Articles | Volume 15, issue 1
Development and technical paper
04 Jan 2022
Development and technical paper |  | 04 Jan 2022

PyCO2SYS v1.8: marine carbonate system calculations in Python

Matthew P. Humphreys, Ernie R. Lewis, Jonathan D. Sharp, and Denis Pierrot

Related authors

The annual update GLODAPv2.2023: the global interior ocean biogeochemical data product
Siv K. Lauvset, Nico Lange, Toste Tanhua, Henry C. Bittig, Are Olsen, Alex Kozyr, Marta Álvarez, Kumiko Azetsu-Scott, Peter J. Brown, Brendan R. Carter, Leticia Cotrim da Cunha, Mario Hoppema, Matthew P. Humphreys, Masao Ishii, Emil Jeansson, Akihiko Murata, Jens Daniel Müller, Fiz F. Pérez, Carsten Schirnick, Reiner Steinfeldt, Toru Suzuki, Adam Ulfsbo, Anton Velo, Ryan J. Woosley, and Robert M. Key
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 16, 2047–2072,,, 2024
Short summary
Temperature effect on seawater ƒCO2 revisited: theoretical basis, uncertainty analysis, and implications for parameterising carbonic acid equilibrium constants
Matthew P. Humphreys
EGUsphere,,, 2024
Short summary
GLODAPv2.2022: the latest version of the global interior ocean biogeochemical data product
Siv K. Lauvset, Nico Lange, Toste Tanhua, Henry C. Bittig, Are Olsen, Alex Kozyr, Simone Alin, Marta Álvarez, Kumiko Azetsu-Scott, Leticia Barbero, Susan Becker, Peter J. Brown, Brendan R. Carter, Leticia Cotrim da Cunha, Richard A. Feely, Mario Hoppema, Matthew P. Humphreys, Masao Ishii, Emil Jeansson, Li-Qing Jiang, Steve D. Jones, Claire Lo Monaco, Akihiko Murata, Jens Daniel Müller, Fiz F. Pérez, Benjamin Pfeil, Carsten Schirnick, Reiner Steinfeldt, Toru Suzuki, Bronte Tilbrook, Adam Ulfsbo, Anton Velo, Ryan J. Woosley, and Robert M. Key
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 5543–5572,,, 2022
Short summary
RADIv1: a non-steady-state early diagenetic model for ocean sediments in Julia and MATLAB/GNU Octave
Olivier Sulpis, Matthew P. Humphreys, Monica M. Wilhelmus, Dustin Carroll, William M. Berelson, Dimitris Menemenlis, Jack J. Middelburg, and Jess F. Adkins
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 2105–2131,,, 2022
Short summary
Dissolution of a submarine carbonate platform by a submerged lake of acidic seawater
Matthew P. Humphreys, Erik H. Meesters, Henk de Haas, Szabina Karancz, Louise Delaigue, Karel Bakker, Gerard Duineveld, Siham de Goeyse, Andreas F. Haas, Furu Mienis, Sharyn Ossebaar, and Fleur C. van Duyl
Biogeosciences, 19, 347–358,,, 2022
Short summary

Related subject area

Intercomparisons of Tracker v1.1 and four other ocean particle-tracking software packages in the Regional Ocean Modeling System
Jilian Xiong and Parker MacCready
Geosci. Model Dev., 17, 3341–3356,,, 2024
Short summary
CAR36, a regional high-resolution ocean forecasting system for improving drift and beaching of Sargassum in the Caribbean archipelago
Sylvain Cailleau, Laurent Bessières, Léonel Chiendje, Flavie Dubost, Guillaume Reffray, Jean-Michel Lellouche, Simon van Gennip, Charly Régnier, Marie Drevillon, Marc Tressol, Matthieu Clavier, Julien Temple-Boyer, and Léo Berline
Geosci. Model Dev., 17, 3157–3173,,, 2024
Short summary
Implementation of additional spectral wave field exchanges in a three-dimensional wave–current coupled WAVEWATCH-III (version 6.07) and CROCO (version 1.2) configuration: assessment of their implications for macro-tidal coastal hydrodynamics
Gaetano Porcile, Anne-Claire Bennis, Martial Boutet, Sophie Le Bot, Franck Dumas, and Swen Jullien
Geosci. Model Dev., 17, 2829–2853,,, 2024
Short summary
Comparison of 4-dimensional variational and ensemble optimal interpolation data assimilation systems using a Regional Ocean Modeling System (v3.4) configuration of the eddy-dominated East Australian Current system
Colette Gabrielle Kerry, Moninya Roughan, Shane Keating, David Gwyther, Gary Brassington, Adil Siripatana, and Joao Marcos A. C. Souza
Geosci. Model Dev., 17, 2359–2386,,, 2024
Short summary
LOCATE v1.0: numerical modelling of floating marine debris dispersion in coastal regions using Parcels v2.4.2
Ivan Hernandez, Leidy M. Castro-Rosero, Manuel Espino, and Jose M. Alsina Torrent
Geosci. Model Dev., 17, 2221–2245,,, 2024
Short summary

Cited articles

Abril, G., Bouillon, S., Darchambeau, F., Teodoru, C. R., Marwick, T. R., Tamooh, F., Ochieng Omengo, F., Geeraert, N., Deirmendjian, L., Polsenaere, P., and Borges, A. V.: Technical Note: Large overestimation of pCO2 calculated from pH and alkalinity in acidic, organic-rich freshwaters, Biogeosciences, 12, 67–78,, 2015. a
Álvarez, M., Sanleón-Bartolomé, H., Tanhua, T., Mintrop, L., Luchetta, A., Cantoni, C., Schroeder, K., and Civitarese, G.: The CO2 system in the Mediterranean Sea: a basin wide perspective, Ocean Sci., 10, 69–92,, 2014. a
Bach, L. T.: Reconsidering the role of carbonate ion concentration in calcification by marine organisms, Biogeosciences, 12, 4939–4951,, 2015. a, b
Bakker, D. C. E., Pfeil, B., Landa, C. S., Metzl, N., O'Brien, K. M., Olsen, A., Smith, K., Cosca, C., Harasawa, S., Jones, S. D., Nakaoka, S., Nojiri, Y., Schuster, U., Steinhoff, T., Sweeney, C., Takahashi, T., Tilbrook, B., Wada, C., Wanninkhof, R., Alin, S. R., Balestrini, C. F., Barbero, L., Bates, N. R., Bianchi, A. A., Bonou, F., Boutin, J., Bozec, Y., Burger, E. F., Cai, W.-J., Castle, R. D., Chen, L., Chierici, M., Currie, K., Evans, W., Featherstone, C., Feely, R. A., Fransson, A., Goyet, C., Greenwood, N., Gregor, L., Hankin, S., Hardman-Mountford, N. J., Harlay, J., Hauck, J., Hoppema, M., Humphreys, M. P., Hunt, C. W., Huss, B., Ibánhez, J. S. P., Johannessen, T., Keeling, R., Kitidis, V., Körtzinger, A., Kozyr, A., Krasakopoulou, E., Kuwata, A., Landschützer, P., Lauvset, S. K., Lefèvre, N., Lo Monaco, C., Manke, A., Mathis, J. T., Merlivat, L., Millero, F. J., Monteiro, P. M. S., Munro, D. R., Murata, A., Newberger, T., Omar, A. M., Ono, T., Paterson, K., Pearce, D., Pierrot, D., Robbins, L. L., Saito, S., Salisbury, J., Schlitzer, R., Schneider, B., Schweitzer, R., Sieger, R., Skjelvan, I., Sullivan, K. F., Sutherland, S. C., Sutton, A. J., Tadokoro, K., Telszewski, M., Tuma, M., van Heuven, S. M. A. C., Vandemark, D., Ward, B., Watson, A. J., and Xu, S.: A multi-decade record of high-quality fCO2 data in version 3 of the Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT), Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 8, 383–413,, 2016. a
Bradbury, J., Frostig, R., Hawkins, P., Johnson, M. J., Leary, C., Maclaurin, D., and Wanderman-Milne, S.: JAX: composable transformations of Python+NumPy programs, GitHub, available at: (last access: 23 December 2021), 2018. a
Short summary
The ocean helps to mitigate our impact on Earth's climate by absorbing about a quarter of the carbon dioxide (CO2) released by human activities each year. However, once absorbed, chemical reactions between CO2 and water reduce seawater pH (ocean acidification), which may have adverse effects on marine ecosystems. Our Python package, PyCO2SYS, models the chemical reactions of CO2 in seawater, allowing us to quantify the corresponding changes in pH and related chemical properties.