide range of architectures.
Julius Vira, Peter Hess, Jeff Melkonian, and William R. Wieder
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 4459–4490,Short summary
Mostly emitted by the agricultural sector, ammonia has an important role in atmospheric chemistry. We developed a model to simulate how ammonia emissions respond to changes in temperature and soil moisture, and we evaluated agricultural ammonia emissions globally. The simulated emissions agree with earlier estimates over many regions, but the results highlight the variability of ammonia emissions and suggest that emissions in warm climates may be higher than previously thought.
Emily Kyker-Snowman, William R. Wieder, Serita D. Frey, and A. Stuart Grandy
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 4413–4434,Short summary
Microbes drive carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) transformations in soil, and soil models have started to include explicit microbial physiology and functioning to try to reduce uncertainty in soil–climate feedbacks. Here, we add N cycling to a microbially explicit soil C model and reproduce C and N dynamics in soil during litter decomposition across a range of sites. We discuss model-generated hypotheses about soil C and N cycling and highlight the need for landscape-scale model evaluation data.
Jinxuan Chen, Christoph Gerbig, Julia Marshall, and Kai Uwe Totsche
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 4091–4106,Short summary
One of the essential challenge for atmospheric CO2 forecasting is predicting CO2 flux variation on synoptic timescale. For CAMS CO2 forecast, a process-based vegetation model is used. In this research we evaluate another type of model (i.e., the light-use-efficiency model VPRM), which is a data-driven approach and thus ideal for realistic estimation, on its ability of flux prediction. Errors from different sources are assessed, and overall the model is capable of CO2 flux prediction.
Yuma Sakai, Hideki Kobayashi, and Tomomichi Kato
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 4041–4066,Short summary
Chlorophyll fluorescence is one of the energy release pathways of excess incident light in the photosynthetic process. The canopy-scale Sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF), which potentially provides a direct pathway to link leaf-level photosynthesis to global GPP, can be observed from satellites. We develop the three-dimensional Monte Carlo plant canopy radiative transfer model to understand the biological and physical mechanisms behind SIF emission from complex forest canopies.
Femke Lutz, Stephen Del Grosso, Stephen Ogle, Stephen Williams, Sara Minoli, Susanne Rolinski, Jens Heinke, Jetse J. Stoorvogel, and Christoph Müller
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 3905–3923,Short summary
Previous findings have shown deviations between the LPJmL5.0-tillage model and results from meta-analyses on global estimates of tillage effects on N2O emissions. By comparing model results with observational data of four experimental sites and outputs from field-scale DayCent model simulations, we show that advancing information on agricultural management, as well as the representation of soil moisture dynamics, improves LPJmL5.0-tillage and the estimates of tillage effects on N2O emissions.
Tingting Li, Yanyu Lu, Lingfei Yu, Wenjuan Sun, Qing Zhang, Wen Zhang, Guocheng Wang, Zhangcai Qin, Lijun Yu, Hailing Li, and Ran Zhang
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 3769–3788,Short summary
Reliable models are required to estimate global wetland CH4 emissions, which are the largest and most uncertain source of atmospheric CH4. This paper evaluated CH4MODwetland and TEM models against CH4 measurements from different continents and wetland types. Based on best-model performance, we estimated 117–125 Tg yr−1 of global CH4 emissions from wetlands for the period 2000–2010. Efforts should be made to reduce estimate uncertainties for different wetland types and regions.
Jennifer E. Dentith, Ruza F. Ivanovic, Lauren J. Gregoire, Julia C. Tindall, and Laura F. Robinson
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 3529–3552,Short summary
We have added a new tracer (13C) into the ocean of the FAMOUS climate model to study large-scale circulation and the marine carbon cycle. The model captures the large-scale spatial pattern of observations but the simulated values are consistently higher than observed. In the first instance, our new tracer is therefore useful for recalibrating the physical and biogeochemical components of the model.
Stijn Hantson, Douglas I. Kelley, Almut Arneth, Sandy P. Harrison, Sally Archibald, Dominique Bachelet, Matthew Forrest, Thomas Hickler, Gitta Lasslop, Fang Li, Stephane Mangeon, Joe R. Melton, Lars Nieradzik, Sam S. Rabin, I. Colin Prentice, Tim Sheehan, Stephen Sitch, Lina Teckentrup, Apostolos Voulgarakis, and Chao Yue
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 3299–3318,Short summary
Global fire–vegetation models are widely used, but there has been limited evaluation of how well they represent various aspects of fire regimes. Here we perform a systematic evaluation of simulations made by nine FireMIP models in order to quantify their ability to reproduce a range of fire and vegetation benchmarks. While some FireMIP models are better at representing certain aspects of the fire regime, no model clearly outperforms all other models across the full range of variables assessed.
Yifei Dai, Long Cao, and Bin Wang
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 3119–3144,Short summary
NESM v3 is one of the CMIP6 registered Earth system models. We evaluate its ocean carbon cycle component and present its present-day and future oceanic CO2 uptake based on the CMIP6 historical and SSP5–8.5 scenarios. We hope that this paper can serve as a documentation of the marine biogeochemical cycle in NESM v3. Also, the model defects found and their underlying causes analyzed in this paper could help users and further model development.
Joe R. Melton, Vivek K. Arora, Eduard Wisernig-Cojoc, Christian Seiler, Matthew Fortier, Ed Chan, and Lina Teckentrup
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 2825–2850,Short summary
We transitioned the CLASS-CTEM land surface model to an open-source community model format by modernizing the code base to make the model easier to use and understand, providing a complete software environment to run the model within, developing a benchmarking suite for model evaluation, and creating an infrastructure to support community involvement. The new model, the Canadian Land Surface Scheme including Biogeochemical Cycles (CLASSIC), is now available for the community to use and develop.
Giovanni Denaro, Daniela Salvagio Manta, Alessandro Borri, Maria Bonsignore, Davide Valenti, Enza Quinci, Andrea Cucco, Bernardo Spagnolo, Mario Sprovieri, and Andrea De Gaetano
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 2073–2093,Short summary
The HR3DHG (high-resolution 3D mercury model) investigates the spatiotemporal behavior, in seawater and marine sediments, of three mercury species (elemental, inorganic, and organic mercury) in a highly polluted marine environment (Augusta Bay, southern Italy). The model shows fair agreement with the experimental data collected during six different oceanographic cruises and can possibly be used for a detailed exploration of the effects of climate change on mercury distribution.
Jina Jeong, Jonathan Barichivich, Philippe Peylin, Vanessa Haverd, Matthew J. McGrath, Nicolas Vuichard, Michael N. Evans, Flurin Babst, and Sebastiaan Luyssaert
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for GMD
Elisa Lovecchio and Timothy M. Lenton
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 1865–1883,Short summary
We present here the newly developed BPOP box model. BPOP is aimed at studying the impact of large-scale changes in the biological pump, i.e. the cycle of production, export and remineralization of the marine organic matter, on the nutrient and oxygen concentrations in the shelf and open ocean. This model has been developed to investigate the global consequences of the evolution of larger and heavier phytoplankton cells but can be applied to a variety of past and future case studies.
Benjamin D. Stocker, Han Wang, Nicholas G. Smith, Sandy P. Harrison, Trevor F. Keenan, David Sandoval, Tyler Davis, and I. Colin Prentice
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 1545–1581,Short summary
Estimating terrestrial photosynthesis relies on satellite data of vegetation cover and models simulating the efficiency by which light absorbed by vegetation is used for CO2 assimilation. This paper presents the P-model, a light use efficiency model derived from a carbon–water optimality principle, and evaluates its predictions of ecosystem-level photosynthesis against globally distributed observations. The model is implemented and openly accessible as an R package (rpmodel).
Louis de Wergifosse, Frédéric André, Nicolas Beudez, François de Coligny, Hugues Goosse, François Jonard, Quentin Ponette, Hugues Titeux, Caroline Vincke, and Mathieu Jonard
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 1459–1498,Short summary
Given their key role in the simulation of climate impacts on tree growth, phenological and water balance processes must be integrated in models simulating forest dynamics under a changing environment. Here, we describe these processes integrated in HETEROFOR, a model accounting simultaneously for the functional, structural and spatial complexity to explore the forest response to forestry practices. The model evaluation using phenological and soil water content observations is quite promising.
Arjun Chakrawal, Anke M. Herrmann, John Koestel, Jerker Jarsjö, Naoise Nunan, Thomas Kätterer, and Stefano Manzoni
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 1399–1429,Short summary
Soils are heterogeneous, which results in a nonuniform spatial distribution of substrates and the microorganisms feeding on them. Our results show that the variability in the spatial distribution of substrates and microorganisms at the pore scale is crucial because it affects how fast substrates are used by microorganisms and thus the decomposition rate observed at the soil core scale. This work provides a methodology to include microscale heterogeneity in soil carbon cycling models.
Victoria Naipal, Ronny Lauerwald, Philippe Ciais, Bertrand Guenet, and Yilong Wang
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 1201–1222,Short summary
In this study we present the Carbon Erosion DYNAMics model (CE-DYNAM) that links sediment dynamics resulting from water erosion with the soil carbon cycle along a cascade of hillslopes, floodplains, and rivers. The model can simulate the removal of soil and carbon from eroding areas and their destination at regional scale. We calibrated and validated the model for the Rhine catchment, and we show that soil erosion is a potential large net carbon sink over the period 1850–2005.
Kelly Kearney, Albert Hermann, Wei Cheng, Ivonne Ortiz, and Kerim Aydin
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 597–650,Short summary
We describe an ecosystem model for the Bering Sea. Biological components in the Bering Sea can be found in the water column, on and within the bottom sediments, and within the porous lower layer of seasonal sea ice. This model simulates the exchange of material between nutrients and plankton within all three environments. Here, we thoroughly document the model and assess its skill in capturing key biophysical features across the Bering Sea.
Matthias J. R. Speich, Massimiliano Zappa, Marc Scherstjanoi, and Heike Lischke
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 537–564,Short summary
Climate change is expected to substantially affect natural processes, and simulation models are a valuable tool to anticipate these changes. In this study, we combine two existing models that each describe one aspect of the environment: forest dynamics and the terrestrial water cycle. The coupled model better described observed patterns in vegetation structure. We also found that including the effect of water availability on tree height and rooting depth improved the model.
Simon P. K. Bowring, Ronny Lauerwald, Bertrand Guenet, Dan Zhu, Matthieu Guimberteau, Pierre Regnier, Ardalan Tootchi, Agnès Ducharne, and Philippe Ciais
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 507–520,Short summary
In this second part of the study, we performed simulations of the carbon and water budget of the Lena catchment with the land surface model ORCHIDEE MICT-LEAK, enabled to simulate dissolved organic carbon (DOC) production in soils and its transport and fate in high-latitude inland waters. We compare simulations using this model to existing data sources to show that it is capable of reproducing dissolved carbon fluxes of potentially great importance for the future of the global permafrost.
Carme Font, Francesco Bregoli, Vicenç Acuña, Sergi Sabater, and Rafael Marcé
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 5213–5228,Short summary
GLOBAL-FATE is an open-source, multiplatform, and flexible model that simulates the fate of pharmaceutical-like compounds in the global river network. The model considers the consumption of pharmaceuticals by humans, differentiates between pharmaceutical load treated in wastewater treatment plants from that directly delivered to streams and rivers, and integrates lakes and reservoirs in calculations. GLOBAL-FATE is a powerful tool for pollutant impact studies at the global scale.
Luke Gregor, Alice D. Lebehot, Schalk Kok, and Pedro M. Scheel Monteiro
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 5113–5136,Short summary
The ocean plays a vital role in mitigating climate change by taking up atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). Historically sparse ship-based measurements of surface ocean CO2 make direct estimates of CO2 exchange changes unreliable. We introduce a machine-learning ensemble approach to fill these observational gaps. Our method performs incrementally better relative to past methods, leading to our hypothesis that we are perhaps reaching the limitation of machine-learning algorithms' capability.
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Crop growth and agricultural management can affect climate at various spatial and temporal scales through the exchange of heat, water, and gases between land and atmosphere. Therefore, simulation of fluxes for heat, water, and gases from agricultural land is important for climate simulations. We developed a new land surface model combined with a crop growth model, called MATCRO-Rice. The main objective of this paper is to present the full description of MATCRO-Rice.
Crop growth and agricultural management can affect climate at various spatial and temporal...