Articles | Volume 14, issue 1
Model evaluation paper 25 Jan 2021
Model evaluation paper | 25 Jan 2021
FALL3D-8.0: a computational model for atmospheric transport and deposition of particles, aerosols and radionuclides – Part 2: Model validation
Andrew T. Prata et al.
No articles found.
Silvia Massaro, Roberto Sulpizio, Gianluca Norini, Gianluca Groppelli, Antonio Costa, Lucia Capra, Giacomo Lo Zupone, Michele Porfido, and Andrea Gabrieli
Solid Earth, 11, 2515–2533,Short summary
In this work we provide a 2D finite-element modelling of the stress field conditions around the Fuego de Colima volcano (Mexico) in order to test the response of the commercial Linear Static Analysis software to increasingly different geological constraints. Results suggest that an appropriate set of geological and geophysical data improves the mesh generation procedures and the degree of accuracy of numerical outputs, aimed at more reliable physics-based representations of the natural system.
Arnau Folch, Leonardo Mingari, Natalia Gutierrez, Mauricio Hanzich, Giovanni Macedonio, and Antonio Costa
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 1431–1458,Short summary
This paper presents FALL3D-8.0, the latest version release of an open-source code with a track record of 15+ years and a growing number of users in the volcanological and atmospheric communities. The code, originally conceived for atmospheric dispersal and deposition of tephra particles, has been extended to model other types of particles, aerosols and radionuclides. This paper details the FALL3D-8.0 model physics and the numerical implementation of the code.
Soledad Osores, Juan Ruiz, Arnau Folch, and Estela Collini
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 1–22,Short summary
Volcanic ash dispersal forecasts are routinely used to avoid aircraft encounters with volcanic ash. However, the accuracy of these forecasts depends on the knowledge of key factors that are usually difficult to observe directly. In this work we apply an inverse methodology to improve ash concentration forecasts. Results are encouraging, showing that accurate estimations of ash emissions can be performed using the proposed approach, leading to an improvement in ash concentration forecasts.
Silvia Massaro, Antonio Costa, Roberto Sulpizio, Diego Coppola, and Lucia Capra
Solid Earth, 10, 1429–1450,Short summary
The Fuego de Colima volcano (Mexico) shows a complex eruptive history, with periods of rapid and slow lava dome growth punctuated by explosive activity. Here we reconstructed the 1998–2018 average discharge rate by means of satellite thermal data and the literature. Using spectral and wavelet analysis, we found a multi-term cyclic behavior that is in good agreement with numerical modeling, accounting for a variable magmatic feeding system composed of a single or double magma chamber system.
Matthieu Poret, Stefano Corradini, Luca Merucci, Antonio Costa, Daniele Andronico, Mario Montopoli, Gianfranco Vulpiani, and Valentin Freret-Lorgeril
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4695–4714,Short summary
This study aims at proposing a method to better assess the initial magma fragmentation produced during explosive volcanic eruptions. We worked on merging field, radar, and satellite data to estimate the total grain-size distribution, which is used within simulations to reconstruct the tephra loading and far-travelling airborne ash dispersal. This approach is applied to 23 November 2013, giving the very fine ash fraction related to volcanic hazards (e.g. air traffic safety).
Alejandro Marti and Arnau Folch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4019–4038,Short summary
We use the NMMB-MONARCH-ASH model to quantify the systematic errors associated with traditional offline modeling systems used for operational volcanic ash forecast. Evaluation scores indicate that uncertainties credited to offline modeling are of the same order of magnitude as those associated with the source term, failing to reproduce up to 45–70 % of the ash cloud of an online forecast. This work encourages operational groups to consider online dispersal models for real-time aviation advisory.
Arnau Folch, Jordi Barcons, Tomofumi Kozono, and Antonio Costa
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 861–879,Short summary
Atmospheric dispersal of a gas denser than air can threat the environment and surrounding communities. In complex terrains, microscale winds and local orographic features can have a strong influence on the gas cloud behavior, potentially leading to inaccurate model results if not captured by coarser-scale simulations. We introduce a methodology for microscale wind field characterization and validate it using, as a test case, the CO2 gas dispersal from 1986 Lake Nyos eruption.
Leonardo A. Mingari, Estela A. Collini, Arnau Folch, Walter Báez, Emilce Bustos, María Soledad Osores, Florencia Reckziegel, Peter Alexander, and José G. Viramonte
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 6759–6778,Short summary
In this paper, we provide the first comprehensive description of a dust episode occurred in South America in June 2015 through observations and numerical simulations. We have investigated the spatiotemporal distribution of aerosols and the emission process over complex terrain to gain insight into the key role played by the orography and the condition that triggered the long-range transport episode.
Alejandro Marti, Arnau Folch, Oriol Jorba, and Zavisa Janjic
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 4005–4030,Short summary
We describe and evaluate NMMB-MONARCH-ASH, a novel online multi-scale meteorological and transport model developed at the BSC-CNS capable of forecasting the dispersal and deposition of volcanic ash. The forecast skills of the model have been validated and they improve on those from traditional operational offline (decoupled) models. The results support the use of online coupled models to aid civil aviation and emergency management during a crisis such as the 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull.
A. Folch, A. Costa, and G. Macedonio
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 431–450,Short summary
We present FPLUME-1.0, a steady-state 1-D cross-section-averaged eruption column model based on the buoyant plume theory (BPT). The model accounts for plume bending by wind, entrainment of ambient moisture, effects of water phase changes, particle fallout and re-entrainment, a new parameterization for the air entrainment coefficients and a model for wet aggregation of ash particles in presence of liquid water or ice.
R. Tonini, L. Sandri, A. Costa, and J. Selva
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 15, 409–415,
S. Biass, C. Scaini, C. Bonadonna, A. Folch, K. Smith, and A. Höskuldsson
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 14, 2265–2287,
C. Scaini, S. Biass, A. Galderisi, C. Bonadonna, A. Folch, K. Smith, and A. Höskuldsson
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 14, 2289–2312,
A. Folch, L. Mingari, M. S. Osores, and E. Collini
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 14, 119–133,
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Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1553–1574,Short summary
MLAir provides a coherent end-to-end structure for a typical time series analysis workflow using machine learning (ML). MLAir is adaptable to a wide range of ML use cases, focusing in particular on deep learning. The user has a free hand with the ML model itself and can select from different methods during preprocessing, training, and postprocessing. MLAir offers tools to track the experiment conduction, documents necessary ML parameters, and creates a variety of publication-ready plots.
Davide Ori, Leonie von Terzi, Markus Karrer, and Stefan Kneifel
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1511–1531,Short summary
Snowflakes have very complex shapes, and modeling their properties requires vast computing power. We produced a large number of realistic snowflakes and modeled their average properties by leveraging their fractal structure. Our approach allows modeling the properties of big ensembles of snowflakes, taking into account their natural variability, at a much lower cost. This enables the usage of remote sensing instruments, such as radars, to monitor the evolution of clouds and precipitation.
Jaydeep Singh, Narendra Singh, Narendra Ojha, Amit Sharma, Andrea Pozzer, Nadimpally Kiran Kumar, Kunjukrishnapillai Rajeev, Sachin S. Gunthe, and V. Rao Kotamarthi
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1427–1443,Short summary
Atmospheric models often have limitations in simulating the geographically complex and climatically important central Himalayan region. In this direction, we have performed regional modeling at high resolutions to improve the simulation of meteorology and dynamics through a better representation of the topography. The study has implications for further model applications to investigate the effects of anthropogenic pressure over the Himalaya.
Beatrice Giacomini and Marco G. Giometto
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1409–1426,Short summary
The present work evaluates the suitability of an important class of second-order finite-volume solvers for the large-eddy simulation of atmospheric boundary- layer flows. Results show that these solvers do not capture the dominant mechanisms responsible for momentum transport in boundary layers, leading to a misprediction of relevant flow statistics and to an enhanced sensitivity of the solution to variations in grid resolution.
Michael Weger, Oswald Knoth, and Bernd Heinold
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1469–1492,Short summary
A new numerical air-quality transport model for cities is presented, in which buildings are described diffusively. The used diffusive-obstacles approach helps to reduce the computational costs for high-resolution simulations as the grid spacing can be more coarse than in traditional approaches. The research which led to this model development was primarily motivated by the need for a computationally feasible downscaling tool for urban wind and pollution fields from meteorological model output.
Yuefei Zeng, Alberto de Lozar, Tijana Janjic, and Axel Seifert
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1295–1307,Short summary
A new integrated mass-flux adjustment filter is introduced and examined with an idealized setup for convective-scale radar data assimilation. It is found that the new filter slightly reduces the accuracy of background and analysis states; however, it preserves the main structure of cold pools and primary mesocyclone properties of supercells. More importantly, it successfully diminishes the imbalance in the analysis considerably and improves the forecasts.
Pieter De Meutter, Ian Hoffman, and Kurt Ungar
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1237–1252,Short summary
Inverse atmospheric transport modelling is an important tool in several disciplines. However, the specification of atmospheric transport model error remains challenging. In this paper, we employ a state-of-the-art ensemble technique combined with a state-of-the-art Bayesian inference algorithm to infer point sources. Our research helps to fill the gap in our understanding of model error in the context of inverse atmospheric transport modelling.
Qi Tang, Michael J. Prather, Juno Hsu, Daniel J. Ruiz, Philip J. Cameron-Smith, Shaocheng Xie, and Jean-Christophe Golaz
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1219–1236,
Basit Khan, Sabine Banzhaf, Edward C. Chan, Renate Forkel, Farah Kanani-Sühring, Klaus Ketelsen, Mona Kurppa, Björn Maronga, Matthias Mauder, Siegfried Raasch, Emmanuele Russo, Martijn Schaap, and Matthias Sühring
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1171–1193,Short summary
An atmospheric chemistry model has been implemented in the microscale PALM model system 6.0. This article provides a detailed description of the model, its structure, input requirements, various features and limitations. Several pre-compiled ready-to-use chemical mechanisms are included in the chemistry model code; however, users can also easily implement other mechanisms. A case study is presented to demonstrate the application of the new chemistry model in the urban environment.
Mohsen Moradi, Benjamin Dyer, Amir Nazem, Manoj K. Nambiar, M. Rafsan Nahian, Bruno Bueno, Chris Mackey, Saeran Vasanthakumar, Negin Nazarian, E. Scott Krayenhoff, Leslie K. Norford, and Amir A. Aliabadi
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 961–984,Short summary
The Vertical City Weather Generator (VCWG) is an urban microclimate model developed to predict temporal and vertical variation of potential temperature, wind speed, and specific humidity. VCWG is forced by climate variables at a nearby rural site and coupled to radiation and building energy models. VCWG is evaluated against field observations of the BUBBLE campaign. It is run under exploration mode to assess its performance given urban characteristics, seasonal variations, and climate zones.
Loredana G. Suciu, Robert J. Griffin, and Caroline A. Masiello
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 907–921,Short summary
Understanding the atmospheric degradation of biomass burning tracers such as levoglucosan is essential to decreasing uncertainties in the role of biomass burning in air quality, carbon cycling and paleoclimate. Using a 0-D modeling approach and numerical chamber simulations, we found that the multiphase atmospheric degradation of levoglucosan occurs over timescales of hours to days, can form secondary organic aerosols and affects other key tropospheric gases, such as ozone.
Chihiro Kodama, Tomoki Ohno, Tatsuya Seiki, Hisashi Yashiro, Akira T. Noda, Masuo Nakano, Yohei Yamada, Woosub Roh, Masaki Satoh, Tomoko Nitta, Daisuke Goto, Hiroaki Miura, Tomoe Nasuno, Tomoki Miyakawa, Ying-Wen Chen, and Masato Sugi
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 795–820,Short summary
This paper describes the latest stable version of NICAM, a global atmospheric model, developed for high-resolution climate simulations toward the IPCC Assessment Report. Our model explicitly treats convection, clouds, and precipitation and could reduce the uncertainty of climate change projection. A series of test simulations demonstrated improvements (e.g., high cloud) and issues (e.g., low cloud, precipitation pattern), suggesting further necessity for model improvement and higher resolutions.
Jingyu Wang, Jiwen Fan, Robert A. Houze Jr., Stella R. Brodzik, Kai Zhang, Guang J. Zhang, and Po-Lun Ma
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 719–734,Short summary
This paper presents an evaluation of the E3SM model against NEXRAD radar observations for the warm seasons during 2014–2016. The COSP forward simulator package is implemented in the model to generate radar reflectivity, and the NEXRAD observations are coarsened to the model resolution for comparison. The model severely underestimates the reflectivity above 4 km. Sensitivity tests on the parameters from cumulus parameterization and cloud microphysics do not improve this model bias.
Lei Zhang, Sunling Gong, Tianliang Zhao, Chunhong Zhou, Yuesi Wang, Jiawei Li, Dongsheng Ji, Jianjun He, Hongli Liu, Ke Gui, Xiaomei Guo, Jinhui Gao, Yunpeng Shan, Hong Wang, Yaqiang Wang, Huizheng Che, and Xiaoye Zhang
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 703–718,Short summary
Development of chemical transport models with advanced physics and chemical schemes is important for improving air-quality forecasts. This study develops the chemical module CUACE by updating with a new particle dry deposition scheme and adding heterogenous chemical reactions and couples it with the WRF model. The coupled model (WRF/CUACE) was able to capture well the variations of PM2.5, O3, NO2, and secondary inorganic aerosols in eastern China.
Simon Patrick O'Meara, Shuxuan Xu, David Topping, M. Rami Alfarra, Gerard Capes, Douglas Lowe, Yunqi Shao, and Gordon McFiggans
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 675–702,Short summary
User-friendly and open-source software for simulating aerosol chambers is a valuable tool for research scientists in designing and analysing their experiments. This paper describes a new version of such software and will therefore provide a useful reference for those applying it. Central to the paper is an assessment of the software's accuracy through comparison against previously published simulations.
Tamara Emmerichs, Astrid Kerkweg, Huug Ouwersloot, Silvano Fares, Ivan Mammarella, and Domenico Taraborrelli
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 495–519,Short summary
Dry deposition to vegetation is a major sink of ground-level ozone. Its parameterization in atmospheric chemistry models represents a significant source of uncertainty for global tropospheric ozone. We extended the current model parameterization with a relevant pathway and important meteorological adjustment factors. The comparison with measurements shows that this enables a more realistic model representation of ozone dry deposition velocity. Globally, annual dry deposition loss increases.
Alexander Ukhov, Ravan Ahmadov, Georg Grell, and Georgiy Stenchikov
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 473–493,Short summary
We discuss and evaluate the effects of inconsistencies found in the WRF-Chem code when using the GOCART module. First, PM surface concentrations were miscalculated. Second, dust optical depth was underestimated by 25 %–30 %. Third, an inconsistency in the process of gravitational settling led to the overestimation of dust column loadings by 4 %–6 %, PM10 by 2 %–4 %, and the rate of gravitational dust settling by 5 %–10 %. We also presented diagnostics that can be used to estimate these effects.
Jian Zhong, Xiaoming Cai, and Zheng-Tong Xie
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 323–336,Short summary
A synthetic inflow turbulence generator was implemented in the idealised Weather Research and Forecasting large eddy simulation. The inflow case yielded a mean velocity profile and second-moment profiles that agreed well with those generated using periodic boundary conditions, after a short adjustment distance. This implementation can be extended to a multi-scale seamless nesting simulation from a meso-scale domain with a kilometre-scale resolution to LES domains with metre-scale resolutions.
Han Xiao, Qizhong Wu, Xiaochun Yang, Lanning Wang, and Huaqiong Cheng
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 223–238,Short summary
Few studies have investigated the effects of initial conditions on the simulation or prediction of PM2.5 concentrations. Here, sensitivity experiments are used to explore the effects of three initial mechanisms (clean, restart, and continuous) and emissions in Xi’an in December 2016. According to this work, if the restart mechanism cannot be used due to computing resource and storage space limitations when forecasting PM2.5 concentrations, a spin-up time of at least 27 h is needed.
Hsi-Yen Ma, Chen Zhou, Yunyan Zhang, Stephen A. Klein, Mark D. Zelinka, Xue Zheng, Shaocheng Xie, Wei-Ting Chen, and Chien-Ming Wu
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 73–90,Short summary
We propose an experimental design of a suite of multi-year, short-term hindcasts and compare them with corresponding observations or measurements for periods based on different weather and climate phenomena. This atypical way of evaluating model performance is particularly useful and beneficial, as these hindcasts can give scientists a robust picture of modeled precipitation, and cloud and radiation processes from their diurnal variation to year-to-year variability.
Peter Kuma, Adrian J. McDonald, Olaf Morgenstern, Richard Querel, Israel Silber, and Connor J. Flynn
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 43–72,
Jianglong Zhang, Robert J. D. Spurr, Jeffrey S. Reid, Peng Xian, Peter R. Colarco, James R. Campbell, Edward J. Hyer, and Nancy L. Baker
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 27–42,Short summary
A first-of-its-kind scheme has been developed for assimilating Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) aerosol index (AI) measurements into the Naval Aerosol Analysis and Predictive System. Improvements in model simulations demonstrate the utility of OMI AI data assimilation for improving the accuracy of aerosol model analysis over cloudy regions and bright surfaces. This study can be considered one of the first attempts at direct radiance assimilation in the UV spectrum for aerosol analyses.
Felix Kleinert, Lukas H. Leufen, and Martin G. Schultz
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1–25,Short summary
With IntelliO3-ts v1.0, we present an artificial neural network as a new forecasting model for daily aggregated near-surface ozone concentrations with a lead time of up to 4 d. We used measurement and reanalysis data from more than 300 German monitoring stations to train, fine tune, and test the model. We show that the model outperforms standard reference models like persistence models and demonstrate that IntelliO3-ts outperforms climatological reference models for the first 2 d.
Adrien Napoly, Aaron Boone, and Théo Welfringer
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 6523–6545,Short summary
Accurate modeling of snow impact on surface energy and mass fluxes is required from land surface models. This new version of the SURFEX model improves the representation of the snowpack. In particular, it prevents its ablation from occurring too early in the season, which also leads to better soil temperatures and energy fluxes toward the atmosphere. This was made possible with a more explicit and distinct representation of each layer that constitutes the surface (soil, snow, and vegetation).
Robin J. Hogan and Marco Matricardi
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 6501–6521,Short summary
A key component of computer models used to predict weather and climate is the radiation scheme, which calculates how solar and infrared radiation heats and cools the atmosphere and surface, including the important role of greenhouse gases. This paper describes the experimental protocol and large datasets for a new project, CKDMIP, to evaluate and improve the accuracy of the treatment of atmospheric gases in the radiation schemes used worldwide, as well as their computational speed.
David Simpson, Robert Bergström, Alan Briolat, Hannah Imhof, John Johansson, Michael Priestley, and Alvaro Valdebenito
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 6447–6465,Short summary
This paper outlines the structure and usage of the GenChem system, which includes a chemical pre-processor (GenChem.py) and a simple box model (boxChem). GenChem provides scripts and input files for converting chemical equations into differential form for use in atmospheric chemical transport models (CTMs) and/or the boxChem system. Although GenChem is primarily intended for users of the EMEP MSC-W CTM and related systems, boxChem can be run as a stand-alone chemical solver.
Zhiqiang Li, Bingcheng Wan, Yulun Zhou, and Hokit Wong
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 6349–6360,Short summary
Our results provide evidence of the effects of incoming land surface data quality on the accuracy of high-resolution urban climate simulations and emphasize the importance of the incoming data quality control.
Yihui Zhou, Yi Zhang, Jian Li, Rucong Yu, and Zhuang Liu
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 6325–6348,Short summary
This paper explores the configuration of a global atmospheric model (global-to-regional integrated forecast system-atmosphere; GRIST-A) with various multiresolution grids. The model performance is evaluated from dry dynamics to simple physics and full physics. The model is able to resolve the fine-scale structures in the grid-refinement region, and the adverse impact due to the mesh transition and the coarse-resolution area can be controlled well.
Bruce Rolstad Denby, Michael Gauss, Peter Wind, Qing Mu, Eivind Grøtting Wærsted, Hilde Fagerli, Alvaro Valdebenito, and Heiko Klein
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 6303–6323,Short summary
Air pollution is both a local and a global problem. Since measurements cannot be made everywhere, mathematical models are used to calculate air quality over cities or countries. Modelling over countries limits the level of detail of the models. For countries, the level of detail is only a few kilometres, so air quality at kerb sides is not properly represented. The uEMEP model is used together with the regional air quality model EMEP MSC-W to model details down to kerb side for all of Norway.
Yanfei Liang, Zengliang Zang, Dong Liu, Peng Yan, Yiwen Hu, Yan Zhou, and Wei You
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 6285–6301,
Ebrahim Eslami, Yunsoo Choi, Yannic Lops, Alqamah Sayeed, and Ahmed Khan Salman
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 6237–6251,Short summary
As using deep learning algorithms has become a popular data analytic technique, atmospheric scientists should have a balanced perception of their strengths and limitations so that they can provide a powerful analysis of complex data with well-established procedures. This study addresses significant limitations of an advanced deep learning algorithm, the convolutional neural network.
Eemeli Holopainen, Harri Kokkola, Anton Laakso, and Thomas Kühn
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 6215–6235,Short summary
This paper introduces an in-cloud wet deposition scheme for liquid and ice phase clouds for global aerosol–climate models. With the default setup, our wet deposition scheme behaves spuriously and better representation can be achieved with this scheme when black carbon is mixed with soluble compounds at emission time. This work is done as many of the global models fail to reproduce the transport of black carbon to the Arctic, which may be due to the poor representation of wet removal in models.
Travis A. O'Brien, Mark D. Risser, Burlen Loring, Abdelrahman A. Elbashandy, Harinarayan Krishnan, Jeffrey Johnson, Christina M. Patricola, John P. O'Brien, Ankur Mahesh, Prabhat, Sarahí Arriaga Ramirez, Alan M. Rhoades, Alexander Charn, Héctor Inda Díaz, and William D. Collins
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 6131–6148,Short summary
Researchers utilize various algorithms to identify extreme weather features in climate data, and we seek to answer this question: given a
plausibleweather event detector, how does uncertainty in the detector impact scientific results? We generate a suite of statistical models that emulate expert identification of weather features. We find that the connection between El Niño and atmospheric rivers – a specific extreme weather type – depends systematically on the design of the detector.
Enrique Pravia-Sarabia, Juan José Gómez-Navarro, Pedro Jiménez-Guerrero, and Juan Pedro Montávez
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 6051–6075,Short summary
This work shows TITAM, a time-independent tracking algorithm specifically suited for Mediterranean tropical-like cyclones, often referred to as medicanes. The methodology developed has the capacity to track multiple simultaneous cyclones, the ability to track a medicane in the presence of intense extratropical lows, and the potential to separate the medicane from other similar structures by handling the intermittent loss of structure and managing the tilting of the axis.
Liang Guo, Ruud J. van der Ent, Nicholas P. Klingaman, Marie-Estelle Demory, Pier Luigi Vidale, Andrew G. Turner, Claudia C. Stephan, and Amulya Chevuturi
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 6011–6028,Short summary
Precipitation over East Asia simulated in the Met Office Unified Model is compared with observations. Moisture sources of EA precipitation are traced using a moisture tracking model. Biases in moisture sources are linked to biases in precipitation. Using the tracking model, changes in moisture sources can be attributed to changes in SST, circulation and associated evaporation. This proves that the method used in this study is useful to identify the causes of biases in regional precipitation.
Ondřej Tichý, Lukáš Ulrych, Václav Šmídl, Nikolaos Evangeliou, and Andreas Stohl
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 5917–5934,Short summary
We study the estimation of the temporal profile of an atmospheric release using formalization as a linear inverse problem. The problem is typically ill-posed, so all state-of-the-art methods need some form of regularization using additional information. We provide a sensitivity study on the prior source term and regularization parameters for the shape of the source term with a demonstration on the ETEX experimental release and the Cs-134 and Cs-137 dataset from the Chernobyl accident.
Dongqi Lin, Basit Khan, Marwan Katurji, Leroy Bird, Ricardo Faria, and Laura E. Revell
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for GMDShort summary
We present an open-source toolbox WRF4PALM which enables simulating weather dynamics within the urban landscapes. WRF4PALM passes meteorological information from the popular Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to the turbulence-resolving PALM model system 6.0. WRF4PALM can potentially extend the use of WRF and PALM with realistic boundary conditions to any part of the world. WRF4PALM will help study air pollution dispersion, wind energy prospecting, and high impact wind forecasting.
Laura Palacios-Peña, Jerome D. Fast, Enrique Pravia-Sarabia, and Pedro Jiménez-Guerrero
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 5897–5915,Short summary
The main objective of this work is to study the impact of the representation of aerosol size distribution on aerosol optical properties over central Europe and the Mediterranean Basin during a summertime aerosol episode using the WRF-Chem online model. Results reveal that the reduction in the standard deviation of the accumulation mode leads to the largest impacts on aerosol optical depth (AOD) representation due to a transfer of particles from the accumulation mode to the coarse mode.
Yilong Wang, Grégoire Broquet, François-Marie Bréon, Franck Lespinas, Michael Buchwitz, Maximilian Reuter, Yasjka Meijer, Armin Loescher, Greet Janssens-Maenhout, Bo Zheng, and Philippe Ciais
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 5813–5831,
Marek Jacob, Pavlos Kollias, Felix Ament, Vera Schemann, and Susanne Crewell
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 5757–5777,Short summary
We compare clouds in different cloud-resolving atmosphere simulations with airborne remote sensing observations. The focus is on warm shallow clouds in the Atlantic trade wind region. Those clouds are climatologically important but challenging for climate models. We use forward operators to apply instrument-specific thresholds for cloud detection to model outputs. In this comparison, the higher-resolution model better reproduces the layered cloud structure.
Setigui Aboubacar Keita, Eric Girard, Jean-Christophe Raut, Maud Leriche, Jean-Pierre Blanchet, Jacques Pelon, Tatsuo Onishi, and Ana Cirisan
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 5737–5755,
Bart Degraeuwe, Enrico Pisoni, and Philippe Thunis
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 5725–5736,Short summary
To make decisions on how to improve air quality, it is useful to identify the main sources of pollution for an area of interest. Often these sources of pollution are identified with complex models that, even if accurate, are time consuming and complex. In this work we use another approach, simplified models, to accomplish the same task. The results, computed with two different set of simplified models, show the main sources of pollution for selected cities, and the associated uncertainties.
Mathieu Lachatre, Sylvain Mailler, Laurent Menut, Solène Turquety, Pasquale Sellitto, Henda Guermazi, Giuseppe Salerno, Tommaso Caltabiano, and Elisa Carboni
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 5707–5723,Short summary
Excessive numerical diffusion is a major limitation in the representation of long-range transport in atmospheric models. In the present study, we focus on excessive diffusion in the vertical direction. We explore three possible ways of addressing this problem: increased vertical resolution, an advection scheme with anti-diffusive properties and more accurate representation of vertical wind. This study focused on a particular volcanic eruption event to improve atmospheric transport modeling.
Mona Kurppa, Pontus Roldin, Jani Strömberg, Anna Balling, Sasu Karttunen, Heino Kuuluvainen, Jarkko V. Niemi, Liisa Pirjola, Topi Rönkkö, Hilkka Timonen, Antti Hellsten, and Leena Järvi
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 5663–5685,Short summary
High-resolution modelling is needed to solve the aerosol concentrations in a complex urban area. Here, the performance of an aerosol module within the PALM model to simulate the detailed horizontal and vertical distribution of aerosol particles is studied. Further, sensitivity to the meteorological and aerosol boundary conditions is assessed using both model and observation data. The horizontal distribution is sensitive to the wind speed and stability, and the vertical to the wind direction.
Robert Schoetter, Yu Ting Kwok, Cécile de Munck, Kevin Ka Lun Lau, Wai Kin Wong, and Valéry Masson
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 5609–5643,Short summary
Cities change the local meteorological conditions, e.g. by increasing air temperature, which can negatively impact humans and infrastructure. The urban climate model TEB is able to calculate the meteorological conditions in low- and mid-rise cities since it interacts with the lowest level of an atmospheric model. Here, a multi-layer coupling of TEB is introduced to enable modelling the urban climate of cities with many skyscrapers; the new version is tested for the high-rise city of Hong Kong.
Stelios Myriokefalitakis, Nikos Daskalakis, Angelos Gkouvousis, Andreas Hilboll, Twan van Noije, Jason E. Williams, Philippe Le Sager, Vincent Huijnen, Sander Houweling, Tommi Bergman, Johann Rasmus Nüß, Mihalis Vrekoussis, Maria Kanakidou, and Maarten C. Krol
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 5507–5548,Short summary
This work documents and evaluates the detailed tropospheric gas-phase chemical mechanism MOGUNTIA in the three-dimensional chemistry transport model TM5-MP. The Rosenbrock solver, as generated by the KPP software, is implemented in the chemistry code, which can successfully replace the classical Euler backward integration method. The MOGUNTIA scheme satisfactorily simulates a large suite of oxygenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that are observed in the atmosphere at significant levels.
Alejandro Luque, Francisco José Gordillo-Vázquez, Dongshuai Li, Alejandro Malagón-Romero, Francisco Javier Pérez-Invernón, Anthony Schmalzried, Sergio Soler, Olivier Chanrion, Matthias Heumesser, Torsten Neubert, Víctor Reglero, and Nikolai Østgaard
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 5549–5566,Short summary
Lightning flashes are often recorded from space-based platforms. Besides being valuable inputs for weather forecasting, these observations also enable research into fundamental questions regarding lightning physics. To exploit them, it is essential to understand how light propagates from a lightning flash to a space-based observation instrument. Here, we present an open-source software tool to model this process that extends on previous work and overcomes some of the existing limitations.
Anne Tipka, Leopold Haimberger, and Petra Seibert
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 5277–5310,Short summary
Flex_extract v7.1 is an open-source software to retrieve and prepare meteorological fields from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) MARS archive to serve as input for the FLEXTRA–FLEXPART atmospheric transport modelling system. It can be used by public as well as member-state users and enables the retrieval of a variety of different data sets, including the new reanalysis ERA5. Instructions are given for installation along with typical usage scenarios.
Almudena García-García, Francisco José Cuesta-Valero, Hugo Beltrami, Fidel González-Rouco, Elena García-Bustamante, and Joel Finnis
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 5345–5366,
Matthias Faust, Ralf Wolke, Steffen Münch, Roger Funk, and Kerstin Schepanski
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for GMDShort summary
Trajectory dispersion models are powerful and intuitive tools for tracing air pollution through the atmosphere. But the turbulent nature of the atmospheric boundary layer makes it challenging to provide accurate predictions near the surface. To overcome this, we propose an approach using wind and turbulence information at high temporal resolution. Finally, we demonstrate the strength of our approach in a case study on dust emissions from agriculture.
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This paper presents FALL3D-8.0, the latest version release of an open-source code with a track record of 15+ years and a growing number of users in the volcanological and atmospheric communities. The code, originally conceived for atmospheric dispersal and deposition of tephra particles, has been extended to model other types of particles, aerosols and radionuclides. This paper details new model applications and validation of FALL3D-8.0 using satellite, ground-deposit load and radionuclide data.
This paper presents FALL3D-8.0, the latest version release of an open-source code with a track...