Articles | Volume 8, issue 11
© Author(s) 2015. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
© Author(s) 2015. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
A sub-canopy structure for simulating oil palm in the Community Land Model (CLM-Palm): phenology, allocation and yield
University of Göttingen, Department of Bioclimatology, Büsgenweg 2, 37077 Göttingen, Germany
AgroParisTech, SIBAGHE (Systèmes intégrés en Biologie, Agronomie, Géosciences, Hydrosciences et Environnement), 34093 Montpellier, France
CIRAD, UMR Eco&Sols (Ecologie Fonctionnelle & Biogéochimie des Sols et des Agro-écosystèmes), 34060 Montpellier, France
CATIE (Tropical Agricultural Centre for Research and Higher Education), 7170 Turrialba, Costa Rica
IRD, UMR Eco&Sols, 34060 Montpellier, France
G. Le Maire
CIRAD, UMR Eco&Sols (Ecologie Fonctionnelle & Biogéochimie des Sols et des Agro-écosystèmes), 34060 Montpellier, France
University of Applied Sciences Bingen, 55411 Bingen am Rhein, Germany
M. M. Kotowska
University of Göttingen, Department of Plant Ecology and Ecosystems Research, Untere Karspüle 2, 37073 Göttingen, Germany
University of Göttingen, Department of Bioclimatology, Büsgenweg 2, 37077 Göttingen, Germany
No articles found.
Yuan Yan, Anne Klosterhalfen, Fernando Moyano, Matthias Cuntz, Andrew C. Manning, and Alexander Knohl
Preprint under review for BGShort summary
A higher understanding of O2 fluxes, their exchange ratios with CO2 and their interrelations with environmental conditions would provide further insights in biogeochemical ecosystem processes. We, therefore, used the multi-layer canopy model, CANVEG, to simulate and analyze the flux exchange for our forest study site for 2012–2016. Based on these simulations, we further tested successfully the application of various micrometeorological methods and the prospects of real O2 flux measurements.
Britta Greenshields, Barbara von der Lühe, Felix Schwarz, Harold James Hughes, Aiyen Tjoa, Martyna Kotowska, Fabian Brambach, and Daniela Sauer
Silicon (Si) can have multiple beneficial effects on Si-accumulating crops such as the oil palm. In this study we quantified Si concentrations in various parts of an oil palm (leaflets, rachis, fruit-bunch parts) to derive Si storage estimates for the total above-ground biomass of an oil palm and 1 hectare of oil-palm plantation. We proposed a Si balance by identifying Si return (via palm fronds) and losses (via harvest) in the system and recommend management measures that enhance Si cycling.
Xin Yu, René Orth, Markus Reichstein, Michael Bahn, Anne Klosterhalfen, Alexander Knohl, Franziska Koebsch, Mirco Migliavacca, Martina Mund, Jacob A. Nelson, Benjamin D. Stocker, Sophia Walther, and Ana Bastos
Biogeosciences, 19, 4315–4329,Short summary
Identifying drought legacy effects is challenging because they are superimposed on variability driven by climate conditions in the recovery period. We develop a residual-based approach to quantify legacies on gross primary productivity (GPP) from eddy covariance data. The GPP reduction due to legacy effects is comparable to the concurrent effects at two sites in Germany, which reveals the importance of legacy effects. Our novel methodology can be used to quantify drought legacies elsewhere.
Jaber Rahimi, Expedit Evariste Ago, Augustine Ayantunde, Sina Berger, Jan Bogaert, Klaus Butterbach-Bahl, Bernard Cappelaere, Jean-Martial Cohard, Jérôme Demarty, Abdoul Aziz Diouf, Ulrike Falk, Edwin Haas, Pierre Hiernaux, David Kraus, Olivier Roupsard, Clemens Scheer, Amit Kumar Srivastava, Torbern Tagesson, and Rüdiger Grote
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 3789–3812,Short summary
West African Sahelian and Sudanian ecosystems are important regions for global carbon exchange, and they provide valuable food and fodder resources. Therefore, we simulated net ecosystem exchange and aboveground biomass of typical ecosystems in this region with an improved process-based biogeochemical model, LandscapeDNDC. Carbon stocks and exchange rates were particularly correlated with the abundance of trees. Grass and crop yields increased under humid climatic conditions.
Florian Ellsäßer, Christian Stiegler, Alexander Röll, Tania June, Hendrayanto, Alexander Knohl, and Dirk Hölscher
Biogeosciences, 18, 861–872,Short summary
Recording land surface temperatures using drones offers new options to predict evapotranspiration based on energy balance models. This study compares predictions from three energy balance models with the eddy covariance method. A model II Deming regression indicates interchangeability for latent heat flux estimates from certain modeling methods and eddy covariance measurements. This complements the available methods for evapotranspiration studies by fine grain and spatially explicit assessments.
Jan Pisek, Angela Erb, Lauri Korhonen, Tobias Biermann, Arnaud Carrara, Edoardo Cremonese, Matthias Cuntz, Silvano Fares, Giacomo Gerosa, Thomas Grünwald, Niklas Hase, Michal Heliasz, Andreas Ibrom, Alexander Knohl, Johannes Kobler, Bart Kruijt, Holger Lange, Leena Leppänen, Jean-Marc Limousin, Francisco Ramon Lopez Serrano, Denis Loustau, Petr Lukeš, Lars Lundin, Riccardo Marzuoli, Meelis Mölder, Leonardo Montagnani, Johan Neirynck, Matthias Peichl, Corinna Rebmann, Eva Rubio, Margarida Santos-Reis, Crystal Schaaf, Marius Schmidt, Guillaume Simioni, Kamel Soudani, and Caroline Vincke
Biogeosciences, 18, 621–635,Short summary
Understory vegetation is the most diverse, least understood component of forests worldwide. Understory communities are important drivers of overstory succession and nutrient cycling. Multi-angle remote sensing enables us to describe surface properties by means that are not possible when using mono-angle data. Evaluated over an extensive set of forest ecosystem experimental sites in Europe, our reported method can deliver good retrievals, especially over different forest types with open canopies.
Virginie Moreaux, Simon Martel, Alexandre Bosc, Delphine Picart, David Achat, Christophe Moisy, Raphael Aussenac, Christophe Chipeaux, Jean-Marc Bonnefond, Soisick Figuères, Pierre Trichet, Rémi Vezy, Vincent Badeau, Bernard Longdoz, André Granier, Olivier Roupsard, Manuel Nicolas, Kim Pilegaard, Giorgio Matteucci, Claudy Jolivet, Andrew T. Black, Olivier Picard, and Denis Loustau
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 5973–6009,Short summary
The model GO+ describes the functioning of managed forests based upon biophysical and biogeochemical processes. It accounts for the impacts of forest operations on energy, water and carbon exchanges within the soil–vegetation–atmosphere continuum. It includes versatile descriptions of management operations. Its sensitivity and uncertainty are detailed and predictions are compared with observations about mass and energy exchanges, hydrological data, and tree growth variables from different sites.
Jelka Braden-Behrens, Lukas Siebicke, and Alexander Knohl
Yuan Zhang, Ana Bastos, Fabienne Maignan, Daniel Goll, Olivier Boucher, Laurent Li, Alessandro Cescatti, Nicolas Vuichard, Xiuzhi Chen, Christof Ammann, M. Altaf Arain, T. Andrew Black, Bogdan Chojnicki, Tomomichi Kato, Ivan Mammarella, Leonardo Montagnani, Olivier Roupsard, Maria J. Sanz, Lukas Siebicke, Marek Urbaniak, Francesco Primo Vaccari, Georg Wohlfahrt, Will Woodgate, and Philippe Ciais
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 5401–5423,Short summary
We improved the ORCHIDEE LSM by distinguishing diffuse and direct light in canopy and evaluated the new model with observations from 159 sites. Compared with the old model, the new model has better sunny GPP and reproduced the diffuse light fertilization effect observed at flux sites. Our simulations also indicate different mechanisms causing the observed GPP enhancement under cloudy conditions at different times. The new model has the potential to study large-scale impacts of aerosol changes.
Christian Markwitz, Alexander Knohl, and Lukas Siebicke
Biogeosciences, 17, 5183–5208,Short summary
Agroforestry has been shown to alter the microclimate and to lead to higher carbon sequestration above ground and in the soil. In this study, we investigated the impact of agroforestry systems on system-scale evapotranspiration (ET) due to concerns about increased water losses to the atmosphere. Results showed small differences in annual sums of ET over agroforestry relative to monoculture systems, indicating that agroforestry in Germany can be a land use alternative to monoculture agriculture.
Waly Faye, Awa Niang Fall, Didier Orange, Frédéric Do, Olivier Roupsard, and Alioune Kane
Proc. IAHS, 383, 391–399,Short summary
People from the Senegalese Peanut Basin deal with a dramatic increase of water scarcity due both to a rain deficit and a surface water salinization. We carried out the analysis of daily rain from 1950 to 2015 and water salinity of 78 wells on 300 km2. We confirm a climatic break in 1970 leaded a long dry period until 2009, with a decreased of the rainy day number per year, probably driving a large extension of well salinization and salt soil crusting accelerated by a large tidal event in 1984.
Kurt C. Solander, Brent D. Newman, Alessandro Carioca de Araujo, Holly R. Barnard, Z. Carter Berry, Damien Bonal, Mario Bretfeld, Benoit Burban, Luiz Antonio Candido, Rolando Célleri, Jeffery Q. Chambers, Bradley O. Christoffersen, Matteo Detto, Wouter A. Dorigo, Brent E. Ewers, Savio José Filgueiras Ferreira, Alexander Knohl, L. Ruby Leung, Nate G. McDowell, Gretchen R. Miller, Maria Terezinha Ferreira Monteiro, Georgianne W. Moore, Robinson Negron-Juarez, Scott R. Saleska, Christian Stiegler, Javier Tomasella, and Chonggang Xu
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 2303–2322,Short summary
We evaluate the soil moisture response in the humid tropics to El Niño during the three most recent super El Niño events. Our estimates are compared to in situ soil moisture estimates that span five continents. We find the strongest and most consistent soil moisture decreases in the Amazon and maritime southeastern Asia, while the most consistent increases occur over eastern Africa. Our results can be used to improve estimates of soil moisture in tropical ecohydrology models at multiple scales.
Tiphaine Chevallier, Kenji Fujisaki, Olivier Roupsard, Florian Guidat, Rintaro Kinoshita, Elias de Melo Viginio Filho, Peter Lehner, and Alain Albrecht
SOIL, 5, 315–332,Short summary
Soil organic carbon (SOC) is the largest terrestrial C stock. Andosols of volcanic areas hold particularly large stocks (e.g. from 24 to 72 kgC m−2 in the upper 2 m of soil) as determined via MIR spectrometry at our Costa Rican study site: a 1 km2 basin covered by coffee agroforestry. Andic soil properties explained this high variability, which did not correlate with stocks in the upper 20 cm of soil. Topography and pedogenesis are needed to understand the SOC stocks at landscape scales.
Christian Stiegler, Ana Meijide, Yuanchao Fan, Ashehad Ashween Ali, Tania June, and Alexander Knohl
Biogeosciences, 16, 2873–2890,Short summary
We show the response of a commercial oil palm plantation in Indonesia to the extreme El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) event in 2015. Our measurements and model suggest that without human-induced forest fires and related smoke emissions, the observed negative impact on oil palm carbon dioxide greenhouse gas fluxes, carbon accumulation and yield due to ENSO-related drought would have been less pronounced. With respect to climate change we highlight the importance of fire prevention in the area.
Ashehad A. Ali, Yuanchao Fan, Marife D. Corre, Martyna M. Kotowska, Evelyn Hassler, Fernando E. Moyano, Christian Stiegler, Alexander Röll, Ana Meijide, Andre Ringeler, Christoph Leuschner, Tania June, Suria Tarigan, Holger Kreft, Dirk Hölscher, Chonggang Xu, Charles D. Koven, Rosie Fisher, Edzo Veldkamp, and Alexander Knohl
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
We used carbon-use and water-use related datasets of small-holder rubber plantations from Jambi province, Indonesia to develop and calibrate a rubber plant functional type for the Community Land Model (CLM-rubber). Increased sensitivity of stomata to soil water stress and enhanced respiration costs enabled the model to capture the magnitude of transpiration and leaf area index. Including temporal variations in leaf life span enabled the model to better capture the seasonality of leaf litterfall.
Jannis von Buttlar, Jakob Zscheischler, Anja Rammig, Sebastian Sippel, Markus Reichstein, Alexander Knohl, Martin Jung, Olaf Menzer, M. Altaf Arain, Nina Buchmann, Alessandro Cescatti, Damiano Gianelle, Gerard Kiely, Beverly E. Law, Vincenzo Magliulo, Hank Margolis, Harry McCaughey, Lutz Merbold, Mirco Migliavacca, Leonardo Montagnani, Walter Oechel, Marian Pavelka, Matthias Peichl, Serge Rambal, Antonio Raschi, Russell L. Scott, Francesco P. Vaccari, Eva van Gorsel, Andrej Varlagin, Georg Wohlfahrt, and Miguel D. Mahecha
Biogeosciences, 15, 1293–1318,Short summary
Our work systematically quantifies extreme heat and drought event impacts on gross primary productivity (GPP) and ecosystem respiration globally across a wide range of ecosystems. We show that heat extremes typically increased mainly respiration whereas drought decreased both fluxes. Combined heat and drought extremes had opposing effects offsetting each other for respiration, but there were also strong reductions in GPP and hence the strongest reductions in the ecosystems carbon sink capacity.
Jelka Braden-Behrens, Yuan Yan, and Alexander Knohl
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 4537–4560,Short summary
Here we present the instrument characteristics and field applicability of the newly developed Delta Ray analyzer for stable isotope measurements in CO2. We used this analyzer to measure the concentration and the isotopic composition of CO2 exchange in a managed beech forest for 3 months in autumn 2015. During this period an early frost event occurred and our measurements suggest that this short event strongly influenced the measured isotopic composition of CO2 exchange.
Clifton R. Sabajo, Guerric le Maire, Tania June, Ana Meijide, Olivier Roupsard, and Alexander Knohl
Biogeosciences, 14, 4619–4635,Short summary
From the analysis of MODIS and Landsat satellite data of the Jambi province in Indonesia, this first study on the effects of oil palm expansion on the surface temperature in Indonesia shows shows a local and regional warming effect caused by the expansion of oil palm plantations and other cash or tree crops between 2000 and 2015. The observed warming effects may affect ecosystem services, reduce water availabilty in the dry period and increase the vulnerability to fires in the province.
Loise Wandera, Kaniska Mallick, Gerard Kiely, Olivier Roupsard, Matthias Peichl, and Vincenzo Magliulo
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 197–215,Short summary
Upscaling instantaneous to daily evapotranspiration (ETi–ETd) is one of the central challenges in regional vegetation water-use mapping using polar orbiting satellites. Here we developed a robust ETi upscaling for global studies using the ratio between daily and instantaneous global radiation (RSd/RSi). Using data from 126 FLUXNET tower sites, this study demonstrated the RSd/RSi ratio to be the most robust factor explaining ETd/ETi variability across variable sky conditions and multiple biomes.
Yiying Chen, James Ryder, Vladislav Bastrikov, Matthew J. McGrath, Kim Naudts, Juliane Otto, Catherine Ottlé, Philippe Peylin, Jan Polcher, Aude Valade, Andrew Black, Jan A. Elbers, Eddy Moors, Thomas Foken, Eva van Gorsel, Vanessa Haverd, Bernard Heinesch, Frank Tiedemann, Alexander Knohl, Samuli Launiainen, Denis Loustau, Jérôme Ogée, Timo Vessala, and Sebastiaan Luyssaert
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 2951–2972,Short summary
In this study, we compiled a set of within-canopy and above-canopy measurements of energy and water fluxes, and used these data to parametrize and validate the new multi-layer energy budget scheme for a range of forest types. An adequate parametrization approach has been presented for the global-scale land surface model (ORCHIDEE-CAN). Furthermore, model performance of the new multi-layer parametrization was compared against the existing single-layer scheme.
A. Collalti, S. Marconi, A. Ibrom, C. Trotta, A. Anav, E. D'Andrea, G. Matteucci, L. Montagnani, B. Gielen, I. Mammarella, T. Grünwald, A. Knohl, F. Berninger, Y. Zhao, R. Valentini, and M. Santini
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 479–504,Short summary
This study evaluates the performances of the new version (v.5.1) of 3D-CMCC Forest Ecosystem Model in simulating gross primary productivity (GPP), against eddy covariance GPP data for 10 FLUXNET forest sites across Europe. The model consistently reproduces both in timing and in magnitude daily and monthly GPP variability across all sites, with the exception of the two Mediterranean sites. Inclusion of forest structure within simulation ameliorate in some cases the model output.
A. Olchev, A. Ibrom, O. Panferov, D. Gushchina, H. Kreilein, V. Popov, P. Propastin, T. June, A. Rauf, G. Gravenhorst, and A. Knohl
Biogeosciences, 12, 6655–6667,Short summary
The time series analysis of the main meteorological parameters and components of CO2 and H2O fluxes showed a high evapotranspiration (ET) and gross primary production (GPP) sensitivity of the tropical rainforest to meteorological variations caused by El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events. Incoming solar radiation is the main governing factor that is responsible for ET and GPP variability. Changes in precipitation due to moderate ENSO events did not have any notable effect on ET and GPP.
L. Wingate, J. Ogée, E. Cremonese, G. Filippa, T. Mizunuma, M. Migliavacca, C. Moisy, M. Wilkinson, C. Moureaux, G. Wohlfahrt, A. Hammerle, L. Hörtnagl, C. Gimeno, A. Porcar-Castell, M. Galvagno, T. Nakaji, J. Morison, O. Kolle, A. Knohl, W. Kutsch, P. Kolari, E. Nikinmaa, A. Ibrom, B. Gielen, W. Eugster, M. Balzarolo, D. Papale, K. Klumpp, B. Köstner, T. Grünwald, R. Joffre, J.-M. Ourcival, M. Hellstrom, A. Lindroth, C. George, B. Longdoz, B. Genty, J. Levula, B. Heinesch, M. Sprintsin, D. Yakir, T. Manise, D. Guyon, H. Ahrends, A. Plaza-Aguilar, J. H. Guan, and J. Grace
Biogeosciences, 12, 5995–6015,Short summary
The timing of plant development stages and their response to climate and management were investigated using a network of digital cameras installed across different European ecosystems. Using the relative red, green and blue content of images we showed that the green signal could be used to estimate the length of the growing season in broadleaf forests. We also developed a model that predicted the seasonal variations of camera RGB signals and how they relate to leaf pigment content and area well.
J. Otto, D. Berveiller, F.-M. Bréon, N. Delpierre, G. Geppert, A. Granier, W. Jans, A. Knohl, A. Kuusk, B. Longdoz, E. Moors, M. Mund, B. Pinty, M.-J. Schelhaas, and S. Luyssaert
Biogeosciences, 11, 2411–2427,
S. Burri, P. Sturm, U. E. Prechsl, A. Knohl, and N. Buchmann
Biogeosciences, 11, 961–975,
W. Yuan, S. Liu, W. Cai, W. Dong, J. Chen, A. Arain, P. D. Blanken, A. Cescatti, G. Wohlfahrt, T. Georgiadis, L. Genesio, D. Gianelle, A. Grelle, G. Kiely, A. Knohl, D. Liu, M. Marek, L. Merbold, L. Montagnani, O. Panferov, M. Peltoniemi, S. Rambal, A. Raschi, A. Varlagin, and J. Xia
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
J. H. Shim, H. H. Powers, C. W. Meyer, A. Knohl, T. E. Dawson, W. J. Riley, W. T. Pockman, and N. McDowell
Biogeosciences, 10, 4937–4956,
Related subject area
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Jane P. Mulcahy, Colin G. Jones, Steven T. Rumbold, Till Kuhlbrodt, Andrea J. Dittus, Edward W. Blockley, Andrew Yool, Jeremy Walton, Catherine Hardacre, Timothy Andrews, Alejandro Bodas-Salcedo, Marc Stringer, Lee de Mora, Phil Harris, Richard Hill, Doug Kelley, Eddy Robertson, and Yongming Tang
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 1569–1600,Short summary
Recent global climate models simulate historical global mean surface temperatures which are too cold, possibly to due to excessive aerosol cooling. This raises questions about the models' ability to simulate important climate processes and reduces confidence in future climate predictions. We present a new version of the UK Earth System Model, which has an improved aerosols simulation and a historical temperature record. Interestingly, the long-term response to CO2 remains largely unchanged.
Olawale James Ikuyajolu, Luke Van Roekel, Steven R. Brus, Erin E. Thomas, Yi Deng, and Sarat Sreepathi
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 1445–1458,Short summary
Wind-generated waves play an important role in modifying physical processes at the air–sea interface, but they have been traditionally excluded from climate models due to the high computational cost of running spectral wave models for climate simulations. To address this, our work identified and accelerated the computationally intensive section of WAVEWATCH III on GPU using OpenACC. This allows for high-resolution modeling of atmosphere–wave–ocean feedbacks in century-scale climate integrations.
Edward C. Chan, Joana Leitão, Andreas Kerschbaumer, and Timothy M. Butler
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 1427–1444,Short summary
Yeti is a Handbook Emission Factors for Road Transport-based traffic emission inventory written in the Python 3 scripting language, which adopts a generalized treatment for activity data using traffic information of varying levels of detail introduced in a systematic and consistent manner, with the ability to maximize reusability. Thus, Yeti has been conceived and implemented with a high degree of data and process symmetry, allowing scalable and flexible execution while affording ease of use.
Haopeng Fan, Siran Li, Zhongmiao Sun, Guorui Xiao, Xinxing Li, and Xiaogang Liu
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 1345–1358,Short summary
The traditional tropospheric zenith hydrostatic delay (ZHD) model's bias is usually thought negligible, yet it still reaches 10 mm sometimes and would lead to millimeter-level position errors for space geodetic observations. Therefore, we analyzed the bias’ characteristics and present a grid model to correct the traditional ZHD formula. When verifying the efficiency based on data from the ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts), ZHD biases were rectified by ~50 %.
Gang Liu, Shushi Peng, Chris Huntingford, and Yi Xi
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 1277–1296,Short summary
Due to computational limits, lower-complexity models (LCMs) were developed as a complementary tool for accelerating comprehensive Earth system models (ESMs) but still lack a good precipitation emulator for LCMs. Here, we developed a data-calibrated precipitation emulator (PREMU), a computationally effective way to better estimate historical and simulated precipitation by current ESMs. PREMU has potential applications related to land surface processes and their interactions with climate change.
Suzanne Robinson, Ruza F. Ivanovic, Lauren J. Gregoire, Julia Tindall, Tina van de Flierdt, Yves Plancherel, Frerk Pöppelmeier, Kazuyo Tachikawa, and Paul J. Valdes
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 1231–1264,Short summary
We present the implementation of neodymium (Nd) isotopes into the ocean model of FAMOUS (Nd v1.0). Nd fluxes from seafloor sediment and incorporation of Nd onto sinking particles represent the major global sources and sinks, respectively. However, model–data mismatch in the North Pacific and northern North Atlantic suggest that certain reactive components of the sediment interact the most with seawater. Our results are important for interpreting Nd isotopes in terms of ocean circulation.
Yann Quilcaille, Thomas Gasser, Philippe Ciais, and Olivier Boucher
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 1129–1161,Short summary
The model OSCAR is a simple climate model, meaning its representation of the Earth system is simplified but calibrated on models of higher complexity. Here, we diagnose its latest version using a total of 99 experiments in a probabilistic framework and under observational constraints. OSCAR v3.1 shows good agreement with observations, complex Earth system models and emerging properties. Some points for improvements are identified, such as the ocean carbon cycle.
Sandra L. LeGrand, Theodore W. Letcher, Gregory S. Okin, Nicholas P. Webb, Alex R. Gallagher, Saroj Dhital, Taylor S. Hodgdon, Nancy P. Ziegler, and Michelle L. Michaels
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 1009–1038,Short summary
Ground cover affects dust emissions by reducing wind flow over the immediate soil surface. This study reviews a method for estimating ground cover effects on wind erosion from satellite-detected terrain shadows. We conducted a case study for a US dust event using the Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model. Adding the shadow-based method for ground cover effects markedly improved simulated results and may lead to better dust modeling outcomes in vegetated drylands.
Roman Brogli, Christoph Heim, Jonas Mensch, Silje Lund Sørland, and Christoph Schär
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 907–926,Short summary
The pseudo-global-warming (PGW) approach is a downscaling methodology that imposes the large-scale GCM-based climate change signal on the boundary conditions of a regional climate simulation. It offers several benefits in comparison to conventional downscaling. We present a detailed description of the methodology, provide companion software to facilitate the preparation of PGW simulations, and present validation and sensitivity studies.
Fa Li, Qing Zhu, William J. Riley, Lei Zhao, Li Xu, Kunxiaojia Yuan, Min Chen, Huayi Wu, Zhipeng Gui, Jianya Gong, and James T. Randerson
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 869–884,Short summary
We developed an interpretable machine learning model to predict sub-seasonal and near-future wildfire-burned area over African and South American regions. We found strong time-lagged controls (up to 6–8 months) of local climate wetness on burned areas. A skillful use of such time-lagged controls in machine learning models results in highly accurate predictions of wildfire-burned areas; this will also help develop relevant early-warning and management systems for tropical wildfires.
Edmund P. Meredith, Uwe Ulbrich, and Henning W. Rust
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 851–867,Short summary
Cell-tracking algorithms allow for the study of properties of a convective cell across its lifetime and, in particular, how these respond to climate change. We investigated whether the design of the algorithm can affect the magnitude of the climate-change signal. The algorithm's criteria for identifying a cell were found to have a strong impact on the warming response. The sensitivity of the warming response to different algorithm settings and cell types should thus be fully explored.
Cathy Hohenegger, Peter Korn, Leonidas Linardakis, René Redler, Reiner Schnur, Panagiotis Adamidis, Jiawei Bao, Swantje Bastin, Milad Behravesh, Martin Bergemann, Joachim Biercamp, Hendryk Bockelmann, Renate Brokopf, Nils Brüggemann, Lucas Casaroli, Fatemeh Chegini, George Datseris, Monika Esch, Geet George, Marco Giorgetta, Oliver Gutjahr, Helmuth Haak, Moritz Hanke, Tatiana Ilyina, Thomas Jahns, Johann Jungclaus, Marcel Kern, Daniel Klocke, Lukas Kluft, Tobias Kölling, Luis Kornblueh, Sergey Kosukhin, Clarissa Kroll, Junhong Lee, Thorsten Mauritsen, Carolin Mehlmann, Theresa Mieslinger, Ann Kristin Naumann, Laura Paccini, Angel Peinado, Divya Sri Praturi, Dian Putrasahan, Sebastian Rast, Thomas Riddick, Niklas Roeber, Hauke Schmidt, Uwe Schulzweida, Florian Schütte, Hans Segura, Radomyra Shevchenko, Vikram Singh, Mia Specht, Claudia Christine Stephan, Jin-Song von Storch, Raphaela Vogel, Christian Wengel, Marius Winkler, Florian Ziemen, Jochem Marotzke, and Bjorn Stevens
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 779–811,Short summary
Models of the Earth system used to understand climate and predict its change typically employ a grid spacing of about 100 km. Yet, many atmospheric and oceanic processes occur on much smaller scales. In this study, we present a new model configuration designed for the simulation of the components of the Earth system and their interactions at kilometer and smaller scales, allowing an explicit representation of the main drivers of the flow of energy and matter by solving the underlying equations.
Yan Zhang, Xuantong Wang, Yuhao Sun, Chenhui Ning, Shiming Xu, Hengbin An, Dehong Tang, Hong Guo, Hao Yang, Ye Pu, Bo Jiang, and Bin Wang
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 679–704,Short summary
We construct a new ocean model, OMARE, that can carry out multi-scale ocean simulation with adaptive mesh refinement. OMARE is based on the refactorization of NEMO with a third-party, high-performance piece of middleware. We report the porting process and experiments of an idealized western-boundary current system. The new model simulates turbulent and temporally varying mesoscale and submesoscale processes via adaptive refinement. Related topics and future work with OMARE are also discussed.
Zhenming Wang, Shaoqing Zhang, Yishuai Jin, Yinglai Jia, Yangyang Yu, Yang Gao, Xiaolin Yu, Mingkui Li, Xiaopei Lin, and Lixin Wu
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 705–717,Short summary
To improve the numerical model predictability of monthly extended-range scales, we use the simplified slab ocean model (SOM) to restrict the complicated sea surface temperature (SST) bias from a 3-D dynamical ocean model. As for SST prediction, whether in space or time, the WRF-SOM is verified to have better performance than the WRF-ROMS, which has a significant impact on the atmosphere. For extreme weather events such as typhoons, the predictions of WRF-SOM are in good agreement with WRF-ROMS.
Dagmawi Teklu Asfaw, Michael Bliss Singer, Rafael Rosolem, David MacLeod, Mark Cuthbert, Edisson Quichimbo Miguitama, Manuel F. Rios Gaona, and Katerina Michaelides
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 557–571,Short summary
stoPET is a new stochastic potential evapotranspiration (PET) generator for the globe at hourly resolution. Many stochastic weather generators are used to generate stochastic rainfall time series; however, no such model exists for stochastically generating plausible PET time series. As such, stoPET represents a significant methodological advance. stoPET generate many realizations of PET to conduct climate studies related to the water balance, agriculture, water resources, and ecology.
Markus Köhli, Martin Schrön, Steffen Zacharias, and Ulrich Schmidt
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 449–477,Short summary
In the last decades, Monte Carlo codes were often consulted to study neutrons near the surface. As an alternative for the growing community of CRNS, we developed URANOS. The main model features are tracking of particle histories from creation to detection, detector representations as layers or geometric shapes, a voxel-based geometry model, and material setup based on color codes in ASCII matrices or bitmap images. The entire software is developed in C++ and features a graphical user interface.
Peter A. Bogenschutz, Hsiang-He Lee, Qi Tang, and Takanobu Yamaguchi
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 335–352,Short summary
Models that are used to simulate and predict climate often have trouble representing specific cloud types, such as stratocumulus, that are particularly thin in the vertical direction. It has been found that increasing the model resolution can help improve this problem. In this paper, we develop a novel framework that increases the horizontal and vertical resolutions only for areas of the globe that contain stratocumulus, hence reducing the model runtime while providing better results.
Manuel Schlund, Birgit Hassler, Axel Lauer, Bouwe Andela, Patrick Jöckel, Rémi Kazeroni, Saskia Loosveldt Tomas, Brian Medeiros, Valeriu Predoi, Stéphane Sénési, Jérôme Servonnat, Tobias Stacke, Javier Vegas-Regidor, Klaus Zimmermann, and Veronika Eyring
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 315–333,Short summary
The Earth System Model Evaluation Tool (ESMValTool) is a community diagnostics and performance metrics tool for routine evaluation of Earth system models. Originally, ESMValTool was designed to process reformatted output provided by large model intercomparison projects like the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP). Here, we describe a new extension of ESMValTool that allows for reading and processing native climate model output, i.e., data that have not been reformatted before.
Xiaohui Zhong, Zhijian Ma, Yichen Yao, Lifei Xu, Yuan Wu, and Zhibin Wang
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 199–209,Short summary
More and more researchers use deep learning models to replace physics-based parameterizations to accelerate weather simulations. However, embedding the ML models within the weather models is difficult as they are implemented in different languages. This work proposes a coupling framework to allow ML-based parameterizations to be coupled with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. We also demonstrate using the coupler to couple the ML-based radiation schemes with the WRF model.
Dario Nicolì, Alessio Bellucci, Paolo Ruggieri, Panos J. Athanasiadis, Stefano Materia, Daniele Peano, Giusy Fedele, Riccardo Hénin, and Silvio Gualdi
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 179–197,Short summary
Decadal climate predictions, obtained by constraining the initial condition of a dynamical model through a truthful estimate of the observed climate state, provide an accurate assessment of the near-term climate and are useful for informing decision-makers on future climate-related risks. The predictive skill for key variables is assessed from the operational decadal prediction system compared with non-initialized historical simulations so as to quantify the added value of initialization.
Ming Yin, Yilun Han, Yong Wang, Wenqi Sun, Jianbo Deng, Daoming Wei, Ying Kong, and Bin Wang
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 135–156,Short summary
All global climate models (GCMs) use the grid-averaged surface heat fluxes to drive the atmosphere, and thus their horizontal variations within the grid cell are averaged out. In this regard, a novel scheme considering the variation and partitioning of the surface heat fluxes within the grid cell is developed. The scheme reduces the long-standing rainfall biases on the southern and eastern margins of the Tibetan Plateau. The performance of key variables at the global scale is also evaluated.
Jenny Niebsch, Werner von Bloh, Kirsten Thonicke, and Ronny Ramlau
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 17–33,Short summary
The impacts of climate change require strategies for climate adaptation. Dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs) are used to study the effects of multiple processes in the biosphere under climate change. There is a demand for a better computational performance of the models. In this paper, the photosynthesis model in the Lund–Potsdam–Jena managed Land DGVM (4.0.002) was examined. We found a better numerical solution of a nonlinear equation. A significant run time reduction was possible.
Leonidas Linardakis, Irene Stemmler, Moritz Hanke, Lennart Ramme, Fatemeh Chegini, Tatiana Ilyina, and Peter Korn
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 9157–9176,Short summary
In Earth system modelling, we are facing the challenge of making efficient use of very large machines, with millions of cores. To meet this challenge we will need to employ multi-level and multi-dimensional parallelism. Component concurrency, being a function parallel technique, offers an additional dimension to the traditional data-parallel approaches. In this paper we examine the behaviour of component concurrency and identify the conditions for its optimal application.
Bing Gong, Michael Langguth, Yan Ji, Amirpasha Mozaffari, Scarlet Stadtler, Karim Mache, and Martin G. Schultz
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 8931–8956,Short summary
Inspired by the success of deep learning in various domains, we test the applicability of video prediction methods by generative adversarial network (GAN)-based deep learning to predict the 2 m temperature over Europe. Our video prediction models have skill in predicting the diurnal cycle of 2 m temperature up to 12 h ahead. Complemented by probing the relevance of several model parameters, this study confirms the potential of deep learning in meteorological forecasting applications.
Thomas Bossy, Thomas Gasser, and Philippe Ciais
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 8831–8868,Short summary
We developed a new simple climate model designed to fill a perceived gap within the existing simple climate models by fulfilling three key requirements: calibration using Bayesian inference, the possibility of coupling with integrated assessment models, and the capacity to explore climate scenarios compatible with limiting climate impacts. Here, we describe the model and its calibration using the latest data from complex CMIP6 models and the IPCC AR6, and we assess its performance.
Marius S. A. Lambert, Hui Tang, Kjetil S. Aas, Frode Stordal, Rosie A. Fisher, Yilin Fang, Junyan Ding, and Frans-Jan W. Parmentier
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 8809–8829,Short summary
In this study, we implement a hardening mortality scheme into CTSM5.0-FATES-Hydro and evaluate how it impacts plant hydraulics and vegetation growth. Our work shows that the hydraulic modifications prescribed by the hardening scheme are necessary to model realistic vegetation growth in cold climates, in contrast to the default model that simulates almost nonexistent and declining vegetation due to abnormally large water loss through the roots.
Rubina Ansari, Ana Casanueva, Muhammad Usman Liaqat, and Giovanna Grossi
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for GMDShort summary
Bias correction has become indispensable to climate model output as a post-processing step to render climate model output more useful for impact assessment studies. The current work presents a comparison of different state-of-the-art BC methods (univariate and multivariate) and BC approaches (direct and component-wise) for climate model simulations from three initiatives (CMIP6, CORDEX and CORDEX-CORE) for a multivariate drought index (i.e., Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index).
Thibaud M. Fritz, Sebastian D. Eastham, Louisa K. Emmons, Haipeng Lin, Elizabeth W. Lundgren, Steve Goldhaber, Steven R. H. Barrett, and Daniel J. Jacob
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 8669–8704,Short summary
We bring the state-of-the-science chemistry module GEOS-Chem into the Community Earth System Model (CESM). We show that some known differences between results from GEOS-Chem and CESM's CAM-chem chemistry module may be due to the configuration of model meteorology rather than inherent differences in the model chemistry. This is a significant step towards a truly modular Earth system model and allows two strong but currently separate research communities to benefit from each other's advances.
Laura Claire Jackson, Eduardo Alastrué de Asenjo, Katinka Bellomo, Gokhan Danabasoglu, Helmuth Haak, Aixue Hu, Johann Jungclaus, Warren Lee, Virna L. Meccia, Oleg Saenko, Andrew Shao, and Didier Swingedouw
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for GMDShort summary
The Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) has an important impact on the climate. There are theories that freshening of the ocean might cause the AMOC to cross a tipping point (TP) beyond which recovery is difficult, however it is unclear whether TP exist in global climate models. Here we outline a set of experiments designed to explore AMOC tipping points and sensitivity to additional freshwater input as part of the North Atlantic hosing model intercomparison project (NAHosMIP).
Rainer Schneck, Veronika Gayler, Julia E. M. S. Nabel, Thomas Raddatz, Christian H. Reick, and Reiner Schnur
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 8581–8611,Short summary
The versions of ICON-A and ICON-Land/JSBACHv4 used for this study constitute the first milestone in the development of the new ICON Earth System Model ICON-ESM. JSBACHv4 is the successor of JSBACHv3, and most of the parameterizations of JSBACHv4 are re-implementations from JSBACHv3. We assess and compare the performance of JSBACHv4 and JSBACHv3. Overall, the JSBACHv4 results are as good as JSBACHv3, but both models reveal the same main shortcomings, e.g. the depiction of the leaf area index.
Andrew Gettelman, Hugh Morrison, Trude Eidhammer, Katherine Thayer-Calder, Jian Sun, Richard Forbes, Zachary McGraw, Jiang Zhu, Trude Storelvmo, and John Dennis
Clouds are a critical part of weather and climate prediction. In this work, we document updates and corrections to the description of clouds used in several Earth System Models. These updates include the ability to run the scheme on Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) and changes to the numerical description of precipitation, as well as a correction to ice number. There are big improvements in computational performance that can be achieved with GPU acceleration.
Dave van Wees, Guido R. van der Werf, James T. Randerson, Brendan M. Rogers, Yang Chen, Sander Veraverbeke, Louis Giglio, and Douglas C. Morton
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 8411–8437,Short summary
We present a global fire emission model based on the GFED model framework with a spatial resolution of 500 m. The higher resolution allowed for a more detailed representation of spatial heterogeneity in fuels and emissions. Specific modules were developed to model, for example, emissions from fire-related forest loss and belowground burning. Results from the 500 m model were compared to GFED4s, showing that global emissions were relatively similar but that spatial differences were substantial.
Adama Sylla, Emilia Sanchez Gomez, Juliette Mignot, and Jorge López-Parages
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 8245–8267,Short summary
Increasing model resolution depends on the subdomain of the Canary upwelling considered. In the Iberian Peninsula, the high-resolution (HR) models do not seem to better simulate the upwelling indices, while in Morocco to the Senegalese coast, the HR models show a clear improvement. Thus increasing the resolution of a global climate model does not necessarily have to be the only way to better represent the climate system. There is still much work to be done in terms of physical parameterizations.
Jadwiga H. Richter, Daniele Visioni, Douglas G. MacMartin, David A. Bailey, Nan Rosenbloom, Brian Dobbins, Walker R. Lee, Mari Tye, and Jean-Francois Lamarque
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 8221–8243,Short summary
Solar climate intervention using stratospheric aerosol injection is a proposed method of reducing global mean temperatures to reduce the worst consequences of climate change. We present a new modeling protocol aimed at simulating a plausible deployment of stratospheric aerosol injection and reproducibility of simulations using other Earth system models: Assessing Responses and Impacts of Solar climate intervention on the Earth system with stratospheric aerosol injection (ARISE-SAI).
Gonzalo A. Ferrada, Meng Zhou, Jun Wang, Alexei Lyapustin, Yujie Wang, Saulo R. Freitas, and Gregory R. Carmichael
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 8085–8109,Short summary
The smoke from fires is composed of different compounds that interact with the atmosphere and can create poor air-quality episodes. Here, we present a new fire inventory based on satellite observations from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS). We named this inventory the VIIRS-based Fire Emission Inventory (VFEI). Advantages of VFEI are its high resolution (~500 m) and that it provides information for many species. VFEI is publicly available and has provided data since 2012.
Entao Yu, Rui Bai, Xia Chen, and Lifang Shao
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 8111–8134,Short summary
A large number of simulations are conducted to investigate how different physical parameterization schemes impact surface wind simulations under stable weather conditions over the coastal regions of North China using the Weather Research and Forecasting model with a horizontal grid spacing of 0.5 km. Results indicate that the simulated wind speed is most sensitive to the planetary boundary layer schemes, followed by short-wave/long-wave radiation schemes and microphysics schemes.
Xingying Huang, Andrew Gettelman, William C. Skamarock, Peter Hjort Lauritzen, Miles Curry, Adam Herrington, John T. Truesdale, and Michael Duda
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 8135–8151,Short summary
We focus on the recent development of a state-of-the-art storm-resolving global climate model and investigate how this next-generation model performs for precipitation prediction over the western USA. Results show realistic representations of precipitation with significantly enhanced snowpack over complex terrains. The model evaluation advances the unified modeling of large-scale forcing constraints and realistic fine-scale features to advance multi-scale climate predictions and changes.
Marina Martínez Montero, Michel Crucifix, Victor Couplet, Nuria Brede, and Nicola Botta
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 8059–8084,Short summary
We present SURFER, a lightweight model that links CO2 emissions and geoengineering to ocean acidification and sea level rise from glaciers, ocean thermal expansion and Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets. The ice sheet module adequately describes the tipping points of both Greenland and Antarctica. SURFER is understandable, fast, accurate up to several thousands of years, capable of emulating results obtained by state of the art models and well suited for policy analyses.
Francisco José Cuesta-Valero, Hugo Beltrami, Stephan Gruber, Almudena García-García, and J. Fidel González-Rouco
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 7913–7932,Short summary
Inversions of subsurface temperature profiles provide past long-term estimates of ground surface temperature histories and ground heat flux histories at timescales of decades to millennia. Theses estimates complement high-frequency proxy temperature reconstructions and are the basis for studying continental heat storage. We develop and release a new bootstrap method to derive meaningful confidence intervals for the average surface temperature and heat flux histories from any number of profiles.
Yilin Fang, L. Ruby Leung, Charles D. Koven, Gautam Bisht, Matteo Detto, Yanyan Cheng, Nate McDowell, Helene Muller-Landau, S. Joseph Wright, and Jeffrey Q. Chambers
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 7879–7901,Short summary
We develop a model that integrates an Earth system model with a three-dimensional hydrology model to explicitly resolve hillslope topography and water flow underneath the land surface to understand how local-scale hydrologic processes modulate vegetation along water availability gradients. Our coupled model can be used to improve the understanding of the diverse impact of local heterogeneity and water flux on nutrient availability and plant communities.
Wentao Zhang, Xiangjun Shi, and Chunsong Lu
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 7751–7766,Short summary
The two-moment bulk cloud microphysics scheme used in CAM6 was modified to consider the impacts of the ice-crystal size distribution shape parameter (μi). After that, how the μi impacts cloud microphysical processes and then climate simulations is clearly illustrated by offline tests and CAM6 model experiments. Our results and findings are useful for the further development of μi-related parameterizations.
Yona Silvy, Clément Rousset, Eric Guilyardi, Jean-Baptiste Sallée, Juliette Mignot, Christian Ethé, and Gurvan Madec
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 7683–7713,Short summary
A modeling framework is introduced to understand and decompose the mechanisms causing the ocean temperature, salinity and circulation to change since the pre-industrial period and into 21st century scenarios of global warming. This framework aims to look at the response to changes in the winds and in heat and freshwater exchanges at the ocean interface in global climate models, throughout the 1850–2100 period, to unravel their individual effects on the changing physical structure of the ocean.
Aiko Voigt, Petra Schwer, Noam von Rotberg, and Nicole Knopf
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 7489–7504,Short summary
In climate science, it is helpful to identify coherent objects, for example, those formed by clouds. However, many models now use unstructured grids, which makes it harder to identify coherent objects. We present a new method that solves this problem by moving model data from an unstructured triangular grid to a structured cubical grid. We implement the method in an open-source Python package and show that the method is ready to be applied to climate model data.
Jérémy Bernard, Erwan Bocher, Elisabeth Le Saux Wiederhold, François Leconte, and Valéry Masson
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 7505–7532,Short summary
OpenStreetMap is a collaborative project aimed at creaing a free dataset containing topographical information. Since these data are available worldwide, they can be used as standard data for geoscience studies. However, most buildings miss the height information that constitutes key data for numerous fields (urban climate, noise propagation, air pollution). In this work, the building height is estimated using statistical modeling using indicators that characterize the building's environment.
Sergey Kravtsov, Ilijana Mastilovic, Andrew McC. Hogg, William K. Dewar, and Jeffrey R. Blundell
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 7449–7469,Short summary
Climate is a complex system whose behavior is shaped by multitudes of processes operating on widely different spatial scales and timescales. In hierarchical modeling, one goes back and forth between highly idealized process models and state-of-the-art models coupling the entire range of climate subsystems to identify specific phenomena and understand their dynamics. The present contribution highlights an intermediate climate model focussing on midlatitude ocean–atmosphere interactions.
Johann Dahm, Eddie Davis, Florian Deconinck, Oliver Elbert, Rhea George, Jeremy McGibbon, Tobias Wicky, Elynn Wu, Christopher Kung, Tal Ben-Nun, Lucas Harris, Linus Groner, and Oliver Fuhrer
It is hard for scientists to write efficient code which runs fast on all kinds of supercomputers. They like writing Python because it is easier to read and use. We re-wrote a Fortran code that simulates weather and climate into Python. The Python code re-writes itself to a much faster language to run on either normal processors or graphics cards. On one big computer system, our code is 3.5–4x faster on its graphics cards than the original code is on its processors.
Ingo Wohltmann, Daniel Kreyling, and Ralph Lehmann
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 7243–7255,Short summary
The study evaluates the performance of the Data Assimilation Research Testbed (DART), equipped with the recently added forward operator Radiative Transfer for TOVS (RTTOV), in assimilating FY-4A visible images into the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The ability of the WRF-DART/RTTOV system to improve the forecasting skills for a tropical storm over East Asia and the Western Pacific is demonstrated in an Observing System Simulation Experiment framework.
Enrico Zorzetto, Sergey Malyshev, Nathaniel Chaney, David Paynter, Raymond Menzel, and Elena Shevliakova
In this paper we develop a methodology to model the spatial distribution of solar radiation received by land over mountainous terrain. The approach is designed to be used in Earth System Models, where coarse grid cells hinder the description of fine scale land-atmosphere interactions. We adopt a clustering algorithm to partiton land domain in a set of homogeneous sub-grid “tiles”, and for each evaluate solar radiation receive by land based on terrain properties.
Juan Ruiz, Pierre Ailliot, Thi Tuyet Trang Chau, Pierre Le Bras, Valérie Monbet, Florian Sévellec, and Pierre Tandeo
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 7203–7220,Short summary
We present a new approach to validate numerical simulations of the current climate. The method can take advantage of existing climate simulations produced by different centers combining an analog forecasting approach with data assimilation to quantify how well a particular model reproduces a sequence of observed values. The method can be applied with different observations types and is implemented locally in space and time significantly reducing the associated computational cost.
Chahan M. Kropf, Alessio Ciullo, Laura Otth, Simona Meiler, Arun Rana, Emanuel Schmid, Jamie W. McCaughey, and David N. Bresch
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 7177–7201,Short summary
Mathematical models are approximations, and modellers need to understand and ideally quantify the arising uncertainties. Here, we describe and showcase the first, simple-to-use, uncertainty and sensitivity analysis module of the open-source and open-access climate-risk modelling platform CLIMADA. This may help to enhance transparency and intercomparison of studies among climate-risk modellers, help focus future research, and lead to better-informed decisions on climate adaptation.
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Dee, D. P., Uppala, S. M., Simmons, A. J., Berrisford, P., Poli, P., Kobayashi, S., Andrae, U., Bidlot, J., Bormann, N., Delsol, C., Dragani, R., Fuentes, M., Geer, A. J., Haimberger, L., Healy, S. B., Hersbach, H., Hólm, E. V., Isaksen, L., Kållberg, P., Köhler, M., Matricardi, M., McNally, A. P., Monge-Sanz, B. M., Morcrette, J.-J., Park, B.-K., Peubey, C., de Rosnay, P., Tavolato, C., Thépaut, J.-N., and Vitart, F. : The ERA-Interim reanalysis: Configuration and performance of the data assimilation system, Q. J Roy. Meteor. Soc., 137, 553–597, 2011.
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A perennial crop model CLM-Palm is developed, including multilayer structure, phenology, and carbon and nitrogen allocation functions, for modeling an important oil palm agricultural system in the tropical regions. Simulated LAI, yield and NPP were calibrated and validated with multiple sites in Sumatra, Indonesia. The new model allows exploring the effects of tropical land use change, from natural ecosystems to monoculture plantations on carbon, water and energy cycles and regional climate.
A perennial crop model CLM-Palm is developed, including multilayer structure, phenology, and...