Articles | Volume 14, issue 3
Development and technical paper 01 Apr 2021
Development and technical paper | 01 Apr 2021
Novel estimation of aerosol processes with particle size distribution measurements: a case study with the TOMAS algorithm v1.0.0
Dana L. McGuffin et al.
No articles found.
Tuija Jokinen, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Roseline Cutting Thakur, Ilona Ylivinkka, Kimmo Neitola, Nina Sarnela, Totti Laitinen, Markku Kulmala, Tuukka Petäjä, and Mikko Sipilä
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
New particle formation is an important source of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and in the arctic, cloud formation is very sensitive to the availability of CCN. Field observations from the are are scarce and long term measurements close to non-existent. In here we report 7 months of CI-APi-TOF measurements of sulfuric acid, iodic acid, MSA and HOM from the Finnish sub-Arctic. The results help us to understand atmospheric chemical processes and aerosol formation in the rapidly changing Arctic.
Peifeng Su, Jorma Joutsensaari, Lubna Dada, Martha Arbayani Zaidan, Tuomo Nieminen, Xinyang Li, Yusheng Wu, Stefano Decesari, Sasu Tarkoma, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, and Petri Pellikka
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
We regarded the banana shapes in the surface plots as a special kind of object (similar to cats) and applied an instance segmentation technique to automatically identify the new particle formation (NPF) events (especially the strongest ones), in addition to their growth rates, start times, and end times. The automatic method generalized well on datasets collected in different sites, which is useful for long-term data series analysis and obtaining statistical properties of NPF events.
Yongchun Liu, Zemin Feng, Feixue Zheng, Xiaolei Bao, Pengfei Liu, Yanli Ge, Yan Zhao, Tao Jiang, Yunwen Liao, Yusheng Zhang, Xiaolong Fan, Chao Yan, Biwu Chu, Yonghong Wang, Wei Du, Jing Cai, Federico Bianchi, Tuukka Petäjä, Yujing Mu, Hong He, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13269–13286,Short summary
The mechanisms and kinetics of particulate sulfate formation in the atmosphere are still open questions although they have been extensively discussed. We found that uptake of SO2 is the rate-determining step for the conversion of SO2 to particulate sulfate. NH4NO3 plays an important role in AWC, the phase state of aerosol particles, and subsequently the uptake kinetics of SO2 under high-RH conditions. This work is a good example of the feedback between aerosol physics and aerosol chemistry.
Helmi Uusitalo, Jenni Kontkanen, Ilona Ylivinkka, Ekaterina Ezhova, Anastasiia Demakova, Mikhail Arshinov, Boris Denisovich Belan, Denis Davydov, Nan Ma, Tuukka Petäjä, Alfred Wiedensohler, Markku Kulmala, and Tuomo Nieminen
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
Characteristics of formation of atmospheric aerosol at four boreal forest sites in Finland and Russian Siberia was analyzed. Our results provide information on the governing processes of atmospheric aerosol formation in the boreal forest area, which a substantial part of the continental biosphere. Aerosol formation was occurring less frequently at Siberian than in Finnish sites, which was affected by the lower particle growth rates and higher loss rates in Siberia.
Janne Lampilahti, Hanna E. Manninen, Tuomo Nieminen, Sander Mirme, Mikael Ehn, Iida Pullinen, Katri Leino, Siegfried Schobesberger, Juha Kangasluoma, Jenni Kontkanen, Emma Järvinen, Riikka Väänänen, Taina Yli-Juuti, Radovan Krejci, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Janne Levula, Aadu Mirme, Stefano Decesari, Ralf Tillmann, Douglas R. Worsnop, Franz Rohrer, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Tuukka Petäjä, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Thomas F. Mentel, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12649–12663,Short summary
We studied aerosol particle formation and growth in different parts of the planetary boundary layer at two different locations (Po Valley, Italy, and Hyytiälä, Finland). The observations consist of airborne measurements on board an instrumented Zeppelin and a small airplane combined with comprehensive ground-based measurements.
Zhuohui Lin, Yonghong Wang, Feixue Zheng, Ying Zhou, Yishuo Guo, Zemin Feng, Chang Li, Yusheng Zhang, Simo Hakala, Tommy Chan, Chao Yan, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Biwu Chu, Lubna Dada, Juha Kangasluoma, Lei Yao, Xiaolong Fan, Wei Du, Jing Cai, Runlong Cai, Tom V. Kokkonen, Putian Zhou, Lili Wang, Tuukka Petäjä, Federico Bianchi, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Yongchun Liu, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12173–12187,Short summary
We find that ammonium nitrate and aerosol water content contributed most during low mixing layer height conditions; this may further trigger enhanced formation of sulfate and organic aerosol via heterogeneous reactions. The results of this study contribute towards a more detailed understanding of the aerosol–chemistry–radiation–boundary layer feedback that is likely to be responsible for explosive aerosol mass growth events in urban Beijing.
Pak Lun Fung, Martha Arbayani Zaidan, Ola Surakhi, Sasu Tarkoma, Tuukka Petäjä, and Tareq Hussein
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5535–5554,Short summary
Aerosol size distribution measurements rely on a variety of techniques to classify the aerosol size and measure the size distribution. However, due to the instrumental insufficiency and inversion limitations, the raw dataset contains missing gaps or negative values, which hinder further analysis. With a merged particle size distribution in Jordan, this paper suggests a neural network method to estimate number concentrations at a particular size bin by the number concentration at other size bins.
Dimitrios Bousiotis, Francis D. Pope, David C. S. Beddows, Manuel Dall'Osto, Andreas Massling, Jakob Klenø Nøjgaard, Claus Nordstrøm, Jarkko V. Niemi, Harri Portin, Tuukka Petäjä, Noemi Perez, Andrés Alastuey, Xavier Querol, Giorgos Kouvarakis, Nikos Mihalopoulos, Stergios Vratolis, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Alfred Wiedensohler, Kay Weinhold, Maik Merkel, Thomas Tuch, and Roy M. Harrison
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11905–11925,Short summary
Formation of new particles is a key process in the atmosphere. New particle formation events arising from nucleation of gaseous precursors have been analysed in extensive datasets from 13 sites in five European countries in terms of frequency, nucleation rate, and particle growth rate, with several common features and many differences identified. Although nucleation frequencies are lower at roadside sites, nucleation rates and particle growth rates are typically higher.
Weimeng Kong, Stavros Amanatidis, Huajun Mai, Changhyuk Kim, Benjamin C. Schulze, Yuanlong Huang, Gregory S. Lewis, Susanne V. Hering, John H. Seinfeld, and Richard C. Flagan
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5429–5445,Short summary
We present the design, modeling, and experimental characterization of the nano-scanning electrical mobility spectrometer (nSEMS), a recently developed instrument that probes particle physical properties in the 1.5–25 nm range. The nSEMS has proven to be extremely powerful in examining atmospheric nucleation and the subsequent growth of nanoparticles in the CERN CLOUD experiment, which provides a valuable asset to study atmospheric nanoparticles and to evaluate their impact on climate.
Aki Virkkula, Henrik Grythe, John Backman, Tuukka Petäjä, Maurizio Busetto, Christian Lanconelli, Angelo Lupi, Silvia Becagli, Rita Traversi, Mirko Severi, Vito Vitale, Patrick Sheridan, and Elisabeth Andrews
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
Optical properties of surface aerosols at Dome C, Antarctica in 2007–2013 and their potential source areas are presented. The equivalent black carbon (eBC) mass concentrations were compared with eBC measured at three other Antarctic sites: the South Pole (SPO) and two coastal sites, Neumayer and Syowa. Transport analysis suggests that South American BC emissions are the largest contributor to eBC at Dome C.
Pablo Garcia Rivera, Brian T. Dinkelacker, Ioannis Kioutsioukis, Peter J. Adams, and Spyros N. Pandis
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
The contribution of various pollution sources to the variability of fine PM in an urban area was examined using as an example the city of Pittsburgh. Biomass burning aerosol shows the largest variability during the winter with local maxima within the city and in the suburbs. During both periods the largest contributing source to the average PM2.5 is particles from outside the modeling domain. The average population weighted PM2.5 concentration does not change significantly with resolution.
Xiaolong Fan, Jing Cai, Chao Yan, Jian Zhao, Yishuo Guo, Chang Li, Kaspar R. Dällenbach, Feixue Zheng, Zhuohui Lin, Biwu Chu, Yonghong Wang, Lubna Dada, Qiaozhi Zha, Wei Du, Jenni Kontkanen, Theo Kurtén, Siddhart Iyer, Joni T. Kujansuu, Tuukka Petäjä, Douglas R. Worsnop, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Yongchun Liu, Federico Bianchi, Yee Jun Tham, Lei Yao, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11437–11452,Short summary
We observed significant concentrations of gaseous HBr and HCl throughout the winter and springtime in urban Beijing, China. Our results indicate that gaseous HCl and HBr are most likely originated from anthropogenic emissions such as burning activities, and the gas–aerosol partitioning may play a crucial role in contributing to the gaseous HCl and HBr. These observations suggest that there is an important recycling pathway of halogen species in inland megacities.
Arto Heitto, Kari Lehtinen, Tuukka Petäjä, Felipe Lopez-Hilfiker, Joel A. Thornton, Markku Kulmala, and Taina Yli-Juuti
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
When organic molecules condense on atmospheric nano-sized particles, they can combine forming larger molecules (oligomerization) or fragment to smaller molecules (decomposition). We investigated the effects of these reactions with particle growth model MODNAG and found out that they have potential to significantly affect the growth of atmospheric aerosol particles. These reactions are often excluded from growth models and it is important to increase our understanding of them.
Haijie Tong, Fobang Liu, Alexander Filippi, Jake Wilson, Andrea M. Arangio, Yun Zhang, Siyao Yue, Steven Lelieveld, Fangxia Shen, Helmi-Marja K. Keskinen, Jing Li, Haoxuan Chen, Ting Zhang, Thorsten Hoffmann, Pingqing Fu, William H. Brune, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, Maosheng Yao, Thomas Berkemeier, Manabu Shiraiwa, and Ulrich Pöschl
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10439–10455,Short summary
We measured radical yields of aqueous PM2.5 extracts and found lower yields at higher concentrations of PM2.5. Abundances of water-soluble transition metals and aromatics in PM2.5 were positively correlated with the relative fraction of •OH but negatively correlated with the relative fraction of C-centered radicals among detected radicals. Composition-dependent reactive species yields may explain differences in the reactivity and health effects of PM2.5 in clean versus polluted air.
Lucía Caudillo, Birte Rörup, Martin Heinritzi, Guillaume Marie, Mario Simon, Andrea C. Wagner, Tatjana Müller, Manuel Granzin, Antonio Amorim, Farnoush Ataei, Rima Baalbaki, Barbara Bertozzi, Zoé Brasseur, Randall Chiu, Biwu Chu, Lubna Dada, Jonathan Duplissy, Henning Finkenzeller, Loïc Gonzalez Carracedo, Xu-Cheng He, Victoria Hofbauer, Weimeng Kong, Houssni Lamkaddam, Chuan P. Lee, Brandon Lopez, Naser G. A. Mahfouz, Vladimir Makhmutov, Hanna E. Manninen, Ruby Marten, Dario Massabò, Roy L. Mauldin, Bernhard Mentler, Ugo Molteni, Antti Onnela, Joschka Pfeifer, Maxim Philippov, Ana A. Piedehierro, Meredith Schervish, Wiebke Scholz, Benjamin Schulze, Jiali Shen, Dominik Stolzenburg, Yuri Stozhkov, Mihnea Surdu, Christian Tauber, Yee Jun Tham, Ping Tian, António Tomé, Steffen Vogt, Mingyi Wang, Dongyu S. Wang, Stefan K. Weber, André Welti, Wang Yonghong, Wu Yusheng, Marcel Zauner-Wieczorek, Urs Baltensperger, Imad El Haddad, Richard C. Flagan, Armin Hansel, Kristina Höhler, Jasper Kirkby, Markku Kulmala, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Ottmar Möhler, Harald Saathoff, Rainer Volkamer, Paul M. Winkler, Neil M. Donahue, Andreas Kürten, and Joachim Curtius
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
We performed experiments in the CLOUD chamber at CERN at low temperatures to simulate new particle formation in the upper free troposphere (at −30 °C and −50 °C). We measured particle and gas phase and found that most of the compounds that are present in the gas phase are detected as well in the particle phase. The major compounds in the particles are C8-10 and C18-20. Specifically, we showed that C5 and C15 compounds are detected in a mixed system with isoprene and α-pinene at −30 °C, 20 % RH.
Liine Heikkinen, Mikko Äijälä, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Gang Chen, Olga Garmash, Diego Aliaga, Frans Graeffe, Meri Räty, Krista Luoma, Pasi Aalto, Markku Kulmala, Tuukka Petäjä, Douglas Worsnop, and Mikael Ehn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10081–10109,Short summary
In many locations worldwide aerosol particles have been shown to be made up of organic aerosol (OA). The boreal forest is a region where aerosol particles possess a high OA mass fraction. Here, we studied OA composition using the longest time series of OA composition ever obtained from a boreal environment. For this purpose, we tested a new analysis framework and discovered that most of the OA was highly oxidized, with strong seasonal behaviour reflecting different sources in summer and winter.
Pak Lun Fung, Martha A. Zaidan, Jarkko V. Niemi, Erkka Saukko, Hilkka Timonen, Anu Kousa, Joel Kuula, Topi Rönkkö, Ari Karppinen, Sasu Tarkoma, Markku Kulmala, Tuukka Petäjä, and Tareq Hussein
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
We develop an input-adaptive mixed effects model, which is automatised to select the best combination of input variables, including up to three fixed effect variables and three time indictors as random effect variables. We test the model to estimate lung deposited surface area (LDSA), which correlates well with human’s health. The results show the inclusion of time indicators improves the sensitivity and the accuracy of the model so that it could serve as a network of virtual sensors.
Magdalena Okuljar, Heino Kuuluvainen, Jenni Kontkanen, Olga Garmash, Miska Olin, Jarkko V. Niemi, Hilkka Timonen, Juha Kangasluoma, Yee Jun Tham, Rima Baalbaki, Mikko Sipilä, Laura Salo, Henna Lintusaari, Harri Portin, Kimmo Teinilä, Minna Aurela, Miikka Dal Maso, Topi Rönkkö, Tuukka Petäjä, and Pauli Paasonen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9931–9953,Short summary
To estimate the relative contribution of different sources to the particle population in an urban environment, we conducted simultaneous measurements at a street canyon and an urban background station in Helsinki. We investigated the contribution of traffic and new particle formation to particles with a diameter between 1 and 800 nm. We found that during spring traffic does not dominate the particles smaller than 3 nm at either of the stations.
Stavros Amanatidis, Yuanlong Huang, Buddhi Pushpawela, Benjamin C. Schulze, Christopher M. Kenseth, Ryan X. Ward, John H. Seinfeld, Susanne V. Hering, and Richard C. Flagan
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4507–4516,Short summary
We assess the performance of a highly portable mobility analyzer, the Spider DMA, in measuring ambient aerosol particle size distributions, with specific attention to its moderate sizing resolution (R=3). Long-term field testing showed excellent correlation with a conventional mobility analyzer (R=10) over the 17–500 nm range, suggesting that moderate resolution may be sufficient to obtain key properties of ambient size distributions, enabling smaller instruments and better counting statistics.
Rima Baalbaki, Michael Pikridas, Tuija Jokinen, Tiia Laurila, Lubna Dada, Spyros Bezantakos, Lauri Ahonen, Kimmo Neitola, Anne Maisser, Elie Bimenyimana, Aliki Christodoulou, Florin Unga, Chrysanthos Savvides, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Juha Kangasluoma, George Biskos, Tuukka Petäjä, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Jean Sciare, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9223–9251,Short summary
This study investigates new particle formation (NPF) in the less represented region of the Mediterranean basin using 1-year measurements of aerosol particles down to ~ 1 nm in diameter. We report a high frequency of NPF and give examples of interesting NPF features. We quantify the strength of NPF events by calculating formation rates and growth rates. We further unveil the atmospheric conditions and variables considered important for the intra-monthly and inter-monthly occurrence of NPF.
Ksakousti Skyllakou, Pablo Garcia Rivera, Brian Dinkelacker, Eleni Karnezi, Ioannis Kioutsioukis, Carlos Hernandez, Peter J. Adams, and Spyros N. Pandis
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for ACPShort summary
Significant reductions of pollutant emissions took place in the US from 1990 to 2010. The reductions in sulfur dioxide emissions from electric generating units have dominated the reductions in fine particle mass. The reductions in transportation emissions from have led to a 30 % reduction of elemental concentrations and of organic particulate matter by a factor of three. On the other hand, changes in biomass burning and biogenic secondary organic aerosol have been modest.
Jose Ruiz-Jimenez, Magdalena Okuljar, Outi-Maaria Sietiö, Giorgia Demaria, Thanaporn Liangsupree, Elisa Zagatti, Juho Aalto, Kari Hartonen, Jussi Heinonsalo, Jaana Bäck, Tuukka Petäjä, and Marja-Liisa Riekkola
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8775–8790,Short summary
Altogether, 84 size-segregated aerosol samples from four particle size fractions were collected at the Station for Measuring Forest Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations, Hyytiälä, Finland, in autumn 2017 for the clarification of the complex interrelationships between airborne and particulate chemical traces, amino acids and saccharides, gene copy numbers (16S and 18S for bacteria and fungi, respectively), gas-phase chemistry, and the particle size distribution.
Markku Kulmala, Tom V. Kokkonen, Juha Pekkanen, Sami Paatero, Tuukka Petäjä, Veli-Matti Kerminen, and Aijun Ding
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8313–8322,Short summary
The eastern part of China as a whole is practically a gigacity with 650 million inhabitants. The gigacity, with its emissions, processes in the pollution cocktail and numerous feedbacks and interactions, has a crucial and big impact on regional air quality and on global climate. A large-scale research and innovation program is needed to meet the interlinked grand challenges in this gigacity and to serve as a platform for finding pathways for sustainable development of the globe.
Janne Lampilahti, Katri Leino, Antti Manninen, Pyry Poutanen, Anna Franck, Maija Peltola, Paula Hietala, Lisa Beck, Lubna Dada, Lauriane Quéléver, Ronja Öhrnberg, Ying Zhou, Madeleine Ekblom, Ville Vakkari, Sergej Zilitinkevich, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Tuukka Petäjä, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7901–7915,Short summary
Using airborne measurements we observed increased number concentrations of sub-25 nm particles in the upper residual layer. These particles may be entrained into the well-mixed boundary layer and observed at the surface. We attribute our observations to new particle formation in the topmost part of the residual layer.
Haoran Li, Ottmar Möhler, Tuukka Petäjä, and Dmitri Moisseev
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
In natural clouds, ice nucleating particles are expected to be rare above −10 °C. In the current manuscript, we found that the formation of ice columns is frequent in stratiform clouds and is associated with increased precipitation intensity and liquid water path. In single-layer shallow clouds, the produciton of ice columns were attributed to secondary ice production, despite that the rime-splintering process is not expected to take place in such clouds.
Benjamin Foreback, Lubna Dada, Kaspar Dällenbach, Chao Yan, Lili Wang, Biwu Chu, Ying Zhou, Tom V. Kokkonen, Mona Kurppa, Rosaria E. Pileci, Yonghong Wang, Tommy Chan, Juha Kangasluoma, Lin Zhuohui, Yishou Guo, Chang Li, Rima Baalbaki, Joni Kujansuu, Xiaolong Fan, Zemin Feng, Pekka Rantala, Shahzad Gani, Federico Bianchi, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, Yongchun Liu, and Pauli Paasonen
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
This study analysed air quality in Beijing during the Chinese New Year over seven years, including data from a new in-depth measurement station. This is one of few studies to look at long-term impacts, including the outcome of firework restrictions starting in 2018. Results show that firework pollution has gone down since 2016, indicating a positive result from the restrictions. Results of this study may be useful in making future decisions about the use of fireworks to improve air quality.
Hanna Lappalainen, Tuukka Petäjä, Timo Vihma, Jouni Räisänen, Alexander Baklanov, Sergey Chalov, Igor Esau, Ekaterina Ezhova, Matti Leppäranta, Dmitry Pozdnyakov, Jukka Pumpanen, Meinrat O. Andreae, Michael Arshinov, Eija Asmi, Jianhui Bai, Igor Bashmachnikov, Boris Belan, Federico Bianchi, Boris Biskaborn, Michael Boy, Jaana Bäck, Bin Cheng, Natalia Ye Chubarova, Jonathan Duplissy, Egor Dyukarev, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Martin Forsius, Martin Heimann, Sirkku Juhola, Vladimir Konovalov, Igor Konovalov, Pavel Konstantinov, Kajar Koster, Elena Lapsina, Anna Lintunen, Alexander Mahura, Risto Makkonen, Svetlana Malkhazova, Ivan Mammarella, Stefano Mammola, Stephany Mazon, Outi Meinander, Eugene Mikhailov, Victoria Miles, Stanislav Myslenko, Dimitry Orlov, Jean-Daniel Paris, Robertta Pirazzini, Olga Popovicheva, Jouni Pulliainen, Kimmo Rautiainen, Torsten Sachs, Vladimir Shevchenko, Andrey Skorokhod, Andreas Stohl, Elli Suhonen, Erik S. Thomson, Marina Tsidilina, Veli-Pekka Tynkkynen, Petteri Uotila, Aki Virkkula, Nadezhda Voropay, Tobias Wolf, Sayaka Yasunaka, Jiahua Zhang, Yubao Qui, Aijun Ding, Huadong Guo, Valery Bondur, Nikolay Kasimov, Sergey Zilitinkevich, Veli-Matti Kerminen, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for ACPShort summary
We summarize results during the last five years in the Northern Eurasian region, especially from Russia, and introduce recent observations on the air quality in the urban environments in China. Although the scientific knowledge in these regions has increased, there are still gaps in our understanding of large-scale climate-Earth surface interactions and feedbacks. This arises from limitations in research infrastructures and integrative data analyses, hindering a comprehensive system analysis.
Ying Zhou, Simo Hakala, Chao Yan, Yang Gao, Xiaohong Yao, Biwu Chu, Tommy Chan, Juha Kangasluoma, Shahzad Gani, Jenni Kontkanen, Pauli Paasonen, Yongchun Liu, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, and Lubna Dada
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for ACPShort summary
We characterized the connection between new particle formation (NPF) events in terms of frequency, intensity and growth at a near-highway location in central Beijing and at a background mountain site 200 km away from it. Due to the substantial contribution of NPF to the global aerosol budget, identifying the conditions that promote the occurrence of regional events could help understand their participation on a large scale and would improve their implementation in global models.
Sophia M. Charan, Yuanlong Huang, Reina S. Buenconsejo, Qi Li, David R. Cocker III, and John H. Seinfeld
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
In this study, we investigate the secondary organic aerosol formation potential of decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5), which is used as a tracer for volatile chemical products and measured in high concentrations both outdoors and indoors. By performing experiments in different types of reactors, we find that that D5’s aerosol formation is highly dependent on the OH concentration and, at atmospherically relevant OH levels, D5 forms little aerosol. We also reconcile results from other studies.
Lukas Fischer, Martin Breitenlechner, Eva Canaval, Wiebke Scholz, Marcus Striednig, Martin Graus, Thomas G. Karl, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, and Armin Hansel
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for AMTShort summary
Ecosystems emit biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC), which are then oxidized in the atmosphere contributing to ozone and secondary aerosol formation. While flux measurements of BVOC are state of the art, flux measurements of the less volatile oxidation products are difficult to achieve due to inlet losses. Here we present first flux measurements utilizing a novel PTR3 instrument in combination with a specially designed “wall-less” inlet we put on top of the Hyytiälä tower in Finland.
Thomas Thorp, Stephen R. Arnold, Richard J. Pope, Dominick V. Spracklen, Luke Conibear, Christoph Knote, Mikhail Arshinov, Boris Belan, Eija Asmi, Tuomas Laurila, Andrei I. Skorokhod, Tuomo Nieminen, and Tuukka Petäjä
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4677–4697,Short summary
We compare modelled near-surface pollutants with surface and satellite observations to better understand the controls on the regional concentrations of pollution in western Siberia for late spring and summer in 2011. We find two commonly used emission inventories underestimate human emissions when compared to observations. Transport emissions are the main source of pollutants within the region during this period, whilst fire emissions peak during June and are only significant south of 60° N.
Julia Schneider, Kristina Höhler, Paavo Heikkilä, Jorma Keskinen, Barbara Bertozzi, Pia Bogert, Tobias Schorr, Nsikanabasi Silas Umo, Franziska Vogel, Zoé Brasseur, Yusheng Wu, Simo Hakala, Jonathan Duplissy, Dmitri Moisseev, Markku Kulmala, Michael P. Adams, Benjamin J. Murray, Kimmo Korhonen, Liqing Hao, Erik S. Thomson, Dimitri Castarède, Thomas Leisner, Tuukka Petäjä, and Ottmar Möhler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3899–3918,Short summary
By triggering the formation of ice crystals, ice-nucleating particles (INP) strongly influence cloud formation. Continuous, long-term measurements are needed to characterize the atmospheric INP variability. Here, a first long-term time series of INP spectra measured in the boreal forest for more than 1 year is presented, showing a clear seasonal cycle. It is shown that the seasonal dependency of INP concentrations and prevalent INP types is driven by the abundance of biogenic aerosol.
Dimitrios Bousiotis, James Brean, Francis D. Pope, Manuel Dall'Osto, Xavier Querol, Andrés Alastuey, Noemi Perez, Tuukka Petäjä, Andreas Massling, Jacob Klenø Nøjgaard, Claus Nordstrøm, Giorgos Kouvarakis, Stergios Vratolis, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Jarkko V. Niemi, Harri Portin, Alfred Wiedensohler, Kay Weinhold, Maik Merkel, Thomas Tuch, and Roy M. Harrison
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3345–3370,Short summary
New particle formation events from 16 sites over Europe have been studied, and the influence of meteorological and atmospheric composition variables has been investigated. Some variables, like solar radiation intensity and temperature, have a positive effect on the occurrence of these events, while others have a negative effect, affecting different aspects such as the rate at which particles are formed or grow. This effect varies depending on the site type and magnitude of these variables.
Imre Salma, Wanda Thén, Pasi Aalto, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Anikó Kern, Zoltán Barcza, Tuukka Petäjä, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2861–2880,Short summary
The distribution of the monthly mean nucleation frequency possessed a characteristic pattern. Its shape was compared to those of environmental variables, including vegetation-derived properties. The spring maximum in the occurrence frequency often overlapped with the positive T anomaly. The link between the heat stress and the occurrence minimum in summer could not be proven, whereas an association between the occurrence frequency and vegetation growth dynamics was clearly identified in spring.
Krista Luoma, Jarkko V. Niemi, Minna Aurela, Pak Lun Fung, Aku Helin, Tareq Hussein, Leena Kangas, Anu Kousa, Topi Rönkkö, Hilkka Timonen, Aki Virkkula, and Tuukka Petäjä
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1173–1189,Short summary
This study combined black carbon measurements from 15 Finnish sites that represented different environments (traffic, detached housing area, urban background, and regional background). The seasonal and diurnal variations in the black carbon concentration were associated with local emissions from traffic and residential wood burning. The study observed decreasing trends in the black carbon concentration and associated them with decreases in traffic emissions.
Mao Xiao, Christopher R. Hoyle, Lubna Dada, Dominik Stolzenburg, Andreas Kürten, Mingyi Wang, Houssni Lamkaddam, Olga Garmash, Bernhard Mentler, Ugo Molteni, Andrea Baccarini, Mario Simon, Xu-Cheng He, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Lauri R. Ahonen, Rima Baalbaki, Paulus S. Bauer, Lisa Beck, David Bell, Federico Bianchi, Sophia Brilke, Dexian Chen, Randall Chiu, António Dias, Jonathan Duplissy, Henning Finkenzeller, Hamish Gordon, Victoria Hofbauer, Changhyuk Kim, Theodore K. Koenig, Janne Lampilahti, Chuan Ping Lee, Zijun Li, Huajun Mai, Vladimir Makhmutov, Hanna E. Manninen, Ruby Marten, Serge Mathot, Roy L. Mauldin, Wei Nie, Antti Onnela, Eva Partoll, Tuukka Petäjä, Joschka Pfeifer, Veronika Pospisilova, Lauriane L. J. Quéléver, Matti Rissanen, Siegfried Schobesberger, Simone Schuchmann, Yuri Stozhkov, Christian Tauber, Yee Jun Tham, António Tomé, Miguel Vazquez-Pufleau, Andrea C. Wagner, Robert Wanger, Yonghong Wang, Lena Weitz, Daniela Wimmer, Yusheng Wu, Chao Yan, Penglin Ye, Qing Ye, Qiaozhi Zha, Xueqin Zhou, Antonio Amorim, Ken Carslaw, Joachim Curtius, Armin Hansel, Rainer Volkamer, Paul M. Winkler, Richard C. Flagan, Markku Kulmala, Douglas R. Worsnop, Jasper Kirkby, Neil M. Donahue, Urs Baltensperger, Imad El Haddad, and Josef Dommen
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Experiments at CLOUD show that in polluted environments new particle formation (NPF) is largely driven by the formation of sulfuric acid-base clusters, stabilized by amines, high ammonia concentrations or lower temperatures. While oxidation products of aromatics can nucleate, they play a minor role in urban NPF. Our experiments span the four orders of magnitude variation of observed NPF rates in the ambient. We provide a framework based on NPF and growth rates to interpret ambient observations.
Juha Sulo, Nina Sarnela, Jenni Kontkanen, Lauri Ahonen, Pauli Paasonen, Tiia Laurila, Tuija Jokinen, Juha Kangasluoma, Heikki Junninen, Mikko Sipilä, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, and Katrianne Lehtipalo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 695–715,Short summary
In this study, we analyzed over 5 years of sub-3 nm particle concentrations and their precursor vapors, identifying atmoshperic vapors important to the formation of these particles in the boreal forest. We also observed seasonal differences in both particle and precursor vapor concentrations and the formation pathways of these particles. Our results confirm the importance of organic vapors in atmospheric aerosol formation and highlight key seasonal differences that require further study.
Oleg Sizov, Ekaterina Ezhova, Petr Tsymbarovich, Andrey Soromotin, Nikolay Prihod'ko, Tuukka Petäjä, Sergej Zilitinkevich, Markku Kulmala, Jaana Bäck, and Kajar Köster
Biogeosciences, 18, 207–228,Short summary
In changing climate, tundra is expected to turn into shrubs and trees, diminishing reindeer pasture and increasing risks of tick-borne diseases. However, this transition may require a disturbance. Fires in Siberia are increasingly widespread. We studied wildfire dynamics and tundra–forest transition over 60 years in northwest Siberia near the Arctic Circle. Based on satellite data analysis, we found that transition occurs in 40 %–85 % of burned tundra compared to 5 %–15 % in non-disturbed areas.
Mikko Sipilä, Nina Sarnela, Kimmo Neitola, Totti Laitinen, Deniz Kemppainen, Lisa Beck, Ella-Maria Duplissy, Salla Kuittinen, Tuuli Lehmusjärvi, Janne Lampilahti, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Pasi P. Aalto, Petri Keronen, Erkki Siivola, Pekka A. Rantala, Douglas R. Worsnop, Markku Kulmala, Tuija Jokinen, and Tuukka Petäjä
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
Metallurgical industry in Kola peninsula is a large source of air pollution in the (sub-)Arctic domain. Sulphur dioxide emissions from the ore smelters are transported to wide areas. We investigated sulphur dioxide and its transformation to sulphuric acid aerosol particles during winter months in Finnish Lapland, close to Kola industrial areas. We observed intense formation of new aerosol particles despite the low solar radiation intensity, often required for new particle formation elsewhere.
Clémence Rose, Martine Collaud Coen, Elisabeth Andrews, Yong Lin, Isaline Bossert, Cathrine Lund Myhre, Thomas Tuch, Alfred Wiedensohler, Markus Fiebig, Pasi Aalto, Andrés Alastuey, Elisabeth Alonso-Blanco, Marcos Andrade, Begoña Artíñano, Todor Arsov, Urs Baltensperger, Susanne Bastian, Olaf Bath, Johan Paul Beukes, Benjamin T. Brem, Nicolas Bukowiecki, Juan Andrés Casquero-Vera, Sébastien Conil, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Olivier Favez, Harald Flentje, Maria I. Gini, Francisco Javier Gómez-Moreno, Martin Gysel-Beer, A. Gannet Hallar, Ivo Kalapov, Nikos Kalivitis, Anne Kasper-Giebl, Melita Keywood, Jeong Eun Kim, Sang-Woo Kim, Adam Kristensson, Markku Kulmala, Heikki Lihavainen, Neng-Huei Lin, Hassan Lyamani, Angela Marinoni, Sebastiao Martins Dos Santos, Olga L. Mayol-Bracero, Frank Meinhardt, Maik Merkel, Jean-Marc Metzger, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, Jakub Ondracek, Marco Pandolfi, Noemi Pérez, Tuukka Petäjä, Jean-Eudes Petit, David Picard, Jean-Marc Pichon, Veronique Pont, Jean-Philippe Putaud, Fabienne Reisen, Karine Sellegri, Sangeeta Sharma, Gerhard Schauer, Patrick Sheridan, James Patrick Sherman, Andreas Schwerin, Ralf Sohmer, Mar Sorribas, Junying Sun, Pierre Tulet, Ville Vakkari, Pieter Gideon van Zyl, Fernando Velarde, Paolo Villani, Stergios Vratolis, Zdenek Wagner, Sheng-Hsiang Wang, Kay Weinhold, Rolf Weller, Margarita Yela, Vladimir Zdimal, and Paolo Laj
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
Aerosol particles are a complex component of the atmospheric system which effects are among the most uncertain in climate change projections. Using data collected at 62 stations, this study provides the most up-to-date picture of the spatial distribution of particle number concentration and size distribution worldwide, with the aim of contributing to better representation of aerosols and their interactions with clouds in models and, therefore, better evaluation of their impact on climate.
Helmi-Marja Keskinen, Ilona Ylivinkka, Liine Heikkinen, Pasi P. Aalto, Tuomo Nieminen, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Juho Aalto, Janne Levula, Jutta Kesti, Lauri R. Ahonen, Ekaterina Ezhova, Markku Kulmala, and Tuukka Petäjä
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript has not been submittedShort summary
Long-term (2005–2017) aerosol particulate matter (PM) concentration measurements at Finland at Station for Measuring Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations (SMEAR II, Hyytiälä) have been measured with three different measurement equipment. The comparison revealed an equivalence among the three methods. Mass concentrations were generally highest in summer. The descending trend was visible here in spring, summer and winter. This might have resulted at least partly from air quality legislation.
Juan Andrés Casquero-Vera, Hassan Lyamani, Lubna Dada, Simo Hakala, Pauli Paasonen, Roberto Román, Roberto Fraile, Tuukka Petäjä, Francisco José Olmo-Reyes, and Lucas Alados-Arboledas
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14253–14271,Short summary
New particle formation was investigated at two stations located close to each other but at different altitudes: urban and high-altitude sites. Results show that sulfuric acid is able to explain a minimal fraction contribution to the observed growth rates and point to the availability of volatile organic compounds as the main factor controlling NPF events at both sites. A closer analysis of the NPF events that were observed at high-altitude sites during a Saharan dust episode was carried out.
Yongchun Liu, Yusheng Zhang, Chaofan Lian, Chao Yan, Zeming Feng, Feixue Zheng, Xiaolong Fan, Yan Chen, Weigang Wang, Biwu Chu, Yonghong Wang, Jing Cai, Wei Du, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Juha Kangasluoma, Federico Bianchi, Joni Kujansuu, Tuukka Petäjä, Xuefei Wang, Bo Hu, Yuesi Wang, Maofa Ge, Hong He, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13023–13040,Short summary
Understanding of the chemical and physical processes leading to atmospheric aerosol particle formation is crucial to devising effective mitigation strategies to protect the public and reduce uncertainties in climate predictions. We found that the photolysis of nitrous acid could promote the formation of organic and nitrate aerosol and that traffic-related emission is a major contributor to ambient nitrous acid on haze days in wintertime in Beijing.
Jing Cai, Biwu Chu, Lei Yao, Chao Yan, Liine M. Heikkinen, Feixue Zheng, Chang Li, Xiaolong Fan, Shaojun Zhang, Daoyuan Yang, Yonghong Wang, Tom V. Kokkonen, Tommy Chan, Ying Zhou, Lubna Dada, Yongchun Liu, Hong He, Pauli Paasonen, Joni T. Kujansuu, Tuukka Petäjä, Claudia Mohr, Juha Kangasluoma, Federico Bianchi, Yele Sun, Philip L. Croteau, Douglas R. Worsnop, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Wei Du, Markku Kulmala, and Kaspar R. Daellenbach
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12721–12740,Short summary
By applying both OA PMF and size PMF at the same urban measurement site in Beijing, similar particle source types, including vehicular emissions, cooking emissions and secondary formation-related sources, were resolved by both frameworks and agreed well. It is also found that in the absence of new particle formation, vehicular and cooking emissions dominate the particle number concentration, while secondary particulate matter governed PM2.5 mass during spring and summer in Beijing.
Ilona Ylivinkka, Santeri Kaupinmäki, Meri Virman, Maija Peltola, Ditte Taipale, Tuukka Petäjä, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Markku Kulmala, and Ekaterina Ezhova
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5595–5619,Short summary
In this study, we developed a new algorithm for cloud classification using solar radiation and cloud base height measurements. Our objective was to develop a simple and inexpensive but effective algorithm for the needs of studies related to ecosystem and atmosphere interactions. In the present study, we used the algorithm for obtaining cloud statistics at a measurement station in southern Finland, and we discuss the advantages and shortcomings of the algorithm.
Janne Lampilahti, Hanna Elina Manninen, Katri Leino, Riikka Väänänen, Antti Manninen, Stephany Buenrostro Mazon, Tuomo Nieminen, Matti Leskinen, Joonas Enroth, Marja Bister, Sergej Zilitinkevich, Juha Kangasluoma, Heikki Järvinen, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Tuukka Petäjä, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11841–11854,Short summary
In this work, by using co-located airborne and ground-based measurements, we show that counter-rotating horizontal circulations in the planetary boundary layer (roll vortices) frequently enhance regional new particle formation or induce localized bursts of new particle formation. These observations can be explained by the ability of the rolls to efficiently lift low-volatile vapors emitted from the surface to the top of the boundary layer where new particle formation is more favorable.
Martin Heinritzi, Lubna Dada, Mario Simon, Dominik Stolzenburg, Andrea C. Wagner, Lukas Fischer, Lauri R. Ahonen, Stavros Amanatidis, Rima Baalbaki, Andrea Baccarini, Paulus S. Bauer, Bernhard Baumgartner, Federico Bianchi, Sophia Brilke, Dexian Chen, Randall Chiu, Antonio Dias, Josef Dommen, Jonathan Duplissy, Henning Finkenzeller, Carla Frege, Claudia Fuchs, Olga Garmash, Hamish Gordon, Manuel Granzin, Imad El Haddad, Xucheng He, Johanna Helm, Victoria Hofbauer, Christopher R. Hoyle, Juha Kangasluoma, Timo Keber, Changhyuk Kim, Andreas Kürten, Houssni Lamkaddam, Tiia M. Laurila, Janne Lampilahti, Chuan Ping Lee, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Markus Leiminger, Huajun Mai, Vladimir Makhmutov, Hanna Elina Manninen, Ruby Marten, Serge Mathot, Roy Lee Mauldin, Bernhard Mentler, Ugo Molteni, Tatjana Müller, Wei Nie, Tuomo Nieminen, Antti Onnela, Eva Partoll, Monica Passananti, Tuukka Petäjä, Joschka Pfeifer, Veronika Pospisilova, Lauriane L. J. Quéléver, Matti P. Rissanen, Clémence Rose, Siegfried Schobesberger, Wiebke Scholz, Kay Scholze, Mikko Sipilä, Gerhard Steiner, Yuri Stozhkov, Christian Tauber, Yee Jun Tham, Miguel Vazquez-Pufleau, Annele Virtanen, Alexander L. Vogel, Rainer Volkamer, Robert Wagner, Mingyi Wang, Lena Weitz, Daniela Wimmer, Mao Xiao, Chao Yan, Penglin Ye, Qiaozhi Zha, Xueqin Zhou, Antonio Amorim, Urs Baltensperger, Armin Hansel, Markku Kulmala, António Tomé, Paul M. Winkler, Douglas R. Worsnop, Neil M. Donahue, Jasper Kirkby, and Joachim Curtius
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11809–11821,Short summary
With experiments performed at CLOUD, we show how isoprene interferes in monoterpene oxidation via RO2 termination at atmospherically relevant concentrations. This interference shifts the distribution of highly oxygenated organic molecules (HOMs) away from C20 class dimers towards C15 class dimers, which subsequently reduces both biogenic nucleation and early growth rates. Our results may help to understand the absence of new-particle formation in isoprene-rich environments.
Lubna Dada, Ilona Ylivinkka, Rima Baalbaki, Chang Li, Yishuo Guo, Chao Yan, Lei Yao, Nina Sarnela, Tuija Jokinen, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Rujing Yin, Chenjuan Deng, Biwu Chu, Tuomo Nieminen, Yonghong Wang, Zhuohui Lin, Roseline C. Thakur, Jenni Kontkanen, Dominik Stolzenburg, Mikko Sipilä, Tareq Hussein, Pauli Paasonen, Federico Bianchi, Imre Salma, Tamás Weidinger, Michael Pikridas, Jean Sciare, Jingkun Jiang, Yongchun Liu, Tuukka Petäjä, Veli-Matti Kerminen, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11747–11766,Short summary
We rely on sulfuric acid measurements in four contrasting environments, Hyytiälä, Finland; Agia Marina, Cyprus; Budapest, Hungary; and Beijing, China, representing semi-pristine boreal forest, rural environment in the Mediterranean area, urban environment, and heavily polluted megacity, respectively, in order to define the sources and sinks of sulfuric acid in these environments and to derive a new sulfuric acid proxy to be utilized in locations and during periods when it is not measured.
Jenni Kontkanen, Chenjuan Deng, Yueyun Fu, Lubna Dada, Ying Zhou, Jing Cai, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Simo Hakala, Tom V. Kokkonen, Zhuohui Lin, Yongchun Liu, Yonghong Wang, Chao Yan, Tuukka Petäjä, Jingkun Jiang, Markku Kulmala, and Pauli Paasonen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11329–11348,Short summary
To estimate the impacts of atmospheric aerosol particles on air quality, knowledge of size distributions of particles emitted from anthropogenic sources is needed. We introduce a new method for determining size-resolved particle number emissions from measured particle size distributions. We apply our method to data measured in Beijing, China. We find that particle number emissions at our site are dominated by emissions of particles smaller than 30 nm, originating mainly from traffic.
Krista Luoma, Aki Virkkula, Pasi Aalto, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Tuukka Petäjä, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
The study presents a comparison of three different absorption photometers that measured ambient aerosol particles at a boreal forest site. The study aims to better understand problems related to filter-based measurements. Results show how different correction algorithms, which are used to produce the data, affect the derived optical properties of aerosol particles.
Paolo Laj, Alessandro Bigi, Clémence Rose, Elisabeth Andrews, Cathrine Lund Myhre, Martine Collaud Coen, Yong Lin, Alfred Wiedensohler, Michael Schulz, John A. Ogren, Markus Fiebig, Jonas Gliß, Augustin Mortier, Marco Pandolfi, Tuukka Petäja, Sang-Woo Kim, Wenche Aas, Jean-Philippe Putaud, Olga Mayol-Bracero, Melita Keywood, Lorenzo Labrador, Pasi Aalto, Erik Ahlberg, Lucas Alados Arboledas, Andrés Alastuey, Marcos Andrade, Begoña Artíñano, Stina Ausmeel, Todor Arsov, Eija Asmi, John Backman, Urs Baltensperger, Susanne Bastian, Olaf Bath, Johan Paul Beukes, Benjamin T. Brem, Nicolas Bukowiecki, Sébastien Conil, Cedric Couret, Derek Day, Wan Dayantolis, Anna Degorska, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Prodromos Fetfatzis, Olivier Favez, Harald Flentje, Maria I. Gini, Asta Gregorič, Martin Gysel-Beer, A. Gannet Hallar, Jenny Hand, Andras Hoffer, Christoph Hueglin, Rakesh K. Hooda, Antti Hyvärinen, Ivo Kalapov, Nikos Kalivitis, Anne Kasper-Giebl, Jeong Eun Kim, Giorgos Kouvarakis, Irena Kranjc, Radovan Krejci, Markku Kulmala, Casper Labuschagne, Hae-Jung Lee, Heikki Lihavainen, Neng-Huei Lin, Gunter Löschau, Krista Luoma, Angela Marinoni, Sebastiao Martins Dos Santos, Frank Meinhardt, Maik Merkel, Jean-Marc Metzger, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, Nhat Anh Nguyen, Jakub Ondracek, Noemi Pérez, Maria Rita Perrone, Jean-Eudes Petit, David Picard, Jean-Marc Pichon, Veronique Pont, Natalia Prats, Anthony Prenni, Fabienne Reisen, Salvatore Romano, Karine Sellegri, Sangeeta Sharma, Gerhard Schauer, Patrick Sheridan, James Patrick Sherman, Maik Schütze, Andreas Schwerin, Ralf Sohmer, Mar Sorribas, Martin Steinbacher, Junying Sun, Gloria Titos, Barbara Toczko, Thomas Tuch, Pierre Tulet, Peter Tunved, Ville Vakkari, Fernando Velarde, Patricio Velasquez, Paolo Villani, Sterios Vratolis, Sheng-Hsiang Wang, Kay Weinhold, Rolf Weller, Margarita Yela, Jesus Yus-Diez, Vladimir Zdimal, Paul Zieger, and Nadezda Zikova
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4353–4392,Short summary
The paper establishes the fiducial reference of the GAW aerosol network providing the fully characterized value chain to the provision of four climate-relevant aerosol properties from ground-based sites. Data from almost 90 stations worldwide are reported for a reference year, 2017, providing a unique and very robust view of the variability of these variables worldwide. Current gaps in the GAW network are analysed and requirements for the Global Climate Monitoring System are proposed.
Mario Simon, Lubna Dada, Martin Heinritzi, Wiebke Scholz, Dominik Stolzenburg, Lukas Fischer, Andrea C. Wagner, Andreas Kürten, Birte Rörup, Xu-Cheng He, João Almeida, Rima Baalbaki, Andrea Baccarini, Paulus S. Bauer, Lisa Beck, Anton Bergen, Federico Bianchi, Steffen Bräkling, Sophia Brilke, Lucia Caudillo, Dexian Chen, Biwu Chu, António Dias, Danielle C. Draper, Jonathan Duplissy, Imad El-Haddad, Henning Finkenzeller, Carla Frege, Loic Gonzalez-Carracedo, Hamish Gordon, Manuel Granzin, Jani Hakala, Victoria Hofbauer, Christopher R. Hoyle, Changhyuk Kim, Weimeng Kong, Houssni Lamkaddam, Chuan P. Lee, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Markus Leiminger, Huajun Mai, Hanna E. Manninen, Guillaume Marie, Ruby Marten, Bernhard Mentler, Ugo Molteni, Leonid Nichman, Wei Nie, Andrea Ojdanic, Antti Onnela, Eva Partoll, Tuukka Petäjä, Joschka Pfeifer, Maxim Philippov, Lauriane L. J. Quéléver, Ananth Ranjithkumar, Matti P. Rissanen, Simon Schallhart, Siegfried Schobesberger, Simone Schuchmann, Jiali Shen, Mikko Sipilä, Gerhard Steiner, Yuri Stozhkov, Christian Tauber, Yee J. Tham, António R. Tomé, Miguel Vazquez-Pufleau, Alexander L. Vogel, Robert Wagner, Mingyi Wang, Dongyu S. Wang, Yonghong Wang, Stefan K. Weber, Yusheng Wu, Mao Xiao, Chao Yan, Penglin Ye, Qing Ye, Marcel Zauner-Wieczorek, Xueqin Zhou, Urs Baltensperger, Josef Dommen, Richard C. Flagan, Armin Hansel, Markku Kulmala, Rainer Volkamer, Paul M. Winkler, Douglas R. Worsnop, Neil M. Donahue, Jasper Kirkby, and Joachim Curtius
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9183–9207,Short summary
Highly oxygenated organic compounds (HOMs) have been identified as key vapors involved in atmospheric new-particle formation (NPF). The molecular distribution, HOM yield, and NPF from α-pinene oxidation experiments were measured at the CLOUD chamber over a wide tropospheric-temperature range. This study shows on a molecular scale that despite the sharp reduction in HOM yield at lower temperatures, the reduced volatility counteracts this effect and leads to an overall increase in the NPF rate.
Tuukka Petäjä, Ella-Maria Duplissy, Ksenia Tabakova, Julia Schmale, Barbara Altstädter, Gerard Ancellet, Mikhail Arshinov, Yurii Balin, Urs Baltensperger, Jens Bange, Alison Beamish, Boris Belan, Antoine Berchet, Rossana Bossi, Warren R. L. Cairns, Ralf Ebinghaus, Imad El Haddad, Beatriz Ferreira-Araujo, Anna Franck, Lin Huang, Antti Hyvärinen, Angelika Humbert, Athina-Cerise Kalogridis, Pavel Konstantinov, Astrid Lampert, Matthew MacLeod, Olivier Magand, Alexander Mahura, Louis Marelle, Vladimir Masloboev, Dmitri Moisseev, Vaios Moschos, Niklas Neckel, Tatsuo Onishi, Stefan Osterwalder, Aino Ovaska, Pauli Paasonen, Mikhail Panchenko, Fidel Pankratov, Jakob B. Pernov, Andreas Platis, Olga Popovicheva, Jean-Christophe Raut, Aurélie Riandet, Torsten Sachs, Rosamaria Salvatori, Roberto Salzano, Ludwig Schröder, Martin Schön, Vladimir Shevchenko, Henrik Skov, Jeroen E. Sonke, Andrea Spolaor, Vasileios K. Stathopoulos, Mikko Strahlendorff, Jennie L. Thomas, Vito Vitale, Sterios Vratolis, Carlo Barbante, Sabine Chabrillat, Aurélien Dommergue, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Jyri Heilimo, Kathy S. Law, Andreas Massling, Steffen M. Noe, Jean-Daniel Paris, André S. H. Prévôt, Ilona Riipinen, Birgit Wehner, Zhiyong Xie, and Hanna K. Lappalainen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8551–8592,Short summary
The role of polar regions is increasing in terms of megatrends such as globalization, new transport routes, demography, and the use of natural resources with consequent effects on regional and transported pollutant concentrations. Here we summarize initial results from our integrative project exploring the Arctic environment and pollution to deliver data products, metrics, and indicators for stakeholders.
Yuan Yang, Yonghong Wang, Putian Zhou, Dan Yao, Dongsheng Ji, Jie Sun, Yinghong Wang, Shuman Zhao, Wei Huang, Shuanghong Yang, Dean Chen, Wenkang Gao, Zirui Liu, Bo Hu, Renjian Zhang, Limin Zeng, Maofa Ge, Tuukka Petäjä, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Markku Kulmala, and Yuesi Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8181–8200,
Alexander B. MacDonald, Ali Hossein Mardi, Hossein Dadashazar, Mojtaba Azadi Aghdam, Ewan Crosbie, Haflidi H. Jonsson, Richard C. Flagan, John H. Seinfeld, and Armin Sorooshian
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 7645–7665,Short summary
Understanding how humans affect Earth's climate requires understanding of how particles in the air affect the number concentration of droplets in a cloud (Nd). We use the air-equivalent mass concentration of different chemical species contained in cloud water to predict Nd. In this study we found that the prediction of Nd is (1) best described by total sulfate; (2) improved when considering up to five species; and (3) dependent on factors like turbulence, smoke presence, and in-cloud height.
Dominik Stolzenburg, Mario Simon, Ananth Ranjithkumar, Andreas Kürten, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Hamish Gordon, Sebastian Ehrhart, Henning Finkenzeller, Lukas Pichelstorfer, Tuomo Nieminen, Xu-Cheng He, Sophia Brilke, Mao Xiao, António Amorim, Rima Baalbaki, Andrea Baccarini, Lisa Beck, Steffen Bräkling, Lucía Caudillo Murillo, Dexian Chen, Biwu Chu, Lubna Dada, António Dias, Josef Dommen, Jonathan Duplissy, Imad El Haddad, Lukas Fischer, Loic Gonzalez Carracedo, Martin Heinritzi, Changhyuk Kim, Theodore K. Koenig, Weimeng Kong, Houssni Lamkaddam, Chuan Ping Lee, Markus Leiminger, Zijun Li, Vladimir Makhmutov, Hanna E. Manninen, Guillaume Marie, Ruby Marten, Tatjana Müller, Wei Nie, Eva Partoll, Tuukka Petäjä, Joschka Pfeifer, Maxim Philippov, Matti P. Rissanen, Birte Rörup, Siegfried Schobesberger, Simone Schuchmann, Jiali Shen, Mikko Sipilä, Gerhard Steiner, Yuri Stozhkov, Christian Tauber, Yee Jun Tham, António Tomé, Miguel Vazquez-Pufleau, Andrea C. Wagner, Mingyi Wang, Yonghong Wang, Stefan K. Weber, Daniela Wimmer, Peter J. Wlasits, Yusheng Wu, Qing Ye, Marcel Zauner-Wieczorek, Urs Baltensperger, Kenneth S. Carslaw, Joachim Curtius, Neil M. Donahue, Richard C. Flagan, Armin Hansel, Markku Kulmala, Jos Lelieveld, Rainer Volkamer, Jasper Kirkby, and Paul M. Winkler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 7359–7372,Short summary
Sulfuric acid is a major atmospheric vapour for aerosol formation. If new particles grow fast enough, they can act as cloud droplet seeds or affect air quality. In a controlled laboratory set-up, we demonstrate that van der Waals forces enhance growth from sulfuric acid. We disentangle the effects of ammonia, ions and particle hydration, presenting a complete picture of sulfuric acid growth from molecular clusters onwards. In a climate model, we show its influence on the global aerosol budget.
Mikhail Paramonov, Saskia Drossaart van Dusseldorp, Ellen Gute, Jonathan P. D. Abbatt, Paavo Heikkilä, Jorma Keskinen, Xuemeng Chen, Krista Luoma, Liine Heikkinen, Liqing Hao, Tuukka Petäjä, and Zamin A. Kanji
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 6687–6706,Short summary
Ice-nucleating particle (INP) measurements were performed in the boreal environment of southern Finland in the winter–spring of 2018. It was found that no single parameter could be used to predict the INP number concentration at the measurement location during the examined time period. It was also not possible to identify physical and chemical properties of ambient INPs despite the complexity of the instrumental set-up. Therefore, this paper addresses the necessity for future INP measurements.
Quanyang Lu, Benjamin N. Murphy, Momei Qin, Peter J. Adams, Yunliang Zhao, Havala O. T. Pye, Christos Efstathiou, Chris Allen, and Allen L. Robinson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4313–4332,Short summary
This research work investigates organic aerosol formation in California during the CalNex study. We update the chemical transport model with the most recent mobile-source emission data and introduce a simple parameterization for secondary organic aerosol formed from intermediate-volatility organic compounds. Our results highlight the important contribution of IVOCs to SOA production in the Los Angeles region but underscore that other uncertainties must be addressed to close the SOA mass balance.
Liine Heikkinen, Mikko Äijälä, Matthieu Riva, Krista Luoma, Kaspar Dällenbach, Juho Aalto, Pasi Aalto, Diego Aliaga, Minna Aurela, Helmi Keskinen, Ulla Makkonen, Pekka Rantala, Markku Kulmala, Tuukka Petäjä, Douglas Worsnop, and Mikael Ehn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 3151–3180,Short summary
Atmospheric aerosols are solid or liquid particles suspended in the air. They are known as a health risk, but they also influence the Earth's climate. The composition of aerosols becomes important when predicting their effect on climate. We show both seasonal and year-to-year variability of aerosol chemical composition in the boreal forest of Finland. We observed a consistent bimodal seasonal trend: a biogenic summertime maximum and an anthropogenic wintertime maximum in the mass concentration.
Ying Zhou, Lubna Dada, Yiliang Liu, Yueyun Fu, Juha Kangasluoma, Tommy Chan, Chao Yan, Biwu Chu, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Federico Bianchi, Tom V. Kokkonen, Yongchun Liu, Joni Kujansuu, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Tuukka Petäjä, Lin Wang, Jingkun Jiang, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1201–1216,Short summary
In this study, we focus on explaining the concentration variations in the observed particle modes, by relating them to the potential aerosol sources and sinks, and on understanding the connections between these modes. Interestingly, even in the atmospheric cocktail in urban Beijing, secondary new particle formation (NPF) drives the particle number concentration, especially in the sub-3 nm range. We found that the total number concentration is ~ 4 times higher on NPF days than on haze days.
Marja Hemmilä, Ulla Makkonen, Aki Virkkula, Georgia Panagiotopoulou, Juho Aalto, Markku Kulmala, Tuukka Petäjä, Hannele Hakola, and Heidi Hellén
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Publication in ACP not foreseenShort summary
Amines are atmospheric bases, which can affect to nucleation of aerosols. Lately, a computational study showed that guanidine could be even more effective to stabilize sulphuric acid clusters. In this paper we used a a dynamic flow-through chamber with an online ion chromatograph MARGA coupled with a mass spectrometer (MARGA-MS). We studied amine and guanidine emission from a boreal forest floor in Finland, and find out, that the boreal forest floor is a source of amines and guanidine.
Yonghong Wang, Miao Yu, Yuesi Wang, Guiqian Tang, Tao Song, Putian Zhou, Zirui Liu, Bo Hu, Dongsheng Ji, Lili Wang, Xiaowan Zhu, Chao Yan, Mikael Ehn, Wenkang Gao, Yuepeng Pan, Jinyuan Xin, Yang Sun, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Markku Kulmala, and Tuukka Petäjä
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 45–53,Short summary
We found a positive particle matter-mixing layer height feedback at three observation platforms at the 325 m Beijing meteorology tower, which is characterized by a shallower mixing layer height and a higher particle matter concentration. Measurements of solar radiation, aerosol chemical composition, meteorology parameters, trace gases and turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) could explain the feedback mechanism to some extent.
Yicheng Shen, Aki Virkkula, Aijun Ding, Krista Luoma, Helmi Keskinen, Pasi P. Aalto, Xuguang Chi, Ximeng Qi, Wei Nie, Xin Huang, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, and Veli-Matti Kerminen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 15483–15502,Short summary
Long-term cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) number concentration (NCCN) data are scarce; there are a lot more data on aerosol optical properties (AOPs). It is therefore valuable to derive parameterizations for estimating NCCN from AOP measurements. With the new parameterization NCCN can be estimated from backscatter fraction, scattering Ångström exponent, and total light-scattering coefficient. The NCCN–AOP relationships depend on the geometric mean diameter and the width of the size distribution.
Arnaud P. Praplan, Toni Tykkä, Dean Chen, Michael Boy, Ditte Taipale, Ville Vakkari, Putian Zhou, Tuukka Petäjä, and Heidi Hellén
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 14431–14453,Short summary
Our study shows that, despite our best efforts and recent progress, our knowledge of the chemical composition of the air under the canopy of a boreal forest still cannot be fully characterized. The discrepancy between the measured total reactivity of the air and the reactivity derived from the known chemical composition highlights the need to better understand the emissions from vegetation, but also other sources, such as the forest soil.
Krista Luoma, Aki Virkkula, Pasi Aalto, Tuukka Petäjä, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 11363–11382,Short summary
We present an over 10-year-long time series of aerosol optical properties (AOPs) measured at a rural boreal forest site. Knowledge of AOPs is needed in determining the direct effect of aerosol particles on climate. We observed decreasing trends in scattering and absorption and increasing trends in backscattering fraction and single-scattering albedo. Trends of single-scattering albedo and backscattering fraction increased the efficiency of aerosol particles to scatter radiation back into space.
Rebecca H. Schwantes, Sophia M. Charan, Kelvin H. Bates, Yuanlong Huang, Tran B. Nguyen, Huajun Mai, Weimeng Kong, Richard C. Flagan, and John H. Seinfeld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 7255–7278,Short summary
Oxidation of isoprene, the dominant non-methane biogenic volatile organic compound emitted into the atmosphere, is a significant source of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Here formation of SOA from isoprene oxidation by the hydroxyl radical (OH) under high-NO conditions is measured. This work improves our understanding of isoprene SOA formation by demonstrating that low-volatility compounds formed under high-NO conditions produce significantly more aerosol than previously thought.
Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Ivan Kourtchev, Alexander L. Vogel, Emily A. Bruns, Jianhui Jiang, Tuukka Petäjä, Jean-Luc Jaffrezo, Sebnem Aksoyoglu, Markus Kalberer, Urs Baltensperger, Imad El Haddad, and André S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 5973–5991,Short summary
Here we present the molecular composition of the organic aerosol (OA) at an urban site in Central Europe (Zurich, Switzerland) and compare it to smog chamber wood smoke and ambient biogenic secondary OA (SOA) (Orbitrap analyses). Accordingly, we are able to explain the strong seasonality of the molecular composition by aged wood smoke and biogenic SOA during winter and summer. Our results could also explain the predominance of non-fossil organic carbon at European locations throughout the year.
Yonghong Wang, Yuesi Wang, Lili Wang, Tuukka Petäjä, Qiaozhi Zha, Chongshui Gong, Sixuan Li, Yuepeng Pan, Bo Hu, Jinyuan Xin, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 5881–5888,Short summary
Satellite observations combined with in situ measurements demonstrate that increased inorganic aerosol fractions of NO2 and SO2 contribute to air pollution and frequently occurring haze in China from 1980 to 2010. Currently, the reduction of nitrate, sulfate and their precursor gases would contribute towards better visibility in China.
Katri Leino, Janne Lampilahti, Pyry Poutanen, Riikka Väänänen, Antti Manninen, Stephany Buenrostro Mazon, Lubna Dada, Anna Franck, Daniela Wimmer, Pasi P. Aalto, Lauri R. Ahonen, Joonas Enroth, Juha Kangasluoma, Petri Keronen, Frans Korhonen, Heikki Laakso, Teemu Matilainen, Erkki Siivola, Hanna E. Manninen, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Tuukka Petäjä, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 4127–4138,Short summary
This study presents airborne observations of particles, starting from 1.5 nm in diameter, above the boreal forest from 100 m up to 2700 m. The aim was to study the extent of NPF and likely places for nucleation. We found that the highest concentrations of 1.5–3 nm particles were above the forest canopy top on NPF event mornings, and the concentration decreased with increasing altitude. This would indicate the importance of gaseous precursors from vegetation for NPF processes in this area.
Mikko Äijälä, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Francesco Canonaco, Liine Heikkinen, Heikki Junninen, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, André S. H. Prévôt, and Mikael Ehn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 3645–3672,Short summary
Aerosol mass spectrometry produces large amounts of complex data, the analysis of which necessitates chemometrics – the application of advanced statistical and mathematical tools to chemical data. Here, we perform a data-driven analysis of multiple aerosol mass spectrometric data sets, to show that the traditional separation of organics and inorganics is not necessary. The resulting 7-component aerosol speciation explains 83 % to 96 % of observed variability at our boreal forest experiment site.
Nikos Kalivitis, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Giorgos Kouvarakis, Iasonas Stavroulas, Evaggelia Tzitzikalaki, Panayiotis Kalkavouras, Nikos Daskalakis, Stelios Myriokefalitakis, Aikaterini Bougiatioti, Hanna E. Manninen, Pontus Roldin, Tuukka Petäjä, Michael Boy, Markku Kulmala, Maria Kanakidou, and Nikolaos Mihalopoulos
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2671–2686,Short summary
New particle formation (NPF) is an important source of atmospheric aerosols. For the Mediterranean atmosphere, only few studies exist. In this study we present one of the longest series of NPF by analyzing 10 years of data from Crete, Greece. NPF took place on 27 % of the available days; it was more frequent in spring and less so in late summer. Model simulations showed that NPF in the subtropical environment may differ greatly from that in the boreal environment.
Timo Vihma, Petteri Uotila, Stein Sandven, Dmitry Pozdnyakov, Alexander Makshtas, Alexander Pelyasov, Roberta Pirazzini, Finn Danielsen, Sergey Chalov, Hanna K. Lappalainen, Vladimir Ivanov, Ivan Frolov, Anna Albin, Bin Cheng, Sergey Dobrolyubov, Viktor Arkhipkin, Stanislav Myslenkov, Tuukka Petäjä, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 1941–1970,Short summary
The Arctic marine climate system, ecosystems, and socio-economic systems are changing rapidly. This calls for the establishment of a marine Arctic component of the Pan-Eurasian Experiment (MA-PEEX), for which we present a plan. The program will promote international collaboration; sustainable marine meteorological, sea ice, and oceanographic observations; advanced data management; and multidisciplinary research on the marine Arctic and its interaction with the Eurasian continent.
Yiqun Lu, Chao Yan, Yueyun Fu, Yan Chen, Yiliang Liu, Gan Yang, Yuwei Wang, Federico Bianchi, Biwu Chu, Ying Zhou, Rujing Yin, Rima Baalbaki, Olga Garmash, Chenjuan Deng, Weigang Wang, Yongchun Liu, Tuukka Petäjä, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Jingkun Jiang, Markku Kulmala, and Lin Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 1971–1983,Short summary
Gaseous sulfuric acid is one of the key precursors for atmospheric new particle formation processes, but its measurement remains challenging. This work develops an estimation method for the gaseous sulfuric acid concentration in an urban environment in China using multiple atmospheric variables that are easier to measure. The consideration of the heterogeneous formation of HONO and the subsequent photo-production of OH radicals improves the performance of the estimation method.
Biwu Chu, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Federico Bianchi, Chao Yan, Tuukka Petäjä, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 115–138,Short summary
The characteristics of new particle formation (NPF) in China, including frequency, formation rate, and particle growth rate, were summarized comprehensively and were compared among observations in different environments. The interactions between air pollution and NPF are discussed, as well as the possible reasons for more frequent NPF under heavy pollution conditions than in our current understanding. Significant and future research directions for NPF studies in China are also summarized.
Fidel Pankratov, Alexander Mahura, Tuukka Petäjä, Valentin Popov, and Vladimir Masloboev
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
Analysis of long-term observations for atmospheric mercury in the Russian Arctic, considering inter-annual, seasonal and monthly variabilities is in focus. Linkage of elevated concentrations with volcanic eruptions in Iceland is explored. Results showed that active volcanoes can play a role of sources for increased mercury levels in the Northern Hemisphere due to long-range atmospheric transport of volcanic clouds towards the Arctic.
Ekaterina Ezhova, Ilona Ylivinkka, Joel Kuusk, Kaupo Komsaare, Marko Vana, Alisa Krasnova, Steffen Noe, Mikhail Arshinov, Boris Belan, Sung-Bin Park, Jošt Valentin Lavrič, Martin Heimann, Tuukka Petäjä, Timo Vesala, Ivan Mammarella, Pasi Kolari, Jaana Bäck, Üllar Rannik, Veli-Matti Kerminen, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17863–17881,Short summary
Understanding the connections between aerosols, solar radiation and photosynthesis in terrestrial ecosystems is important for estimates of the CO2 balance in the atmosphere. Atmospheric aerosols and clouds influence solar radiation. In this study, we quantify the aerosol effect on solar radiation in boreal forests and study forest ecosystems response to this change in the radiation conditions. The analysis is based on atmospheric observations from several remote stations in Eurasian forests.
Lubna Dada, Robert Chellapermal, Stephany Buenrostro Mazon, Pauli Paasonen, Janne Lampilahti, Hanna E. Manninen, Heikki Junninen, Tuukka Petäjä, Veli-Matti Kerminen, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17883–17893,Short summary
Our paper provides an automatic method to classify new particle formation events into four classes based on the accompanying air ion concentrations. The method is applied to 10 years of data measured within the SMEAR II station and was capable of eliminating the undefined class as well as defining the start, peak and end times of a regional event by monitoring the initial steps of cluster formation. Our method can be modified and applied to different locations where particle formation occurs.
Liqing Hao, Olga Garmash, Mikael Ehn, Pasi Miettinen, Paola Massoli, Santtu Mikkonen, Tuija Jokinen, Pontus Roldin, Pasi Aalto, Taina Yli-Juuti, Jorma Joutsensaari, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, Kari E. J. Lehtinen, Douglas R. Worsnop, and Annele Virtanen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17705–17716,Short summary
An aerosol mass spectrometer was used to characterize aerosol chemical composition during new particle formation periods. The time profiles of mass concentrations and chemical composition of observed aerosol particles are subjected to joint effects of boundary layer dilution, atmospheric chemistry and aerosol mixing in different boundary layers. During the nighttime, the increase in organic aerosol mass correlated well with the increase in condensed highly oxygenated organic molecules' mass.
Qiaozhi Zha, Chao Yan, Heikki Junninen, Matthieu Riva, Nina Sarnela, Juho Aalto, Lauriane Quéléver, Simon Schallhart, Lubna Dada, Liine Heikkinen, Otso Peräkylä, Jun Zou, Clémence Rose, Yonghong Wang, Ivan Mammarella, Gabriel Katul, Timo Vesala, Douglas R. Worsnop, Markku Kulmala, Tuukka Petäjä, Federico Bianchi, and Mikael Ehn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17437–17450,Short summary
Vertical measurements of highly oxygenated molecules (HOMs) below and above the forest canopy were performed for the first time in a boreal forest during September 2016. Our results highlight that near-ground HOM measurements may only be representative of a small fraction of the entire nocturnal boundary layer, which may sequentially influence the growth of newly formed particles and SOA formation close to ground surface, where the majority of measurements are conducted.
Cristina Carnerero, Noemí Pérez, Cristina Reche, Marina Ealo, Gloria Titos, Hong-Ku Lee, Hee-Ram Eun, Yong-Hee Park, Lubna Dada, Pauli Paasonen, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Enrique Mantilla, Miguel Escudero, Francisco J. Gómez-Moreno, Elisabeth Alonso-Blanco, Esther Coz, Alfonso Saiz-Lopez, Brice Temime-Roussel, Nicolas Marchand, David C. S. Beddows, Roy M. Harrison, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, Kang-Ho Ahn, Andrés Alastuey, and Xavier Querol
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 16601–16618,Short summary
The vertical distribution of new particle formation events was studied using tethered balloons carrying miniaturized instrumentation. Results show that new particle formation and growth occurs only in the lower layer of the atmosphere, where aerosols are mixed due to convection, especially when the atmosphere is clean. A comparison of urban and suburban surface stations was also made, suggesting that such events may have a significant impact on ultrafine particle concentrations in a wide area.
Tuomo Nieminen, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Tuukka Petäjä, Pasi P. Aalto, Mikhail Arshinov, Eija Asmi, Urs Baltensperger, David C. S. Beddows, Johan Paul Beukes, Don Collins, Aijun Ding, Roy M. Harrison, Bas Henzing, Rakesh Hooda, Min Hu, Urmas Hõrrak, Niku Kivekäs, Kaupo Komsaare, Radovan Krejci, Adam Kristensson, Lauri Laakso, Ari Laaksonen, W. Richard Leaitch, Heikki Lihavainen, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, Zoltán Németh, Wei Nie, Colin O'Dowd, Imre Salma, Karine Sellegri, Birgitta Svenningsson, Erik Swietlicki, Peter Tunved, Vidmantas Ulevicius, Ville Vakkari, Marko Vana, Alfred Wiedensohler, Zhijun Wu, Annele Virtanen, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 14737–14756,Short summary
Atmospheric aerosols have diverse effects on air quality, human health, and global climate. One important source of aerosols is their formation via nucleation and growth in the atmosphere. We have analyzed long-term observations of regional new particle formation events around the globe and provide a comprehensive view on the characteristics of this phenomenon in diverse environments. The results are useful in developing more realistic representation of atmospheric aerosols in global models.
Juan Hong, Hanbing Xu, Haobo Tan, Changqing Yin, Liqing Hao, Fei Li, Mingfu Cai, Xuejiao Deng, Nan Wang, Hang Su, Yafang Cheng, Lin Wang, Tuukka Petäjä, and Veli-Matti Kerminen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 14079–14094,Short summary
In this manuscript, we provide the results of the hygroscopicity of a more anthropogenically influenced aerosol in a suburban site in China. Organic material in the current type of aerosols showed moderate hygroscopicity, and it appeared to be less sensitive towards the variation of its oxidation level, which suggests different characteristics of the oxidation products in secondary organic aerosols (SOA) under the suburban/urban atmosphere in China when compared to other background environments.
Heidi Hellén, Arnaud P. Praplan, Toni Tykkä, Ilona Ylivinkka, Ville Vakkari, Jaana Bäck, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, and Hannele Hakola
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 13839–13863,Short summary
Exceptionally large ambient air concentration datasets of VOCs were measured in a boreal forest. For the first time concentration of the main sesquiterpene (β-caryophyllene) emitted by the local trees was also measured. Sesquiterpenes were found to have a major impact on local atmospheric chemistry, even though their concentrations were 30 times lower than the monoterpene concentrations. In addition, sesquiterpenes are expected to have a high impact on local secondary organic aerosol production.
John N. Crowley, Nicolas Pouvesle, Gavin J. Phillips, Raoul Axinte, Horst Fischer, Tuukka Petäjä, Anke Nölscher, Jonathan Williams, Korbinian Hens, Hartwig Harder, Monica Martinez-Harder, Anna Novelli, Dagmar Kubistin, Birger Bohn, and Jos Lelieveld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 13457–13479,Short summary
Simultaneous observations of PAA, PAN and H2O2 are used to provide insight into processes influencing the HOx chemistry of the boreal forest, including two biomass-burning-impacted periods. A significant contribution from photolytic HOx sources was included in a box model analysis to align model predictions with measurements. The model predicts high levels of organic peroxy radicals, also at night-time.
Pertti Hari, Steffen Noe, Sigrid Dengel, Jan Elbers, Bert Gielen, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Bart Kruijt, Liisa Kulmala, Anders Lindroth, Ivan Mammarella, Tuukka Petäjä, Guy Schurgers, Anni Vanhatalo, Markku Kulmala, and Jaana Bäck
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 13321–13328,Short summary
The development of eddy-covariance measurements of ecosystem CO2 fluxes began a new era in the field studies of photosynthesis. The interpretation of the very variable CO2 fluxes in evergreen forests has been problematic especially in seasonal transition times. We apply two theoretical needle-level equations and show they can predict photosynthetic CO2 flux between the atmosphere and Scots pine forests. This has strong implications for the interpretation of the global change and boreal forests.
Daniela Wimmer, Stephany Buenrostro Mazon, Hanna Elina Manninen, Juha Kangasluoma, Alessandro Franchin, Tuomo Nieminen, John Backman, Jian Wang, Chongai Kuang, Radovan Krejci, Joel Brito, Fernando Goncalves Morais, Scot Turnbull Martin, Paulo Artaxo, Markku Kulmala, Veli-Matti Kerminen, and Tuukka Petäjä
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 13245–13264,Short summary
This work focuses on understanding the production of very small airborne particles in the undisturbed environment of the Amazon basin. Computer models have shown that up to 70 % of these tiny particles are responsible for cloud formation on a global scale. The processes behind the production of these very small particles have been studied intensely recently. Their appearance has been observed almost all over the world. We directly measure sub-3 nm aerosols for the first time in the Amazon basin.
Chao Yan, Lubna Dada, Clémence Rose, Tuija Jokinen, Wei Nie, Siegfried Schobesberger, Heikki Junninen, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Nina Sarnela, Ulla Makkonen, Olga Garmash, Yonghong Wang, Qiaozhi Zha, Pauli Paasonen, Federico Bianchi, Mikko Sipilä, Mikael Ehn, Tuukka Petäjä, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Douglas R. Worsnop, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 13231–13243,Short summary
Ions can play an important role in atmospheric new particle formation by stabilizing the embryonic clusters. Such a process is called ion-induced nucleation (IIN). We found two distinct IIN mechanisms – driven by H2SO4-NH3 clusters and by organic vapors, respectively. The concentration ratio of organic vapors to H2SO4 regulates via which pathway the IIN occur. As the organic vapor concentration is influenced by temperature, a seasonal variation in the main IIN mechanism can be expected.
Ximeng Qi, Aijun Ding, Pontus Roldin, Zhengning Xu, Putian Zhou, Nina Sarnela, Wei Nie, Xin Huang, Anton Rusanen, Mikael Ehn, Matti P. Rissanen, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, and Michael Boy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11779–11791,Short summary
In this study we simulate the HOM concentrations and discuss their roles in NPF at a remote boreal forest site in Finland and a suburban site in eastern China. We found that sulfuric acid and HOM organonitrate concentrations in the gas phase are significantly higher but other HOM monomers and dimers from monoterpene oxidation are lower in eastern China. This study highlights the need for molecular-scale measurements in improving the understanding of NPF mechanisms in polluted areas.
Ben H. Lee, Felipe D. Lopez-Hilfiker, Emma L. D'Ambro, Putian Zhou, Michael Boy, Tuukka Petäjä, Liqing Hao, Annele Virtanen, and Joel A. Thornton
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11547–11562,Short summary
Molecular identities and abundances of organic compounds residing in the gas and particle phases above a Finnish boreal forest are presented. We determined that in each phase, the organic components are categorized into three subgroups based on their behavior in time. Some are more enhanced at night, others during midday, and another around sunrise. Identifying such collective behavior can potentially connect the chemical processes that evolve in time to specific distributions of products.
Runlong Cai, Dongsen Yang, Lauri R. Ahonen, Linlin Shi, Frans Korhonen, Yan Ma, Jiming Hao, Tuukka Petäjä, Jun Zheng, Juha Kangasluoma, and Jingkun Jiang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 4477–4491,Short summary
We tested the performance of four inversion methods to recover sub-3 nm aerosol size distributions using the particle size magnifier (PSM). The PSM is widely used in new particle formation study; however, the inversion methods used in previous studies may report false particle concentrations. Due to the results, we suggest using the expectation–maximization algorithm to address the PSM inversion problem. We also gave practical suggestions on PSM operation based on the inversion analysis.
Anna Nikandrova, Ksenia Tabakova, Antti Manninen, Riikka Väänänen, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, Veli-Matti Kerminen, and Ewan O'Connor
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10575–10591,Short summary
We investigated temporal and vertical aerosol properties in a rural environment during BAECC (Biogenic Aerosols – Effects on Cloud and Climate) campaign. Differences were observed in aerosol number size distribution, variability and mixing in the layers between two case studies: clear-sky and partly cloudy case. We also conclude that care should be taken in selecting appropriate arrival heights of backward trajectories, since the modelled and observed layer heights did not always coincide.
Luciana Varanda Rizzo, Pontus Roldin, Joel Brito, John Backman, Erik Swietlicki, Radovan Krejci, Peter Tunved, Tukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, and Paulo Artaxo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10255–10274,Short summary
Aerosols are tiny particles suspended in the air that can interact with sunlight and form clouds, which in turn affect the climate. They can also recycle nutrients in forest environments. Aerosols are naturally emitted at the surface in the Amazon forest, in addition to being brought down from above the boundary layer by intense air movements. In this work, we describe how the particle size number concentrations of aerosols change over hours, days and seasons in a multi-year study in Amazonia.
Marco Pandolfi, Lucas Alados-Arboledas, Andrés Alastuey, Marcos Andrade, Christo Angelov, Begoña Artiñano, John Backman, Urs Baltensperger, Paolo Bonasoni, Nicolas Bukowiecki, Martine Collaud Coen, Sébastien Conil, Esther Coz, Vincent Crenn, Vadimas Dudoitis, Marina Ealo, Kostas Eleftheriadis, Olivier Favez, Prodromos Fetfatzis, Markus Fiebig, Harald Flentje, Patrick Ginot, Martin Gysel, Bas Henzing, Andras Hoffer, Adela Holubova Smejkalova, Ivo Kalapov, Nikos Kalivitis, Giorgos Kouvarakis, Adam Kristensson, Markku Kulmala, Heikki Lihavainen, Chris Lunder, Krista Luoma, Hassan Lyamani, Angela Marinoni, Nikos Mihalopoulos, Marcel Moerman, José Nicolas, Colin O'Dowd, Tuukka Petäjä, Jean-Eudes Petit, Jean Marc Pichon, Nina Prokopciuk, Jean-Philippe Putaud, Sergio Rodríguez, Jean Sciare, Karine Sellegri, Erik Swietlicki, Gloria Titos, Thomas Tuch, Peter Tunved, Vidmantas Ulevicius, Aditya Vaishya, Milan Vana, Aki Virkkula, Stergios Vratolis, Ernest Weingartner, Alfred Wiedensohler, and Paolo Laj
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 7877–7911,Short summary
This investigation presents the variability in near-surface in situ aerosol particle light-scattering measurements obtained over the past decade at 28 measuring atmospheric observatories which are part of the ACTRIS Research Infrastructure, and most of them belong to the GAW network. This paper provides a comprehensive picture of the spatial and temporal variability of aerosol particles optical properties in Europe.
Vladimir Melnikov, Viktor Gennadinik, Markku Kulmala, Hanna K. Lappalainen, Tuukka Petäjä, and Sergej Zilitinkevich
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 6535–6542,Short summary
The cryosphere of the Earth overlaps with the atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere over vast areas with temperatures below zero C and pronounced H2O phase changes. The cryosphere plays the role of a global thermostat; however, the processes related to the cryosphere attract insufficient attention from research communities. We call attention to crucial importance of cryogenic anomalies, which make the Earth atmosphere and the entire Earth system unique.
Xuan Zhang, John Ortega, Yuanlong Huang, Stephen Shertz, Geoffrey S. Tyndall, and John J. Orlando
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 2537–2551,Short summary
We present the development and characterization of the NCAR Atmospheric Simulation Chamber, which is operated in steady state continuous flow mode for simulating atmospheric daytime and nighttime chemistry over chemical regimes not accessible in traditional static chamber experiments. We focus on establishing an
intermediate NOregime characterized by a constant steady-state NO level ranging from tens of ppt to a few ppb in the chamber.
Yicheng Shen, Aki Virkkula, Aijun Ding, Jiaping Wang, Xuguang Chi, Wei Nie, Ximeng Qi, Xin Huang, Qiang Liu, Longfei Zheng, Zheng Xu, Tuukka Petäjä, Pasi P. Aalto, Congbin Fu, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 5265–5292,Short summary
Aerosol optical properties (AOPs) were measured at SORPES, a regional background station in Nanjing, China from June 2013 to May 2015. The aerosol was highly scattering. The single-scattering albedo in Nanjing appears to be slightly higher than at several other sites. The data do not suggest any significant contribution to absorption by brown carbon. The sources of high values are mainly in eastern China. During pollution episodes, pollutant concentrations increased gradually but decreased fast.
Julia Schmale, Silvia Henning, Stefano Decesari, Bas Henzing, Helmi Keskinen, Karine Sellegri, Jurgita Ovadnevaite, Mira L. Pöhlker, Joel Brito, Aikaterini Bougiatioti, Adam Kristensson, Nikos Kalivitis, Iasonas Stavroulas, Samara Carbone, Anne Jefferson, Minsu Park, Patrick Schlag, Yoko Iwamoto, Pasi Aalto, Mikko Äijälä, Nicolas Bukowiecki, Mikael Ehn, Göran Frank, Roman Fröhlich, Arnoud Frumau, Erik Herrmann, Hartmut Herrmann, Rupert Holzinger, Gerard Kos, Markku Kulmala, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, Athanasios Nenes, Colin O'Dowd, Tuukka Petäjä, David Picard, Christopher Pöhlker, Ulrich Pöschl, Laurent Poulain, André Stephan Henry Prévôt, Erik Swietlicki, Meinrat O. Andreae, Paulo Artaxo, Alfred Wiedensohler, John Ogren, Atsushi Matsuki, Seong Soo Yum, Frank Stratmann, Urs Baltensperger, and Martin Gysel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2853–2881,Short summary
Collocated long-term observations of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) number concentrations, particle number size distributions and chemical composition from 12 sites are synthesized. Observations cover coastal environments, the Arctic, the Mediterranean, the boreal and rain forest, high alpine and continental background sites, and Monsoon-influenced areas. We interpret regional and seasonal variability. CCN concentrations are predicted with the κ–Köhler model and compared to the measurements.
Nina Sarnela, Tuija Jokinen, Jonathan Duplissy, Chao Yan, Tuomo Nieminen, Mikael Ehn, Siegfried Schobesberger, Martin Heinritzi, Sebastian Ehrhart, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Jasmin Tröstl, Mario Simon, Andreas Kürten, Markus Leiminger, Michael J. Lawler, Matti P. Rissanen, Federico Bianchi, Arnaud P. Praplan, Jani Hakala, Antonio Amorim, Marc Gonin, Armin Hansel, Jasper Kirkby, Josef Dommen, Joachim Curtius, James N. Smith, Tuukka Petäjä, Douglas R. Worsnop, Markku Kulmala, Neil M. Donahue, and Mikko Sipilä
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2363–2380,Short summary
Atmospheric trace gases can form small molecular clusters, which can grow to larger sizes through the condensation of vapours. This process is called new particle formation. In this paper we studied the formation of sulfuric acid and highly oxygenated molecules, the key compounds in atmospheric new particle formation, in chamber experiments and introduced a way to simulate these ozonolysis products of α-pinene in a simple manner.
Andreas Kürten, Chenxi Li, Federico Bianchi, Joachim Curtius, António Dias, Neil M. Donahue, Jonathan Duplissy, Richard C. Flagan, Jani Hakala, Tuija Jokinen, Jasper Kirkby, Markku Kulmala, Ari Laaksonen, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Vladimir Makhmutov, Antti Onnela, Matti P. Rissanen, Mario Simon, Mikko Sipilä, Yuri Stozhkov, Jasmin Tröstl, Penglin Ye, and Peter H. McMurry
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 845–863,Short summary
A recent laboratory study (CLOUD) showed that new particles nucleate efficiently from sulfuric acid and dimethylamine (DMA). The reanalysis of previously published data reveals that the nucleation rates are even faster than previously assumed, i.e., nucleation can proceed at rates that are compatible with collision-controlled new particle formation for atmospheric conditions. This indicates that sulfuric acid–DMA nucleation is likely an important source of particles in the boundary layer.
Carla Frege, Ismael K. Ortega, Matti P. Rissanen, Arnaud P. Praplan, Gerhard Steiner, Martin Heinritzi, Lauri Ahonen, António Amorim, Anne-Kathrin Bernhammer, Federico Bianchi, Sophia Brilke, Martin Breitenlechner, Lubna Dada, António Dias, Jonathan Duplissy, Sebastian Ehrhart, Imad El-Haddad, Lukas Fischer, Claudia Fuchs, Olga Garmash, Marc Gonin, Armin Hansel, Christopher R. Hoyle, Tuija Jokinen, Heikki Junninen, Jasper Kirkby, Andreas Kürten, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Markus Leiminger, Roy Lee Mauldin, Ugo Molteni, Leonid Nichman, Tuukka Petäjä, Nina Sarnela, Siegfried Schobesberger, Mario Simon, Mikko Sipilä, Dominik Stolzenburg, António Tomé, Alexander L. Vogel, Andrea C. Wagner, Robert Wagner, Mao Xiao, Chao Yan, Penglin Ye, Joachim Curtius, Neil M. Donahue, Richard C. Flagan, Markku Kulmala, Douglas R. Worsnop, Paul M. Winkler, Josef Dommen, and Urs Baltensperger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 65–79,Short summary
It was recently shown that biogenic highly oxygenated molecules (HOMs) form particles in the absence of sulfuric acid and ions enhance the nucleation rate. Here we compare the molecular composition of positive and negative HOM clusters at 25, 5 and −25 °C. At lower temperatures the HOM average oxygen-to-carbon ratio decreases indicating a reduction in the rate of autoxidation due to rather high activation energy. The experimental findings are supported by quantum chemical calculations.
Xuemeng Chen, Lauriane L. J. Quéléver, Pak L. Fung, Jutta Kesti, Matti P. Rissanen, Jaana Bäck, Petri Keronen, Heikki Junninen, Tuukka Petäjä, Veli-Matti Kerminen, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 49–63,Short summary
We analysed a 20-year-long dataset collected in a Finnish boreal forest at SMEAR II station to investigate the frequency and strength of ozone depletion events. We could identify a number of ozone depletion events that lasted for more than 3 h, mainly in the autumn and winter months. Their occurrence was likely related to the formation of a low mixing layer under the conditions of low temperatures, low wind speeds, high relative humidities and limited intensity of solar radiation.
Robert Wagner, Chao Yan, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Jonathan Duplissy, Tuomo Nieminen, Juha Kangasluoma, Lauri R. Ahonen, Lubna Dada, Jenni Kontkanen, Hanna E. Manninen, Antonio Dias, Antonio Amorim, Paulus S. Bauer, Anton Bergen, Anne-Kathrin Bernhammer, Federico Bianchi, Sophia Brilke, Stephany Buenrostro Mazon, Xuemeng Chen, Danielle C. Draper, Lukas Fischer, Carla Frege, Claudia Fuchs, Olga Garmash, Hamish Gordon, Jani Hakala, Liine Heikkinen, Martin Heinritzi, Victoria Hofbauer, Christopher R. Hoyle, Jasper Kirkby, Andreas Kürten, Alexander N. Kvashnin, Tiia Laurila, Michael J. Lawler, Huajun Mai, Vladimir Makhmutov, Roy L. Mauldin III, Ugo Molteni, Leonid Nichman, Wei Nie, Andrea Ojdanic, Antti Onnela, Felix Piel, Lauriane L. J. Quéléver, Matti P. Rissanen, Nina Sarnela, Simon Schallhart, Kamalika Sengupta, Mario Simon, Dominik Stolzenburg, Yuri Stozhkov, Jasmin Tröstl, Yrjö Viisanen, Alexander L. Vogel, Andrea C. Wagner, Mao Xiao, Penglin Ye, Urs Baltensperger, Joachim Curtius, Neil M. Donahue, Richard C. Flagan, Martin Gallagher, Armin Hansel, James N. Smith, António Tomé, Paul M. Winkler, Douglas Worsnop, Mikael Ehn, Mikko Sipilä, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Tuukka Petäjä, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 15181–15197,
Pertti Hari, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Liisa Kulmala, Markku Kulmala, Steffen Noe, Tuukka Petäjä, Anni Vanhatalo, and Jaana Bäck
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 15045–15053,Short summary
We developed a theory on the seasonal behaviour of photosynthesis in natural conditions and tested the theory with intensive measurements. Light, temperature, water vapor and CO2 concentration explained the daily variation in photosynthesis, and the physiological state of the photosynthetic machinery explained the annual pattern of photosynthesis. The theory explained about 95 % of the variance of photosynthesis measured with chambers in the field in northern Finland.
Xuemeng Chen, Aki Virkkula, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Hanna E. Manninen, Maurizio Busetto, Christian Lanconelli, Angelo Lupi, Vito Vitale, Massimo Del Guasta, Paolo Grigioni, Riikka Väänänen, Ella-Maria Duplissy, Tuukka Petäjä, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 13783–13800,Short summary
An air ion spectrometer was deployed for characterizing air ions for the first time at the Concordia station at Dome C on the Antarctic Plateau. We observed different ion processes: new particle formation (NPF), wind-induced ion production, and ion formation related to cloud and/or fog formation. Insights into these phenomena are presented. Additionally, the analysis on the growth of NPF events showed a size dependency of growth rates (GRs), i.e. GRs increase with particle sizes.
Federico Bianchi, Olga Garmash, Xucheng He, Chao Yan, Siddharth Iyer, Ida Rosendahl, Zhengning Xu, Matti P. Rissanen, Matthieu Riva, Risto Taipale, Nina Sarnela, Tuukka Petäjä, Douglas R. Worsnop, Markku Kulmala, Mikael Ehn, and Heikki Junninen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 13819–13831,Short summary
Naturally charged highly oxidised molecules (HOMs) were characterized using advanced mass spectrometers. Two different classes of compounds, clustered with the nitrate and bisulfate ions, were identified: HOMs containing only carbon, hydrogen and oxygen and nitrogen-containing HOMs or organonitrates (ONs). They exhibit strong diurnal variations where HOMs peak during night and ONs during day. Finally, large clusters containing up to 40 carbon atoms (four oxidized α-pinene units) were observed.
Elham Baranizadeh, Tuomo Nieminen, Taina Yli-Juuti, Markku Kulmala, Tuukka Petäjä, Ari Leskinen, Mika Komppula, Ari Laaksonen, and Kari E. J. Lehtinen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 13361–13371,Short summary
Extrapolation of the particle formation rates from one measured larger size (e.g., 7 nm) to smaller sizes (e.g., 3 nm) based on simplified growth-scavenging dynamics works fairly well to estimate mean daily formation rates, but it fails to predict the time evolution of the particle population. This points to the challenges in predicting atmospheric nucleation rates for locations where the particle growth and loss rates are size- and time-dependent.
Georgios Tsagkogeorgas, Pontus Roldin, Jonathan Duplissy, Linda Rondo, Jasmin Tröstl, Jay G. Slowik, Sebastian Ehrhart, Alessandro Franchin, Andreas Kürten, Antonio Amorim, Federico Bianchi, Jasper Kirkby, Tuukka Petäjä, Urs Baltensperger, Michael Boy, Joachim Curtius, Richard C. Flagan, Markku Kulmala, Neil M. Donahue, and Frank Stratmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 8923–8938,Short summary
The H2SO4 vapour pressure plays key role in Earth's and Venus' atmospheres. In regions where RH is low and stabilising bases are scarce, H2SO4 can evaporate from particles; however the H2SO4 vapour pressure at low RH is uncertain. To address this, we measured H2SO4 evaporation versus T and RH in the CLOUD chamber and constrained the equilibrium constants for dissociation and dehydration of H2SO4. This study is important for nucleation, particle growth and H2SO4 formation occurring in atmosphere.
Anna Novelli, Korbinian Hens, Cheryl Tatum Ernest, Monica Martinez, Anke C. Nölscher, Vinayak Sinha, Pauli Paasonen, Tuukka Petäjä, Mikko Sipilä, Thomas Elste, Christian Plass-Dülmer, Gavin J. Phillips, Dagmar Kubistin, Jonathan Williams, Luc Vereecken, Jos Lelieveld, and Hartwig Harder
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 7807–7826,Short summary
The ambient concentration of stabilised Criegee intermediates (SCIs) was estimated for two environments using field data. The low concentrations predicted indicate that SCIs are unlikely to have a large impact on atmospheric chemistry. Concurrent measurements of an OH background signal using the Mainz IPI-LIF-FAGE instrument were found to be consistent with the chemistry of SCIs during the measurement campaigns.
Juha Kangasluoma, Susanne Hering, David Picard, Gregory Lewis, Joonas Enroth, Frans Korhonen, Markku Kulmala, Karine Sellegri, Michel Attoui, and Tuukka Petäjä
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 2271–2281,Short summary
The manuscript presents a characterization of three new particle counters able to detect airborne nanoparticles smaller than 3 nm in diameter. We explored some of the parameters affecting the smallest detectable particle size, such as sample flow relative humidity, the particle chemical composition and the electrical charging state. The characterization results help one to select a suitable particle counter for a given application.
Lubna Dada, Pauli Paasonen, Tuomo Nieminen, Stephany Buenrostro Mazon, Jenni Kontkanen, Otso Peräkylä, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Tareq Hussein, Tuukka Petäjä, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Jaana Bäck, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 6227–6241,Short summary
We studied new particle formation under clear-sky conditions in the boreal forest in southern Finland. We compared varying conditions between new particle events and nonevents. We then formulated a threshold value that separates new particle events from nonevents and reached a probability distribution for the frequency of new particle formation. This study serves as the basis for scientists aiming to improve their understanding of new particle formation.
Yuqin Liu, Gerrit de Leeuw, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Jiahua Zhang, Putian Zhou, Wei Nie, Ximeng Qi, Juan Hong, Yonghong Wang, Aijun Ding, Huadong Guo, Olaf Krüger, Markku Kulmala, and Tuukka Petäjä
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 5623–5641,Short summary
The aerosol effects on warm cloud parameters over the Yangtze River Delta are systematically examined using multi-sensor retrievals. This study shows that the COT–CDR and CWP–CDR relationships are not unique, but are affected by atmospheric aerosol loading. CDR and cloud fraction show different behaviours for low and high AOD. Aerosol–cloud interaction (ACI) is stronger for clouds mixed with smoke aerosol than for clouds mixed with dust. Meteorological conditions play an important role in ACI.
Juan Hong, Mikko Äijälä, Silja A. K. Häme, Liqing Hao, Jonathan Duplissy, Liine M. Heikkinen, Wei Nie, Jyri Mikkilä, Markku Kulmala, Nønne L. Prisle, Annele Virtanen, Mikael Ehn, Pauli Paasonen, Douglas R. Worsnop, Ilona Riipinen, Tuukka Petäjä, and Veli-Matti Kerminen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 4387–4399,Short summary
Estimates of volatility of secondary organic aerosols was characterized in a boreal forest environment of Hyytiälä, southern Finland. This was done by interpreting field measurements using a volatility tandem differential mobility analyzer (VTDMA) with a kinetic evaporation model and by applying positive matrix factorization (PMF) to high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer data. About 16 % of the variation can be explained by the linear regression between the results from these two methods.
Wei Nie, Juan Hong, Silja A. K. Häme, Aijun Ding, Yugen Li, Chao Yan, Liqing Hao, Jyri Mikkilä, Longfei Zheng, Yuning Xie, Caijun Zhu, Zheng Xu, Xuguang Chi, Xin Huang, Yang Zhou, Peng Lin, Annele Virtanen, Douglas R. Worsnop, Markku Kulmala, Mikael Ehn, Jianzhen Yu, Veli-Matti Kerminen, and Tuukka Petäjä
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 3659–3672,Short summary
HULIS are demonstrated to be important low-volatility, or even extremely low volatility, compounds in the organic aerosol phase. This sheds new light on the connection between atmospheric HULIS and ELVOCs. The interaction between HULIS and ammonium sulfate was found to decrease the volatility of the HULIS part in HULIS-AS mixed samples, indicating multiphase processes have the potential to lower the volatility of organic compounds in the aerosol phase.
Yuanlong Huang, Matthew M. Coggon, Ran Zhao, Hanna Lignell, Michael U. Bauer, Richard C. Flagan, and John H. Seinfeld
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 839–867,Short summary
We report on the development of a new laminar flow tube reactor for the study of gas-phase atmospheric chemistry and secondary organic aerosol formation. The present paper is devoted to the design and fluid dynamical characterization of the reactor. The results of gas and particle residence time distribution experiments in the reactor, together with an evaluation of the effect of non-isothermal conditions, are reported.
Mikko Äijälä, Liine Heikkinen, Roman Fröhlich, Francesco Canonaco, André S. H. Prévôt, Heikki Junninen, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, Douglas Worsnop, and Mikael Ehn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 3165–3197,Short summary
Mass spectrometric measurements commonly yield data on hundreds of variables over thousands of points in time. Refining and synthesising this “raw” data into chemical information necessitates the use of advanced, statistics-based data analysis techniques. Here we present an example of combining data dimensionality reduction (factorisation) with exploratory classification (clustering) and show that the results complement and broaden our current perspectives on aerosol chemical classification.
Jenni Kontkanen, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Lauri Ahonen, Juha Kangasluoma, Hanna E. Manninen, Jani Hakala, Clémence Rose, Karine Sellegri, Shan Xiao, Lin Wang, Ximeng Qi, Wei Nie, Aijun Ding, Huan Yu, Shanhu Lee, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Tuukka Petäjä, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 2163–2187,Short summary
The concentrations of ~1–3 nm particles were investigated at nine sites around the world. Sub-3 nm particle concentrations were highest at the sites with strong anthropogenic influence. Electrically neutral particles dominated sub-3 nm particle concentrations in polluted environments and in boreal forest during spring and summer. Sub-3 nm particle concentrations were observed to be determined by the availability of precursor vapors rather than the sink caused by preexisting aerosol particles.
Heidi Hellén, Simon Schallhart, Arnaud P. Praplan, Tuukka Petäjä, and Hannele Hakola
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 281–289,Short summary
There is a lack of knowledge of volatile organic acids (VOAs), other than formic and acetic acids in gas phase, and this is at least partly due to the lack of sensitive enough measurement methods. In the present study we developed an in situ GC–MS measurement method for measuring C2–C7 monocarboxylic VOAs at ambient air concentration levels, which we used to measure ambient air concentrations in a boreal forest site. In addition, found mixing ratios were compared with PTR-TOFMS data.
Hanna K. Lappalainen, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Tuukka Petäjä, Theo Kurten, Aleksander Baklanov, Anatoly Shvidenko, Jaana Bäck, Timo Vihma, Pavel Alekseychik, Meinrat O. Andreae, Stephen R. Arnold, Mikhail Arshinov, Eija Asmi, Boris Belan, Leonid Bobylev, Sergey Chalov, Yafang Cheng, Natalia Chubarova, Gerrit de Leeuw, Aijun Ding, Sergey Dobrolyubov, Sergei Dubtsov, Egor Dyukarev, Nikolai Elansky, Kostas Eleftheriadis, Igor Esau, Nikolay Filatov, Mikhail Flint, Congbin Fu, Olga Glezer, Aleksander Gliko, Martin Heimann, Albert A. M. Holtslag, Urmas Hõrrak, Juha Janhunen, Sirkku Juhola, Leena Järvi, Heikki Järvinen, Anna Kanukhina, Pavel Konstantinov, Vladimir Kotlyakov, Antti-Jussi Kieloaho, Alexander S. Komarov, Joni Kujansuu, Ilmo Kukkonen, Ella-Maria Duplissy, Ari Laaksonen, Tuomas Laurila, Heikki Lihavainen, Alexander Lisitzin, Alexsander Mahura, Alexander Makshtas, Evgeny Mareev, Stephany Mazon, Dmitry Matishov, Vladimir Melnikov, Eugene Mikhailov, Dmitri Moisseev, Robert Nigmatulin, Steffen M. Noe, Anne Ojala, Mari Pihlatie, Olga Popovicheva, Jukka Pumpanen, Tatjana Regerand, Irina Repina, Aleksei Shcherbinin, Vladimir Shevchenko, Mikko Sipilä, Andrey Skorokhod, Dominick V. Spracklen, Hang Su, Dmitry A. Subetto, Junying Sun, Arkady Y. Terzhevik, Yuri Timofeyev, Yuliya Troitskaya, Veli-Pekka Tynkkynen, Viacheslav I. Kharuk, Nina Zaytseva, Jiahua Zhang, Yrjö Viisanen, Timo Vesala, Pertti Hari, Hans Christen Hansson, Gennady G. Matvienko, Nikolai S. Kasimov, Huadong Guo, Valery Bondur, Sergej Zilitinkevich, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14421–14461,Short summary
After kick off in 2012, the Pan-Eurasian Experiment (PEEX) program has expanded fast and today the multi-disciplinary research community covers ca. 80 institutes and a network of ca. 500 scientists from Europe, Russia, and China. Here we introduce scientific topics relevant in this context. This is one of the first multi-disciplinary overviews crossing scientific boundaries, from atmospheric sciences to socio-economics and social sciences.
Xuemeng Chen, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Jussi Paatero, Pauli Paasonen, Hanna E. Manninen, Tuomo Nieminen, Tuukka Petäjä, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14297–14315,Short summary
Ionising radiation is responsible for air ion production. However, minor efforts have been invested in understanding the connection of observed air ions to ionising radiation in the lower atmosphere and underlying processes therein. In this work, we analysed 4 years of ambient data collected in a Finnish boreal forest and found that gamma radiation dominates air ion production in the lower atmosphere and demonstrated clear promotion effects of the ionising radiation on air ion production.
Michael J. Lawler, Paul M. Winkler, Jaeseok Kim, Lars Ahlm, Jasmin Tröstl, Arnaud P. Praplan, Siegfried Schobesberger, Andreas Kürten, Jasper Kirkby, Federico Bianchi, Jonathan Duplissy, Armin Hansel, Tuija Jokinen, Helmi Keskinen, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Markus Leiminger, Tuukka Petäjä, Matti Rissanen, Linda Rondo, Mario Simon, Mikko Sipilä, Christina Williamson, Daniela Wimmer, Ilona Riipinen, Annele Virtanen, and James N. Smith
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 13601–13618,Short summary
We present chemical observations of newly formed particles as small as ~ 10 nm from new particle formation experiments using sulfuric acid, dimethylamine, ammonia, and water vapor as gas phase reactants. The nanoparticles were more acidic than expected based on thermodynamic expectations, particularly at the smallest measured sizes. The results suggest rapid surface conversion of SO2 to sulfate and show a marked composition change between 10 and 15 nm, possibly indicating a phase change.
Jenni Kontkanen, Pauli Paasonen, Juho Aalto, Jaana Bäck, Pekka Rantala, Tuukka Petäjä, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 13291–13307,Short summary
We developed proxies for estimating the concentrations of monoterpenes and their oxidation products at a boreal forest site in Hyytiälä, Finland. The proxies for the monoterpene concentration include temperature-controlled emissions, dilution and different oxidation processes. The proxies were observed to capture the seasonal and diurnal variation of the monoterpene concentration reasonably well. Our proxies can be used in the analysis of new particle formation and growth in boreal environments.
Natasha Hodas, Andreas Zuend, Katherine Schilling, Thomas Berkemeier, Manabu Shiraiwa, Richard C. Flagan, and John H. Seinfeld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 12767–12792,Short summary
Discontinuities in apparent hygroscopicity below and above water saturation have been observed for organic and mixed organic-inorganic aerosol particles in both laboratory studies and in the ambient atmosphere. This work explores the extent to which such discontinuities are influenced by organic component molecular mass and viscosity, non-ideal thermodynamic interactions between aerosol components, and the combination of these factors.
Chao Yan, Wei Nie, Mikko Äijälä, Matti P. Rissanen, Manjula R. Canagaratna, Paola Massoli, Heikki Junninen, Tuija Jokinen, Nina Sarnela, Silja A. K. Häme, Siegfried Schobesberger, Francesco Canonaco, Lei Yao, André S. H. Prévôt, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, Mikko Sipilä, Douglas R. Worsnop, and Mikael Ehn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 12715–12731,Short summary
Highly oxidized multifunctional compounds (HOMs) are known to have a significant contribution to secondary aerosol formation, yet their dominating formation pathways remain unclear in the atmosphere. We apply positive matrix factorization (PMF) on HOM data, and successfully retrieve factors representing different formation pathways. The results improve our understanding of HOM formation, and provide new perspectives on using PMF to study the variation of short-lived specie.
Hanna E. Manninen, Sander Mirme, Aadu Mirme, Tuukka Petäjä, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 3577–3605,Short summary
This paper reports a standard operation procedure (SOP) for a Neutral cluster and Air Ion Spectrometer (NAIS) to detect small clusters and nucleation mode particles. The NAIS measures number size distributions of charged and neutral aerosol particles. The SOP is needed to provide comparable results measured by NAIS users around the world. The work is based on discussions between the NAIS users (lead by University of Helsinki, Finland) and the NAIS manufacturer (Airel Ltd., Estonia).
Moa K. Sporre, Ewan J. O'Connor, Nina Håkansson, Anke Thoss, Erik Swietlicki, and Tuukka Petäjä
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 3193–3203,Short summary
Satellite measurements of cloud top height and liquid water path are compared to ground-based remote sensing to evaluate the satellite retrievals. The overall performance of the satellite retrievals of cloud top height are good, but they become more problematic when several layers of clouds are present. The liquid water path retrievals also agree well, and the average differences are within the estimated measurement uncertainties.
Riikka Väänänen, Radovan Krejci, Hanna E. Manninen, Antti Manninen, Janne Lampilahti, Stephany Buenrostro Mazon, Tuomo Nieminen, Taina Yli-Juuti, Jenni Kontkanen, Ari Asmi, Pasi P. Aalto, Petri Keronen, Toivo Pohja, Ewan O'Connor, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Tuukka Petäjä, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript has not been submittedShort summary
A light aircraft was used as a platform to explore the horizontal and vertical variability of the aerosol particles over a boreal forest in Central Finland. This information is needed when data measured at ground level station is extrapolated and parameterized to represent the conditions of the larger scale. The measurements showed that despite local fluctuations there was a good agreement between the on-ground and airborne measurements inside the planetary boundary layer.
Juha Kangasluoma, Alessandro Franchin, Jonahtan Duplissy, Lauri Ahonen, Frans Korhonen, Michel Attoui, Jyri Mikkilä, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Joonas Vanhanen, Markku Kulmala, and Tuukka Petäjä
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 2977–2988,Short summary
The paper describes technical aspects of using the Airmodus A11 nCNC at various inlet pressures and how temperature selection affects the performance of the instrument. We also present a sampling box to minimize the inlet losses and make use of the instrument more convenient.
Pekka Rantala, Leena Järvi, Risto Taipale, Terhi K. Laurila, Johanna Patokoski, Maija K. Kajos, Mona Kurppa, Sami Haapanala, Erkki Siivola, Tuukka Petäjä, Taina M. Ruuskanen, and Janne Rinne
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 7981–8007,Short summary
Fluxes of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured above an urban landscape in Helsinki, northern Europe. We found that traffic was a major source for many oxygenated and aromatic VOCs, whereas isoprene originated mostly from the urban vegetation. Overall, the VOC fluxes were quite small in comparison with the earlier urban VOC flux measurements.
Alessandro Franchin, Andy Downard, Juha Kangasluoma, Tuomo Nieminen, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Gerhard Steiner, Hanna E. Manninen, Tuukka Petäjä, Richard C. Flagan, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 2709–2720,Short summary
High transmission efficiency is key for classifying and counting atmospheric aerosol below 10 nm. We developed a new high-transmission inlet for the Caltech nano-radial DMA (nRDMA) and successfully deployed the nRDMA, equipped with the new inlet, in chamber measurements, using a particle size magnifier (PSM) and a booster CPC as a counter. With this setup, we were able to measure size distributions of ions between 1.3 and 6 nm in mobility diameter.
Emma Järvinen, Karoliina Ignatius, Leonid Nichman, Thomas B. Kristensen, Claudia Fuchs, Christopher R. Hoyle, Niko Höppel, Joel C. Corbin, Jill Craven, Jonathan Duplissy, Sebastian Ehrhart, Imad El Haddad, Carla Frege, Hamish Gordon, Tuija Jokinen, Peter Kallinger, Jasper Kirkby, Alexei Kiselev, Karl-Heinz Naumann, Tuukka Petäjä, Tamara Pinterich, Andre S. H. Prevot, Harald Saathoff, Thea Schiebel, Kamalika Sengupta, Mario Simon, Jay G. Slowik, Jasmin Tröstl, Annele Virtanen, Paul Vochezer, Steffen Vogt, Andrea C. Wagner, Robert Wagner, Christina Williamson, Paul M. Winkler, Chao Yan, Urs Baltensperger, Neil M. Donahue, Rick C. Flagan, Martin Gallagher, Armin Hansel, Markku Kulmala, Frank Stratmann, Douglas R. Worsnop, Ottmar Möhler, Thomas Leisner, and Martin Schnaiter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 4423–4438,
Leonid Nichman, Claudia Fuchs, Emma Järvinen, Karoliina Ignatius, Niko Florian Höppel, Antonio Dias, Martin Heinritzi, Mario Simon, Jasmin Tröstl, Andrea Christine Wagner, Robert Wagner, Christina Williamson, Chao Yan, Paul James Connolly, James Robert Dorsey, Jonathan Duplissy, Sebastian Ehrhart, Carla Frege, Hamish Gordon, Christopher Robert Hoyle, Thomas Bjerring Kristensen, Gerhard Steiner, Neil McPherson Donahue, Richard Flagan, Martin William Gallagher, Jasper Kirkby, Ottmar Möhler, Harald Saathoff, Martin Schnaiter, Frank Stratmann, and António Tomé
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 3651–3664,Short summary
Processes in the atmosphere are often governed by the physical and chemical properties of small cloud particles. Ice, water, and mixed clouds, as well as viscous aerosols, were formed under controlled conditions at the CLOUD-CERN facility. The experimental results show a link between cloud particle properties and their unique optical fingerprints. The classification map presented here allows easier discrimination between various particles such as viscous organic aerosol, salt, ice, and liquid.
Antti J. Manninen, Ewan J. O'Connor, Ville Vakkari, and Tuukka Petäjä
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 817–827,Short summary
Current commercially available Doppler lidars provide a cost-effective solution for measuring vertical and horizontal wind velocities, and the co- and cross-polarised backscatter profiles. However, the background noise behaviour becomes a limiting factor for the instrument sensitivity in low aerosol load regions. In this paper we present a correction method which can improve the data availability up to 50 % and greatly improves the calculation of turbulent properties in weak signal regimes.
Xin Huang, Luxi Zhou, Aijun Ding, Ximeng Qi, Wei Nie, Minghuai Wang, Xuguang Chi, Tuukka Petäjä, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Pontus Roldin, Anton Rusanen, Markku Kulmala, and Michael Boy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2477–2492,Short summary
By combining a regional model and a box model, this study simulates new particle formation in Nanjing, China, when the air masses were affected by anthropogenic activities, biogenic emissions, or mixed ocean and continental sources. The simulations reveal that biogenic organic compounds play a vital role in growth of newly formed clusters. This novel combination of two models makes it possible to accomplish new particle formation simulation without direct measurements of all chemical species.
Jenni Kontkanen, Emma Järvinen, Hanna E. Manninen, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Juha Kangasluoma, Stefano Decesari, Gian Paolo Gobbi, Ari Laaksonen, Tuukka Petäjä, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1919–1935,
J. Kukkonen, M. Karl, M. P. Keuken, H. A. C. Denier van der Gon, B. R. Denby, V. Singh, J. Douros, A. Manders, Z. Samaras, N. Moussiopoulos, S. Jonkers, M. Aarnio, A. Karppinen, L. Kangas, S. Lützenkirchen, T. Petäjä, I. Vouitsis, and R. S. Sokhi
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 451–478,Short summary
For analyzing the health effects of particulate matter, it is necessary to consider not only the mass of particles, but also their sizes and composition. A simple measure for the former is the number concentration of particles. We present particle number concentrations in five major European cities, namely Helsinki, Oslo, London, Rotterdam, and Athens, in 2008, based mainly on modelling. The concentrations of PN were mostly influenced by the emissions from local vehicular traffic.
P. Hari, T. Petäjä, J. Bäck, V.-M. Kerminen, H. K. Lappalainen, T. Vihma, T. Laurila, Y. Viisanen, T. Vesala, and M. Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1017–1028,Short summary
This manuscript introduces a conceptual design of a global, hierarchical observation network which provides tools and increased understanding to tackle the inter-connected environmental and societal challenges that we will face in the coming decades. Each ecosystem type on the globe has its own characteristic features that need to be taken into consideration. The hierarchical network is able to tackle problems related to large spatial scales, heterogeneity of ecosystems and their complexity.
J. Kim, L. Ahlm, T. Yli-Juuti, M. Lawler, H. Keskinen, J. Tröstl, S. Schobesberger, J. Duplissy, A. Amorim, F. Bianchi, N. M. Donahue, R. C. Flagan, J. Hakala, M. Heinritzi, T. Jokinen, A. Kürten, A. Laaksonen, K. Lehtipalo, P. Miettinen, T. Petäjä, M. P. Rissanen, L. Rondo, K. Sengupta, M. Simon, A. Tomé, C. Williamson, D. Wimmer, P. M. Winkler, S. Ehrhart, P. Ye, J. Kirkby, J. Curtius, U. Baltensperger, M. Kulmala, K. E. J. Lehtinen, J. N. Smith, I. Riipinen, and A. Virtanen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 293–304,Short summary
The hygroscopicity of nucleated nanoparticles was measured in the presence of sulfuric acid, sulfuric acid-dimethylamine, and sulfuric acid-organics derived from α-pinene oxidation during CLOUD7 at CERN in 2012. The hygroscopicity parameter κ decreased with increasing particle size, indicating decreasing acidity of particles.
R. L. Mauldin III, M. P. Rissanen, T. Petäjä, and M. Kulmala
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
The manuscript describes a novel instrument for the measurement of OH, HO2+RO2, and other atmospheric species. The instrument described combines the chemical ionization techniques of nitrate CIMS, OH conversion to H2SO4, HO2+RO2 conversion to H2SO4, and high resolution time of flight mass spectroscopy into one system. By using one instrument to obtain spectra it is possible to compare spectra from the different modes and gain further chemical information towards peak identification.
A. M. K. Hansen, J. Hong, T. Raatikainen, K. Kristensen, A. Ylisirniö, A. Virtanen, T. Petäjä, M. Glasius, and N. L. Prisle
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 14071–14089,Short summary
This paper presents the first study of the hygroscopic properties of limonene derived organosulfates (L-OS 250). The results showed that L-OS 250 particles are weakly hygroscopic and able to activate into cloud droplets. Particles of L-OS 250 mixed with ammonium sulfate were much more hygroscopic than expected from model parametrizations and the ZSR mixing rule, indicating that solubility and non-ideal droplet interactions could be important for the hygroscopic properties of the mixed particles.
V. N. Dos Santos, E. Herrmann, H. E. Manninen, T. Hussein, J. Hakala, T. Nieminen, P. P. Aalto, M. Merkel, A. Wiedensohler, M. Kulmala, T. Petäjä, and K. Hämeri
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 13717–13737,Short summary
Atmospheric charged particles, i.e. air ions, contribute to secondary aerosol formation and have an effect on global climate as potential cloud condensation nuclei. We aimed to evaluate air ion concentrations and characteristics during new particle formation (NPF) events in the megacity Paris, France. We analyzed frequency and seasonal variations of NPF events, diurnal and seasonal cycles of ions, and aerosol particles.
M. Kulmala, H. K. Lappalainen, T. Petäjä, T. Kurten, V.-M. Kerminen, Y. Viisanen, P. Hari, S. Sorvari, J. Bäck, V. Bondur, N. Kasimov, V. Kotlyakov, G. Matvienko, A. Baklanov, H. D. Guo, A. Ding, H.-C. Hansson, and S. Zilitinkevich
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 13085–13096,Short summary
The Pan-European Experiment (PEEX) is introduced. PEEX is a multidisciplinary, multiscale and multicomponent research, research infrastructure and capacity-building program. This paper outlines the mission, vision and objectives of PEEX and introduces its main components, including the research agenda, research infrastructure, knowledge transfer and potential impacts on society. The paper also summarizes the main scientific questions that PEEX is going to tackle in the future.
X. M. Qi, A. J. Ding, W. Nie, T. Petäjä, V.-M. Kerminen, E. Herrmann, Y. N. Xie, L. F. Zheng, H. Manninen, P. Aalto, J. N. Sun, Z. N. Xu, X. G. Chi, X. Huang, M. Boy, A. Virkkula, X.-Q. Yang, C. B. Fu, and M. Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 12445–12464,Short summary
We report 2 years of measurements of submicron particles at the SORPES station and provide a comprehensive understanding of main factors controlling temporal variation of the aerosol size distribution and NPF in eastern China. The number concentrations of total particles at Nanjing were comparable to other Chinese megacities but the frequency of NPF was much higher. Year-to-year differences of meteorological conditions could significantly influence the seasonal cycle of NPF and growth.
T. Nieminen, T. Yli-Juuti, H. E. Manninen, T. Petäjä, V.-M. Kerminen, and M. Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 12385–12396,
M. Paramonov, V.-M. Kerminen, M. Gysel, P. P. Aalto, M. O. Andreae, E. Asmi, U. Baltensperger, A. Bougiatioti, D. Brus, G. P. Frank, N. Good, S. S. Gunthe, L. Hao, M. Irwin, A. Jaatinen, Z. Jurányi, S. M. King, A. Kortelainen, A. Kristensson, H. Lihavainen, M. Kulmala, U. Lohmann, S. T. Martin, G. McFiggans, N. Mihalopoulos, A. Nenes, C. D. O'Dowd, J. Ovadnevaite, T. Petäjä, U. Pöschl, G. C. Roberts, D. Rose, B. Svenningsson, E. Swietlicki, E. Weingartner, J. Whitehead, A. Wiedensohler, C. Wittbom, and B. Sierau
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 12211–12229,Short summary
The research paper presents the first comprehensive overview of field measurements with the CCN Counter performed at a large number of locations around the world within the EUCAARI framework. The paper sheds light on the CCN number concentrations and activated fractions around the world and their dependence on the water vapour supersaturation ratio, the dependence of aerosol hygroscopicity on particle size, and seasonal and diurnal variation of CCN activation and hygroscopic properties.
J. Hong, J. Kim, T. Nieminen, J. Duplissy, M. Ehn, M. Äijälä, L. Q. Hao, W. Nie, N. Sarnela, N. L. Prisle, M. Kulmala, A. Virtanen, T. Petäjä, and V.-M. Kerminen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 11999–12009,
M. K. Kajos, P. Rantala, M. Hill, H. Hellén, J. Aalto, J. Patokoski, R. Taipale, C. C. Hoerger, S. Reimann, T. M. Ruuskanen, J. Rinne, and T. Petäjä
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 4453–4473,
A. Virkkula, X. Chi, A. Ding, Y. Shen, W. Nie, X. Qi, L. Zheng, X. Huang, Y. Xie, J. Wang, T. Petäjä, and M. Kulmala
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 4415–4427,Short summary
Aerosol optical properties were measured with a seven-wavelength aethalometer and a three-wavelength nephelometer in Nanjing, China, in September 2013–January 2015. The aethalometer compensation parameter k depended on the backscatter fraction, measured with an independent method, the integrating nephelometer. The compensation parameter decreased with increasing single-scattering albedo.
M. Sipilä, N. Sarnela, T. Jokinen, H. Junninen, J. Hakala, M. P. Rissanen, A. Praplan, M. Simon, A. Kürten, F. Bianchi, J. Dommen, J. Curtius, T. Petäjä, and D. R. Worsnop
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 4001–4011,Short summary
Atmospheric concentrations of amines are poorly known mainly due to challenges related to their reliable high-sensitivity detection. We have created a method and instrument that is capable for detecting amines with lowest limit of detection of around 0.01 parts per trillion. Application of the instrument in the field study indicates that concentrations of dimethyl amine in a boreal forest site are below 0.03ppt, not enough to account for the observed new particle formation rates.
A. Kürten, S. Münch, L. Rondo, F. Bianchi, J. Duplissy, T. Jokinen, H. Junninen, N. Sarnela, S. Schobesberger, M. Simon, M. Sipilä, J. Almeida, A. Amorim, J. Dommen, N. M. Donahue, E. M. Dunne, R. C. Flagan, A. Franchin, J. Kirkby, A. Kupc, V. Makhmutov, T. Petäjä, A. P. Praplan, F. Riccobono, G. Steiner, A. Tomé, G. Tsagkogeorgas, P. E. Wagner, D. Wimmer, U. Baltensperger, M. Kulmala, D. R. Worsnop, and J. Curtius
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 10701–10721,Short summary
New particle formation (NPF) is an important atmospheric process. At cold temperatures in the upper troposphere the binary (H2SO4-H2O) and ternary (H2SO4-H2O-NH3) system are thought to be important for NPF. Sulfuric acid monomer (H2SO4) and sulfuric acid dimer ((H2SO4)2) concentrations were measured between 208 and 248K for these systems and dimer evaporation rates were derived. These data will help to better understand and predict binary and ternary nucleation at low temperatures.
M. Pikridas, J. Sciare, F. Freutel, S. Crumeyrolle, S.-L. von der Weiden-Reinmüller, A. Borbon, A. Schwarzenboeck, M. Merkel, M. Crippa, E. Kostenidou, M. Psichoudaki, L. Hildebrandt, G. J. Engelhart, T. Petäjä, A. S. H. Prévôt, F. Drewnick, U. Baltensperger, A. Wiedensohler, M. Kulmala, M. Beekmann, and S. N. Pandis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 10219–10237,Short summary
Aerosol size distribution measurements from three ground sites, two mobile laboratories, and one airplane are combined to investigate the spatial and temporal variability of ultrafine particles in and around Paris during the summer and winter MEGAPOLI campaigns. The role of nucleation as a particle source and the influence of Paris emissions on their surroundings are examined.
N. Kalivitis, V.-M. Kerminen, G. Kouvarakis, I. Stavroulas, A. Bougiatioti, A. Nenes, H. E. Manninen, T. Petäjä, M. Kulmala, and N. Mihalopoulos
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 9203–9215,Short summary
Cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) production associated with atmospheric new particle formation (NPF) is presented, and this is the first direct evidence of CCN production resulting from NPF in the eastern Mediterranean atmosphere. We show that condensation of both gaseous sulfuric acid and organic compounds from multiple sources leads to the rapid growth of nucleated particles. Sub-100nm particles were found to be substantially less hygroscopic than larger particles during the active NPF period.
P. Zieger, P. P. Aalto, V. Aaltonen, M. Äijälä, J. Backman, J. Hong, M. Komppula, R. Krejci, M. Laborde, J. Lampilahti, G. de Leeuw, A. Pfüller, B. Rosati, M. Tesche, P. Tunved, R. Väänänen, and T. Petäjä
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 7247–7267,Short summary
The effect of water uptake (hygroscopicity) on aerosol light scattering properties is generally lower for boreal aerosol due to the dominance of organic substances. A columnar optical closure study using ground-based and airborne measurements of aerosol optical, chemical and microphysical properties was conducted and the implications and limitations are discussed.
A. Franchin, S. Ehrhart, J. Leppä, T. Nieminen, S. Gagné, S. Schobesberger, D. Wimmer, J. Duplissy, F. Riccobono, E. M. Dunne, L. Rondo, A. Downard, F. Bianchi, A. Kupc, G. Tsagkogeorgas, K. Lehtipalo, H. E. Manninen, J. Almeida, A. Amorim, P. E. Wagner, A. Hansel, J. Kirkby, A. Kürten, N. M. Donahue, V. Makhmutov, S. Mathot, A. Metzger, T. Petäjä, R. Schnitzhofer, M. Sipilä, Y. Stozhkov, A. Tomé, V.-M. Kerminen, K. Carslaw, J. Curtius, U. Baltensperger, and M. Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 7203–7216,Short summary
The ion-ion recombination coefficient was measured at different temperatures, relative humidities and concentrations of ozone and sulfur dioxide. The experiments were carried out using the CLOUD chamber at CERN. We observed a strong dependency on temperature and on relative humidity, which has not been reported previously. No dependency of the ion-ion recombination coefficient on ozone concentration was observed and a weak variation with sulfur dioxide concentration was also observed.
X. Zhang, R. H. Schwantes, R. C. McVay, H. Lignell, M. M. Coggon, R. C. Flagan, and J. H. Seinfeld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 4197–4214,Short summary
We present an experimental protocol to constrain the nature of organic vapor--wall deposition in Teflon chambers and develop an empirical model to predict the wall-induced deposition rate of intermediate/semi/non-volatility organic vapors in chambers.
W. Nie, A. J. Ding, Y. N. Xie, Z. Xu, H. Mao, V.-M. Kerminen, L. F. Zheng, X. M. Qi, X. Huang, X.-Q. Yang, J. N. Sun, E. Herrmann, T. Petäjä, M. Kulmala, and C. B. Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 1147–1159,
H. Vuollekoski, M. Vogt, V. A. Sinclair, J. Duplissy, H. Järvinen, E.-M. Kyrö, R. Makkonen, T. Petäjä, N. L. Prisle, P. Räisänen, M. Sipilä, J. Ylhäisi, and M. Kulmala
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 601–613,Short summary
The global potential for collecting usable water from dew on an artificial collector sheet was investigated by utilising 34 years of meteorological reanalysis data as input to a dew formation model. Continental dew formation was found to be frequent and common, but daily yields were mostly below 0.1mm.
R. Oswald, M. Ermel, K. Hens, A. Novelli, H. G. Ouwersloot, P. Paasonen, T. Petäjä, M. Sipilä, P. Keronen, J. Bäck, R. Königstedt, Z. Hosaynali Beygi, H. Fischer, B. Bohn, D. Kubistin, H. Harder, M. Martinez, J. Williams, T. Hoffmann, I. Trebs, and M. Sörgel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 799–813,Short summary
Nitrous acid (HONO) is a key species in atmospheric photochemistry since the photolysis leads to the important hydroxyl radical (OH). Although the importance of HONO as a precursor of OH is known, the formation pathways of HONO, especially during daytime, are a major challenge in atmospheric science. We present a detailed analysis of sources and sinks for HONO in the atmosphere for a field measurement campaign in the boreal forest in Finland and wonder if there is really a source term missing.
S. Schobesberger, A. Franchin, F. Bianchi, L. Rondo, J. Duplissy, A. Kürten, I. K. Ortega, A. Metzger, R. Schnitzhofer, J. Almeida, A. Amorim, J. Dommen, E. M. Dunne, M. Ehn, S. Gagné, L. Ickes, H. Junninen, A. Hansel, V.-M. Kerminen, J. Kirkby, A. Kupc, A. Laaksonen, K. Lehtipalo, S. Mathot, A. Onnela, T. Petäjä, F. Riccobono, F. D. Santos, M. Sipilä, A. Tomé, G. Tsagkogeorgas, Y. Viisanen, P. E. Wagner, D. Wimmer, J. Curtius, N. M. Donahue, U. Baltensperger, M. Kulmala, and D. R. Worsnop
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 55–78,Short summary
We used an ion mass spectrometer at CERN's CLOUD chamber to investigate the detailed composition of ammonia--sulfuric acid ion clusters (of both polarities) as they initially form and then grow into aerosol particles, at atmospherically relevant conditions. We found that these clusters’ composition is mainly determined by the ratio of the precursor vapors and ranges from ammonia-free clusters to clusters containing > 1 ammonia per sulfuric acid. Acid--base bindings are a key formation mechanism.
J. Backman, A. Virkkula, V. Vakkari, J. P. Beukes, P. G. Van Zyl, M. Josipovic, S. Piketh, P. Tiitta, K. Chiloane, T. Petäjä, M. Kulmala, and L. Laakso
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 4285–4298,
M. Sipilä, T. Jokinen, T. Berndt, S. Richters, R. Makkonen, N. M. Donahue, R. L. Mauldin III, T. Kurtén, P. Paasonen, N. Sarnela, M. Ehn, H. Junninen, M. P. Rissanen, J. Thornton, F. Stratmann, H. Herrmann, D. R. Worsnop, M. Kulmala, V.-M. Kerminen, and T. Petäjä
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 12143–12153,
L. Rondo, A. Kürten, S. Ehrhart, S. Schobesberger, A. Franchin, H. Junninen, T. Petäjä, M. Sipilä, D. R. Worsnop, and J. Curtius
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 3849–3859,
J. Kukkonen, J. Nikmo, M. Sofiev, K. Riikonen, T. Petäjä, A. Virkkula, J. Levula, S. Schobesberger, and D. M. Webber
Geosci. Model Dev., 7, 2663–2681,
K. Hens, A. Novelli, M. Martinez, J. Auld, R. Axinte, B. Bohn, H. Fischer, P. Keronen, D. Kubistin, A. C. Nölscher, R. Oswald, P. Paasonen, T. Petäjä, E. Regelin, R. Sander, V. Sinha, M. Sipilä, D. Taraborrelli, C. Tatum Ernest, J. Williams, J. Lelieveld, and H. Harder
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 8723–8747,
M. Crippa, F. Canonaco, V. A. Lanz, M. Äijälä, J. D. Allan, S. Carbone, G. Capes, D. Ceburnis, M. Dall'Osto, D. A. Day, P. F. DeCarlo, M. Ehn, A. Eriksson, E. Freney, L. Hildebrandt Ruiz, R. Hillamo, J. L. Jimenez, H. Junninen, A. Kiendler-Scharr, A.-M. Kortelainen, M. Kulmala, A. Laaksonen, A. A. Mensah, C. Mohr, E. Nemitz, C. O'Dowd, J. Ovadnevaite, S. N. Pandis, T. Petäjä, L. Poulain, S. Saarikoski, K. Sellegri, E. Swietlicki, P. Tiitta, D. R. Worsnop, U. Baltensperger, and A. S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 6159–6176,
A. Hirsikko, E. J. O'Connor, M. Komppula, K. Korhonen, A. Pfüller, E. Giannakaki, C. R. Wood, M. Bauer-Pfundstein, A. Poikonen, T. Karppinen, H. Lonka, M. Kurri, J. Heinonen, D. Moisseev, E. Asmi, V. Aaltonen, A. Nordbo, E. Rodriguez, H. Lihavainen, A. Laaksonen, K. E. J. Lehtinen, T. Laurila, T. Petäjä, M. Kulmala, and Y. Viisanen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 1351–1375,
J. Hong, S. A. K. Häkkinen, M. Paramonov, M. Äijälä, J. Hakala, T. Nieminen, J. Mikkilä, N. L. Prisle, M. Kulmala, I. Riipinen, M. Bilde, V.-M. Kerminen, and T. Petäjä
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 4733–4748,
A. Virkkula, J. Levula, T. Pohja, P. P. Aalto, P. Keronen, S. Schobesberger, C. B. Clements, L. Pirjola, A.-J. Kieloaho, L. Kulmala, H. Aaltonen, J. Patokoski, J. Pumpanen, J. Rinne, T. Ruuskanen, M. Pihlatie, H. E. Manninen, V. Aaltonen, H. Junninen, T. Petäjä, J. Backman, M. Dal Maso, T. Nieminen, T. Olsson, T. Grönholm, J. Aalto, T. H. Virtanen, M. Kajos, V.-M. Kerminen, D. M. Schultz, J. Kukkonen, M. Sofiev, G. De Leeuw, J. Bäck, P. Hari, and M. Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 4473–4502,
E.-M. Kyrö, R. Väänänen, V.-M. Kerminen, A. Virkkula, T. Petäjä, A. Asmi, M. Dal Maso, T. Nieminen, S. Juhola, A. Shcherbinin, I. Riipinen, K. Lehtipalo, P. Keronen, P. P. Aalto, P. Hari, and M. Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 4383–4396,
R. Zhang, T. Duhl, M. T. Salam, J. M. House, R. C. Flagan, E. L. Avol, F. D. Gilliland, A. Guenther, S. H. Chung, B. K. Lamb, and T. M. VanReken
Biogeosciences, 11, 1461–1478,
J. Kangasluoma, C. Kuang, D. Wimmer, M. P. Rissanen, K. Lehtipalo, M. Ehn, D. R. Worsnop, J. Wang, M. Kulmala, and T. Petäjä
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 689–700,
E. Herrmann, A. J. Ding, V.-M. Kerminen, T. Petäjä, X. Q. Yang, J. N. Sun, X. M. Qi, H. Manninen, J. Hakala, T. Nieminen, P. P. Aalto, M. Kulmala, and C. B. Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 2169–2183,
C. L. Loza, J. S. Craven, L. D. Yee, M. M. Coggon, R. H. Schwantes, M. Shiraiwa, X. Zhang, K. A. Schilling, N. L. Ng, M. R. Canagaratna, P. J. Ziemann, R. C. Flagan, and J. H. Seinfeld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 1423–1439,
T. Yli-Juuti, K. Barsanti, L. Hildebrandt Ruiz, A.-J. Kieloaho, U. Makkonen, T. Petäjä, T. Ruuskanen, M. Kulmala, and I. Riipinen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 12507–12524,
A. L. Corrigan, L. M. Russell, S. Takahama, M. Äijälä, M. Ehn, H. Junninen, J. Rinne, T. Petäjä, M. Kulmala, A. L. Vogel, T. Hoffmann, C. J. Ebben, F. M. Geiger, P. Chhabra, J. H. Seinfeld, D. R. Worsnop, W. Song, J. Auld, and J. Williams
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 12233–12256,
C. J. Schumacher, C. Pöhlker, P. Aalto, V. Hiltunen, T. Petäjä, M. Kulmala, U. Pöschl, and J. A. Huffman
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 11987–12001,
L. D. Yee, J. S. Craven, C. L. Loza, K. A. Schilling, N. L. Ng, M. R. Canagaratna, P. J. Ziemann, R. C. Flagan, and J. H. Seinfeld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 11121–11140,
A. L. Vogel, M. Äijälä, A. L. Corrigan, H. Junninen, M. Ehn, T. Petäjä, D. R. Worsnop, M. Kulmala, L. M. Russell, J. Williams, and T. Hoffmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 10933–10950,
A. J. Ding, C. B. Fu, X. Q. Yang, J. N. Sun, T. Petäjä, V.-M. Kerminen, T. Wang, Y. Xie, E. Herrmann, L. F. Zheng, W. Nie, Q. Liu, X. L. Wei, and M. Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 10545–10554,
M. Paramonov, P. P. Aalto, A. Asmi, N. Prisle, V.-M. Kerminen, M. Kulmala, and T. Petäjä
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 10285–10301,
M. R. Pennington, B. R. Bzdek, J. W. DePalma, J. N. Smith, A.-M. Kortelainen, L. Hildebrandt Ruiz, T. Petäjä, M. Kulmala, D. R. Worsnop, and M. V. Johnston
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 10215–10225,
L. D. Yee, K. E. Kautzman, C. L. Loza, K. A. Schilling, M. M. Coggon, P. S. Chhabra, M. N. Chan, A. W. H. Chan, S. P. Hersey, J. D. Crounse, P. O. Wennberg, R. C. Flagan, and J. H. Seinfeld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 8019–8043,
E. Järvinen, A. Virkkula, T. Nieminen, P. P. Aalto, E. Asmi, C. Lanconelli, M. Busetto, A. Lupi, R. Schioppo, V. Vitale, M. Mazzola, T. Petäjä, V.-M. Kerminen, and M. Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 7473–7487,
M. K. Kajos, H. Hakola, T. Holst, T. Nieminen, V. Tarvainen, T. Maximov, T. Petäjä, A. Arneth, and J. Rinne
Biogeosciences, 10, 4705–4719,
H. Keskinen, A. Virtanen, J. Joutsensaari, G. Tsagkogeorgas, J. Duplissy, S. Schobesberger, M. Gysel, F. Riccobono, J. G. Slowik, F. Bianchi, T. Yli-Juuti, K. Lehtipalo, L. Rondo, M. Breitenlechner, A. Kupc, J. Almeida, A. Amorim, E. M. Dunne, A. J. Downard, S. Ehrhart, A. Franchin, M.K. Kajos, J. Kirkby, A. Kürten, T. Nieminen, V. Makhmutov, S. Mathot, P. Miettinen, A. Onnela, T. Petäjä, A. Praplan, F. D. Santos, S. Schallhart, M. Sipilä, Y. Stozhkov, A. Tomé, P. Vaattovaara, D. Wimmer, A. Prevot, J. Dommen, N. M. Donahue, R.C. Flagan, E. Weingartner, Y. Viisanen, I. Riipinen, A. Hansel, J. Curtius, M. Kulmala, D. R. Worsnop, U. Baltensperger, H. Wex, F. Stratmann, and A. Laaksonen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 5587–5600,
A. I. Hienola, J.-P. Pietikäinen, D. Jacob, R. Pozdun, T. Petäjä, A.-P. Hyvärinen, L. Sogacheva, V.-M. Kerminen, M. Kulmala, and A. Laaksonen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 4033–4055,
M. Boy, D. Mogensen, S. Smolander, L. Zhou, T. Nieminen, P. Paasonen, C. Plass-Dülmer, M. Sipilä, T. Petäjä, L. Mauldin, H. Berresheim, and M. Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 3865–3879,
T. R. Duhl, R. Zhang, A. Guenther, S. H. Chung, M. T. Salam, J. M. House, R. C. Flagan, E. L. Avol, F. D. Gilliland, B. K. Lamb, T. M. VanReken, Y. Zhang, and E. Salathé
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
A. L. Vogel, M. Äijälä, M. Brüggemann, M. Ehn, H. Junninen, T. Petäjä, D. R. Worsnop, M. Kulmala, J. Williams, and T. Hoffmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 431–443,
E. Herrmann, A. J. Ding, T. Petäjä, X. Q. Yang, J. N. Sun, X. M. Qi, H. Manninen, J. Hakala, T. Nieminen, P. P. Aalto, V.-M. Kerminen, M. Kulmala, and C. B. Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
V.-M. Kerminen, M. Paramonov, T. Anttila, I. Riipinen, C. Fountoukis, H. Korhonen, E. Asmi, L. Laakso, H. Lihavainen, E. Swietlicki, B. Svenningsson, A. Asmi, S. N. Pandis, M. Kulmala, and T. Petäjä
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 12037–12059,
T. Viskari, E. Asmi, P. Kolmonen, H. Vuollekoski, T. Petäjä, and H. Järvinen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 11767–11779,
T. Viskari, E. Asmi, A. Virkkula, P. Kolmonen, T. Petäjä, and H. Järvinen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 11781–11793,
J. S. Craven, L. D. Yee, N. L. Ng, M. R. Canagaratna, C. L. Loza, K. A. Schilling, R. L. N. Yatavelli, J. A. Thornton, P. J. Ziemann, R. C. Flagan, and J. H. Seinfeld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 11795–11817,
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https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-14-4465-2021,https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-14-4465-2021, 2021Short summaryThe subseasonal prediction of extreme hydroclimate events such as droughts/floods has remained stubbornly low for years. This paper presents a new international initiative which, for the first time, introduces spring land surface temperature anomalies over high mountains to improve precipitation prediction through remote effects of land–atmosphere interactions. More than 40 institutions worldwide are participating in this effort. The experimental protocol and preliminary results are presented.Sensitivity analysis of the PALM model system 6.0 in the urban environmentInvestigating the importance of sub-grid particle formation in point source plumes over eastern China using IAP-AACM v1.0 with a sub-grid parameterizationSCARLET-1.0: SpheriCal Approximation for viRtuaL aggrEgaTesBARRA v1.0: kilometre-scale downscaling of an Australian regional atmospheric reanalysis over four midlatitude domainsGrid-independent high-resolution dust emissions (v1.0) for chemical transport models: application to GEOS-Chem (12.5.0)Oxidation of low-molecular-weight organic compounds in cloud droplets: development of the Jülich Aqueous-phase Mechanism of Organic Chemistry (JAMOC) in CAABA/MECCA (version 4.5.0)Prediction of source contributions to urban background PM10 concentrations in European cities: a case study for an episode in December 2016 using EMEP/MSC-W rv4.15 – Part 2: The city contributionVertical structure of cloud radiative heating in the tropics: confronting the EC-Earth v3.3.1/3P model with satellite observationsEvaluation of the offline-coupled GFSv15–FV3–CMAQv5.0.2 in support of the next-generation National Air Quality Forecast Capability over the contiguous United StatesMSDM v1.0: A machine learning model for precipitation nowcasting over eastern China using multisource dataA climatology of tropical wind shear produced by clustering wind profiles from the Met Office Unified Model (GA7.0)Surface representation impacts on turbulent heat fluxes in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model (v.4.1.3)Effects of heterogeneous reactions on tropospheric chemistry: a global simulation with the chemistry–climate model CHASER V4.0Development of a large-eddy simulation subgrid model based on artificial neural networks: a case study of turbulent channel flowWRF-GC (v2.0): online two-way coupling of WRF (v126.96.36.199) and GEOS-Chem (v12.7.2) for modeling regional atmospheric chemistry–meteorology interactionsModifying emissions scenario projections to account for the effects of COVID-19: protocol for CovidMIPTowards an improved treatment of cloud–radiation interaction in weather and climate models: exploring the potential of the Tripleclouds method for various cloud types using libRadtran 2.0.4A model for urban biogenic CO2 fluxes: Solar-Induced Fluorescence for Modeling Urban biogenic Fluxes (SMUrF v1)OpenIFS@home version 1: a citizen science project for ensemble weather and climate forecastingRegional CO2 inversions with LUMIA, the Lund University Modular Inversion Algorithm, v1.0The Detailed Emissions Scaling, Isolation, and Diagnostic (DESID) module in the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system version 5.3.2Evaluation of the dynamic core of the PALM model system 6.0 in a neutrally stratified urban environment: comparison between LES and wind-tunnel experimentsImplementing a sectional scheme for early aerosol growth from new particle formation in the Norwegian Earth System Model v2: comparison to observations and climate impactsLimitations of WRF land surface models for simulating land use and land cover change in Sub-Saharan Africa and development of an improved model (CLM-AF v. 1.0)Simulation of O3 and NOx in São Paulo street urban canyons with VEIN (v0.2.2) and MUNICH (v1.0)A case study of wind farm effects using two wake parameterizations in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model (V3.7.1) in the presence of low-level jetsRadiative Transfer Model 3.0 integrated into the PALM model system 6.0
Syuichi Itahashi, Rohit Mathur, Christian Hogrefe, Sergey L. Napelenok, and Yang Zhang
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 5751–5768,Short summary
The Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system extended for hemispheric-scale applications (H-CMAQ) incorporated the satellite-constrained degassing SO2 emissions from 50 volcanos across the Northern Hemisphere. The impact on tropospheric sulfate aerosol (SO42−) is assessed for 2010. Although the considered volcanic emissions occurred at or below the middle of free troposphere (500 hPa), SO42− enhancements of more than 10 % were detected up to the top of free troposphere (250 hPa).
Annika Vogel and Hendrik Elbern
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 5583–5605,Short summary
While atmospheric chemical forecasts rely on uncertain model parameters, their huge dimensions hamper an efficient uncertainty estimation. This study presents a novel approach to efficiently sample these uncertainties by extracting dominant dependencies and correlations. Applying the algorithm to biogenic emissions, their uncertainties can be estimated from a low number of dominant components. This states the capability of an efficient treatment of parameter uncertainties in atmospheric models.
Jianbing Jin, Arjo Segers, Hai Xiang Lin, Bas Henzing, Xiaohui Wang, Arnold Heemink, and Hong Liao
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 5607–5622,Short summary
When discussing the accuracy of a dust forecast, the shape and position of the plume as well as the intensity are key elements. The position forecast determines which locations will be affected, while the intensity only describes the actual dust level. A dust forecast with position misfit directly results in incorrect timing profiles of dust loads. In this paper, an image-morphing-based data assimilation is designed for realigning a simulated dust plume to correct for the position error.
Timofei Sukhodolov, Tatiana Egorova, Andrea Stenke, William T. Ball, Christina Brodowsky, Gabriel Chiodo, Aryeh Feinberg, Marina Friedel, Arseniy Karagodin-Doyennel, Thomas Peter, Jan Sedlacek, Sandro Vattioni, and Eugene Rozanov
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 5525–5560,Short summary
This paper features the new atmosphere–ocean–aerosol–chemistry–climate model SOCOLv4.0 and its validation. The model performance is evaluated against reanalysis products and observations of atmospheric circulation and trace gas distribution, with a focus on stratospheric processes. Although we identified some problems to be addressed in further model upgrades, we demonstrated that SOCOLv4.0 is already well suited for studies related to chemistry–climate–aerosol interactions.
Haipeng Lin, Daniel J. Jacob, Elizabeth W. Lundgren, Melissa P. Sulprizio, Christoph A. Keller, Thibaud M. Fritz, Sebastian D. Eastham, Louisa K. Emmons, Patrick C. Campbell, Barry Baker, Rick D. Saylor, and Raffaele Montuoro
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 5487–5506,Short summary
Emissions are a central component of atmospheric chemistry models. The Harmonized Emissions Component (HEMCO) is a software component for computing emissions from a user-selected ensemble of emission inventories and algorithms. It allows users to select, add, and scale emissions from different sources through a configuration file with no change to the model source code. We demonstrate the implementation of HEMCO in several models, all sharing the same HEMCO core code and database library.
Eckhard Kadasch, Matthias Sühring, Tobias Gronemeier, and Siegfried Raasch
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 5435–5465,Short summary
In this paper, we provide a technical description of a newly developed interface for coupling the PALM model system 6.0 to the weather prediction model COSMO. The interface allows users of PALM to simulate the detailed atmospheric flow for relatively small regions of tens of kilometres under specific weather conditions, for instance, periods around observation campaigns or extreme weather situations. We demonstrate the interface using a benchmark simulation.
Sebastien Massart, Niels Bormann, Massimo Bonavita, and Cristina Lupu
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 5467–5485,Short summary
Numerical weather predictions combine data from satellites with atmospheric forecasts. Some satellites measure the radiance emitted by the Earth's surface. To use this data, one must have knowledge of the surface properties, like the temperature of the thin layer above the surface. Error in this temperature leads to a misuse of the satellite data and affects the quality of the weather forecast. We updated our approach to better estimate this temperature, which should help improve the forecast.
Saulo R. Freitas, Georg A. Grell, and Haiqin Li
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 5393–5411,Short summary
Convection parameterization (CP) is a component of atmospheric models aiming to represent the statistical effects of subgrid-scale convective clouds. Because the atmosphere contains circulations with a broad spectrum of scales, the truncation needed to run models in computers requires the introduction of parameterizations to account for processes that are not explicitly resolved. We detail recent developments in the Grell–Freitas CP, which has been applied in several regional and global models.
Edmund Ryan and Oliver Wild
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 5373–5391,Short summary
Atmospheric chemistry transport models are important tools to investigate the local, regional and global controls on atmospheric composition and air quality. In this study, we estimate some of the model parameters using machine learning and statistics. Our findings identify the level of error and spatial coverage in the O2 and CO data that are needed to achieve good parameter estimates. We also highlight the benefits of using multiple constraints to calibrate atmospheric chemistry models.
Antoine Berchet, Espen Sollum, Rona L. Thompson, Isabelle Pison, Joël Thanwerdas, Grégoire Broquet, Frédéric Chevallier, Tuula Aalto, Adrien Berchet, Peter Bergamaschi, Dominik Brunner, Richard Engelen, Audrey Fortems-Cheiney, Christoph Gerbig, Christine D. Groot Zwaaftink, Jean-Matthieu Haussaire, Stephan Henne, Sander Houweling, Ute Karstens, Werner L. Kutsch, Ingrid T. Luijkx, Guillaume Monteil, Paul I. Palmer, Jacob C. A. van Peet, Wouter Peters, Philippe Peylin, Elise Potier, Christian Rödenbeck, Marielle Saunois, Marko Scholze, Aki Tsuruta, and Yuanhong Zhao
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 5331–5354,Short summary
We present here the Community Inversion Framework (CIF) to help rationalize development efforts and leverage the strengths of individual inversion systems into a comprehensive framework. The CIF is a programming protocol to allow various inversion bricks to be exchanged among researchers. The ensemble of bricks makes a flexible, transparent and open-source Python-based tool. We describe the main structure and functionalities and demonstrate it in a simple academic case.
Katrin Frieda Gehrke, Matthias Sühring, and Björn Maronga
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 5307–5329,
James Weber, Scott Archer-Nicholls, Nathan Luke Abraham, Youngsub M. Shin, Thomas J. Bannan, Carl J. Percival, Asan Bacak, Paulo Artaxo, Michael Jenkin, M. Anwar H. Khan, Dudley E. Shallcross, Rebecca H. Schwantes, Jonathan Williams, and Alex T. Archibald
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 5239–5268,Short summary
The new mechanism CRI-Strat 2 features state-of-the-art isoprene chemistry not previously available in UKCA and improves UKCA's ability to reproduce observed concentrations of isoprene, monoterpenes, and OH in tropical regions. The enhanced ability to model isoprene, the most widely emitted non-methane volatile organic compound (VOC), will allow understanding of how isoprene and other biogenic VOCs affect atmospheric composition and, through biosphere–atmosphere feedbacks, climate change.
Zhiyong Wu, Leiming Zhang, John T. Walker, Paul A. Makar, Judith A. Perlinger, and Xuemei Wang
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 5093–5105,Short summary
A community dry deposition algorithm for modeling the gaseous dry deposition process in chemistry transport models was extended to include an additional 12 oxidized volatile organic compounds and hydrogen cyanide based on their physicochemical properties and was then evaluated using field flux measurements over a mixed forest. This study provides a useful tool that is needed in chemistry transport models with increasing complexity for simulating an important atmospheric process.
Huan Fang, Wendell W. Walters, David Mase, and Greg Michalski
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 5001–5022,Short summary
A new photochemical reaction scheme that incorporates nitrogen isotopes has been developed to simulate isotope tracers in air pollution. The model contains 16 N compounds, and 96 reactions involving N used in the Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Mechanism (RACM) were replicated using 15N in a new mechanism called iNRACM. The model is able to predict d15N variations in NOx, HONO, and HNO3 that are similar to those observed in aerosol and gases in the troposphere.
Christina Heinze-Deml, Sebastian Sippel, Angeline G. Pendergrass, Flavio Lehner, and Nicolai Meinshausen
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 4977–4999,Short summary
Quantifying dynamical and thermodynamical components of regional precipitation change is a key challenge in climate science. We introduce a novel statistical model (Latent Linear Adjustment Autoencoder) that combines the flexibility of deep neural networks with the robustness advantages of linear regression. The method enables estimation of the contribution of a coarse-scale atmospheric circulation proxy to daily precipitation at high resolution and in a spatially coherent manner.
Jaroslav Resler, Kryštof Eben, Jan Geletič, Pavel Krč, Martin Rosecký, Matthias Sühring, Michal Belda, Vladimír Fuka, Tomáš Halenka, Peter Huszár, Jan Karlický, Nina Benešová, Jana Ďoubalová, Kateřina Honzáková, Josef Keder, Šárka Nápravníková, and Ondřej Vlček
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 4797–4842,Short summary
We describe validation of the PALM model v6.0 against measurements collected during two observational campaigns in Dejvice, Prague. The study focuses on the evaluation of the newly developed or improved radiative and energy balance modules in PALM related to urban modelling. In addition to the energy-related quantities, it also evaluates air flow and air quality under street canyon conditions.
Xiaoling Liu, August L. Weinbren, He Chang, Jovan M. Tadić, Marikate E. Mountain, Michael E. Trudeau, Arlyn E. Andrews, Zichong Chen, and Scot M. Miller
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 4683–4696,Short summary
Observations of greenhouse gases have become far more numerous in recent years due to new satellite observations. The sheer size of these datasets makes it challenging to incorporate these data into statistical models and use these data to estimate greenhouse gas sources and sinks. In this paper, we develop an approach to reduce the size of these datasets while preserving the most information possible. We subsequently test this approach using satellite observations of carbon dioxide.
Claudio A. Belis, Guido Pirovano, Maria Gabriella Villani, Giuseppe Calori, Nicola Pepe, and Jean Philippe Putaud
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 4731–4750,Short summary
The study presents an in-depth analysis of the implications that using different CTM source apportionment approaches (tagged species and brute force) have for the source allocation of secondary inorganic aerosol, an important component of PM10 and PM2.5. A set of runs combining different emission levels and models was carried out, aiming to describe the situations in which strong non-linearity may lead the two approaches to deliver different results and when they are expected to be comparable.
Luolin Wu, Jian Hang, Xuemei Wang, Min Shao, and Cheng Gong
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 4655–4681,Short summary
In order to investigate street-scale flow and air quality, this study has developed APFoam 1.0 to examine the reactive pollutant formation and dispersion in the urban area. The model has been validated and shows good agreement with wind tunnel experimental data. Model sensitivity cases reveal that vehicle emissions, background concentrations, and wind conditions are the key factors affecting the photochemical reaction process.
Lin Huang, Song Liu, Zeyuan Yang, Jia Xing, Jia Zhang, Jiang Bian, Siwei Li, Shovan Kumar Sahu, Shuxiao Wang, and Tie-Yan Liu
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 4641–4654,Short summary
Accurate estimation of emissions is a prerequisite for effectively controlling air pollution, but current methods lack either sufficient data or a representation of nonlinearity. Here, we proposed a novel deep learning method to model the dual relationship between emissions and pollutant concentrations. Emissions can be updated by back-propagating the gradient of the loss function measuring the deviation between simulations and observations, resulting in better model performance.
Christian Zeman, Nils P. Wedi, Peter D. Dueben, Nikolina Ban, and Christoph Schär
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 4617–4639,Short summary
Kilometer-scale atmospheric models allow us to partially resolve thunderstorms and thus improve their representation. We present an intercomparison between two distinct atmospheric models for 2 summer days with heavy thunderstorms over Europe. We show the dependence of precipitation and vertical wind speed on spatial and temporal resolution and also discuss the possible influence of the system of equations, numerical methods, and diffusion in the models.
Edward C. Chan and Timothy M. Butler
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 4555–4572,Short summary
A large-eddy simulation based chemical transport model is implemented for an idealized street canyon. The dynamics of the model are evaluated using stationary measurements. A transient model run is also conducted over a 24 h period, where variations of pollutant concentrations indicate dependence on emissions, background concentrations, and solar state. Comparison stationary model runs show changes in flow structure concentrations.
Michal Belda, Jaroslav Resler, Jan Geletič, Pavel Krč, Björn Maronga, Matthias Sühring, Mona Kurppa, Farah Kanani-Sühring, Vladimír Fuka, Kryštof Eben, Nina Benešová, and Mikko Auvinen
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 4443–4464,Short summary
The analysis summarizes how sensitive the modelling of urban environment is to changes in physical parameters describing the city (e.g. reflectivity of surfaces) and to several heat island mitigation scenarios in a city quarter in Prague, Czech Republic. We used the large-eddy simulation modelling system PALM 6.0. Surface parameters connected to radiation show the highest sensitivity in this configuration. For heat island mitigation, urban vegetation is shown to be the most effective measure.
Ying Wei, Xueshun Chen, Huansheng Chen, Yele Sun, Wenyi Yang, Huiyun Du, Qizhong Wu, Dan Chen, Xiujuan Zhao, Jie Li, and Zifa Wang
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 4411–4428,Short summary
The sub-grid particle formation (SGPF) in plumes plays an important role in air pollution and climate. We coupled an SGPF scheme to a chemical transport model with an aerosol microphysics module and applied it to investigate the SGPF impact over China. The scheme clearly improved the model performance in simulating aerosol components and particle number at typical sites influenced by point sources. The results indicate the significant effects of SGPF on aerosol particles in industrial areas.
Eduardo Rossi and Costanza Bonadonna
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 4379–4400,Short summary
SCARLET-1.0 is a MATLAB package that creates virtual aggregates starting from a population of irregular shapes. Shapes are described in terms of the Standard Triangulation Language (STL) format, and this allows importing a great variety of shapes, such as from 3D scanning. The package produces a new STL file as an output and different analytical information about the packing, such as the porosity. It has been specifically designed for use in volcanology and scientific education.
Chun-Hsu Su, Nathan Eizenberg, Dörte Jakob, Paul Fox-Hughes, Peter Steinle, Christopher J. White, and Charmaine Franklin
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 4357–4378,Short summary
The Bureau of Meteorology Atmospheric Regional Reanalysis for Australia (BARRA) has produced a very high-resolution reconstruction of Australian historical weather from 1990 to 2018. This paper demonstrates the added weather and climate information to supplement coarse- or moderate-resolution regional and global reanalyses. The new climate data can allow greater understanding of past weather, including extreme events, at very local kilometre scales.
Jun Meng, Randall V. Martin, Paul Ginoux, Melanie Hammer, Melissa P. Sulprizio, David A. Ridley, and Aaron van Donkelaar
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 4249–4260,Short summary
Dust emissions in models, for example, GEOS-Chem, have a strong nonlinear dependence on meteorology, which means dust emission strengths calculated from different resolution meteorological fields are different. Offline high-resolution dust emissions with an optimized global dust strength, presented in this work, can be implemented into GEOS-Chem as offline emission inventory so that it could promote model development by harmonizing dust emissions across simulations of different resolutions.
Simon Rosanka, Rolf Sander, Andreas Wahner, and Domenico Taraborrelli
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 4103–4115,Short summary
The Jülich Aqueous-phase Mechanism of Organic Chemistry (JAMOC) is developed and implemented into the Module Efficiently Calculating the Chemistry of the Atmosphere (MECCA). JAMOC is an explicit in-cloud oxidation scheme for oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs), which is suitable for global model applications. Within a box-model study, we show that JAMOC yields reduced gas-phase concentrations of most OVOCs and oxidants, except for nitrogen oxides.
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 4143–4158,Short summary
Within the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS), a forecasting system calculating the city source contribution for the surface urban background PM10 in European cities has been developed. The system uses the EMEP model and this paper presents the product by focusing on an event which occurred from 1 to 9 December 2016.
Erik Johansson, Abhay Devasthale, Michael Tjernström, Annica M. L. Ekman, Klaus Wyser, and Tristan L'Ecuyer
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 4087–4101,Short summary
Understanding the coupling of clouds to large-scale circulation is a grand challenge for the climate community. Cloud radiative heating (CRH) is a key parameter in this coupling and is therefore essential to model realistically. We, therefore, evaluate a climate model against satellite observations. Our findings indicate good agreement in the seasonal pattern of CRH even if the magnitude differs. We also find that increasing the horizontal resolution in the model has little effect on the CRH.
Xiaoyang Chen, Yang Zhang, Kai Wang, Daniel Tong, Pius Lee, Youhua Tang, Jianping Huang, Patrick C. Campbell, Jeff Mcqueen, Havala O. T. Pye, Benjamin N. Murphy, and Daiwen Kang
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 3969–3993,Short summary
The continuously updated National Air Quality Forecast Capability (NAQFC) provides air quality forecasts. To support the development of the next-generation NAQFC, we evaluate a prototype of GFSv15-CMAQv5.0.2. The performance and the potential improvements for the system are discussed. This study can provide a scientific basis for further development of NAQFC and help it to provide more accurate air quality forecasts to the public over the contiguous United States.
Dawei Li, Yudi Liu, and Chaohui Chen
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 4019–4034,Short summary
In the daily weather forecast business, numerical weather prediction is mainly used to forecast precipitation, but its performance for nowcasting tasks within 0–2 h is very poor. Hence, we hope to use machine learning to improve the accuracy and resolution of quantitative precipitation nowcasting (QPN) tasks. Previous works focused on the extrapolation of radar echo without using abundant meteorological data. Therefore, we designed a model using three kinds of data for QPN in eastern china.
Mark R. Muetzelfeldt, Robert S. Plant, Peter A. Clark, Alison J. Stirling, and Steven J. Woolnough
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 4035–4049,Short summary
Wind shear causes organized convection in the tropics, producing, e.g., squall lines. We have developed a procedure for producing a climatology of sheared wind profiles in a climate model and demonstrated that the profiles are linked with organized convection, both in terms of their structure and their spatio-temporal distribution. The procedure could be used to diagnose organization of convection in a climate model, which could lead to improvements in the model's representation of convection.
Carlos Román-Cascón, Marie Lothon, Fabienne Lohou, Oscar Hartogensis, Jordi Vila-Guerau de Arellano, David Pino, Carlos Yagüe, and Eric R. Pardyjak
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 3939–3967,Short summary
The type of vegetation (or land cover) and its status influence the heat and water transfers between the surface and the air, affecting the processes that develop in the atmosphere at different (but connected) spatiotemporal scales. In this work, we investigate how these transfers are affected by the way the surface is represented in a widely used weather model. The results encourage including realistic high-resolution and updated land cover databases in models to improve their predictions.
Phuc T. M. Ha, Ryoki Matsuda, Yugo Kanaya, Fumikazu Taketani, and Kengo Sudo
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 3813–3841,Short summary
Policies to mitigate air pollution require an understanding of tropospheric oxidizing capacity, which is controlled by mechanisms including heterogeneous processes on aerosols and clouds. This study uses a chemistry–climate model CHASER (MIROC) to explore the heterogeneous effects in the troposphere for -2.96 % O3, -2.19 % NOx, +3.28 % CO, and +5.91 % CH4 lifetime. Besides, these processes affect polluted areas and remote areas and can bring challenges to pollution reduction efforts.
Robin Stoffer, Caspar M. van Leeuwen, Damian Podareanu, Valeriu Codreanu, Menno A. Veerman, Martin Janssens, Oscar K. Hartogensis, and Chiel C. van Heerwaarden
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 3769–3788,Short summary
Turbulent flows are often simulated with the large-eddy simulation (LES) technique, which requires subgrid models to account for the smallest scales. Current subgrid models often require strong simplifying assumptions. We therefore developed a subgrid model based on artificial neural networks, which requires fewer assumptions. Our data-driven SGS model showed high potential in accurately representing the smallest scales but still introduced instability when incorporated into an actual LES.
Xu Feng, Haipeng Lin, Tzung-May Fu, Melissa P. Sulprizio, Jiawei Zhuang, Daniel J. Jacob, Heng Tian, Yaping Ma, Lijuan Zhang, Xiaolin Wang, Qi Chen, and Zhiwei Han
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 3741–3768,Short summary
WRF-GC is an online coupling of the WRF meteorological model and GEOS-Chem chemical transport model for regional atmospheric chemistry and air quality modeling. In WRF-GC v2.0, we implemented the aerosol–radiation interactions and aerosol–cloud interactions, as well as the capability to nest multiple domains for high-resolution simulations based on the modular framework of WRF-GC v1.0. This allows the GEOS-Chem users to investigate the meteorology–atmospheric chemistry interactions.
Robin D. Lamboll, Chris D. Jones, Ragnhild B. Skeie, Stephanie Fiedler, Bjørn H. Samset, Nathan P. Gillett, Joeri Rogelj, and Piers M. Forster
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 3683–3695,Short summary
Lockdowns to avoid the spread of COVID-19 have created an unprecedented reduction in human emissions. We can estimate the changes in emissions at a country level, but to make predictions about how this will affect our climate, we need more precise information about where the emissions happen. Here we combine older estimates of where emissions normally occur with very recent estimates of sector activity levels to enable different groups to make simulations of the climatic effects of lockdown.
Nina Črnivec and Bernhard Mayer
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 3663–3682,Short summary
This study aims to advance the cloud–radiation interplay treatment in global weather and climate prediction, focusing on cloud horizontal inhomogeneity misrepresentation. We explore the potential of the Tripleclouds method for diverse cloud types, namely the stratocumulus, cirrus and cumulonimbus. The validity of global cloud variability estimate with various condensate distribution assumptions is assessed. Optimizations for overcast and extremely heterogeneous cloudiness are further endorsed.
Dien Wu, John C. Lin, Henrique F. Duarte, Vineet Yadav, Nicholas C. Parazoo, Tomohiro Oda, and Eric A. Kort
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 3633–3661,Short summary
A model (SMUrF) is presented that estimates biogenic CO2 fluxes over cities around the globe to separate out biogenic fluxes from anthropogenic emissions. The model leverages satellite-based solar-induced fluorescence data and a machine-learning technique. We evaluate the biogenic fluxes against flux observations and show contrasts between biogenic and anthropogenic fluxes over cities, revealing urban–rural flux gradients, diurnal cycles, and the resulting imprints on atmospheric-column CO2.
Sarah Sparrow, Andrew Bowery, Glenn D. Carver, Marcus O. Köhler, Pirkka Ollinaho, Florian Pappenberger, David Wallom, and Antje Weisheimer
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 3473–3486,Short summary
This paper describes how the research version of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts’ Integrated Forecast System is combined with climateprediction.net’s public volunteer computing resource to develop OpenIFS@home. Thousands of volunteer personal computers simulated slightly different realizations of Tropical Cyclone Karl to demonstrate the performance of the large-ensemble forecast. OpenIFS@Home offers researchers a new tool to study weather forecasts and related questions.
Guillaume Monteil and Marko Scholze
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 3383–3406,Short summary
LUMIA is a Python library for atmospheric inversions, originally developed at Lund University to perform regional atmospheric CO2 inversions. The inversions rely on coupling the regional transport model FLEXPART and the global transport model TM5. The paper presents the modeling setup and some first results, and it introduces the LUMIA Python package as a toolbox for inversions beyond the use case presented in the paper.
Benjamin N. Murphy, Christopher G. Nolte, Fahim Sidi, Jesse O. Bash, K. Wyat Appel, Carey Jang, Daiwen Kang, James Kelly, Rohit Mathur, Sergey Napelenok, George Pouliot, and Havala O. T. Pye
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 3407–3420,Short summary
The algorithms for applying air pollution emission rates in the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model have been improved to better support users and developers. The new features accommodate emissions perturbation studies that are typical in atmospheric research and output a wealth of metadata for each model run so assumptions can be verified and documented. The new approach dramatically enhances the transparency and functionality of this critical aspect of atmospheric modeling.
Tobias Gronemeier, Kerstin Surm, Frank Harms, Bernd Leitl, Björn Maronga, and Siegfried Raasch
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 3317–3333,Short summary
We demonstrate the capability of the PALM model system version 6.0 to simulate urban boundary layers. The studied situation includes a real-world building setup of the HafenCity area in Hamburg, Germany. We evaluate the simulation results against wind-tunnel measurements utilizing PALM's virtual measurement module. The comparison reveals an overall high agreement between simulation results and wind-tunnel measurements including mean wind speed and direction as well as turbulence statistics.
Sara M. Blichner, Moa K. Sporre, Risto Makkonen, and Terje K. Berntsen
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 3335–3359,Short summary
Aerosol–cloud interactions are the largest contributor to climate forcing uncertainty. In this study we combine two common approaches to aerosol representation in global models: a sectional scheme, which is closer to first principals, for the smallest particles forming in the atmosphere and a log-modal scheme, which is faster, for the larger particles. With this approach, we improve the aerosol representation compared to observations, while only increasing the computational cost by 15 %.
Timothy Glotfelty, Diana Ramírez-Mejía, Jared Bowden, Adrian Ghilardi, and J. Jason West
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 3215–3249,Short summary
Land use and land cover change is a major contributor to climate change in Africa. Here we document deficiencies in how a weather model represents the land surface of Africa and how we modify a common land surface model to overcome these deficiencies. Our tests reveal that the default weather model does not accurately predict and transition the properties of different African biomes and growing cycles. This paper demonstrates that our modified model addresses these limitations.
Mario Eduardo Gavidia-Calderón, Sergio Ibarra-Espinosa, Youngseob Kim, Yang Zhang, and Maria de Fatima Andrade
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 3251–3268,Short summary
The MUNICH model was used to calculate pollutant concentrations inside the streets of São Paulo. The VEIN emission model provided the vehicular emissions and the coordinates of the streets. We used information from an air quality station to account for pollutant concentrations over the street rooftops. Results showed that when emissions are calibrated, MUNICH satisfied the performance criteria. MUNICH can be used to evaluate the impact of traffic-related air pollution on public health.
Xiaoli G. Larsén and Jana Fischereit
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 3141–3158,Short summary
For the first time, turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) calculated from the explicit wake parameterization (EWP) in WRF is examined using high-frequency measurements over a wind farm and compared with that calculated using the Fitch et al. (2012) scheme. We examined the effect of farm-induced TKE advection in connection with the Fitch scheme. Through a case study with a low-level jet (LLJ), we analyzed the key features of LLJs and raised the issue of interaction between wind farms and LLJs.
Pavel Krč, Jaroslav Resler, Matthias Sühring, Sebastian Schubert, Mohamed H. Salim, and Vladimír Fuka
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 3095–3120,Short summary
The adverse effects of an urban environment, e.g. heat stress and air pollution, pose a risk to health and well-being. Precise modelling of the urban climate is crucial to mitigate these effects. Conventional atmospheric models are inadequate for modelling the complex structures of the urban environment; in particular, they lack a 3-D model of radiation and its interaction with surfaces and the plant canopy. The new RTM simulates these processes within the PALM-4U urban climate model.
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