Articles | Volume 14, issue 8
Development and technical paper 20 Aug 2021
Development and technical paper | 20 Aug 2021
A model-independent data assimilation (MIDA) module and its applications in ecology
Xin Huang et al.
No articles found.
Kyle B. Delwiche, Sara Helen Knox, Avni Malhotra, Etienne Fluet-Chouinard, Gavin McNicol, Sarah Feron, Zutao Ouyang, Dario Papale, Carlo Trotta, Eleonora Canfora, You-Wei Cheah, Danielle Christianson, Ma. Carmelita R. Alberto, Pavel Alekseychik, Mika Aurela, Dennis Baldocchi, Sheel Bansal, David P. Billesbach, Gil Bohrer, Rosvel Bracho, Nina Buchmann, David I. Campbell, Gerardo Celis, Jiquan Chen, Weinan Chen, Housen Chu, Higo J. Dalmagro, Sigrid Dengel, Ankur R. Desai, Matteo Detto, Han Dolman, Elke Eichelmann, Eugenie Euskirchen, Daniela Famulari, Kathrin Fuchs, Mathias Goeckede, Sébastien Gogo, Mangaliso J. Gondwe, Jordan P. Goodrich, Pia Gottschalk, Scott L. Graham, Martin Heimann, Manuel Helbig, Carole Helfter, Kyle S. Hemes, Takashi Hirano, David Hollinger, Lukas Hörtnagl, Hiroki Iwata, Adrien Jacotot, Gerald Jurasinski, Minseok Kang, Kuno Kasak, John King, Janina Klatt, Franziska Koebsch, Ken W. Krauss, Derrick Y. F. Lai, Annalea Lohila, Ivan Mammarella, Luca Belelli Marchesini, Giovanni Manca, Jaclyn Hatala Matthes, Trofim Maximov, Lutz Merbold, Bhaskar Mitra, Timothy H. Morin, Eiko Nemitz, Mats B. Nilsson, Shuli Niu, Walter C. Oechel, Patricia Y. Oikawa, Keisuke Ono, Matthias Peichl, Olli Peltola, Michele L. Reba, Andrew D. Richardson, William Riley, Benjamin R. K. Runkle, Youngryel Ryu, Torsten Sachs, Ayaka Sakabe, Camilo Rey Sanchez, Edward A. Schuur, Karina V. R. Schäfer, Oliver Sonnentag, Jed P. Sparks, Ellen Stuart-Haëntjens, Cove Sturtevant, Ryan C. Sullivan, Daphne J. Szutu, Jonathan E. Thom, Margaret S. Torn, Eeva-Stiina Tuittila, Jessica Turner, Masahito Ueyama, Alex C. Valach, Rodrigo Vargas, Andrej Varlagin, Alma Vazquez-Lule, Joseph G. Verfaillie, Timo Vesala, George L. Vourlitis, Eric J. Ward, Christian Wille, Georg Wohlfahrt, Guan Xhuan Wong, Zhen Zhang, Donatella Zona, Lisamarie Windham-Myers, Benjamin Poulter, and Robert B. Jackson
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 3607–3689,Short summary
Methane is an important greenhouse gas, yet we lack knowledge about its global emissions and drivers. We present FLUXNET-CH4, a new global collection of methane measurements and a critical resource for the research community. We use FLUXNET-CH4 data to quantify the seasonality of methane emissions from freshwater wetlands, finding that methane seasonality varies strongly with latitude. Our new database and analysis will improve wetland model accuracy and inform greenhouse gas budgets.
Eva Sinha, Kate Calvin, Ben Bond-Lamberty, Beth Drewniak, Dan Ricciuto, Khachik Sargsyan, Yanyan Cheng, Carl Bernacchi, and Caitlin Moore
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for GMDShort summary
Perennial bioenergy crops are not well represented in global land models, despite projected increase in their production. Our study expands Energy Exascale Earth System Model (E3SM) Land Model (ELM) to include perennial bioenergy crops and calibrates the model for miscanthus and switchgrass. The calibrated model captures the seasonality and magnitude of carbon and energy fluxes. This study provides the foundation for future research examining the impact of perennial bioenergy crop expansion.
Daniel M. Ricciuto, Xiaojuan Yang, Dali Wang, and Peter E. Thornton
Preprint under review for BGShort summary
This paper uses a novel approach to quantify the impacts of the choice of decomposition model on carbon and nitrogen cycling. We compare the models to experimental data that examined litter decomposition over five different biomes. Despite widely differing assumptions, the models produce similar patterns of decomposition when nutrients are limiting. This differs from past analyses that did not consider the impacts of changing environmental conditions or nutrients.
Rafael Poyatos, Víctor Granda, Víctor Flo, Mark A. Adams, Balázs Adorján, David Aguadé, Marcos P. M. Aidar, Scott Allen, M. Susana Alvarado-Barrientos, Kristina J. Anderson-Teixeira, Luiza Maria Aparecido, M. Altaf Arain, Ismael Aranda, Heidi Asbjornsen, Robert Baxter, Eric Beamesderfer, Z. Carter Berry, Daniel Berveiller, Bethany Blakely, Johnny Boggs, Gil Bohrer, Paul V. Bolstad, Damien Bonal, Rosvel Bracho, Patricia Brito, Jason Brodeur, Fernando Casanoves, Jérôme Chave, Hui Chen, Cesar Cisneros, Kenneth Clark, Edoardo Cremonese, Hongzhong Dang, Jorge S. David, Teresa S. David, Nicolas Delpierre, Ankur R. Desai, Frederic C. Do, Michal Dohnal, Jean-Christophe Domec, Sebinasi Dzikiti, Colin Edgar, Rebekka Eichstaedt, Tarek S. El-Madany, Jan Elbers, Cleiton B. Eller, Eugénie S. Euskirchen, Brent Ewers, Patrick Fonti, Alicia Forner, David I. Forrester, Helber C. Freitas, Marta Galvagno, Omar Garcia-Tejera, Chandra Prasad Ghimire, Teresa E. Gimeno, John Grace, André Granier, Anne Griebel, Yan Guangyu, Mark B. Gush, Paul J. Hanson, Niles J. Hasselquist, Ingo Heinrich, Virginia Hernandez-Santana, Valentine Herrmann, Teemu Hölttä, Friso Holwerda, James Irvine, Supat Isarangkool Na Ayutthaya, Paul G. Jarvis, Hubert Jochheim, Carlos A. Joly, Julia Kaplick, Hyun Seok Kim, Leif Klemedtsson, Heather Kropp, Fredrik Lagergren, Patrick Lane, Petra Lang, Andrei Lapenas, Víctor Lechuga, Minsu Lee, Christoph Leuschner, Jean-Marc Limousin, Juan Carlos Linares, Maj-Lena Linderson, Anders Lindroth, Pilar Llorens, Álvaro López-Bernal, Michael M. Loranty, Dietmar Lüttschwager, Cate Macinnis-Ng, Isabelle Maréchaux, Timothy A. Martin, Ashley Matheny, Nate McDowell, Sean McMahon, Patrick Meir, Ilona Mészáros, Mirco Migliavacca, Patrick Mitchell, Meelis Mölder, Leonardo Montagnani, Georgianne W. Moore, Ryogo Nakada, Furong Niu, Rachael H. Nolan, Richard Norby, Kimberly Novick, Walter Oberhuber, Nikolaus Obojes, A. Christopher Oishi, Rafael S. Oliveira, Ram Oren, Jean-Marc Ourcival, Teemu Paljakka, Oscar Perez-Priego, Pablo L. Peri, Richard L. Peters, Sebastian Pfautsch, William T. Pockman, Yakir Preisler, Katherine Rascher, George Robinson, Humberto Rocha, Alain Rocheteau, Alexander Röll, Bruno H. P. Rosado, Lucy Rowland, Alexey V. Rubtsov, Santiago Sabaté, Yann Salmon, Roberto L. Salomón, Elisenda Sánchez-Costa, Karina V. R. Schäfer, Bernhard Schuldt, Alexandr Shashkin, Clément Stahl, Marko Stojanović, Juan Carlos Suárez, Ge Sun, Justyna Szatniewska, Fyodor Tatarinov, Miroslav Tesař, Frank M. Thomas, Pantana Tor-ngern, Josef Urban, Fernando Valladares, Christiaan van der Tol, Ilja van Meerveld, Andrej Varlagin, Holm Voigt, Jeffrey Warren, Christiane Werner, Willy Werner, Gerhard Wieser, Lisa Wingate, Stan Wullschleger, Koong Yi, Roman Zweifel, Kathy Steppe, Maurizio Mencuccini, and Jordi Martínez-Vilalta
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 2607–2649,Short summary
Transpiration is a key component of global water balance, but it is poorly constrained from available observations. We present SAPFLUXNET, the first global database of tree-level transpiration from sap flow measurements, containing 202 datasets and covering a wide range of ecological conditions. SAPFLUXNET and its accompanying R software package
sapfluxnetrwill facilitate new data syntheses on the ecological factors driving water use and drought responses of trees and forests.
Fei Jiang, Hengmao Wang, Jing M. Chen, Weimin Ju, Xiangjun Tian, Shuzhuang Feng, Guicai Li, Zhuoqi Chen, Shupeng Zhang, Xuehe Lu, Jane Liu, Haikun Wang, Jun Wang, Wei He, and Mousong Wu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1963–1985,Short summary
We present a 6-year inversion from 2010 to 2015 for the global and regional carbon fluxes using only the GOSAT XCO2 retrievals. We find that the XCO2 retrievals could significantly improve the modeling of atmospheric CO2 concentrations and that the inferred interannual variations in the terrestrial carbon fluxes in most land regions have a better relationship with the changes in severe drought area or leaf area index, or are more consistent with the previous estimates about drought impact.
Xiaoying Shi, Daniel M. Ricciuto, Peter E. Thornton, Xiaofeng Xu, Fengming Yuan, Richard J. Norby, Anthony P. Walker, Jeffrey M. Warren, Jiafu Mao, Paul J. Hanson, Lin Meng, David Weston, and Natalie A. Griffiths
Biogeosciences, 18, 467–486,Short summary
The Sphagnum mosses are the important species of a wetland ecosystem. To better represent the peatland ecosystem, we introduced the moss species to the land model component (ELM) of the Energy Exascale Earth System Model (E3SM) by developing water content dynamics and nonvascular photosynthetic processes for moss. We tested the model against field observations and used the model to make projections of the site's carbon cycle under warming and atmospheric CO2 concentration scenarios.
Erqian Cui, Chenyu Bian, Yiqi Luo, Shuli Niu, Yingping Wang, and Jianyang Xia
Biogeosciences, 17, 6237–6246,Short summary
Mean annual net ecosystem productivity (NEP) is related to the magnitude of the carbon sink of a specific ecosystem, while its inter-annual variation (IAVNEP) characterizes the stability of such a carbon sink. Thus, a better understanding of the co-varying NEP and IAVNEP is critical for locating the major and stable carbon sinks on land. Based on daily NEP observations from eddy-covariance sites, we found local indicators for the spatially varying NEP and IAVNEP, respectively.
Rui Cheng, Troy S. Magney, Debsunder Dutta, David R. Bowling, Barry A. Logan, Sean P. Burns, Peter D. Blanken, Katja Grossmann, Sophia Lopez, Andrew D. Richardson, Jochen Stutz, and Christian Frankenberg
Biogeosciences, 17, 4523–4544,Short summary
We measured reflected sunlight from an evergreen canopy for a year to detect changes in pigments that play an important role in regulating the seasonality of photosynthesis. Results show a strong mechanistic link between spectral reflectance features and pigment content, which is validated using a biophysical model. Our results show spectrally where, why, and when spectral features change over the course of the season and show promise for estimating photosynthesis remotely.
Jian Zhou, Jianyang Xia, Ning Wei, Yufu Liu, Chenyu Bian, Yuqi Bai, and Yiqi Luo
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
The increase of model complexity and data volume challenges the evaluation of Earth system models (ESMs), which mainly stems from the untraceable, unautomatic, and high computational costs. Here, we built up an online Traceability analysis system for Model Evaluation (TraceME), which is traceable, automatic and shareable. The TraceME (v1.0) can trace the structural uncertainty of simulated carbon (C) storage in ESMs and provide some new implications for the next generation of model evaluation.
Ensheng Weng, Ray Dybzinski, Caroline E. Farrior, and Stephen W. Pacala
Biogeosciences, 16, 4577–4599,Short summary
Our study illustrates that the competition processes for light and soil resources in a game-theoretic vegetation demographic model can substantially change the prediction of the contribution of ecosystems to the global carbon cycle. The model that tracks the competitive allocation strategies can generate significantly different ecosystem-level predictions than those with fixed allocation strategies.
Elias C. Massoud, Chonggang Xu, Rosie A. Fisher, Ryan G. Knox, Anthony P. Walker, Shawn P. Serbin, Bradley O. Christoffersen, Jennifer A. Holm, Lara M. Kueppers, Daniel M. Ricciuto, Liang Wei, Daniel J. Johnson, Jeffrey Q. Chambers, Charlie D. Koven, Nate G. McDowell, and Jasper A. Vrugt
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 4133–4164,Short summary
We conducted a comprehensive sensitivity analysis to understand behaviors of a demographic vegetation model within a land surface model. By running the model 5000 times with changing input parameter values, we found that (1) the photosynthetic capacity controls carbon fluxes, (2) the allometry is important for tree growth, and (3) the targeted carbon storage is important for tree survival. These results can provide guidance on improved model parameterization for a better fit to observations.
Dan Lu and Daniel Ricciuto
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 1791–1807,Short summary
This work uses machine-learning techniques to advance the predictive understanding of large-scale Earth systems.
Junyi Liang, Gangsheng Wang, Daniel M. Ricciuto, Lianhong Gu, Paul J. Hanson, Jeffrey D. Wood, and Melanie A. Mayes
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 1601–1612,Short summary
Soil respiration, the second largest carbon fluxes between the atmosphere and land, is not well represented in global land models. In this study, using long-term observations at a temperate forest, we identified a solution for using better soil water potential simulations to improve predictions of soil respiration in the E3SM land model. In addition, parameter calibration further improved model performance.
Yuanyuan Huang, Mark Stacy, Jiang Jiang, Nilutpal Sundi, Shuang Ma, Volodymyr Saruta, Chang Gyo Jung, Zheng Shi, Jianyang Xia, Paul J. Hanson, Daniel Ricciuto, and Yiqi Luo
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 1119–1137,Short summary
Predicting future changes in ecosystem services is not only highly desirable but is also becoming feasible as several forces are converging to transform ecological research into quantitative forecasting. To realize ecological forecasting, we have developed an Ecological Platform for Assimilating Data (EcoPAD) into models. EcoPAD also has the potential to become an interactive tool for resource management, stimulate citizen science in ecology, and transform environmental education.
Katherine J. Evans, Joseph H. Kennedy, Dan Lu, Mary M. Forrester, Stephen Price, Jeremy Fyke, Andrew R. Bennett, Matthew J. Hoffman, Irina Tezaur, Charles S. Zender, and Miren Vizcaíno
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 1067–1086,Short summary
A robust validation of ice sheet models is presented using LIVVkit, version 2.1. It targets ice sheet and coupled Earth system models, and handles datasets and operations that require high-performance computing and storage. We apply LIVVkit to a Greenland ice sheet simulation to show the degree to which it captures the surface mass balance. LIVVkit identifies a positive bias due to insufficient melting compared to observations that is focused largely around Greenland's southwest region.
Jing Wang, Jianyang Xia, Xuhui Zhou, Kun Huang, Jian Zhou, Yuanyuan Huang, Lifen Jiang, Xia Xu, Junyi Liang, Ying-Ping Wang, Xiaoli Cheng, and Yiqi Luo
Biogeosciences, 16, 917–926,Short summary
Soil is critical in mitigating climate change mainly because soil carbon turns over much slower in soils than vegetation and the atmosphere. However, Earth system models (ESMs) have large uncertainty in simulating carbon dynamics due to their biased estimation of soil carbon transit time (τsoil). Here, the τsoil estimates from 12 ESMs that participated in CMIP5 were evaluated by a database of measured τsoil. We detected a large spatial variation in measured τsoil across the globe.
Qianyu Li, Xingjie Lu, Yingping Wang, Xin Huang, Peter M. Cox, and Yiqi Luo
Biogeosciences, 15, 6909–6925,Short summary
Land-surface models have been widely used to predict the responses of terrestrial ecosystems to climate change. A better understanding of model mechanisms that govern terrestrial ecosystem responses to rising atmosphere [CO2] is needed. Our study for the first time shows that the expansion of leaf area under rising [CO2] is the most important response for the stimulation of land carbon accumulation by a land-surface model: CABLE. Processes related to leaf area should be better calibrated.
Xingjie Lu, Ying-Ping Wang, Yiqi Luo, and Lifen Jiang
Biogeosciences, 15, 6559–6572,Short summary
How long does C cycle through terrestrial ecosystems is a critical question for understanding land C sequestration capacity under future rising atmosphere [CO2] and climate warming. Under climate change, previous conventional concepts with a steady-state assumption will no longer be suitable for a non-steady state. Our results using the new concept, C transit time, suggest more significant responses in terrestrial C cycle under rising [CO2] and climate warming.
Zhenggang Du, Ensheng Weng, Lifen Jiang, Yiqi Luo, Jianyang Xia, and Xuhui Zhou
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 4399–4416,Short summary
In this study, based on a traceability analysis technique, we evaluated alternative representations of C–N interactions and their impacts on the C cycle using the TECO model framework. Our results showed that different representations of C–N coupling processes lead to divergent effects on plant production, C residence time, and thus the ecosystem C storage capacity. Identifying those effects can help us to improve the N limitation assumptions employed in terrestrial ecosystem models.
Misha B. Krassovski, Glen E. Lyon, Jeffery S. Riggs, and Paul J. Hanson
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 7, 289–295,Short summary
Climate change studies are growing and related experiments are getting bigger and more complex. They are often conducted in remote areas where communications are limited. In cases like that the data can be transferred via a satellite connection, but these types of connections are slow. We found that by using the little known possibilities of LoggerNet software (the most popular data logger software in environmental science) it is possible to transfer quite a large amount of data.
Istem Fer, Ryan Kelly, Paul R. Moorcroft, Andrew D. Richardson, Elizabeth M. Cowdery, and Michael C. Dietze
Biogeosciences, 15, 5801–5830,Short summary
The computer models we use to understand and forecast the ecosystem changes have multiple components that determine their outcomes. Due to our limited observation capacities, these components bear uncertainties that in return affect our predictions. While there are techniques for reducing these uncertainties, they are not applicable to every model due to computational and statistical barriers. This research presents a method that lowers those barriers and allows us to improve model predictions.
Yilong Wang, Philippe Ciais, Daniel Goll, Yuanyuan Huang, Yiqi Luo, Ying-Ping Wang, A. Anthony Bloom, Grégoire Broquet, Jens Hartmann, Shushi Peng, Josep Penuelas, Shilong Piao, Jordi Sardans, Benjamin D. Stocker, Rong Wang, Sönke Zaehle, and Sophie Zechmeister-Boltenstern
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 3903–3928,Short summary
We present a new modeling framework called Global Observation-based Land-ecosystems Utilization Model of Carbon, Nitrogen and Phosphorus (GOLUM-CNP) that combines a data-constrained C-cycle analysis with data-driven estimates of N and P inputs and losses and with observed stoichiometric ratios. GOLUM-CNP provides a traceable tool, where a consistency between different datasets of global C, N, and P cycles has been achieved.
Anthony P. Walker, Ming Ye, Dan Lu, Martin G. De Kauwe, Lianhong Gu, Belinda E. Medlyn, Alistair Rogers, and Shawn P. Serbin
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 3159–3185,Short summary
Large uncertainty is inherent in model predictions due to imperfect knowledge of how to describe the processes that a model is intended to represent. Yet methods to quantify and evaluate this model hypothesis uncertainty are limited. To address this, the multi-assumption architecture and testbed (MAAT) automates the generation of all possible models by combining multiple representations of multiple processes. MAAT provides a formal framework for quantification of model hypothesis uncertainty.
Donghai Wu, Philippe Ciais, Nicolas Viovy, Alan K. Knapp, Kevin Wilcox, Michael Bahn, Melinda D. Smith, Sara Vicca, Simone Fatichi, Jakob Zscheischler, Yue He, Xiangyi Li, Akihiko Ito, Almut Arneth, Anna Harper, Anna Ukkola, Athanasios Paschalis, Benjamin Poulter, Changhui Peng, Daniel Ricciuto, David Reinthaler, Guangsheng Chen, Hanqin Tian, Hélène Genet, Jiafu Mao, Johannes Ingrisch, Julia E. S. M. Nabel, Julia Pongratz, Lena R. Boysen, Markus Kautz, Michael Schmitt, Patrick Meir, Qiuan Zhu, Roland Hasibeder, Sebastian Sippel, Shree R. S. Dangal, Stephen Sitch, Xiaoying Shi, Yingping Wang, Yiqi Luo, Yongwen Liu, and Shilong Piao
Biogeosciences, 15, 3421–3437,Short summary
Our results indicate that most ecosystem models do not capture the observed asymmetric responses under normal precipitation conditions, suggesting an overestimate of the drought effects and/or underestimate of the watering impacts on primary productivity, which may be the result of inadequate representation of key eco-hydrological processes. Collaboration between modelers and site investigators needs to be strengthened to improve the specific processes in ecosystem models in following studies.
Verónika Ceballos-Núñez, Andrew D. Richardson, and Carlos A. Sierra
Biogeosciences, 15, 1607–1625,Short summary
Will the terrestrial biosphere be a carbon source or sink in the future? Different model simulations cannot reach a consensus, so we need to diagnose the performance of these models. We implemented three models differing in their carbon allocation strategies and assessed their performance using three metrics. The most sensible metric was the distribution of carbon age and transit times. Thus, empirical measurements of these distributions could be key to reduce the model uncertainty.
Henrique F. Duarte, Brett M. Raczka, Daniel M. Ricciuto, John C. Lin, Charles D. Koven, Peter E. Thornton, David R. Bowling, Chun-Ta Lai, Kenneth J. Bible, and James R. Ehleringer
Biogeosciences, 14, 4315–4340,Short summary
We evaluate the Community Land Model (CLM4.5) against observations at an old-growth coniferous forest site that is subjected to water stress each summer. We found that, after calibration, CLM was able to reasonably simulate the observed fluxes of energy and carbon, carbon stocks, carbon isotope ratios, and ecosystem response to water stress. This study demonstrates that carbon isotopes can expose structural weaknesses in CLM and provide a key constraint that may guide future model development.
Dan Lu, Daniel Ricciuto, Anthony Walker, Cosmin Safta, and William Munger
Biogeosciences, 14, 4295–4314,Short summary
Calibration of terrestrial ecosystem models (TEMs) is important but challenging. This study applies an advanced sampling technique for parameter estimation of a TEM. The results improve the model fit and predictive performance.
Erik A. Hobbie, Janet Chen, Paul J. Hanson, Colleen M. Iversen, Karis J. McFarlane, Nathan R. Thorp, and Kirsten S. Hofmockel
Biogeosciences, 14, 2481–2494,Short summary
We measured carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios (13C : 12C and 15N : 14N) in peat cores in a northern Minnesota bog to understand how climate, vegetation type, and decomposition affected C and N budgets over the last 9000 years. 13C : 12C patterns were primarily influenced by shifts in temperature, peatland vegetation and atmospheric CO2, whereas tree colonization and upland N influxes affected 15N : 14N ratios. Isotopic markers provided new insights into long-term patterns of CO2 and nitrogen losses.
Paul J. Hanson, Jeffery S. Riggs, W. Robert Nettles, Jana R. Phillips, Misha B. Krassovski, Leslie A. Hook, Lianhong Gu, Andrew D. Richardson, Donald M. Aubrecht, Daniel M. Ricciuto, Jeffrey M. Warren, and Charlotte Barbier
Biogeosciences, 14, 861–883,Short summary
This paper describes operational methods to achieve whole-ecosystem warming (WEW) for tall-stature, high-carbon, boreal forest peatlands. The methods enable scientists to study immediate and longer-term (1 decade) responses of organisms (microbes to trees) and ecosystem functions (carbon, water and nutrient cycles). The WEW technology allows researchers to have a plausible glimpse of future environmental conditions for study that are not available in the current observational record.
Brett Raczka, Henrique F. Duarte, Charles D. Koven, Daniel Ricciuto, Peter E. Thornton, John C. Lin, and David R. Bowling
Biogeosciences, 13, 5183–5204,Short summary
We use carbon isotopes of CO2 to improve the performance of a land surface model, a component with earth system climate models. We found that isotope observations can provide important information related to the exchange of carbon and water from vegetation driven by environmental stress from low atmospheric moisture and nitrogen limitation. It follows that isotopes have a unique potential to improve model performance and provide insight into land surface model development.
J. Mao, D. M. Ricciuto, P. E. Thornton, J. M. Warren, A. W. King, X. Shi, C. M. Iversen, and R. J. Norby
Biogeosciences, 13, 641–657,Short summary
The aim of this study is to implement, calibrate and evaluate the CLM4 against carbon and hydrology observations from a shading and labeling experiment in a stand of young loblolly pines. We found a combination of parameters measured on-site and calibration targeting biomass, transpiration, and 13C discrimination gave good agreement with pretreatment measurements. We also used observations from the experiment to develop a conceptual model of short-term photosynthate storage and transport.
X. Shi, P. E. Thornton, D. M. Ricciuto, P. J. Hanson, J. Mao, S. D. Sebestyen, N. A. Griffiths, and G. Bisht
Biogeosciences, 12, 6463–6477,
C. Safta, D. M. Ricciuto, K. Sargsyan, B. Debusschere, H. N. Najm, M. Williams, and P. E. Thornton
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 1899–1918,Short summary
In this paper we propose a probabilistic framework for an uncertainty quantification study of a carbon cycle model and focus on the comparison between steady-state and transient simulation setups. We study model parameters via global sensitivity analysis and employ a Bayesian approach to calibrate these parameters using NEE observations at the Harvard Forest site. The calibration results are then used to assess the predictive skill of the model via posterior predictive checks.
E. S. Weng, S. Malyshev, J. W. Lichstein, C. E. Farrior, R. Dybzinski, T. Zhang, E. Shevliakova, and S. W. Pacala
Biogeosciences, 12, 2655–2694,Short summary
We present a model, LM3-PPA, which simulates vegetation dynamics and biogeochemical processes by explicitly scaling from individual plants to ecosystems using the perfect plasticity approximation. It includes height-structured competition for light- and root-allocation-dependent competition for belowground resources. Because of the tractability of the PPA, the coupled LM3-PPA model is able to retain computational tractability, as well as close linkages to mathematically tractable special cases.
Y. Wei, S. Liu, D. N. Huntzinger, A. M. Michalak, N. Viovy, W. M. Post, C. R. Schwalm, K. Schaefer, A. R. Jacobson, C. Lu, H. Tian, D. M. Ricciuto, R. B. Cook, J. Mao, and X. Shi
Geosci. Model Dev., 7, 2875–2893,
S. T. Klosterman, K. Hufkens, J. M. Gray, E. Melaas, O. Sonnentag, I. Lavine, L. Mitchell, R. Norman, M. A. Friedl, and A. D. Richardson
Biogeosciences, 11, 4305–4320,
M. Verma, M. A. Friedl, A. D. Richardson, G. Kiely, A. Cescatti, B. E. Law, G. Wohlfahrt, B. Gielen, O. Roupsard, E. J. Moors, P. Toscano, F. P. Vaccari, D. Gianelle, G. Bohrer, A. Varlagin, N. Buchmann, E. van Gorsel, L. Montagnani, and P. Propastin
Biogeosciences, 11, 2185–2200,
X. Yang, P. E. Thornton, D. M. Ricciuto, and W. M. Post
Biogeosciences, 11, 1667–1681,
D. N. Huntzinger, C. Schwalm, A. M. Michalak, K. Schaefer, A. W. King, Y. Wei, A. Jacobson, S. Liu, R. B. Cook, W. M. Post, G. Berthier, D. Hayes, M. Huang, A. Ito, H. Lei, C. Lu, J. Mao, C. H. Peng, S. Peng, B. Poulter, D. Riccuito, X. Shi, H. Tian, W. Wang, N. Zeng, F. Zhao, and Q. Zhu
Geosci. Model Dev., 6, 2121–2133,
P. C. Stoy, M. C. Dietze, A. D. Richardson, R. Vargas, A. G. Barr, R. S. Anderson, M. A. Arain, I. T. Baker, T. A. Black, J. M. Chen, R. B. Cook, C. M. Gough, R. F. Grant, D. Y. Hollinger, R. C. Izaurralde, C. J. Kucharik, P. Lafleur, B. E. Law, S. Liu, E. Lokupitiya, Y. Luo, J. W. Munger, C. Peng, B. Poulter, D. T. Price, D. M. Ricciuto, W. J. Riley, A. K. Sahoo, K. Schaefer, C. R. Schwalm, H. Tian, H. Verbeeck, and E. Weng
Biogeosciences, 10, 6893–6909,
Related subject area
BiogeosciencesAccounting for forest management in the estimation of forest carbon balance using the dynamic vegetation model LPJ-GUESS (v4.0, r9710): implementation and evaluation of simulations for EuropeFABM-NflexPD 1.0: assessing an instantaneous acclimation approach for modeling phytoplankton growthA model for marine sedimentary carbonate diagenesis and paleoclimate proxy signal tracking: IMP v1.0Using the International Tree-Ring Data Bank (ITRDB) records as century-long benchmarks for global land-surface modelsOptical model for the Baltic Sea with an explicit CDOM state variable: a case study with Model ERGOM (version 1.2)WAP-1D-VAR v1.0: development and evaluation of a one-dimensional variational data assimilation model for the marine ecosystem along the West Antarctic PeninsulaSCOPE 2.0: a model to simulate vegetated land surface fluxes and satellite signalsSolveSAPHE-r2 (v2.0.1): revisiting and extending the Solver Suite for Alkalinity-PH Equations for usage with CO2, HCO3− or CO32− input dataEvaluating an exponential respiration model to alternative models for soil respiration components in a Canadian wildfire chronosequence (FireResp, v1.0)Modeling gas exchange and biomass production in West African Sahelian and Sudanian ecological zonesPartitioning soil organic carbon into its centennially stable and active fractions with machine-learning models based on Rock-Eval® thermal analysis (PARTYSOCv2.0 and PARTYSOCv2.0EU)Addressing biases in Arctic–boreal carbon cycling in the Community Land Model Version 5Testing stomatal models at stand level in deciduous angiosperm and evergreen gymnosperm forests using CliMA Land (v0.1)Performance analysis of regional AquaCrop (v6.1) biomass and surface soil moisture simulations using satellite and in situ observationsCutting out the middleman: calibrating and validating a dynamic vegetation model (ED2-PROSPECT5) using remotely sensed surface reflectanceEcosystem age-class dynamics and distribution in the LPJ-wsl v2.0 global ecosystem modelCLASSIC v1.0: the open-source community successor to the Canadian Land Surface Scheme (CLASS) and the Canadian Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (CTEM) – Part 2: Global benchmarkingHow to reconstruct aerosol-induced diffuse radiation scenario for simulating GPP in land surface models? An evaluation of reconstruction methods with ORCHIDEE_DFv1.0_DFforcSPEAD 1.0 – Simulating Plankton Evolution with Adaptive Dynamics in a two-trait continuous fitness landscape applied to the Sargasso SeaRapid development of fast and flexible environmental models: the Mobius framework v1.0Potential yield simulated by global gridded crop models: using a process-based emulator to explain their differencesIntegrated modeling of canopy photosynthesis, fluorescence, and the transfer of energy, mass, and momentum in the soil–plant–atmosphere continuum (STEMMUS–SCOPE v1.0.0)OMEN-SED(-RCM) (v1.1): A pseudo reactive continuum representation of organic matter degradation dynamics for OMEN-SEDCoupModel (v6.0): an ecosystem model for coupled phosphorus, nitrogen, and carbon dynamics – evaluated against empirical data from a climatic and fertility gradient in SwedenImproving the representation of cropland sites in the Community Land Model (CLM) version 5.0Numerical model to simulate long-term soil organic carbon and ground ice budget with permafrost and ice sheets (SOC-ICE-v1.0)Calibrating soybean parameters in JULES 5.0 from the US-Ne2/3 FLUXNET sites and the SoyFACE-O3 experimentModeling long-term fire impact on ecosystem characteristics and surface energy using a process-based vegetation–fire model SSiB4/TRIFFID-Fire v1.0Energy, water and carbon exchanges in managed forest ecosystems: description, sensitivity analysis and evaluation of the INRAE GO+ model, version 3.0Improving Yasso15 soil carbon model estimates with ensemble adjustment Kalman filter state data assimilationOceanic and atmospheric methane cycling in the cGENIE Earth system model – release v0.9.14Modeling the impacts of diffuse light fraction on photosynthesis in ORCHIDEE (v5453) land surface modelDescription and evaluation of the process-based forest model 4C v2.2 at four European forest sitesA multi-isotope model for simulating soil organic carbon cycling in eroding landscapes (WATEM_C v1.0)One-dimensional models of radiation transfer in heterogeneous canopies: a review, re-evaluation, and improved modelAn improved mechanistic model for ammonia volatilization in Earth system models: Flow of Agricultural Nitrogen version 2 (FANv2)Stoichiometrically coupled carbon and nitrogen cycling in the MIcrobial-MIneral Carbon Stabilization model version 1.0 (MIMICS-CN v1.0)Explicit silicate cycling in the Kiel Marine Biogeochemistry Model, version 3 (KMBM3) embedded in the UVic ESCM version 2.9Short-term forecasting of regional biospheric CO2 fluxes in Europe using a light-use-efficiency model (VPRM, MPI-BGC version 1.2)FLiES-SIF version 1.0: three-dimensional radiative transfer model for estimating solar induced fluorescenceThe importance of management information and soil moisture representation for simulating tillage effects on N2O emissions in LPJmL5.0-tillageEvaluation of CH4MODwetland and Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM) used to estimate global CH4 emissions from natural wetlandsSimulating stable carbon isotopes in the ocean component of the FAMOUS general circulation model with MOSES1 (XOAVI)Quantitative assessment of fire and vegetation properties in simulations with fire-enabled vegetation models from the Fire Model Intercomparison ProjectMarine biogeochemical cycling and oceanic CO2 uptake simulated by the NUIST Earth System Model version 3 (NESM v3)CLASSIC v1.0: the open-source community successor to the Canadian Land Surface Scheme (CLASS) and the Canadian Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (CTEM) – Part 1: Model framework and site-level performanceHR3DHG version 1: modeling the spatiotemporal dynamics of mercury in the Augusta Bay (southern Italy)BPOP-v1 model: exploring the impact of changes in the biological pump on the shelf sea and ocean nutrient and redox stateP-model v1.0: an optimality-based light use efficiency model for simulating ecosystem gross primary productionHETEROFOR 1.0: a spatially explicit model for exploring the response of structurally complex forests to uncertain future conditions – Part 2: Phenology and water cycle
Mats Lindeskog, Benjamin Smith, Fredrik Lagergren, Ekaterina Sycheva, Andrej Ficko, Hans Pretzsch, and Anja Rammig
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 6071–6112,Short summary
Forests play an important role in the global carbon cycle and for carbon storage. In Europe, forests are intensively managed. To understand how management influences carbon storage in European forests, we implement detailed forest management into the dynamic vegetation model LPJ-GUESS. We test the model by comparing model output to typical forestry measures, such as growing stock and harvest data, for different countries in Europe.
Onur Kerimoglu, Prima Anugerahanti, and Sherwood Lan Smith
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 6025–6047,Short summary
In large-scale models, variations in cellular composition of phytoplankton are often insufficiently represented. Detailed modeling approaches exist, but they require additional state variables that increase the computational costs. In this study, we test an instantaneous acclimation model in a spatially explicit setup and show that its behavior is mostly similar to that of a variant with an additional state variable but different from that of a fixed composition variant.
Yoshiki Kanzaki, Dominik Hülse, Sandra Kirtland Turner, and Andy Ridgwell
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 5999–6023,Short summary
Sedimentary carbonate plays a central role in regulating Earth’s carbon cycle and climate, and also serves as an archive of paleoenvironments, hosting various trace elements/isotopes. To help obtain
trueenvironmental changes from carbonate records over diagenetic distortion, IMP has been newly developed and has the capability to simulate the diagenesis of multiple carbonate particles and implement different styles of particle mixing by benthos using an adapted transition matrix method.
Jina Jeong, Jonathan Barichivich, Philippe Peylin, Vanessa Haverd, Matthew Joseph McGrath, Nicolas Vuichard, Michael Neil Evans, Flurin Babst, and Sebastiaan Luyssaert
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 5891–5913,Short summary
We have proposed and evaluated the use of four benchmarks that leverage tree-ring width observations to provide more nuanced verification targets for land-surface models (LSMs), which currently lack a long-term benchmark for forest ecosystem functioning. Using relatively unbiased European biomass network datasets, we identify the extent to which presumed biases in the much larger International Tree-Ring Data Bank might degrade the validation of LSMs.
Thomas Neumann, Sampsa Koponen, Jenni Attila, Carsten Brockmann, Kari Kallio, Mikko Kervinen, Constant Mazeran, Dagmar Müller, Petra Philipson, Susanne Thulin, Sakari Väkevä, and Pasi Ylöstalo
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 5049–5062,Short summary
The Baltic Sea is heavily impacted by surrounding land. Therefore, the concentration of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) of terrestrial origin is relatively high and impacts the light penetration depth. Estimating a correct light climate is essential for ecosystem models. In this study, a method is developed to derive riverine CDOM from Earth observation methods. The data are used as boundary conditions for an ecosystem model, and the advantage over former approaches is shown.
Hyewon Heather Kim, Ya-Wei Luo, Hugh W. Ducklow, Oscar M. Schofield, Deborah K. Steinberg, and Scott C. Doney
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 4939–4975,Short summary
The West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) is a rapidly warming region, revealed by multi-decadal observations. Despite the region being data rich, there is a lack of focus on ecosystem model development. Here, we introduce a data assimilation ecosystem model for the WAP region. Experiments by assimilating data from an example growth season capture key WAP features. This study enables us to glue the snapshots from available data sets together to explain the observations in the WAP.
Peiqi Yang, Egor Prikaziuk, Wout Verhoef, and Christiaan van der Tol
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 4697–4712,Short summary
Since the first publication 12 years ago, the SCOPE model has been applied in remote sensing studies of solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF), energy balance fluxes, gross primary productivity (GPP), and directional thermal signals. Here, we present a thoroughly revised version, SCOPE 2.0, which features a number of new elements.
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 4225–4240,Short summary
SolveSAPHE (Munhoven, 2013) was the first package to calculate pH reliably from any physically sensible pair of total alkalinity (AlkT) and dissolved inorganic carbon (CT) data and to do so in an autonomous and efficient way. Here, we extend it to use CO2, HCO3 or CO3 instead of CT. For each one of these pairs, the new SolveSAPHE calculates all of the possible pH values (0, 1, or 2), again without any prior knowledge of the solutions.
John Zobitz, Heidi Aaltonen, Xuan Zhou, Frank Beninger, Jukka Pumpanen, and Kajar Köster
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for GMDShort summary
Forest fires heavily affect carbon stocks and fluxes of carbon in high-latitude forests. Long-term trends in soil respiration following forest fires are associated with recovery of aboveground biomass. We evaluated models for soil autotrophic and heterotrophic respiration with data from a chronosequence of stand-replacing forest fires in northern Canada. The best model that reproduced expected patterns in soil respiration components takes into account soil microbe carbon as a model variable.
Jaber Rahimi, Expedit Evariste Ago, Augustine Ayantunde, Sina Berger, Jan Bogaert, Klaus Butterbach-Bahl, Bernard Cappelaere, Jean-Martial Cohard, Jérôme Demarty, Abdoul Aziz Diouf, Ulrike Falk, Edwin Haas, Pierre Hiernaux, David Kraus, Olivier Roupsard, Clemens Scheer, Amit Kumar Srivastava, Torbern Tagesson, and Rüdiger Grote
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 3789–3812,Short summary
West African Sahelian and Sudanian ecosystems are important regions for global carbon exchange, and they provide valuable food and fodder resources. Therefore, we simulated net ecosystem exchange and aboveground biomass of typical ecosystems in this region with an improved process-based biogeochemical model, LandscapeDNDC. Carbon stocks and exchange rates were particularly correlated with the abundance of trees. Grass and crop yields increased under humid climatic conditions.
Lauric Cécillon, François Baudin, Claire Chenu, Bent T. Christensen, Uwe Franko, Sabine Houot, Eva Kanari, Thomas Kätterer, Ines Merbach, Folkert van Oort, Christopher Poeplau, Juan Carlos Quezada, Florence Savignac, Laure N. Soucémarianadin, and Pierre Barré
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 3879–3898,Short summary
Partitioning soil organic carbon (SOC) into fractions that are stable or active on a century scale is key for more accurate models of the carbon cycle. Here, we describe the second version of a machine-learning model, named PARTYsoc, which reliably predicts the proportion of the centennially stable SOC fraction at its northwestern European validation sites with Cambisols and Luvisols, the two dominant soil groups in this region, fostering modelling works of SOC dynamics.
Leah Birch, Christopher R. Schwalm, Sue Natali, Danica Lombardozzi, Gretchen Keppel-Aleks, Jennifer Watts, Xin Lin, Donatella Zona, Walter Oechel, Torsten Sachs, Thomas Andrew Black, and Brendan M. Rogers
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 3361–3382,Short summary
The high-latitude landscape or Arctic–boreal zone has been warming rapidly, impacting the carbon balance both regionally and globally. Given the possible global effects of climate change, it is important to have accurate climate model simulations. We assess the simulation of the Arctic–boreal carbon cycle in the Community Land Model (CLM 5.0). We find biases in both the timing and magnitude photosynthesis. We then use observational data to improve the simulation of the carbon cycle.
Yujie Wang, Philipp Köhler, Liyin He, Russell Doughty, Renato K. Braghiere, Jeffrey D. Wood, and Christian Frankenberg
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for GMDShort summary
We presented our first step of testing a new land model as part of a new Earth System Model. Our model links plant hydraulics, stomatal optimization theory, and a comprehensive canopy radiation scheme. We compared model predicted carbon and water fluxes to flux tower observations and model predicted sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence to satellite retrievals. Our model quantitatively predicted the carbon and water fluxes, and canopy fluorescence yield.
Shannon de Roos, Gabriëlle J. M. De Lannoy, and Dirk Raes
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for GMDShort summary
A spatially distributed version of the field-scale crop model AquaCrop v6.1 was developed for applications at various spatial scales. Multi-year 1-km simulations over Europe were evaluated against biomass and surface soil moisture products derived from optical and microwave satellite missions, and in situ observations of soil moisture. Even when using easily accessible global input data, the model is able to capture the temporal and spatial variability at the field to regional scale.
Alexey N. Shiklomanov, Michael C. Dietze, Istem Fer, Toni Viskari, and Shawn P. Serbin
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 2603–2633,Short summary
Airborne and satellite images are a great resource for calibrating and evaluating computer models of ecosystems. Typically, researchers derive ecosystem properties from these images and then compare models against these derived properties. Here, we present an alternative approach where we modify a model to predict what the satellite would see more directly. We then show how this approach can be used to calibrate model parameters using airborne data from forest sites in the northeastern US.
Leonardo Calle and Benjamin Poulter
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 2575–2601,Short summary
We developed a model to simulate and track the age of ecosystems on Earth. We found that the effect of ecosystem age on net primary production and ecosystem respiration is as important as climate in large areas of every vegetated continent. The LPJ-wsl v2.0 age-class model simulates dynamic age-class distributions on Earth and represents another step forward towards understanding the role of demography in global ecosystems.
Christian Seiler, Joe R. Melton, Vivek K. Arora, and Libo Wang
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 2371–2417,Short summary
This study evaluates how well the CLASSIC land surface model reproduces the energy, water, and carbon cycle when compared against a wide range of global observations. Special attention is paid to how uncertainties in the data used to drive and evaluate the model affect model skill. Our results show the importance of incorporating uncertainties when evaluating land surface models and that failing to do so may potentially misguide future model development.
Yuan Zhang, Olivier Boucher, Philippe Ciais, Laurent Li, and Nicolas Bellouin
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 2029–2039,Short summary
We investigated different methods to reconstruct spatiotemporal distribution of the fraction of diffuse radiation (Fdf) to qualify the aerosol impacts on GPP using the ORCHIDEE_DF land surface model. We find that climatological-averaging methods which dampen the variability of Fdf can cause significant bias in the modeled diffuse radiation impacts on GPP. Better methods to reconstruct Fdf are recommended.
Guillaume Le Gland, Sergio M. Vallina, S. Lan Smith, and Pedro Cermeño
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1949–1985,Short summary
We present an ecological model called SPEAD wherein various phytoplankton compete for nutrients. Phytoplankton in SPEAD are characterized by two continuously distributed traits: optimal temperature and nutrient half-saturation. Trait diversity is sustained by allowing the traits to mutate at each generation. We show that SPEAD agrees well with a more classical discrete model for only a fraction of the cost. We also identify realistic values for the mutation rates to be used in future models.
Magnus Dahler Norling, Leah Amber Jackson-Blake, José-Luis Guerrero Calidonio, and James Edward Sample
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1885–1897,Short summary
In order to allow researchers to quickly prototype and build models of natural systems, we have created the Mobius framework. Such models can, for instance, be used to ask questions about what the impacts of land-use changes are to water quality in a river or lake, or the response of biogeochemical systems to climate change. The Mobius framework makes it quick to build models that run fast, which enables the user to explore many different scenarios and model formulations.
Bruno Ringeval, Christoph Müller, Thomas A. M. Pugh, Nathaniel D. Mueller, Philippe Ciais, Christian Folberth, Wenfeng Liu, Philippe Debaeke, and Sylvain Pellerin
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1639–1656,Short summary
We assess how and why global gridded crop models (GGCMs) differ in their simulation of potential yield. We build a GCCM emulator based on generic formalism and fit its parameters against aboveground biomass and yield at harvest simulated by eight GGCMs. Despite huge differences between GGCMs, we show that the calibration of a few key parameters allows the emulator to reproduce the GGCM simulations. Our simple but mechanistic model could help to improve the global simulation of potential yield.
Yunfei Wang, Yijian Zeng, Lianyu Yu, Peiqi Yang, Christiaan Van der Tol, Qiang Yu, Xiaoliang Lü, Huanjie Cai, and Zhongbo Su
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1379–1407,Short summary
This study integrates photosynthesis and transfer of energy, mass, and momentum in the soil–plant–atmosphere continuum system, via a simplified 1D root growth model. The results indicated that the simulation of land surface fluxes was significantly improved by considering the root water uptake, especially when vegetation was experiencing severe water stress. This finding highlights the importance of enhanced soil heat and moisture transfer in simulating ecosystem functioning.
Philip Pika, Dominik Hülse, and Sandra Arndt
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for GMD
Hongxing He, Per-Erik Jansson, and Annemieke I. Gärdenäs
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 735–761,Short summary
This study presents the integration of the phosphorus (P) cycle into CoupModel (v6.0, Coup-CNP). The extended Coup-CNP, which explicitly considers the symbiosis between soil microbes and plant roots, enables simulations of coupled C, N, and P dynamics for terrestrial ecosystems. Simulations from the new Coup-CNP model provide strong evidence that P fluxes need to be further considered in studies of how ecosystems and C turnover react to climate change.
Theresa Boas, Heye Bogena, Thomas Grünwald, Bernard Heinesch, Dongryeol Ryu, Marius Schmidt, Harry Vereecken, Andrew Western, and Harrie-Jan Hendricks Franssen
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 573–601,Short summary
In this study we were able to significantly improve CLM5 model performance for European cropland sites by adding a winter wheat representation, specific plant parameterizations for important cash crops, and a cover-cropping and crop rotation subroutine to its crop module. Our modifications should be applied in future studies of CLM5 to improve regional yield predictions and to better understand large-scale impacts of agricultural management on carbon, water, and energy fluxes.
Kazuyuki Saito, Hirokazu Machiya, Go Iwahana, Tokuta Yokohata, and Hiroshi Ohno
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 521–542,Short summary
Soil organic carbon (SOC) and ground ice (ICE) are essential but under-documented information to assess the circum-Arctic permafrost degradation impacts. A simple numerical model of essential SOC and ICE dynamics, developed and integrated north of 50° N for 125,000 years since the last interglacial, reconstructed the history and 1° distribution of SOC and ICE consistent with current knowledge, together with successful demonstration of climatic and topographical controls on SOC evolution.
Felix Leung, Karina Williams, Stephen Sitch, Amos P. K. Tai, Andy Wiltshire, Jemma Gornall, Elizabeth A. Ainsworth, Timothy Arkebauer, and David Scoby
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 6201–6213,Short summary
Ground-level ozone (O3) is detrimental to plant productivity and crop yield. Currently, the Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES) includes a representation of crops (JULES-crop). The parameters for O3 damage in soybean in JULES-crop were calibrated against photosynthesis measurements from the Soybean Free Air Concentration Enrichment (SoyFACE). The result shows good performance for yield, and it helps contribute to understanding of the impacts of climate and air pollution on food security.
Huilin Huang, Yongkang Xue, Fang Li, and Ye Liu
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 6029–6050,Short summary
We developed a fire-coupled dynamic vegetation model that captures the spatial distribution, temporal variability, and especially the seasonal variability of fire regimes. The fire model is applied to assess the long-term fire impact on ecosystems and surface energy. We find that fire is an important determinant of the structure and function of the tropical savanna. By changing the vegetation composition and ecosystem characteristics, fire significantly alters surface energy balance.
Virginie Moreaux, Simon Martel, Alexandre Bosc, Delphine Picart, David Achat, Christophe Moisy, Raphael Aussenac, Christophe Chipeaux, Jean-Marc Bonnefond, Soisick Figuères, Pierre Trichet, Rémi Vezy, Vincent Badeau, Bernard Longdoz, André Granier, Olivier Roupsard, Manuel Nicolas, Kim Pilegaard, Giorgio Matteucci, Claudy Jolivet, Andrew T. Black, Olivier Picard, and Denis Loustau
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 5973–6009,Short summary
The model GO+ describes the functioning of managed forests based upon biophysical and biogeochemical processes. It accounts for the impacts of forest operations on energy, water and carbon exchanges within the soil–vegetation–atmosphere continuum. It includes versatile descriptions of management operations. Its sensitivity and uncertainty are detailed and predictions are compared with observations about mass and energy exchanges, hydrological data, and tree growth variables from different sites.
Toni Viskari, Maisa Laine, Liisa Kulmala, Jarmo Mäkelä, Istem Fer, and Jari Liski
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 5959–5971,Short summary
The research here established whether a Bayesian statistical method called state data assimilation could be used to improve soil organic carbon (SOC) forecasts. Our test case was a fallow experiment where SOC content was measured over several decades from a plot where all vegetation was removed. Our results showed that state data assimilation improved projections and allowed for the detailed model state be updated with coarse total carbon measurements.
Christopher T. Reinhard, Stephanie L. Olson, Sandra Kirtland Turner, Cecily Pälike, Yoshiki Kanzaki, and Andy Ridgwell
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 5687–5706,Short summary
We provide documentation and testing of new developments for the oceanic and atmospheric methane cycles in the cGENIE Earth system model. The model is designed to explore Earth's methane cycle across a wide range of timescales and scenarios, in particular assessing the mean climate state and climate perturbations in Earth's deep past. We further document the impact of atmospheric oxygen levels and ocean chemistry on fluxes of methane to the atmosphere from the ocean biosphere.
Yuan Zhang, Ana Bastos, Fabienne Maignan, Daniel Goll, Olivier Boucher, Laurent Li, Alessandro Cescatti, Nicolas Vuichard, Xiuzhi Chen, Christof Ammann, M. Altaf Arain, T. Andrew Black, Bogdan Chojnicki, Tomomichi Kato, Ivan Mammarella, Leonardo Montagnani, Olivier Roupsard, Maria J. Sanz, Lukas Siebicke, Marek Urbaniak, Francesco Primo Vaccari, Georg Wohlfahrt, Will Woodgate, and Philippe Ciais
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 5401–5423,Short summary
We improved the ORCHIDEE LSM by distinguishing diffuse and direct light in canopy and evaluated the new model with observations from 159 sites. Compared with the old model, the new model has better sunny GPP and reproduced the diffuse light fertilization effect observed at flux sites. Our simulations also indicate different mechanisms causing the observed GPP enhancement under cloudy conditions at different times. The new model has the potential to study large-scale impacts of aerosol changes.
Petra Lasch-Born, Felicitas Suckow, Christopher P. O. Reyer, Martin Gutsch, Chris Kollas, Franz-Werner Badeck, Harald K. M. Bugmann, Rüdiger Grote, Cornelia Fürstenau, Marcus Lindner, and Jörg Schaber
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 5311–5343,Short summary
The process-based model 4C has been developed to study climate impacts on forests and is now freely available as an open-source tool. This paper provides a comprehensive description of the 4C version (v2.2) for scientific users of the model and presents an evaluation of 4C. The evaluation focused on forest growth, carbon water, and heat fluxes. We conclude that 4C is widely applicable, reliable, and ready to be released to the scientific community to use and further develop the model.
Zhengang Wang, Jianxiu Qiu, and Kristof Van Oost
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 4977–4992,Short summary
This study developed a spatially distributed carbon cycling model applicable in an eroding landscape. It includes all three carbon isotopes so that it is able to represent the carbon isotopic compositions. The model is able to represent the observations that eroding area is enriched in 13C and depleted of 14C compared to depositional area. Our simulations show that the spatial variability of carbon isotopic properties in an eroding landscape is mainly caused by the soil redistribution.
Brian N. Bailey, María A. Ponce de León, and E. Scott Krayenhoff
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 4789–4808,Short summary
Numerous models of plant radiation interception based on a range of assumptions are available in the literature, but the importance of each assumption is not well understood. In this work, we evaluate several assumptions common in simple models of radiation interception in canopies with widely spaced plants by comparing against a detailed 3-D model. This yielded a simple model based on readily measurable parameters that could accurately predict interception for a wide range of architectures.
Julius Vira, Peter Hess, Jeff Melkonian, and William R. Wieder
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 4459–4490,Short summary
Mostly emitted by the agricultural sector, ammonia has an important role in atmospheric chemistry. We developed a model to simulate how ammonia emissions respond to changes in temperature and soil moisture, and we evaluated agricultural ammonia emissions globally. The simulated emissions agree with earlier estimates over many regions, but the results highlight the variability of ammonia emissions and suggest that emissions in warm climates may be higher than previously thought.
Emily Kyker-Snowman, William R. Wieder, Serita D. Frey, and A. Stuart Grandy
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 4413–4434,Short summary
Microbes drive carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) transformations in soil, and soil models have started to include explicit microbial physiology and functioning to try to reduce uncertainty in soil–climate feedbacks. Here, we add N cycling to a microbially explicit soil C model and reproduce C and N dynamics in soil during litter decomposition across a range of sites. We discuss model-generated hypotheses about soil C and N cycling and highlight the need for landscape-scale model evaluation data.
Karin Kvale, David P. Keller, Wolfgang Koeve, Katrin J. Meissner, Chris Somes, Wanxuan Yao, and Andreas Oschlies
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for GMDShort summary
We present a new model of biological marine silicate cycling for the University of Victoria Earth System Climate Model (UVic ESCM). This new model adds diatoms, which are a key aspect of the biological carbon pump, to an existing ecosystem model. Our modifications change how the model responds to warming, with net primary production declining more strongly than in previous versions. Diatoms in particular are simulated to decline with climate warming due to their high nutrient requirements.
Jinxuan Chen, Christoph Gerbig, Julia Marshall, and Kai Uwe Totsche
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 4091–4106,Short summary
One of the essential challenge for atmospheric CO2 forecasting is predicting CO2 flux variation on synoptic timescale. For CAMS CO2 forecast, a process-based vegetation model is used. In this research we evaluate another type of model (i.e., the light-use-efficiency model VPRM), which is a data-driven approach and thus ideal for realistic estimation, on its ability of flux prediction. Errors from different sources are assessed, and overall the model is capable of CO2 flux prediction.
Yuma Sakai, Hideki Kobayashi, and Tomomichi Kato
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 4041–4066,Short summary
Chlorophyll fluorescence is one of the energy release pathways of excess incident light in the photosynthetic process. The canopy-scale Sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF), which potentially provides a direct pathway to link leaf-level photosynthesis to global GPP, can be observed from satellites. We develop the three-dimensional Monte Carlo plant canopy radiative transfer model to understand the biological and physical mechanisms behind SIF emission from complex forest canopies.
Femke Lutz, Stephen Del Grosso, Stephen Ogle, Stephen Williams, Sara Minoli, Susanne Rolinski, Jens Heinke, Jetse J. Stoorvogel, and Christoph Müller
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 3905–3923,Short summary
Previous findings have shown deviations between the LPJmL5.0-tillage model and results from meta-analyses on global estimates of tillage effects on N2O emissions. By comparing model results with observational data of four experimental sites and outputs from field-scale DayCent model simulations, we show that advancing information on agricultural management, as well as the representation of soil moisture dynamics, improves LPJmL5.0-tillage and the estimates of tillage effects on N2O emissions.
Tingting Li, Yanyu Lu, Lingfei Yu, Wenjuan Sun, Qing Zhang, Wen Zhang, Guocheng Wang, Zhangcai Qin, Lijun Yu, Hailing Li, and Ran Zhang
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 3769–3788,Short summary
Reliable models are required to estimate global wetland CH4 emissions, which are the largest and most uncertain source of atmospheric CH4. This paper evaluated CH4MODwetland and TEM models against CH4 measurements from different continents and wetland types. Based on best-model performance, we estimated 117–125 Tg yr−1 of global CH4 emissions from wetlands for the period 2000–2010. Efforts should be made to reduce estimate uncertainties for different wetland types and regions.
Jennifer E. Dentith, Ruza F. Ivanovic, Lauren J. Gregoire, Julia C. Tindall, and Laura F. Robinson
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 3529–3552,Short summary
We have added a new tracer (13C) into the ocean of the FAMOUS climate model to study large-scale circulation and the marine carbon cycle. The model captures the large-scale spatial pattern of observations but the simulated values are consistently higher than observed. In the first instance, our new tracer is therefore useful for recalibrating the physical and biogeochemical components of the model.
Stijn Hantson, Douglas I. Kelley, Almut Arneth, Sandy P. Harrison, Sally Archibald, Dominique Bachelet, Matthew Forrest, Thomas Hickler, Gitta Lasslop, Fang Li, Stephane Mangeon, Joe R. Melton, Lars Nieradzik, Sam S. Rabin, I. Colin Prentice, Tim Sheehan, Stephen Sitch, Lina Teckentrup, Apostolos Voulgarakis, and Chao Yue
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 3299–3318,Short summary
Global fire–vegetation models are widely used, but there has been limited evaluation of how well they represent various aspects of fire regimes. Here we perform a systematic evaluation of simulations made by nine FireMIP models in order to quantify their ability to reproduce a range of fire and vegetation benchmarks. While some FireMIP models are better at representing certain aspects of the fire regime, no model clearly outperforms all other models across the full range of variables assessed.
Yifei Dai, Long Cao, and Bin Wang
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 3119–3144,Short summary
NESM v3 is one of the CMIP6 registered Earth system models. We evaluate its ocean carbon cycle component and present its present-day and future oceanic CO2 uptake based on the CMIP6 historical and SSP5–8.5 scenarios. We hope that this paper can serve as a documentation of the marine biogeochemical cycle in NESM v3. Also, the model defects found and their underlying causes analyzed in this paper could help users and further model development.
Joe R. Melton, Vivek K. Arora, Eduard Wisernig-Cojoc, Christian Seiler, Matthew Fortier, Ed Chan, and Lina Teckentrup
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 2825–2850,Short summary
We transitioned the CLASS-CTEM land surface model to an open-source community model format by modernizing the code base to make the model easier to use and understand, providing a complete software environment to run the model within, developing a benchmarking suite for model evaluation, and creating an infrastructure to support community involvement. The new model, the Canadian Land Surface Scheme including Biogeochemical Cycles (CLASSIC), is now available for the community to use and develop.
Giovanni Denaro, Daniela Salvagio Manta, Alessandro Borri, Maria Bonsignore, Davide Valenti, Enza Quinci, Andrea Cucco, Bernardo Spagnolo, Mario Sprovieri, and Andrea De Gaetano
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 2073–2093,Short summary
The HR3DHG (high-resolution 3D mercury model) investigates the spatiotemporal behavior, in seawater and marine sediments, of three mercury species (elemental, inorganic, and organic mercury) in a highly polluted marine environment (Augusta Bay, southern Italy). The model shows fair agreement with the experimental data collected during six different oceanographic cruises and can possibly be used for a detailed exploration of the effects of climate change on mercury distribution.
Elisa Lovecchio and Timothy M. Lenton
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 1865–1883,Short summary
We present here the newly developed BPOP box model. BPOP is aimed at studying the impact of large-scale changes in the biological pump, i.e. the cycle of production, export and remineralization of the marine organic matter, on the nutrient and oxygen concentrations in the shelf and open ocean. This model has been developed to investigate the global consequences of the evolution of larger and heavier phytoplankton cells but can be applied to a variety of past and future case studies.
Benjamin D. Stocker, Han Wang, Nicholas G. Smith, Sandy P. Harrison, Trevor F. Keenan, David Sandoval, Tyler Davis, and I. Colin Prentice
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 1545–1581,Short summary
Estimating terrestrial photosynthesis relies on satellite data of vegetation cover and models simulating the efficiency by which light absorbed by vegetation is used for CO2 assimilation. This paper presents the P-model, a light use efficiency model derived from a carbon–water optimality principle, and evaluates its predictions of ecosystem-level photosynthesis against globally distributed observations. The model is implemented and openly accessible as an R package (rpmodel).
Louis de Wergifosse, Frédéric André, Nicolas Beudez, François de Coligny, Hugues Goosse, François Jonard, Quentin Ponette, Hugues Titeux, Caroline Vincke, and Mathieu Jonard
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 1459–1498,Short summary
Given their key role in the simulation of climate impacts on tree growth, phenological and water balance processes must be integrated in models simulating forest dynamics under a changing environment. Here, we describe these processes integrated in HETEROFOR, a model accounting simultaneously for the functional, structural and spatial complexity to explore the forest response to forestry practices. The model evaluation using phenological and soil water content observations is quite promising.
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In the data-rich era, data assimilation is widely used to integrate abundant observations into models to reduce uncertainty in ecological forecasting. However, applications of data assimilation are restricted by highly technical requirements. To alleviate this technical burden, we developed a model-independent data assimilation (MIDA) module which is friendly to ecologists with limited programming skills. MIDA also supports a flexible switch of different models or observations in DA analysis.
In the data-rich era, data assimilation is widely used to integrate abundant observations into...