Articles | Volume 14, issue 1
Model description paper 19 Jan 2021
Model description paper | 19 Jan 2021
Implementation and assessment of a carbonate system model (Eco3M-CarbOx v1.1) in a highly dynamic Mediterranean coastal site (Bay of Marseille, France)
Katixa Lajaunie-Salla et al.
Katixa Lajaunie-Salla, Aldo Sottolichio, Sabine Schmidt, Xavier Litrico, Guillaume Binet, and Gwenaël Abril
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 2551–2564,
Stéphanie H. M. Jacquet, Dominique Lefèvre, Christian Tamburini, Marc Garel, Frédéric A. C. Le Moigne, Nagib Bhairy, and Sophie Guasco
Biogeosciences, 18, 2205–2212,Short summary
We present new data concerning the relation between biogenic barium (Baxs, a tracer of carbon remineralization at mesopelagic depths), O2 consumption and prokaryotic heterotrophic production (PHP) in the Mediterranean Sea. The purpose of this paper is to improve our understanding of the relation between Baxs, PHP and O2 and to test the validity of the Dehairs transfer function in the Mediterranean Sea. This relation has never been tested in the Mediterranean Sea.
Caroline Ulses, Claude Estournel, Marine Fourrier, Laurent Coppola, Fayçal Kessouri, Dominique Lefèvre, and Patrick Marsaleix
Biogeosciences, 18, 937–960,Short summary
We analyse the seasonal cycle of O2 and estimate an annual O2 budget in the north-western Mediterranean deep-convection region, using a numerical model. We show that this region acts as a large sink of atmospheric O2 and as a major source of O2 for the western Mediterranean Sea. The decrease in the deep convection intensity predicted in recent projections may have important consequences on the overall uptake of O2 in the Mediterranean Sea and on the O2 exchanges with the Atlantic Ocean.
Brian Nathan, Stefanie Kremser, Sara Mikaloff-Fletcher, Greg Bodeker, Leroy Bird, Ethan Dale, Dongqi Lin, Gustavo Olivares, and Elizabeth Somervell
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
The MAPM project showcases a method to improve estimates of PM2.5 emissions through an advanced statistical technique that is still new to the aerosol community. Using Christchurch, NZ as a testbed, the robustness and limitations of this approach are first demonstrated with pseudo-data experiments. Then, measurements from a field campaign in winter 2019 are incorporated. An overestimation from local inventory estimates is identified. This technique may be exported to other urban areas in need.
Kahina Djaoudi, France Van Wambeke, Aude Barani, Nagib Bhairy, Servanne Chevaillier, Karine Desboeufs, Sandra Nunige, Mohamed Labiadh, Thierry Henry des Tureaux, Dominique Lefèvre, Amel Nouara, Christos Panagiotopoulos, Marc Tedetti, and Elvira Pulido-Villena
Biogeosciences, 17, 6271–6285,
Julien Jouanno, Rachid Benshila, Léo Berline, Antonin Soulié, Marie-Hélène Radenac, Guillaume Morvan, Frédéric Diaz, Julio Sheinbaum, Cristele Chevalier, Thierry Thibaut, Thomas Changeux, Frédéric Menard, Sarah Berthet, Olivier Aumont, Christian Ethé, Pierre Nabat, and Marc Mallet
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for GMDShort summary
The Tropical Atlantic is facing a massive proliferation of Sargassum since 2011, with severe environmental and socioeconomic impacts. We developed a modelling framework based on the NEMO ocean model, which integrates transport by currents and waves, physiology of Sargassum with varying internal nutrients quota, and considers stranding at the coast. Results demonstrate the ability of the model to reproduce and forecast the seasonal cycle and large-scale distribution of Sargassum biomass.
Matthieu Roy-Barman, Lorna Folio, Eric Douville, Nathalie Leblond, Fréderic Gazeau, Matthieu Bressac, Thibaut Wagener, Céline Ridame, Karine Desboeufs, and Cécile Guieu
Revised manuscript accepted for BGShort summary
The release of insoluble elements such as Aluminum (Al), Iron (Fe), Rare Earth Elements (REE), Thorium (Th) and Protactinium (Pa) when Saharan dust fall over the Mediterranean Sea was studied during tank experiments, under present and future climate conditions. Each element exhibited different dissolution kinetics and dissolution fractions (always lower than a few percent). Changes in temperature and/or pH under greenhouse conditions lead to a lower Th release and a higher light REE release.
Antonio Tovar-Sánchez, Araceli Rodríguez-Romero, Anja Engel, Birthe Zäncker, Franck Fu, Emilio Marañón, María Pérez-Lorenzo, Matthieu Bressac, Thibaut Wagener, Sylvain Triquet, Guillaume Siour, Karine Desboeufs, and Cécile Guieu
Biogeosciences, 17, 2349–2364,Short summary
Residence times of particulate metals derived from aerosol deposition in the Sea Surface Microlayer of the Mediterranean Sea ranged from a couple of minutes (e.g., for Fe) to a few hours (e.g., for Cu). Microbial activity seems to play an important role in in this process and in the concentration and distribution of metals between diferent water layers.
Katixa Lajaunie-Salla, Aldo Sottolichio, Sabine Schmidt, Xavier Litrico, Guillaume Binet, and Gwenaël Abril
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 2551–2564,
Jinghui Lian, François-Marie Bréon, Grégoire Broquet, T. Scott Zaccheo, Jeremy Dobler, Michel Ramonet, Johannes Staufer, Diego Santaren, Irène Xueref-Remy, and Philippe Ciais
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 13809–13825,Short summary
CO2 emissions within urban areas impact nearby and downwind concentrations. A different system, based on bi-wavelength laser measurements, has been deployed over Paris. It samples CO2 concentrations along horizontal lines, between a transceiver and a reflector. In this paper, we analyze the measurements provided by this system, together with the more classical in situ sampling and high-resolution modeling. We focus on the temporal and spatial variability of atmospheric CO2 concentrations.
Pascale Bouruet-Aubertot, Yannis Cuypers, Andrea Doglioli, Mathieu Caffin, Christophe Yohia, Alain de Verneil, Anne Petrenko, Dominique Lefèvre, Hervé Le Goff, Gilles Rougier, Marc Picheral, and Thierry Moutin
Biogeosciences, 15, 7485–7504,Short summary
The OUTPACE cruise took place between New Caledonia and French Polynesia. The main purpose was to understand how micro-organisms can survive in a very poor environment. One main source of nutrients is at depth, below the euphotic layer where micro-organisms live. The purpose of the turbulence measurements was to determine to which extent turbulence may
upliftnutrients into the euphotic layer. The origin of the turbulence that was found contrasted along the transect was also determined.
Thibaut Wagener, Nicolas Metzl, Mathieu Caffin, Jonathan Fin, Sandra Helias Nunige, Dominique Lefevre, Claire Lo Monaco, Gilles Rougier, and Thierry Moutin
Biogeosciences, 15, 5221–5236,Short summary
The western tropical South Pacific was sampled along a longitudinal 4000 km transect (OUTPACE cruise) for the measurement of carbonate parameters (total alkalinity and total inorganic carbon) between the Melanesian Archipelago and the western part of the South Pacific gyre. This paper reports this new dataset and derived properties. We also estimate anthropogenic carbon distribution in the water column using the TrOCA method.
Thierry Moutin, Thibaut Wagener, Mathieu Caffin, Alain Fumenia, Audrey Gimenez, Melika Baklouti, Pascale Bouruet-Aubertot, Mireille Pujo-Pay, Karine Leblanc, Dominique Lefevre, Sandra Helias Nunige, Nathalie Leblond, Olivier Grosso, and Alain de Verneil
Biogeosciences, 15, 2961–2989,Short summary
Surface waters of the western tropical South Pacific were sampled along a longitudinal 4000 km transect during the stratified period between the Melanesian Archipelago and the western part of the South Pacific gyre. We found a significant biological carbon pump sustained almost exclusively by N2 fixation and essentially controlled by phosphate availability in the iron-rich Melanesian Archipelago waters which appears to be a net sink for atmospheric CO2 while the gyre is in a quasi-steady state.
France Van Wambeke, Audrey Gimenez, Solange Duhamel, Cécile Dupouy, Dominique Lefevre, Mireille Pujo-Pay, and Thierry Moutin
Biogeosciences, 15, 2669–2689,Short summary
The western tropical South Pacific Ocean has recently been shown to be a hotspot for biological nitrogen fixation. In this study, we examined the horizontal and vertical distribution of heterotrophic prokaryotic production alongside photosynthetic rates, nitrogen fixation rates and phosphate turnover times across the western tropical South Pacific Ocean, in order to relate these fluxes to bottom–up controls (related to nitrogen, phosphate and labile C availability).
Vincent Taillandier, Thibaut Wagener, Fabrizio D'Ortenzio, Nicolas Mayot, Hervé Legoff, Joséphine Ras, Laurent Coppola, Orens Pasqueron de Fommervault, Catherine Schmechtig, Emilie Diamond, Henry Bittig, Dominique Lefevre, Edouard Leymarie, Antoine Poteau, and Louis Prieur
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 627–641,Short summary
We report on data from an oceanographic cruise, covering western, central and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea. This cruise was fully dedicated to the maintenance and the metrological verification of a biogeochemical observing system based on a fleet of BGC-Argo floats.
Irène Xueref-Remy, Elsa Dieudonné, Cyrille Vuillemin, Morgan Lopez, Christine Lac, Martina Schmidt, Marc Delmotte, Frédéric Chevallier, François Ravetta, Olivier Perrussel, Philippe Ciais, François-Marie Bréon, Grégoire Broquet, Michel Ramonet, T. Gerard Spain, and Christophe Ampe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 3335–3362,Short summary
Urbanized and industrialized areas are the largest source of fossil CO2. This work analyses the atmospheric CO2 variability observed from the first in situ network deployed in the Paris megacity area. Gradients of several ppm are found between the rural, peri-urban and urban sites at the diurnal to the seasonal scales. Wind direction and speed as well as boundary layer dynamics, correlated to highly variable urban emissions, are shown to be key regulator factors of the observed CO2 records.
Amélie Saunier, Elena Ormeño, Christophe Boissard, Henri Wortham, Brice Temime-Roussel, Caroline Lecareux, Alexandre Armengaud, and Catherine Fernandez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 7555–7566,Short summary
We investigated the BVOC emissions variations of Quercus Pubescens, under natural and amplified drought, in situ, in order to determine the dependency to light and/or temperature of these emissions. Our results showed that all BVOC emissions were reduced with amplified drought. Moreover, we highlighted two dependences: (i) light and temperature and (ii) light and temperature during the day and to temperature during the night. These results can be useful to enhance emission models.
Irène Ventrillard, Irène Xueref-Remy, Martina Schmidt, Camille Yver Kwok, Xavier Faïn, and Daniele Romanini
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 1803–1812,Short summary
We present a comparison of CO measurements performed with a portable OF-CEAS laser spectrometer against a high-performance gas chromatograph. For both surface and airborne measurements, the instruments show an excellent agreement very close to the 2 ppb World Meteorological Organization recommendation for CO inter-laboratory comparison. This work establishes that this laser technique allows for the development of sensitive, compact, robust and reliable instruments for in situ trace-gas analysis.
Lamia Ammoura, Irène Xueref-Remy, Felix Vogel, Valérie Gros, Alexia Baudic, Bernard Bonsang, Marc Delmotte, Yao Té, and Frédéric Chevallier
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 15653–15664,Short summary
We propose a new approach to estimate urban emission ratios that takes advantage of the enhanced local urban signal in the atmosphere at low wind speed. We apply it to estimate monthly ratios between CO2, CO and some VOCs from atmospheric measurement datasets acquired in the centre of Paris between 2010 and 2014. We find that this approach is little sensitive to the regional background level definition. With this new method, we may reveal spatial and seasonal variability in the ratios in Paris.
Johannes Staufer, Grégoire Broquet, François-Marie Bréon, Vincent Puygrenier, Frédéric Chevallier, Irène Xueref-Rémy, Elsa Dieudonné, Morgan Lopez, Martina Schmidt, Michel Ramonet, Olivier Perrussel, Christine Lac, Lin Wu, and Philippe Ciais
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14703–14726,
Lin Wu, Grégoire Broquet, Philippe Ciais, Valentin Bellassen, Felix Vogel, Frédéric Chevallier, Irène Xueref-Remy, and Yilong Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 7743–7771,Short summary
This paper advances atmospheric inversion of city CO2 emissions as follows: (1) illustrate how inversion methodology can be tailored to deal with very large urban networks of sensors measuring CO2 concentrations; (2) demonstrate that atmospheric inversion could be a relevant tool of Monitoring, Reporting and Verification (MRV) of city CO2 emissions; (3) clarify the theoretical potential of inversion for reducing uncertainties in the estimates of citywide total and sectoral CO2 emissions.
C. Yver Kwok, O. Laurent, A. Guemri, C. Philippon, B. Wastine, C. W. Rella, C. Vuillemin, F. Truong, M. Delmotte, V. Kazan, M. Darding, B. Lebègue, C. Kaiser, I. Xueref-Rémy, and M. Ramonet
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 3867–3892,Short summary
We present the results of tests of CRDS instruments in the laboratory (47 instruments) and in the field (15 instruments). We demonstrate that, thanks to rigorous testing, newer models generally perform better than older models, especially in terms of reproducibility between instruments. In the field, we see the importance of individual diagnostics during the installation phase, and we show the value of calibration and target gases that assess the quality of the data.
L. Ammoura, I. Xueref-Remy, V. Gros, A. Baudic, B. Bonsang, J.-E. Petit, O. Perrussel, N. Bonnaire, J. Sciare, and F. Chevallier
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 12871–12882,Short summary
We present the first study of CO2, VOCs and NOx measured all together in a road tunnel around the Paris megacity with the aim to quantify the ratios of these species co-emitted within traffic emissions. It allows us to independently assess some of the ratios provided in the latest Paris emission inventory. It also reveals a large variability of the ratios to CO2, implying that traffic does not have a unique imprint in the urban plume, but rather leaves various signatures.
K. Desboeufs, N. Leblond, T. Wagener, E. Bon Nguyen, and C. Guieu
Biogeosciences, 11, 5581–5594,
M. Lopez, M. Schmidt, M. Delmotte, A. Colomb, V. Gros, C. Janssen, S. J. Lehman, D. Mondelain, O. Perrussel, M. Ramonet, I. Xueref-Remy, and P. Bousquet
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 7343–7358,
C. Lac, R. P. Donnelly, V. Masson, S. Pal, S. Riette, S. Donier, S. Queguiner, G. Tanguy, L. Ammoura, and I. Xueref-Remy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 4941–4961,
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Yang Feng, Dimitris Menemenlis, Huijie Xue, Hong Zhang, Dustin Carroll, Yan Du, and Hui Wu
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1801–1819,Short summary
Simulation of coastal plume regions was improved in global ECCOv4 with a series of sensitivity tests. We find modeled SSS is closer to SMAP when using daily point-source runoff as well as increasing the resolution from coarse to intermediate. The plume characteristics, freshwater transport, and critical water properties are modified greatly. But this may not happen with a further increase to high resolution. The study will advance the seamless modeling of land–ocean–atmosphere feedback in ESMs.
Gregory C. Smith, Yimin Liu, Mounir Benkiran, Kamel Chikhar, Dorina Surcel Colan, Audrey-Anne Gauthier, Charles-Emmanuel Testut, Frederic Dupont, Ji Lei, François Roy, Jean-François Lemieux, and Fraser Davidson
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1445–1467,Short summary
Canada's coastlines include diverse ocean environments. In response to the strong need to support marine activities and security, we present the first pan-Canadian operational regional ocean analysis system. A novel online tidal harmonic analysis method is introduced that uses a sliding-window approach. Innovations are compared to those from the Canadian global analysis system. Particular improvements are found near the Gulf Stream due to the higher model grid resolution.
William J. Pringle, Damrongsak Wirasaet, Keith J. Roberts, and Joannes J. Westerink
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1125–1145,Short summary
We improve and test a computer model that simulates tides and storm surge over all of Earth's oceans and seas. The model varies mesh resolution (triangular element sizes) freely so that coastal areas, especially storm landfall locations, are well-described. We develop systematic tests of the resolution in order to suggest good mesh design criteria that balance computational efficiency with accuracy for both global astronomical tides and coastal storm tides under extreme weather forcing.
Bijoy Thompson, Claudio Sanchez, Boon Chong Peter Heng, Rajesh Kumar, Jianyu Liu, Xiang-Yu Huang, and Pavel Tkalich
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1081–1100,Short summary
This article describes the development and ocean forecast evaluation of an atmosphere–ocean coupled prediction system for the Maritime Continent domain, which includes the eastern Indian and western Pacific oceans. The coupled system comprises regional configurations of the atmospheric model MetUM and ocean model NEMO, coupled using the OASIS3-MCT libraries. The model forecast deviation of selected fields relative to observations is within acceptable error limits of operational forecast models.
Pavel Perezhogin, Ilya Chernov, and Nikolay Iakovlev
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 843–857,Short summary
We describe the parallel implementation of the FEMAO model for an ice-covered sea with 2D Hilbert-curve domain decomposition. Load balancing is crucial because performance depends on the local depth. We propose, compare, and discuss four approaches to load balancing. The parallel library allowed us to modify the original sequential algorithm as little as possible. The performance increases almost linearly (tested with up to 996 CPU cores) for the model of the shallow White Sea.
Jordyn E. Moscoso, Andrew L. Stewart, Daniele Bianchi, and James C. McWilliams
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 763–794,Short summary
This project was created to understand the across-shore distribution of plankton in the California Current System. To complete this study, we used a quasi-2-D dynamical model coupled to an ecosystem model. This paper is a preliminary study to test and validate the model against data collected by the California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations (CalCOFI). We show the solution of our model solution compares well to the data and discuss our model as a tool for further model development.
Christian Ferrarin, Marco Bajo, and Georg Umgiesser
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 645–659,Short summary
The problem of the optimization of ocean monitoring networks is tackled through the implementation of data assimilation techniques in a numerical model. The methodology has been applied to the tide gauge network in the Lagoon of Venice (Italy). The data assimilation methods allow identifying the minimum number of stations and their distribution that correctly represent the lagoon's dynamics. The methodology is easily exportable to other environments and can be extended to other variables.
Florian Lemarié, Guillaume Samson, Jean-Luc Redelsperger, Hervé Giordani, Théo Brivoal, and Gurvan Madec
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 543–572,Short summary
A simplified model of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) of intermediate complexity between a bulk parameterization and a full three-dimensional atmospheric model has been developed and integrated to the NEMO ocean model. An objective in the derivation of such a simplified model is to reach an apt representation of ocean-only numerical simulations of some of the key processes associated with air–sea interactions at the characteristic scales of the oceanic mesoscale.
Kristen M. Thyng, Daijiro Kobashi, Veronica Ruiz-Xomchuk, Lixin Qu, Xu Chen, and Robert D. Hetland
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 391–407,Short summary
We modified the ROMS model to run in offline mode so that previously run fields of sea surface height and velocity fields are input to calculate tracer advection without running the full model with a larger time step; thus, it is faster. The code was tested with two advection schemes, and both are robust with over 99 % accuracy of the offline to online run after 14 simulation days. This allows for ROMS users to maximize use of new or existing output to quickly run additional tracer simulations.
Katsumi Matsumoto, Tatsuro Tanioka, and Jacob Zahn
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for GMDShort summary
MESMO is a mathematical model that represents the essential components of Earth such as the global ocean, atmosphere, and sea ice. It is used to study the global climate and the global carbon cycle. We describe the third version of MESMO. A novel feature of the new version has mathematical representations of the chemical composition of marine phytoplankton and the marine dissolved organic matter, which are both recognized as important for the global ocean carbon cycle.
Tor Nordam and Rodrigo Duran
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 5935–5957,Short summary
In applied oceanography, a common task is to calculate the trajectory of objects floating at the sea surface or submerged in the water. We have investigated different numerical methods for doing such calculations and discuss the benefits and challenges of some common methods. We then propose a small change to some common methods that make them more efficient for this particular application. This will allow researchers to obtain more accurate answers with fewer computer resources.
Chia-Wei Hsu, Jianjun Yin, Stephen M. Griffies, and Raphael Dussin
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for GMDShort summary
The new surface forcing from JRA55-do (OMIP II) significantly improved the underestimated sea level trend across the entire Pacific ocean along 10° N in the simulation forced by CORE (OMIP I). We summarize and list out the reasons for the existing sea level biases across all studied time scales as a reference for improving the sea level simulation in the future. This study about the evaluation and improvement of ocean climate models should be of broad interest to a large modeling community.
Qing Li and Luke Van Roekel
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for GMDShort summary
Physical processes in the ocean span multiple spatial and temporal scales. Simultaneously resolving all these in a simulation is computationally challenging. Here we develop a more efficient technique to better study the interactions across scales, particularly focusing on the ocean surface turbulent mixing, by coupling a global ocean circulation model MPAS-Ocean and a large eddy simulation model PALM. The latter is customized and ported on GPU to further accelerate the computation.
Clément Bricaud, Julien Le Sommer, Gurvan Madec, Christophe Calone, Julie Deshayes, Christian Ethe, Jérôme Chanut, and Marina Levy
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 5465–5483,Short summary
In order to reduce the cost of ocean biogeochemical models, a multi-grid approach where ocean dynamics and tracer transport are computed with different spatial resolution has been developed in the NEMO v3.6 OGCM. Different experiments confirm that the spatial resolution of hydrodynamical fields can be coarsened without significantly affecting the resolved passive tracer fields. This approach leads to a factor of 7 reduction of the overhead associated with running a full biogeochemical model.
Lojze Žust, Anja Fettich, Matej Kristan, and Matjaž Ličer
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for GMDShort summary
Adriatic basin sea level modeling is a challenging problem due to the interplay between terrain, weather, tides and seiches. Current state-of-the-art numerical models (e.g. NEMO) require large computational resources to produce reliable forecasts. In this study we propose HIDRA, a novel deep learning approach for sea level modeling, which drastically reduces the numerical cost while demonstrating predictive capabilities comparable to that of the NEMO model, outperforming it in many instances.
Clark Pennelly and Paul G. Myers
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 4959–4975,Short summary
A high-resolution ocean simulation was carried out within the Labrador Sea, a region that low-resolution climate simulations may misrepresent. We show that small-scale eddies and their associated transport are better resolved at higher resolution than at lower resolution. These eddies transport important properties to the interior of the Labrador Sea, impacting the stratification and reducing the convection extent so that it is far more accurate when compared to what observations suggest.
Eric P. Chassignet, Stephen G. Yeager, Baylor Fox-Kemper, Alexandra Bozec, Frederic Castruccio, Gokhan Danabasoglu, Christopher Horvat, Who M. Kim, Nikolay Koldunov, Yiwen Li, Pengfei Lin, Hailong Liu, Dmitry V. Sein, Dmitry Sidorenko, Qiang Wang, and Xiaobiao Xu
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 4595–4637,Short summary
This paper presents global comparisons of fundamental global climate variables from a suite of four pairs of matched low- and high-resolution ocean and sea ice simulations to assess the robustness of climate-relevant improvements in ocean simulations associated with moving from coarse (∼1°) to eddy-resolving (∼0.1°) horizontal resolutions. Despite significant improvements, greatly enhanced horizontal resolution does not deliver unambiguous bias reduction in all regions for all models.
Mark E. Baird, Karen A. Wild-Allen, John Parslow, Mathieu Mongin, Barbara Robson, Jennifer Skerratt, Farhan Rizwi, Monika Soja-Woźniak, Emlyn Jones, Mike Herzfeld, Nugzar Margvelashvili, John Andrewartha, Clothilde Langlais, Matthew P. Adams, Nagur Cherukuru, Malin Gustafsson, Scott Hadley, Peter J. Ralph, Uwe Rosebrock, Thomas Schroeder, Leonardo Laiolo, Daniel Harrison, and Andrew D. L. Steven
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 4503–4553,Short summary
For 20+ years, the Commonwealth Science Industry and Research Organisation (CSIRO) has been developing a biogeochemical (BGC) model for coupling with a hydrodynamic and sediment model for application in estuaries, coastal waters and shelf seas. This paper provides a full mathematical description (equations, parameters), model evaluation and access to the numerical code. The model is particularly suited to applications in shallow waters where benthic processes are critical to ecosystem function.
Angela A. Bahamondes Dominguez, Anna E. Hickman, Robert Marsh, and C. Mark Moore
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 4019–4040,Short summary
The central Celtic Sea has previously been studied with a 1-D model called S2P3, showing discrepancies between observations and the model results due to poor representation of some processes. Therefore, the S2P3 model was developed to include zooplankton and phytoplankton cells' adaptation to changes in irradiance. Results demonstrate that better agreement with biological observations can be achieved when the model includes these processes and is adequately constrained.
Oliver Gutjahr, Nils Brüggemann, Helmuth Haak, Johann H. Jungclaus, Dian A. Putrasahan, Katja Lohmann, and Jin-Song von Storch
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for GMDShort summary
We compare four ocean vertical mixing schemes in 100-year long coupled simulations with the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model (MPI-ESM1.2) and analyse their model biases. Overall, the mixing schemes modify biases in the ocean interior that vary with region and variable, but produce a similar global bias pattern. We therefore cannot classify any scheme as superior, but conclude that the chosen mixing scheme may be important for regional biases.
Alexander G. López, John L. Wilkin, and Julia C. Levin
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 3709–3729,Short summary
This article describes a regional circulation model, Doppio, for the Mid-Atlantic Bight and the Gulf of Maine. The model demonstrates useful skill in comparison to a comprehensive suite of observations. Development focused on achieving a model configuration that allows decadal-scale simulations of physical ocean circulation that can underpin studies of ecosystems and biogeochemistry. Doppio captures the temperature and salinity stratification well, along with the large-scale mean circulation.
Hiroyuki Tsujino, L. Shogo Urakawa, Stephen M. Griffies, Gokhan Danabasoglu, Alistair J. Adcroft, Arthur E. Amaral, Thomas Arsouze, Mats Bentsen, Raffaele Bernardello, Claus W. Böning, Alexandra Bozec, Eric P. Chassignet, Sergey Danilov, Raphael Dussin, Eleftheria Exarchou, Pier Giuseppe Fogli, Baylor Fox-Kemper, Chuncheng Guo, Mehmet Ilicak, Doroteaciro Iovino, Who M. Kim, Nikolay Koldunov, Vladimir Lapin, Yiwen Li, Pengfei Lin, Keith Lindsay, Hailong Liu, Matthew C. Long, Yoshiki Komuro, Simon J. Marsland, Simona Masina, Aleksi Nummelin, Jan Klaus Rieck, Yohan Ruprich-Robert, Markus Scheinert, Valentina Sicardi, Dmitry Sidorenko, Tatsuo Suzuki, Hiroaki Tatebe, Qiang Wang, Stephen G. Yeager, and Zipeng Yu
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 3643–3708,Short summary
The OMIP-2 framework for global ocean–sea-ice model simulations is assessed by comparing multi-model means from 11 CMIP6-class global ocean–sea-ice models calculated separately for the OMIP-1 and OMIP-2 simulations. Many features are very similar between OMIP-1 and OMIP-2 simulations, and yet key improvements in transitioning from OMIP-1 to OMIP-2 are also identified. Thus, the present assessment justifies that future ocean–sea-ice model development and analysis studies use the OMIP-2 framework.
Pedro Colombo, Bernard Barnier, Thierry Penduff, Jérôme Chanut, Julie Deshayes, Jean-Marc Molines, Julien Le Sommer, Polina Verezemskaya, Sergey Gulev, and Anne-Marie Treguier
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 3347–3371,Short summary
In the ocean circulation model NEMO, the representation of the overflow of dense Arctic waters through the Denmark Strait is investigated. In this z-coordinate context, sensitivity tests show that the mixing parameterizations preferably act along the model grid slope. Thus, the representation of the overflow is more sensitive to resolution than to parameterization and is best when the numerical grid matches the local topographic slope.
Hideharu Sasaki, Shinichiro Kida, Ryo Furue, Hidenori Aiki, Nobumasa Komori, Yukio Masumoto, Toru Miyama, Masami Nonaka, Yoshikazu Sasai, and Bunmei Taguchi
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 3319–3336,Short summary
A quasi-global eddying ocean hindcast simulation using a new version of our model, called OFES2, was conducted to overcome several issues in its previous version. OFES2 simulated oceanic fields from 1958 to 2016 with improved global sea surface temperature and salinity, water mass properties in the Indonesian and Arabian seas, and Niño3.4 and Indian Ocean Dipole indexes. The output from OFES2 will be useful in studying various oceanic phenomena with broad spatiotemporal scales.
Katherine M. Smith, Skyler Kern, Peter E. Hamlington, Marco Zavatarelli, Nadia Pinardi, Emily F. Klee, and Kyle E. Niemeyer
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for GMDShort summary
We present a newly developed reduced-order biogeochemical flux model that is complex and flexible enough to capture open-ocean ecosystem dynamics, but reduced enough to incorporate into highly resolved numerical simulations with limited additional computational cost. The model provides improved correlations between model output and field data, indicating that significant improvements in the reproduction of real-world data can be achieved with a small number of variables.
Dafydd Stephenson, Simon A. Müller, and Florian Sévellec
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 2031–2050,Short summary
Different water types are created at the sea surface with a signature based on the local conditions of the atmosphere. They then take these conditions with them into the deeper ocean, and so their journey is an important climate process to understand. In this study, we modify and repurpose a specialised model which simulates the ocean forward and backward in time to determine where new ocean water goes, where at the surface existing water comes from, and how old it is, by tracking it as a dye.
Violaine Piton, Marine Herrmann, Florent Lyard, Patrick Marsaleix, Thomas Duhaut, Damien Allain, and Sylvain Ouillon
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 1583–1607,Short summary
Consequences of tidal dynamics on hydro-sedimentary processes are a recurrent issue in estuarine and coastal processes studies, and accurate tidal solutions are a prerequisite for modeling sediment transport. This study presents the implementation and optimization of a model configuration in terms of bathymetry and bottom friction and assess the influence of these parameters on tidal solutions, in a macro-tidal environment: the Gulf of Tonkin (Vietnam).
Alexander Barth, Aida Alvera-Azcárate, Matjaz Licer, and Jean-Marie Beckers
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 1609–1622,Short summary
DINCAE is a method for reconstructing missing data in satellite datasets using a neural network. Satellite observations working in the optical and infrared bands are affected by clouds, which obscure part of the ocean underneath. In this paper, a neural network with the structure of a convolutional auto-encoder is developed to reconstruct the missing data based on the available cloud-free pixels in satellite images.
Jiangyu Li and Shaoqing Zhang
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 1035–1054,Short summary
Two assimilation systems developed using two nearly independent wave models are used to study the influences of various error sources including mode bias on wave data assimilation; a statistical method is explored to make full use of the merits of individual assimilation systems for bias correction, thus improving wave analysis greatly. This study opens a door to further our understanding of physical processes in waves and associated air–sea interactions for improving wave modeling.
Heiner Dietze, Ulrike Löptien, and Julia Getzlaff
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 71–97,Short summary
We present a new near-global coupled biogeochemical ocean-circulation model configuration of the Southern Ocean. The configuration features both a relatively equilibrated oceanic carbon inventory and an explicit representation of mesoscale eddies. In this paper, we document the model configuration and showcase its potential to tackle research questions such as the Southern Ocean carbon uptake dynamics on decadal timescales.
Jaap H. Nienhuis and Jorge Lorenzo-Trueba
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 4013–4030,Short summary
The response of barrier islands to sea level rise depends on their ability to move landward through the transport of sediment from the beach to the back barrier. The BRIE model simulates these processes and the resulting landward movement of barrier islands. The novelty of the BRIE model is the incorporation of tidal inlets (gaps between barrier islands) that can transport sediment landward and therefore help keep barrier islands above sea level.
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 3915–3922,Short summary
Operational forecasting of the ocean state – e.g. used for ship route planning, sea rescue, and oil spill drift models – relies on data (forcing) obtained from weather forecasting. Unfortunately, the so-called meteorological analysis step introduces a discontinuity, which affects the ocean models adversely. In the present paper, a straightforward method to deal with the issue is introduced. Practical examples are given to illuminate the scale of the problem.
Philippe Delandmeter and Erik van Sebille
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 3571–3584,Short summary
Parcels is a framework to compute how ocean currents transport
stuffsuch as plankton and plastic around. In the latest version 2.0 of Parcels, we focus on more accurate interpolation schemes and implement methods to seamlessly combine data from different sources (such as winds and currents, possibly in different regions). We show that this framework is very efficient for tracking how microplastic is transported through the North Sea into the Arctic.
Franziska U. Schwarzkopf, Arne Biastoch, Claus W. Böning, Jérôme Chanut, Jonathan V. Durgadoo, Klaus Getzlaff, Jan Harlaß, Jan K. Rieck, Christina Roth, Markus M. Scheinert, and René Schubert
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 3329–3355,Short summary
A family of nested global ocean general circulation model configurations, the INALT family, has been established with resolutions of 1/10°, 1/20° and 1/60° in the South Atlantic and western Indian oceans, covering the greater Agulhas Current (AC) system. The INALT family provides a consistent set of configurations that allows to address eddy dynamics in the AC system and their impact on the large-scale ocean circulation.
Thomas Rackow, Dmitry V. Sein, Tido Semmler, Sergey Danilov, Nikolay V. Koldunov, Dmitry Sidorenko, Qiang Wang, and Thomas Jung
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 2635–2656,Short summary
Current climate models show errors in the deep ocean that are larger than the level of natural variability and the response to enhanced greenhouse gas concentrations. These errors are larger than the signals we aim to predict. With the AWI Climate Model, we show that increasing resolution to resolve eddies can lead to major reductions in deep ocean errors. AWI's next-generation (CMIP6) model configuration will thus use locally eddy-resolving computational grids for projecting climate change.
Keith J. Roberts, William J. Pringle, and Joannes J. Westerink
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 1847–1868,Short summary
Computer simulations can be used to reproduce the dynamics of the ocean near the coast. These simulations often use a mesh of triangles to represent the domain since they can be orientated and disparately sized in such a way to accurately fit the coastline shape. This paper describes a software package (OceanMesh2D v1.0) that has been developed in order to automatically and objectively design triangular meshes based on geospatial data inputs that represent the coastline and ocean depths.
Pearse J. Buchanan, Richard J. Matear, Zanna Chase, Steven J. Phipps, and Nathan L. Bindoff
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 1491–1523,Short summary
Oceanic sediment cores are commonly used to understand past climates. The composition of the sediments changes with the ocean above it. An understanding of oceanographic conditions that existed many thousands of years ago, in some cases many millions of years ago, can therefore be extracted from sediment cores. We simulate two chemical signatures (13C and 15N) of sediment cores in a model. This study assesses the model before it is applied to reinterpret the sedimentary record.
Carlos Rocha, Christopher A. Edwards, Moninya Roughan, Paulina Cetina-Heredia, and Colette Kerry
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 441–456,Short summary
Off southeast Australia, the East Australian Current (EAC) moves warm nutrient-poor waters towards the pole. In this region, the EAC and a large number of vortices pinching off it strongly affect phytoplankton’s access to nutrients and light. To study these dynamics, we created a numerical model that is able to solve the ocean conditions and how they modulate the foundation of the region’s ecosystem. We validated model results against available data and this showed that the model performs well.
Robinson Hordoir, Lars Axell, Anders Höglund, Christian Dieterich, Filippa Fransner, Matthias Gröger, Ye Liu, Per Pemberton, Semjon Schimanke, Helen Andersson, Patrik Ljungemyr, Petter Nygren, Saeed Falahat, Adam Nord, Anette Jönsson, Iréne Lake, Kristofer Döös, Magnus Hieronymus, Heiner Dietze, Ulrike Löptien, Ivan Kuznetsov, Antti Westerlund, Laura Tuomi, and Jari Haapala
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 363–386,Short summary
Nemo-Nordic is a regional ocean model based on a community code (NEMO). It covers the Baltic and the North Sea area and is used as a forecast model by the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute. It is also used as a research tool by scientists of several countries to study, for example, the effects of climate change on the Baltic and North seas. Using such a model permits us to understand key processes in this coastal ecosystem and how such processes will change in a future climate.
Hagen Radtke, Marko Lipka, Dennis Bunke, Claudia Morys, Jana Woelfel, Bronwyn Cahill, Michael E. Böttcher, Stefan Forster, Thomas Leipe, Gregor Rehder, and Thomas Neumann
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 275–320,Short summary
This paper describes a coupled benthic–pelagic biogeochemical model, ERGOM-SED. We demonstrate its use in a one-dimensional physical model, which is horizontally integrated and vertically resolved. We describe the application of the model to seven stations in the south-western Baltic Sea. The model was calibrated using pore water profiles from these stations. We compare the model results to these and to measured sediment compositions, benthopelagic fluxes and bioturbation intensities.
Dale Partridge, Tobias Friedrich, and Brian S. Powell
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 195–213,Short summary
This paper demonstrates the improvements made to an operational ocean forecast model around the Hawaiian Islands by performing a reanalysis of the model over a 10-year period. Using a number of different measurements we show the role a variety of observations play in producing the forecast, in particular the contribution of high-frequency radar.
Tuomas Kärnä, Stephan C. Kramer, Lawrence Mitchell, David A. Ham, Matthew D. Piggott, and António M. Baptista
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 4359–4382,Short summary
Unstructured meshes are attractive for coastal ocean modeling, as they allow more accurate representation of complex coastal topography. Unstructured mesh models are, however, often perceived as slow and inaccurate. We present a novel discontinuous Galerkin ocean model: Thetis. We demonstrate that the model is able to simulate baroclinic ocean flows with high accuracy on a triangular prismatic mesh. This work paves the way for highly accurate and efficient three-dimensional coastal ocean models.
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 4011–4019,Short summary
This article compares global mesoscale ocean forecasts with different data assimilation cycle lengths. Mean absolute increment is used to quantify differences in the overall impact of observations. Greater observation impact does not necessarily improve a forecast system. Experiments show a 1-day cycle generates improved 7-day forecasts when compared to a 3-day cycle. Cycle length is an important choice that influences system bias and predictability.
Daniel Boettger, Robin Robertson, and Gary B. Brassington
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 3795–3805,Short summary
This study focuses on the impact of the model vertical mixing parameterisation on the representation of the mixed layer depth (MLD) in ocean forecast models. We compare data from two recent versions of the OceanMAPS forecast system, and find that while there were large improvements in the later version of the model, the skill of each parameterisation varies with spatial location.
Marco van Hulten, Jean-Claude Dutay, and Matthieu Roy-Barman
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 3537–3556,Short summary
We present an ocean model of the natural radioactive isotopes thorium-230 and protactinium-231. These isotopes are often used to investigate past ocean circulation and particle transport. They are removed by particles produced by plankton and from uplifted desert dust that is deposited into the ocean. We approach observed dissolved and adsorbed Th-230 and Pa-231 activities. The Pa-231 / Th-230 sedimentation ratio is reproduced as well; this quantity can be used as a proxy for ocean circulation.
Dion Häfner, René Løwe Jacobsen, Carsten Eden, Mads R. B. Kristensen, Markus Jochum, Roman Nuterman, and Brian Vinter
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 3299–3312,Short summary
Well-performing, easy-to-use ocean models are a central ingredient to further the understanding of our Earth and climate. Veros, the versatile ocean simulator, is the first full-blown ocean model entirely written in the high-level programming language Python. It is considerably more approachable than traditional Fortran models and leverages modern best practices; at the same time, thanks to the Bohrium framework, Veros is about half as fast as a reference implementation in Fortran 90.
Christopher R. Sherwood, Alfredo L. Aretxabaleta, Courtney K. Harris, J. Paul Rinehimer, Romaric Verney, and Bénédicte Ferré
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 1849–1871,Short summary
Cohesive sediment (mud) is ubiquitous in the world's coastal regions, but its behavior is complicated and often oversimplified by computer models. This paper describes extensions to a widely used open-source coastal ocean model that allow users to simulate important components of cohesive sediment transport.
Knut-Frode Dagestad, Johannes Röhrs, Øyvind Breivik, and Bjørn Ådlandsvik
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 1405–1420,Short summary
We have developed a computer code with ability to predict how various substances and objects drift in the ocean. This may be used to, e.g. predict the drift of oil to aid cleanup operations, the drift of man-over-board or lifeboats to aid search and rescue operations, or the drift of fish eggs and larvae to understand and manage fish stocks. This new code merges all such applications into one software tool, allowing to optimise and channel any available resources and developments.
Qiang Wang, Claudia Wekerle, Sergey Danilov, Xuezhu Wang, and Thomas Jung
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 1229–1255,Short summary
For developing a system for Arctic research, we evaluate the Arctic Ocean simulated by FESOM. We use two global meshes differing in the horizontal resolution only in the Arctic Ocean (24 vs. 4.5 km). The high resolution significantly improves the model's representation of the Arctic Ocean. The most pronounced improvement is in the Arctic intermediate layer. The high resolution also improves the ocean surface circulation, mainly through a better representation of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.
Jennifer A. Graham, Enda O'Dea, Jason Holt, Jeff Polton, Helene T. Hewitt, Rachel Furner, Karen Guihou, Ashley Brereton, Alex Arnold, Sarah Wakelin, Juan Manuel Castillo Sanchez, and C. Gabriela Mayorga Adame
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 681–696,Short summary
This paper describes the next-generation ocean forecast model for the European NW shelf, AMM15 (Atlantic Margin Model, 1.5 km resolution). The current forecast system has a resolution of 7 km. While this is sufficient to represent large-scale circulation, many dynamical features (such as eddies, frontal jets, and internal tides) can only begin to be resolved at 0–1 km resolution. Here we introduce AMM15 and demonstrate its ability to represent the mean state and variability of the region.
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A biogeochemical model of planktonic food webs including a carbonate balance module is applied in the Bay of Marseille (France) to represent the carbon marine cycle expected to change in the future owing to significant increases in anthropogenic emissions of CO2. The model correctly simulates the ranges and seasonal dynamics of most variables of the carbonate system (pH). This study shows that external physical forcings have an important impact on the carbonate equilibrium in this coastal area.
A biogeochemical model of planktonic food webs including a carbonate balance module is applied...