Articles | Volume 14, issue 4
Model description paper
21 Apr 2021
Model description paper | 21 Apr 2021
HIDRA 1.0: deep-learning-based ensemble sea level forecasting in the northern Adriatic
Lojze Žust et al.
No articles found.
Nydia Catalina Reyes Suárez, Valentina Tirelli, Laura Ursella, Matjaž Ličer, Massimo Celio, and Vanessa Cardin
Ocean Sci., 18, 1321–1337,Short summary
Explaining the dynamics of jellyfish blooms is a challenge for scientists. Biological and meteo-oceanographic data were combined on different timescales to explain the exceptional bloom of the jellyfish Rhizostoma pulmo in the Gulf of Trieste (Adriatic Sea) in April 2021. The bloom was associated with anomalously warm seasonal sea conditions. Then, a strong bora wind event enhanced upwelling and mixing of the water column, causing jellyfish to rise to the surface and accumulate along the coast.
Marko Rus, Anja Fettich, Matej Kristan, and Matjaž Ličer
We propose a new fast and reliable deep-learning architecture HIDRA2 for sea level and storm surge modeling. HIDRA2 features new feature encoders and a fusion-regression block. We test HIDRA2 on Adriatic storm surges, which depend on an interaction between tides and seiches. We demonstrate that HIDRA2 learns to effectively mimic the timing and amplitude of Adriatic seiches better than other tested models. This is essential to reliable HIDRA2 predictions of total storm surge sea levels.
Emma Reyes, Eva Aguiar, Michele Bendoni, Maristella Berta, Carlo Brandini, Alejandro Cáceres-Euse, Fulvio Capodici, Vanessa Cardin, Daniela Cianelli, Giuseppe Ciraolo, Lorenzo Corgnati, Vlado Dadić, Bartolomeo Doronzo, Aldo Drago, Dylan Dumas, Pierpaolo Falco, Maria Fattorini, Maria J. Fernandes, Adam Gauci, Roberto Gómez, Annalisa Griffa, Charles-Antoine Guérin, Ismael Hernández-Carrasco, Jaime Hernández-Lasheras, Matjaž Ličer, Pablo Lorente, Marcello G. Magaldi, Carlo Mantovani, Hrvoje Mihanović, Anne Molcard, Baptiste Mourre, Adèle Révelard, Catalina Reyes-Suárez, Simona Saviano, Roberta Sciascia, Stefano Taddei, Joaquín Tintoré, Yaron Toledo, Marco Uttieri, Ivica Vilibić, Enrico Zambianchi, and Alejandro Orfila
Ocean Sci., 18, 797–837,Short summary
This work reviews the existing advanced and emerging scientific and societal applications using HFR data, developed to address the major challenges identified in Mediterranean coastal waters organized around three main topics: maritime safety, extreme hazards and environmental transport processes. It also includes a discussion and preliminary assessment of the capabilities of existing HFR applications, finally providing a set of recommendations towards setting out future prospects.
Pablo Lorente, Eva Aguiar, Michele Bendoni, Maristella Berta, Carlo Brandini, Alejandro Cáceres-Euse, Fulvio Capodici, Daniela Cianelli, Giuseppe Ciraolo, Lorenzo Corgnati, Vlado Dadić, Bartolomeo Doronzo, Aldo Drago, Dylan Dumas, Pierpaolo Falco, Maria Fattorini, Adam Gauci, Roberto Gómez, Annalisa Griffa, Charles-Antoine Guérin, Ismael Hernández-Carrasco, Jaime Hernández-Lasheras, Matjaž Ličer, Marcello G. Magaldi, Carlo Mantovani, Hrvoje Mihanović, Anne Molcard, Baptiste Mourre, Alejandro Orfila, Adèle Révelard, Emma Reyes, Jorge Sánchez, Simona Saviano, Roberta Sciascia, Stefano Taddei, Joaquín Tintoré, Yaron Toledo, Laura Ursella, Marco Uttieri, Ivica Vilibić, Enrico Zambianchi, and Vanessa Cardin
Ocean Sci., 18, 761–795,Short summary
High-frequency radar (HFR) is a land-based remote sensing technology that can provide maps of the surface circulation over broad coastal areas, along with wave and wind information. The main goal of this work is to showcase the current status of the Mediterranean HFR network as well as present and future applications of this sensor for societal benefit such as search and rescue operations, safe vessel navigation, tracking of marine pollutants, and the monitoring of extreme events.
Matjaž Ličer, Solène Estival, Catalina Reyes-Suarez, Davide Deponte, and Anja Fettich
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 2335–2349,Short summary
In 2018 windsurfer’s mast broke about 1 km offshore during a scirocco storm in the northern Adriatic. He was drifting in severe conditions until he eventually beached alive and well in Sistiana (Italy) 24 h later. We conducted an interview with the survivor to reconstruct his trajectory. We simulate his trajectory in several ways and estimate the optimal search-and-rescue area for a civil rescue response. Properly calibrated virtual drifter properties are key to reliable rescue area forecasting.
Alexander Barth, Aida Alvera-Azcárate, Matjaz Licer, and Jean-Marie Beckers
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 1609–1622,Short summary
DINCAE is a method for reconstructing missing data in satellite datasets using a neural network. Satellite observations working in the optical and infrared bands are affected by clouds, which obscure part of the ocean underneath. In this paper, a neural network with the structure of a convolutional auto-encoder is developed to reconstruct the missing data based on the available cloud-free pixels in satellite images.
Christian Ferrarin, Andrea Valentini, Martin Vodopivec, Dijana Klaric, Giovanni Massaro, Marco Bajo, Francesca De Pascalis, Amedeo Fadini, Michol Ghezzo, Stefano Menegon, Lidia Bressan, Silvia Unguendoli, Anja Fettich, Jure Jerman, Matjaz̆ Ličer, Lidija Fustar, Alvise Papa, and Enrico Carraro
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 73–93,Short summary
Here we present a shared and interoperable system to allow a better exchange of and elaboration on information related to sea storms among countries. The proposed integrated web system (IWS) is a combination of a common data system for sharing ocean observations and forecasts, a multi-model ensemble system, a geoportal, and interactive geo-visualization tools. This study describes the application of the developed system to the exceptional storm event of 29 October 2018.
M. Ličer, P. Smerkol, A. Fettich, M. Ravdas, A. Papapostolou, A. Mantziafou, B. Strajnar, J. Cedilnik, M. Jeromel, J. Jerman, S. Petan, V. Malačič, and S. Sofianos
Ocean Sci., 12, 71–86,Short summary
We compare the northern Adriatic response to an extreme bora event, as simulated by one-way and two-way (i.e. with ocean feedback to the atmosphere) atmosphere-ocean coupling. We show that two-way coupling yields significantly better estimates of heat fluxes, most notably sensible heat flux, across the air-sea interface. When compared to observations in the northern Adriatic, two-way coupled system consequently leads to a better representation of ocean temperatures throughout the event.
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Zhanpeng Zhuang, Quanan Zheng, Yongzeng Yang, Zhenya Song, Yeli Yuan, Chaojie Zhou, Xinhua Zhao, Ting Zhang, and Jing Xie
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 7221–7241,Short summary
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Giulia Bonino, Doroteaciro Iovino, Laurent Brodeau, and Simona Masina
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 6873–6889,Short summary
The sea surface temperature (SST) is highly influenced by the transfer of energy driven by turbulent air–sea fluxes (TASFs). In the NEMO ocean general circulation model, TASFs are computed by means of bulk formulas. Bulk formulas require the choice of a given bulk parameterization, which influences the magnitudes of the TASFs. Our results show that parameterization-related SST differences are primarily sensitive to the wind stress differences across parameterizations.
Gustavo M. Marques, Nora Loose, Elizabeth Yankovsky, Jacob M. Steinberg, Chiung-Yin Chang, Neeraja Bhamidipati, Alistair Adcroft, Baylor Fox-Kemper, Stephen M. Griffies, Robert W. Hallberg, Malte F. Jansen, Hemant Khatri, and Laure Zanna
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 6567–6579,Short summary
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Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 6541–6565,Short summary
The ocean current flowing along the southeastern coast of Australia is called the East Australian Current (EAC). Using computer simulations, we tested how surface and subsurface observations might improve models of the EAC. Subsurface observations are particularly important for improving simulations, and if made in the correct location and time, can have impact 600 km upstream. The stability of the current affects model estimates could be capitalized upon in future observing strategies.
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Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 6025–6046,Short summary
The full exploitation of supercomputing architectures requires a deep revision of the current climate models. This paper presents the parallelization of the three-dimensional hydrodynamic model SHYFEM (System of HydrodYnamic Finite Element Modules). Optimized numerical libraries were used to partition the model domain and solve the sparse linear system of equations in parallel. The performance assessment demonstrates a good level of scalability with a realistic configuration used as a benchmark.
Young-Kwang Choi, Fengyan Shi, Matt Malej, Jane M. Smith, James T. Kirby, and Stephan T. Grilli
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 5441–5459,Short summary
The multi-grid-nesting technique is an important methodology used for modeling transoceanic tsunamis and coastal effects. In this study, we developed a two-way nesting interface in a multi-grid-nesting system for the Boussinesq wave model FUNWAVE-TVD. The interface acts as a
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Chen Zhao, Rupert Gladstone, Benjamin Keith Galton-Fenzi, David Gwyther, and Tore Hattermann
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 5421–5439,Short summary
We use a coupled ice–ocean model to explore an oscillation feature found in several contributing models to MISOMIP1. The oscillation is closely related to the discretized grounding line retreat and likely strengthened by the buoyancy–melt feedback and/or melt–geometry feedback near the grounding line, and frequent ice–ocean coupling. Our model choices have a non-trivial impact on mean melt and ocean circulation strength, which might be interesting for the coupled ice–ocean community.
Benoît Pasquier, Sophia K. V. Hines, Hengdi Liang, Yingzhe Wu, Steven L. Goldstein, and Seth G. John
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 4625–4656,Short summary
Neodymium isotopes in seawater have the potential to provide key information about ocean circulation, both today and in the past. This can shed light on the underlying drivers of global climate, which will improve our ability to predict future climate change, but uncertainties in our understanding of neodymium cycling have limited use of this tracer. We present a new model of neodymium in the modern ocean that runs extremely fast, matches observations, and is freely available for development.
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Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 4373–4392,Short summary
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Elias J. Hunter, Heidi L. Fuchs, John L. Wilkin, Gregory P. Gerbi, Robert J. Chant, and Jessica C. Garwood
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 4297–4311,Short summary
ROMSPath is an offline particle tracking model tailored for use with output from Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) simulations. It is an update to an established system, the Lagrangian TRANSport (LTRANS) model, including a number of improvements. These include a modification of the model coordinate system which improved accuracy and numerical efficiency, and added functionality for nested grids and Stokes drift.
Hector S. Torres, Patrice Klein, Jinbo Wang, Alexander Wineteer, Bo Qiu, Andrew F. Thompson, Ernesto Rodriguez, Dimitris Menemenlis, Andrea Molod, Christopher N. Hill, Ehud Strobach, Hong Zhang, Mar Flexas, and Dragana Perkovic-Martin
Wind work at the air-sea interface is the scalar product of winds and currents and is the transfer of kinetic energy between the ocean and the atmosphere. Using a new, global, coupled ocean-atmosphere simulation performed at kilometer resolution, we show that all scales of winds and currents impact the ocean dynamics at spatial and temporal scales. The consequential interplay of surface winds and currents in the numerical simulation motivates the need for a winds-and-currents satellite mission.
Alexander Barth, Aida Alvera-Azcárate, Charles Troupin, and Jean-Marie Beckers
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 2183–2196,Short summary
Earth-observing satellites provide routine measurement of several ocean parameters. However, these datasets have a significant amount of missing data due to the presence of clouds or other limitations of the employed sensors. This paper describes a method to infer the value of the missing satellite data based on a convolutional autoencoder (a specific type of neural network architecture). The technique also provides a reliable error estimate of the interpolated value.
Olivier Sulpis, Matthew P. Humphreys, Monica M. Wilhelmus, Dustin Carroll, William M. Berelson, Dimitris Menemenlis, Jack J. Middelburg, and Jess F. Adkins
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 2105–2131,Short summary
A quarter of the surface of the Earth is covered by marine sediments rich in calcium carbonates, and their dissolution acts as a giant antacid tablet protecting the ocean against human-made acidification caused by massive CO2 emissions. Here, we present a new model of sediment chemistry that incorporates the latest experimental findings on calcium carbonate dissolution kinetics. This model can be used to predict how marine sediments evolve through time in response to environmental perturbations.
Alisée A. Chaigneau, Guillaume Reffray, Aurore Voldoire, and Angélique Melet
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 2035–2062,Short summary
Climate-change-induced sea level rise is a major threat for coastal and low-lying regions. Projections of coastal sea level changes are thus of great interest for coastal risk assessment and have significantly developed in recent years. In this paper, the objective is to provide high-resolution (6 km) projections of sea level changes in the northeastern Atlantic region bordering western Europe. For that purpose, a regional model is used to refine existing coarse global projections.
Victor Onink, Erik van Sebille, and Charlotte Laufkötter
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 1995–2012,Short summary
Turbulent mixing is a vital process in 3D modeling of particle transport in the ocean. However, since turbulence occurs on very short spatial scales and timescales, large-scale ocean models generally have highly simplified turbulence representations. We have developed parametrizations for the vertical turbulent transport of buoyant particles that can be easily applied in a large-scale particle tracking model. The predicted vertical concentration profiles match microplastic observations well.
Gaston Irrmann, Sébastien Masson, Éric Maisonnave, David Guibert, and Erwan Raffin
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 1567–1582,Short summary
To be efficient on supercomputers, software must be high-performance at computing many concurrent tasks. Communications between tasks is often necessary but time consuming, and ocean modelling software NEMO 4.0 is no exception. In this work we describe approaches enabling fewer communications, an optimization to share the workload more equally between tasks and a new flexible configuration to assess NEMO's performance easily.
Xueming Zhu, Ziqing Zu, Shihe Ren, Miaoyin Zhang, Yunfei Zhang, Hui Wang, and Ang Li
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 995–1015,Short summary
SCSOFS has provided daily updated marine forecasting in the South China Sea for the next 5 d since 2013. Comprehensive updates have been conducted to the configurations of SCSOFS's physical model and data assimilation scheme in order to improve its forecasting skill. The three most sensitive updates are highlighted. Scientific comparison and accuracy assessment results indicate that remarkable improvements have been achieved in SCSOFSv2 with respect to the original version SCSOFSv1.
Tingfeng Wu, Boqiang Qin, Anning Huang, Yongwei Sheng, Shunxin Feng, and Céline Casenave
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 745–769,Short summary
Most hydrodynamic models were initially developed based in marine environments. They cannot be directly applied to large lakes. Based on field observations and numerical experiments of a large shallow lake, we developed a hydrodynamic model by adopting new schemes of wind stress, wind waves, and turbulence for large lakes. Our model can greatly improve the simulation of lake currents. This study will be a reminder to limnologists to prudently use ocean models to study lake hydrodynamics.
Jingyuan Li, Qinghe Zhang, and Tongqing Chen
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 105–127,Short summary
A numerical model, ISWFoam with a modified k–ω SST model, is developed to simulate internal solitary waves (ISWs) in continuously stratified, incompressible, viscous fluids based on a fully three-dimensional (3D) Navier–Stokes equation with the finite-volume method. ISWFoam can accurately simulate the generation and evolution of ISWs, the ISW breaking phenomenon, waveform inversion of ISWs, and the interaction between ISWs and complex topography.
Matthew P. Humphreys, Ernie R. Lewis, Jonathan D. Sharp, and Denis Pierrot
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 15–43,Short summary
The ocean helps to mitigate our impact on Earth's climate by absorbing about a quarter of the carbon dioxide (CO2) released by human activities each year. However, once absorbed, chemical reactions between CO2 and water reduce seawater pH (
ocean acidification), which may have adverse effects on marine ecosystems. Our Python package, PyCO2SYS, models the chemical reactions of CO2 in seawater, allowing us to quantify the corresponding changes in pH and related chemical properties.
Vera Fofonova, Tuomas Kärnä, Knut Klingbeil, Alexey Androsov, Ivan Kuznetsov, Dmitry Sidorenko, Sergey Danilov, Hans Burchard, and Karen Helen Wiltshire
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 6945–6975,Short summary
We present a test case of river plume spreading to evaluate coastal ocean models. Our test case reveals the level of numerical mixing (due to parameterizations used and numerical treatment of processes in the model) and the ability of models to reproduce complex dynamics. The major result of our comparative study is that accuracy in reproducing the analytical solution depends less on the type of applied model architecture or numerical grid than it does on the type of advection scheme.
Trevor J. McDougall, Paul M. Barker, Ryan M. Holmes, Rich Pawlowicz, Stephen M. Griffies, and Paul J. Durack
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 6445–6466,Short summary
We show that the way that the air–sea heat flux is treated in ocean models means that the model's temperature variable should be interpreted as being Conservative Temperature, irrespective of whether the equation of state used in an ocean model is EOS-80 or TEOS-10.
Paul R. Halloran, Jennifer K. McWhorter, Beatriz Arellano Nava, Robert Marsh, and William Skirving
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 6177–6195,Short summary
This paper describes the latest version of a simple model for simulating coastal oceanography in response to changes in weather and climate. The latest revision of this model makes scientific improvements but focuses on improvements that allow the model to be run simply at large scales and for long periods of time to explore the implications of (for example) future climate change along large areas of coastline.
Fucang Zhou, Jianzhong Ge, Dongyan Liu, Pingxing Ding, Changsheng Chen, and Xiaodao Wei
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 6049–6070,Short summary
In this study, a physical–ecological model, the Floating Macroalgal Growth and Drift Model (FMGDM), was developed to determine the dynamic growth and drifting pattern of floating macroalgae. Based on Lagrangian tracking, the macroalgae bloom is jointly controlled by ocean flows, sea surface wind, temperature, irradiation, and nutrients. The FMGDM was robust in successfully reproducing the spatial and temporal dynamics of the massive green tide around the Yellow Sea.
Tuomas Kärnä, Patrik Ljungemyr, Saeed Falahat, Ida Ringgaard, Lars Axell, Vasily Korabel, Jens Murawski, Ilja Maljutenko, Anja Lindenthal, Simon Jandt-Scheelke, Svetlana Verjovkina, Ina Lorkowski, Priidik Lagemaa, Jun She, Laura Tuomi, Adam Nord, and Vibeke Huess
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 5731–5749,Short summary
We present Nemo-Nordic 2.0, a novel operational marine model for the Baltic Sea. The model covers the Baltic Sea and the North Sea with approximately 1 nmi resolution. We validate the model's performance against sea level, water temperature, and salinity observations, as well as sea ice charts. The skill analysis demonstrates that Nemo-Nordic 2.0 can reproduce the hydrographic features of the Baltic Sea.
David A. Griffin, Mike Herzfeld, Mark Hemer, and Darren Engwirda
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 5561–5582,Short summary
In support of the developing ocean renewable energy sector, and indeed all mariners, we have developed a new tidal model for Australian waters and thoroughly evaluated it using a new compilation of tide gauge and current meter data. We show that while there is certainly room for improvement, the model provides useful predictions of tidal currents for about 80 % (by area) of Australian shelf waters. So we intend to commence publishing tidal current predictions for those regions soon.
Jingzhe Li, Piyang Liu, Shuyu Sun, Zhifeng Sun, Yongzhang Zhou, Liang Gong, Jinliang Zhang, and Dongxing Du
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 4925–4937,Short summary
This paper introduces Sedapp, a basin fill simulation tool. Sedapp is an open-source computer code written in R language. Using this program, one can simulate the formation of sedimentary strata, especially in shallow marine environments injected by rivers. With proper parameter settings, the simulation results are very similar to the real geological bodies. Sedapp can also be used in continental fault basin environments, which may serve as a tool for oil exploration.
Gwenaëlle Gremion, Louis-Philippe Nadeau, Christiane Dufresne, Irene R. Schloss, Philippe Archambault, and Dany Dumont
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 4535–4554,Short summary
An accurate description of detritic organic particles is key to improving estimations of carbon export into the ocean abyss in ocean general circulation models. Yet, most parametrization are numerically impractical due to the required number of tracers needed to resolve the particle size spectrum. Here, a new parametrization that aims to minimize the tracers number while accurately describing the particles dynamics is developed and tested in a series of idealized numerical experiments.
Christo Rautenbach, Julia C. Mullarney, and Karin R. Bryan
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 4241–4247,Short summary
The simulation of ocean waves is important for various reasons, e.g. ship route safety and coastal vulnerability assessments. SWAN is a popular tool with which ocean waves may be predicted. Simulations using this tool can be computationally expensive. The present study thus aimed to understand which typical parallel-computing SWAN model set-up will be most effective. There thus do exist configurations where these simulations are most time-saving and effective.
Qing Li, Jorn Bruggeman, Hans Burchard, Knut Klingbeil, Lars Umlauf, and Karsten Bolding
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 4261–4282,Short summary
Different ocean vertical mixing schemes are usually developed in different modeling framework, making the comparison across such schemes difficult. Here, we develop a consistent framework for testing, comparing, and applying different ocean mixing schemes by integrating CVMix into GOTM, which also extends the capability of GOTM towards including the effects of ocean surface waves. A suite of test cases and toolsets for developing and evaluating ocean mixing schemes is also described.
Julien Jouanno, Rachid Benshila, Léo Berline, Antonin Soulié, Marie-Hélène Radenac, Guillaume Morvan, Frédéric Diaz, Julio Sheinbaum, Cristele Chevalier, Thierry Thibaut, Thomas Changeux, Frédéric Menard, Sarah Berthet, Olivier Aumont, Christian Ethé, Pierre Nabat, and Marc Mallet
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 4069–4086,Short summary
The tropical Atlantic has been facing a massive proliferation of Sargassum since 2011, with severe environmental and socioeconomic impacts. We developed a modeling framework based on the NEMO ocean model, which integrates transport by currents and waves, and physiology of Sargassum with varying internal nutrient quota, and considers stranding at the coast. Results demonstrate the ability of the model to reproduce and forecast the seasonal cycle and large-scale distribution of Sargassum biomass.
Andrew Yool, Julien Palmiéri, Colin G. Jones, Lee de Mora, Till Kuhlbrodt, Ekatarina E. Popova, A. J. George Nurser, Joel Hirschi, Adam T. Blaker, Andrew C. Coward, Edward W. Blockley, and Alistair A. Sellar
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 3437–3472,Short summary
The ocean plays a key role in modulating the Earth’s climate. Understanding this role is critical when using models to project future climate change. Consequently, it is necessary to evaluate their realism against the ocean's observed state. Here we validate UKESM1, a new Earth system model, focusing on the realism of its ocean physics and circulation, as well as its biological cycles and productivity. While we identify biases, generally the model performs well over a wide range of properties.
Sebastiaan J. van de Velde, Dominik Hülse, Christopher T. Reinhard, and Andy Ridgwell
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 2713–2745,Short summary
Biogeochemical interactions between iron and sulfur are central to the long-term biogeochemical evolution of Earth’s oceans. Here, we introduce an iron–sulphur cycle in a model of Earth's oceans. Our analyses show that the results of the model are robust towards parameter choices and that simulated concentrations and reactions are comparable to those observed in ancient ocean analogues (anoxic lakes). Our model represents an important step forward in the study of iron–sulfur cycling.
Katherine M. Smith, Skyler Kern, Peter E. Hamlington, Marco Zavatarelli, Nadia Pinardi, Emily F. Klee, and Kyle E. Niemeyer
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 2419–2442,Short summary
We present a newly developed reduced-order biogeochemical flux model that is complex and flexible enough to capture open-ocean ecosystem dynamics but reduced enough to incorporate into highly resolved numerical simulations with limited additional computational cost. The model provides improved correlations between model output and field data, indicating that significant improvements in the reproduction of real-world data can be achieved with a small number of variables.
Chia-Wei Hsu, Jianjun Yin, Stephen M. Griffies, and Raphael Dussin
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 2471–2502,Short summary
The new surface forcing from JRA55-do (OMIP II) significantly improved the underestimated sea level trend across the entire Pacific Ocean along 10° N in the simulation forced by CORE (OMIP I). We summarize and list out the reasons for the existing sea level biases across all studied timescales as a reference for improving the sea level simulation in the future. This study on the evaluation and improvement of ocean climate models should be of broad interest to a large modeling community.
Oliver Gutjahr, Nils Brüggemann, Helmuth Haak, Johann H. Jungclaus, Dian A. Putrasahan, Katja Lohmann, and Jin-Song von Storch
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 2317–2349,Short summary
We compare four ocean vertical mixing schemes in 100-year coupled simulations with the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model (MPI-ESM1.2) and analyse their model biases. Overall, the mixing schemes modify biases in the ocean interior that vary with region and variable but produce a similar global bias pattern. We therefore cannot classify any scheme as superior but conclude that the chosen mixing scheme may be important for regional biases.
Katsumi Matsumoto, Tatsuro Tanioka, and Jacob Zahn
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 2265–2288,Short summary
MESMO is a mathematical model that represents the essential components of the Earth, such as the global ocean, atmosphere, and sea ice. It is used to study the global climate and the global carbon cycle. We describe the third version of MESMO. A novel feature of the new version is its mathematical representations of the chemical composition of marine phytoplankton and the marine dissolved organic matter, which are both recognized as important for the global ocean carbon cycle.
Qing Li and Luke Van Roekel
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 2011–2028,Short summary
Physical processes in the ocean span multiple spatial and temporal scales. Simultaneously resolving all these in a simulation is computationally challenging. Here we develop a more efficient technique to better study the interactions across scales, particularly focusing on the ocean surface turbulent mixing, by coupling a global ocean circulation model MPAS-Ocean and a large eddy simulation model PALM. The latter is customized and ported on a GPU to further accelerate the computation.
Yang Feng, Dimitris Menemenlis, Huijie Xue, Hong Zhang, Dustin Carroll, Yan Du, and Hui Wu
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1801–1819,Short summary
Simulation of coastal plume regions was improved in global ECCOv4 with a series of sensitivity tests. We find modeled SSS is closer to SMAP when using daily point-source runoff as well as increasing the resolution from coarse to intermediate. The plume characteristics, freshwater transport, and critical water properties are modified greatly. But this may not happen with a further increase to high resolution. The study will advance the seamless modeling of land–ocean–atmosphere feedback in ESMs.
Gregory C. Smith, Yimin Liu, Mounir Benkiran, Kamel Chikhar, Dorina Surcel Colan, Audrey-Anne Gauthier, Charles-Emmanuel Testut, Frederic Dupont, Ji Lei, François Roy, Jean-François Lemieux, and Fraser Davidson
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1445–1467,Short summary
Canada's coastlines include diverse ocean environments. In response to the strong need to support marine activities and security, we present the first pan-Canadian operational regional ocean analysis system. A novel online tidal harmonic analysis method is introduced that uses a sliding-window approach. Innovations are compared to those from the Canadian global analysis system. Particular improvements are found near the Gulf Stream due to the higher model grid resolution.
William J. Pringle, Damrongsak Wirasaet, Keith J. Roberts, and Joannes J. Westerink
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1125–1145,Short summary
We improve and test a computer model that simulates tides and storm surge over all of Earth's oceans and seas. The model varies mesh resolution (triangular element sizes) freely so that coastal areas, especially storm landfall locations, are well-described. We develop systematic tests of the resolution in order to suggest good mesh design criteria that balance computational efficiency with accuracy for both global astronomical tides and coastal storm tides under extreme weather forcing.
Bijoy Thompson, Claudio Sanchez, Boon Chong Peter Heng, Rajesh Kumar, Jianyu Liu, Xiang-Yu Huang, and Pavel Tkalich
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1081–1100,Short summary
This article describes the development and ocean forecast evaluation of an atmosphere–ocean coupled prediction system for the Maritime Continent domain, which includes the eastern Indian and western Pacific oceans. The coupled system comprises regional configurations of the atmospheric model MetUM and ocean model NEMO, coupled using the OASIS3-MCT libraries. The model forecast deviation of selected fields relative to observations is within acceptable error limits of operational forecast models.
Pavel Perezhogin, Ilya Chernov, and Nikolay Iakovlev
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 843–857,Short summary
We describe the parallel implementation of the FEMAO model for an ice-covered sea with 2D Hilbert-curve domain decomposition. Load balancing is crucial because performance depends on the local depth. We propose, compare, and discuss four approaches to load balancing. The parallel library allowed us to modify the original sequential algorithm as little as possible. The performance increases almost linearly (tested with up to 996 CPU cores) for the model of the shallow White Sea.
Jordyn E. Moscoso, Andrew L. Stewart, Daniele Bianchi, and James C. McWilliams
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 763–794,Short summary
This project was created to understand the across-shore distribution of plankton in the California Current System. To complete this study, we used a quasi-2-D dynamical model coupled to an ecosystem model. This paper is a preliminary study to test and validate the model against data collected by the California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations (CalCOFI). We show the solution of our model solution compares well to the data and discuss our model as a tool for further model development.
Christian Ferrarin, Marco Bajo, and Georg Umgiesser
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 645–659,Short summary
The problem of the optimization of ocean monitoring networks is tackled through the implementation of data assimilation techniques in a numerical model. The methodology has been applied to the tide gauge network in the Lagoon of Venice (Italy). The data assimilation methods allow identifying the minimum number of stations and their distribution that correctly represent the lagoon's dynamics. The methodology is easily exportable to other environments and can be extended to other variables.
Florian Lemarié, Guillaume Samson, Jean-Luc Redelsperger, Hervé Giordani, Théo Brivoal, and Gurvan Madec
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 543–572,Short summary
A simplified model of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) of intermediate complexity between a bulk parameterization and a full three-dimensional atmospheric model has been developed and integrated to the NEMO ocean model. An objective in the derivation of such a simplified model is to reach an apt representation of ocean-only numerical simulations of some of the key processes associated with air–sea interactions at the characteristic scales of the oceanic mesoscale.
Kristen M. Thyng, Daijiro Kobashi, Veronica Ruiz-Xomchuk, Lixin Qu, Xu Chen, and Robert D. Hetland
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 391–407,Short summary
We modified the ROMS model to run in offline mode so that previously run fields of sea surface height and velocity fields are input to calculate tracer advection without running the full model with a larger time step; thus, it is faster. The code was tested with two advection schemes, and both are robust with over 99 % accuracy of the offline to online run after 14 simulation days. This allows for ROMS users to maximize use of new or existing output to quickly run additional tracer simulations.
Katixa Lajaunie-Salla, Frédéric Diaz, Cathy Wimart-Rousseau, Thibaut Wagener, Dominique Lefèvre, Christophe Yohia, Irène Xueref-Remy, Brian Nathan, Alexandre Armengaud, and Christel Pinazo
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 295–321,Short summary
A biogeochemical model of planktonic food webs including a carbonate balance module is applied in the Bay of Marseille (France) to represent the carbon marine cycle expected to change in the future owing to significant increases in anthropogenic emissions of CO2. The model correctly simulates the ranges and seasonal dynamics of most variables of the carbonate system (pH). This study shows that external physical forcings have an important impact on the carbonate equilibrium in this coastal area.
Tor Nordam and Rodrigo Duran
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 5935–5957,Short summary
In applied oceanography, a common task is to calculate the trajectory of objects floating at the sea surface or submerged in the water. We have investigated different numerical methods for doing such calculations and discuss the benefits and challenges of some common methods. We then propose a small change to some common methods that make them more efficient for this particular application. This will allow researchers to obtain more accurate answers with fewer computer resources.
Clément Bricaud, Julien Le Sommer, Gurvan Madec, Christophe Calone, Julie Deshayes, Christian Ethe, Jérôme Chanut, and Marina Levy
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 5465–5483,Short summary
In order to reduce the cost of ocean biogeochemical models, a multi-grid approach where ocean dynamics and tracer transport are computed with different spatial resolution has been developed in the NEMO v3.6 OGCM. Different experiments confirm that the spatial resolution of hydrodynamical fields can be coarsened without significantly affecting the resolved passive tracer fields. This approach leads to a factor of 7 reduction of the overhead associated with running a full biogeochemical model.
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Adriatic basin sea level modelling is a challenging problem due to the interplay between terrain, weather, tides and seiches. Current state-of-the-art numerical models (e.g. NEMO) require large computational resources to produce reliable forecasts. In this study we propose HIDRA, a novel deep learning approach for sea level modeling, which drastically reduces the numerical cost while demonstrating predictive capabilities comparable to that of the NEMO model, outperforming it in many instances.
Adriatic basin sea level modelling is a challenging problem due to the interplay between...