Articles | Volume 8, issue 2
Development and technical paper 03 Feb 2015
Development and technical paper | 03 Feb 2015
Atmospheric transport and chemistry of trace gases in LMDz5B: evaluation and implications for inverse modelling
R. Locatelli et al.
No articles found.
Alex Resovsky, Michel Ramonet, Leonard Rivier, Jerome Tarniewicz, Philippe Ciais, Martin Steinbacher, Ivan Mammarella, Meelis Mölder, Michal Heliasz, Dagmar Kubistin, Matthias Lindauer, Jennifer Müller-Williams, Sebastien Conil, and Richard Engelen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6119–6135,Short summary
We present a technical description of a statistical methodology for extracting synoptic- and seasonal-length anomalies from greenhouse gas time series. The definition of what represents an anomalous signal is somewhat subjective, which we touch on throughout the paper. We show, however, that the method performs reasonably well in extracting portions of time series influenced by significant North Atlantic Oscillation weather episodes and continent-wide terrestrial biospheric aberrations.
Ingeborg Levin, Ute Karstens, Samuel Hammer, Julian DellaColetta, Fabian Maier, and Maksym Gachkivskyi
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
The so-called Radon Tracer Method is applied on long-term methane and radon observations from the Upper Rhine valley (DE) to estimate methane emissions from that region. Comparison of our top-down (TD) results with bottom-up (BU) inventory data requires high-resolution footprint modelling and representative radon flux data. Also then point source emissions are not captured in the TD approach. Still, trends of emissions can be estimated for our region showing no significant decrease after 2005.
Pramod Kumar, Grégoire Broquet, Camille Yver-Kwok, Olivier Laurent, Susan Gichuki, Christopher Caldow, Ford Cropley, Thomas Lauvaux, Michel Ramonet, Guillaume Berthe, Frédéric Martin, Olivier Duclaux, Catherine Juery, Caroline Bouchet, and Philippe Ciais
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5987–6003,Short summary
This study presents a simple atmospheric inversion modeling framework for the localization and quantification of unknown CH4 and CO2 emissions from point sources based on near-surface mobile concentration measurements and a Gaussian plume dispersion model. It is applied for the estimate of a series of brief controlled releases of CH4 and CO2 with a wide range of rates during the TOTAL TADI-2018 experiment. Results indicate a ~10 %–40 % average error on the estimate of the release rates.
Malika Menoud, Carina van der Veen, Jaroslaw Necki, Jakub Bartyzel, Barbara Szénási, Mila Stanisavljević, Isabelle Pison, Philippe Bousquet, and Thomas Röckmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13167–13185,Short summary
Using measurements of methane isotopes in ambient air and a 3D atmospheric transport model, in Krakow, Poland, we mainly detected fossil-fuel-related sources, coming from coal mining in Silesia and from the use of natural gas in the city. Emission inventories report large emissions from coal mine activity in Silesia, which is in agreement with our measurements. However, methane sources in the urban area of Krakow related to the use of fossil fuels might be underestimated in the inventories.
Antoine Berchet, Espen Sollum, Rona L. Thompson, Isabelle Pison, Joël Thanwerdas, Grégoire Broquet, Frédéric Chevallier, Tuula Aalto, Adrien Berchet, Peter Bergamaschi, Dominik Brunner, Richard Engelen, Audrey Fortems-Cheiney, Christoph Gerbig, Christine D. Groot Zwaaftink, Jean-Matthieu Haussaire, Stephan Henne, Sander Houweling, Ute Karstens, Werner L. Kutsch, Ingrid T. Luijkx, Guillaume Monteil, Paul I. Palmer, Jacob C. A. van Peet, Wouter Peters, Philippe Peylin, Elise Potier, Christian Rödenbeck, Marielle Saunois, Marko Scholze, Aki Tsuruta, and Yuanhong Zhao
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 5331–5354,Short summary
We present here the Community Inversion Framework (CIF) to help rationalize development efforts and leverage the strengths of individual inversion systems into a comprehensive framework. The CIF is a programming protocol to allow various inversion bricks to be exchanged among researchers. The ensemble of bricks makes a flexible, transparent and open-source Python-based tool. We describe the main structure and functionalities and demonstrate it in a simple academic case.
Yi Yin, Frederic Chevallier, Philippe Ciais, Philippe Bousquet, Marielle Saunois, Bo Zheng, John Worden, A. Anthony Bloom, Robert J. Parker, Daniel J. Jacob, Edward J. Dlugokencky, and Christian Frankenberg
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12631–12647,Short summary
The growth of methane, the second-most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide, has been accelerating in recent years. Using an ensemble of multi-tracer atmospheric inversions constrained by surface or satellite observations, we show that global methane emissions increased by nearly 1 % per year from 2010–2017, with leading contributions from the tropics and East Asia.
Bjorn Stevens, Sandrine Bony, David Farrell, Felix Ament, Alan Blyth, Christopher Fairall, Johannes Karstensen, Patricia K. Quinn, Sabrina Speich, Claudia Acquistapace, Franziska Aemisegger, Anna Lea Albright, Hugo Bellenger, Eberhard Bodenschatz, Kathy-Ann Caesar, Rebecca Chewitt-Lucas, Gijs de Boer, Julien Delanoë, Leif Denby, Florian Ewald, Benjamin Fildier, Marvin Forde, Geet George, Silke Gross, Martin Hagen, Andrea Hausold, Karen J. Heywood, Lutz Hirsch, Marek Jacob, Friedhelm Jansen, Stefan Kinne, Daniel Klocke, Tobias Kölling, Heike Konow, Marie Lothon, Wiebke Mohr, Ann Kristin Naumann, Louise Nuijens, Léa Olivier, Robert Pincus, Mira Pöhlker, Gilles Reverdin, Gregory Roberts, Sabrina Schnitt, Hauke Schulz, A. Pier Siebesma, Claudia Christine Stephan, Peter Sullivan, Ludovic Touzé-Peiffer, Jessica Vial, Raphaela Vogel, Paquita Zuidema, Nicola Alexander, Lyndon Alves, Sophian Arixi, Hamish Asmath, Gholamhossein Bagheri, Katharina Baier, Adriana Bailey, Dariusz Baranowski, Alexandre Baron, Sébastien Barrau, Paul A. Barrett, Frédéric Batier, Andreas Behrendt, Arne Bendinger, Florent Beucher, Sebastien Bigorre, Edmund Blades, Peter Blossey, Olivier Bock, Steven Böing, Pierre Bosser, Denis Bourras, Pascale Bouruet-Aubertot, Keith Bower, Pierre Branellec, Hubert Branger, Michal Brennek, Alan Brewer, Pierre-Etienne Brilouet, Björn Brügmann, Stefan A. Buehler, Elmo Burke, Ralph Burton, Radiance Calmer, Jean-Christophe Canonici, Xavier Carton, Gregory Cato Jr., Jude Andre Charles, Patrick Chazette, Yanxu Chen, Michal T. Chilinski, Thomas Choularton, Patrick Chuang, Shamal Clarke, Hugh Coe, Céline Cornet, Pierre Coutris, Fleur Couvreux, Susanne Crewell, Timothy Cronin, Zhiqiang Cui, Yannis Cuypers, Alton Daley, Gillian M. Damerell, Thibaut Dauhut, Hartwig Deneke, Jean-Philippe Desbios, Steffen Dörner, Sebastian Donner, Vincent Douet, Kyla Drushka, Marina Dütsch, André Ehrlich, Kerry Emanuel, Alexandros Emmanouilidis, Jean-Claude Etienne, Sheryl Etienne-Leblanc, Ghislain Faure, Graham Feingold, Luca Ferrero, Andreas Fix, Cyrille Flamant, Piotr Jacek Flatau, Gregory R. Foltz, Linda Forster, Iulian Furtuna, Alan Gadian, Joseph Galewsky, Martin Gallagher, Peter Gallimore, Cassandra Gaston, Chelle Gentemann, Nicolas Geyskens, Andreas Giez, John Gollop, Isabelle Gouirand, Christophe Gourbeyre, Dörte de Graaf, Geiske E. de Groot, Robert Grosz, Johannes Güttler, Manuel Gutleben, Kashawn Hall, George Harris, Kevin C. Helfer, Dean Henze, Calvert Herbert, Bruna Holanda, Antonio Ibanez-Landeta, Janet Intrieri, Suneil Iyer, Fabrice Julien, Heike Kalesse, Jan Kazil, Alexander Kellman, Abiel T. Kidane, Ulrike Kirchner, Marcus Klingebiel, Mareike Körner, Leslie Ann Kremper, Jan Kretzschmar, Ovid Krüger, Wojciech Kumala, Armin Kurz, Pierre L'Hégaret, Matthieu Labaste, Tom Lachlan-Cope, Arlene Laing, Peter Landschützer, Theresa Lang, Diego Lange, Ingo Lange, Clément Laplace, Gauke Lavik, Rémi Laxenaire, Caroline Le Bihan, Mason Leandro, Nathalie Lefevre, Marius Lena, Donald Lenschow, Qiang Li, Gary Lloyd, Sebastian Los, Niccolò Losi, Oscar Lovell, Christopher Luneau, Przemyslaw Makuch, Szymon Malinowski, Gaston Manta, Eleni Marinou, Nicholas Marsden, Sebastien Masson, Nicolas Maury, Bernhard Mayer, Margarette Mayers-Als, Christophe Mazel, Wayne McGeary, James C. McWilliams, Mario Mech, Melina Mehlmann, Agostino Niyonkuru Meroni, Theresa Mieslinger, Andreas Minikin, Peter Minnett, Gregor Möller, Yanmichel Morfa Avalos, Caroline Muller, Ionela Musat, Anna Napoli, Almuth Neuberger, Christophe Noisel, David Noone, Freja Nordsiek, Jakub L. Nowak, Lothar Oswald, Douglas J. Parker, Carolyn Peck, Renaud Person, Miriam Philippi, Albert Plueddemann, Christopher Pöhlker, Veronika Pörtge, Ulrich Pöschl, Lawrence Pologne, Michał Posyniak, Marc Prange, Estefanía Quiñones Meléndez, Jule Radtke, Karim Ramage, Jens Reimann, Lionel Renault, Klaus Reus, Ashford Reyes, Joachim Ribbe, Maximilian Ringel, Markus Ritschel, Cesar B. Rocha, Nicolas Rochetin, Johannes Röttenbacher, Callum Rollo, Haley Royer, Pauline Sadoulet, Leo Saffin, Sanola Sandiford, Irina Sandu, Michael Schäfer, Vera Schemann, Imke Schirmacher, Oliver Schlenczek, Jerome Schmidt, Marcel Schröder, Alfons Schwarzenboeck, Andrea Sealy, Christoph J. Senff, Ilya Serikov, Samkeyat Shohan, Elizabeth Siddle, Alexander Smirnov, Florian Späth, Branden Spooner, M. Katharina Stolla, Wojciech Szkółka, Simon P. de Szoeke, Stéphane Tarot, Eleni Tetoni, Elizabeth Thompson, Jim Thomson, Lorenzo Tomassini, Julien Totems, Alma Anna Ubele, Leonie Villiger, Jan von Arx, Thomas Wagner, Andi Walther, Ben Webber, Manfred Wendisch, Shanice Whitehall, Anton Wiltshire, Allison A. Wing, Martin Wirth, Jonathan Wiskandt, Kevin Wolf, Ludwig Worbes, Ethan Wright, Volker Wulfmeyer, Shanea Young, Chidong Zhang, Dongxiao Zhang, Florian Ziemen, Tobias Zinner, and Martin Zöger
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 4067–4119,Short summary
The EUREC4A field campaign, designed to test hypothesized mechanisms by which clouds respond to warming and benchmark next-generation Earth-system models, is presented. EUREC4A comprised roughly 5 weeks of measurements in the downstream winter trades of the North Atlantic – eastward and southeastward of Barbados. It was the first campaign that attempted to characterize the full range of processes and scales influencing trade wind clouds.
Simone Maria Pieber, Béla Tuzson, Stephan Henne, Ute Karstens, Christoph Gerbig, Frank-Thomas Koch, Dominik Brunner, Martin Steinbacher, and Lukas Emmenegger
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
Understanding of regional greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere is a prerequisite to mitigate climate change. In this study, we investigated the regional contributions of carbon dioxide (CO2) at the location of the high Alpine observatory Jungfraujoch ("JFJ", Switzerland, 3580 m a.s.l.). To this purpose, we combined receptor-oriented atmospheric transport simulations for CO2 concentration in the period of 2009–2017 with stable carbon isotope (δ13C-CO2) information.
Sophie F. Warken, Therese Weissbach, Tobias Kluge, Hubert Vonhof, Denis Scholz, Rolf Vieten, Martina Schmidt, Amos Winter, and Norbert Frank
Clim. Past Discuss.,
Preprint under review for CPShort summary
The analysis of fluid inclusions from a Puerto Rican speleothem provides quantitative information about past rainfall conditions and temperatures during the last glacial period, when climate was extremely variable. Our data show that the region experienced a climate that was generally colder and drier. However, we also reconstruct intervals when temperatures reached nearly modern values, and convective activity was comparable or only slightly weaker than today.
Sonya Fiddes, Matthew Woodhouse, Steve Utembe, Robyn Schofield, Joel Alroe, Scott Chambers, Luke Cravigan, Erin Dunne, Ruhi Humphries, Graham Johnson, Melita Keywood, Todd Lane, Branka Miljevic, Yuko Omori, Zoran Ristovski, Paul Sellek, Hilton Swan, Hiroshi Tanimoto, Jason Ward, and Alister Williams
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
Coral reefs have been found to produce the climatically relevant chemical compound dimethyl sulfide (DMS). It has been suggested that corals can modify their environment via the production of DMS. We use an atmospheric-chemistry model to test this theory at a regional scale for the first time. We find that it is unlikely that coral reef derived DMS has an influence over local climate, in part due to their proximity to terrestrial and anthropogenic aerosol sources.
Linh N. T. Nguyen, Harro A. J. Meijer, Charlotte van Leeuwen, Bert A. M. Kers, Bert A. Scheeren, Anna E. Jones, Neil Brough, Thomas Barningham, Penelope A. Pickers, Andrew C. Manning, and Ingrid T. Luijkx
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ESSDShort summary
We present 20-year flask sample records of atmospheric CO2, O2, and APO from stations Lutjewad (the Netherlands), Mace Head (Ireland), and Halley (Antarctica). Data from Lutjewad and Mace Head show similar long-term trends and seasonal cycles agreeing with measurements from another station (Weybourne, UK). Measurements from Halley agree partly with those conducted by other institutes. From our 2002–2018 records at Lutjewad and Mace Head, we find good agreement for the global ocean carbon uptake.
Sara M. Defratyka, Jean-Daniel Paris, Camille Yver-Kwok, Daniel Loeb, James France, Jon Helmore, Nigel Yarrow, Valérie Gros, and Philippe Bousquet
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5049–5069,Short summary
We consider the possibility of using the CRDS Picarro G2201-i instrument, originally designed for isotopic CH4 and CO2, for measurements of ethane : methane in near-source conditions. The work involved laboratory tests, a controlled release experiment and mobile measurements. We show the potential of determining ethane : methane with 50 ppb ethane uncertainty. The instrument can correctly estimate the ratio in CH4 enhancements of 1 ppm and more, as can be found at strongly emitting sites.
Jinghui Lian, François-Marie Bréon, Grégoire Broquet, Thomas Lauvaux, Bo Zheng, Michel Ramonet, Irène Xueref-Remy, Simone Kotthaus, Martial Haeffelin, and Philippe Ciais
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10707–10726,Short summary
Currently there is growing interest in monitoring city-scale CO2 emissions based on atmospheric CO2 measurements, atmospheric transport modeling, and inversion technique. We analyze the various sources of uncertainty that impact the atmospheric CO2 modeling and that may compromise the potential of this method for the monitoring of CO2 emission over Paris. Results suggest selection criteria for the assimilation of CO2 measurements into the inversion system that aims at retrieving city emissions.
Jack B. Simmons, Ruhi S. Humphries, Stephen R. Wilson, Scott D. Chambers, Alastair G. Williams, Alan D. Griffiths, Ian M. McRobert, Jason P. Ward, Melita D. Keywood, and Sean Gribben
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9497–9513,Short summary
Aerosols have a climate forcing effect in the Earth's atmosphere. Few measurements exist of aerosols in the Southern Ocean, a region key to our understanding of this effect. In this study, aerosol measurements from a summer 2017 campaign in the East Antarctic seasonal ice zone are examined. Higher concentrations of aerosols were found in dry air with origins from above the Antarctic continent compared to other periods of the voyage.
Pharahilda M. Steur, Hubertus A. Scheeren, Dave D. Nelson, J. Barry McManus, and Harro A. J. Meijer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4279–4304,Short summary
For understanding the sources and sinks of atmospheric CO2, measurement of stable isotopes has proven to be highly valuable. We present a new method using laser absorption spectroscopy to simultaneously conduct measurements of three CO2 isotopes, directly on dry-air samples. This new method reduces sample preparation time significantly, compared to the conventional method in which measurements are conducted on pure CO2, and avoids measurement biases introduced by CO2 extraction.
Ana Maria Roxana Petrescu, Chunjing Qiu, Philippe Ciais, Rona L. Thompson, Philippe Peylin, Matthew J. McGrath, Efisio Solazzo, Greet Janssens-Maenhout, Francesco N. Tubiello, Peter Bergamaschi, Dominik Brunner, Glen P. Peters, Lena Höglund-Isaksson, Pierre Regnier, Ronny Lauerwald, David Bastviken, Aki Tsuruta, Wilfried Winiwarter, Prabir K. Patra, Matthias Kuhnert, Gabriel D. Oreggioni, Monica Crippa, Marielle Saunois, Lucia Perugini, Tiina Markkanen, Tuula Aalto, Christine D. Groot Zwaaftink, Hanqin Tian, Yuanzhi Yao, Chris Wilson, Giulia Conchedda, Dirk Günther, Adrian Leip, Pete Smith, Jean-Matthieu Haussaire, Antti Leppänen, Alistair J. Manning, Joe McNorton, Patrick Brockmann, and Albertus Johannes Dolman
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 2307–2362,Short summary
This study is topical and provides a state-of-the-art scientific overview of data availability from bottom-up and top-down CH4 and N2O emissions in the EU27 and UK. The data integrate recent emission inventories with process-based model data and regional/global inversions for the European domain, aiming at reconciling them with official country-level UNFCCC national GHG inventories in support to policy and to facilitate real-time verification procedures.
Ana Maria Roxana Petrescu, Matthew J. McGrath, Robbie M. Andrew, Philippe Peylin, Glen P. Peters, Philippe Ciais, Gregoire Broquet, Francesco N. Tubiello, Christoph Gerbig, Julia Pongratz, Greet Janssens-Maenhout, Giacomo Grassi, Gert-Jan Nabuurs, Pierre Regnier, Ronny Lauerwald, Matthias Kuhnert, Juraj Balkovič, Mart-Jan Schelhaas, Hugo A. C. Denier van der Gon, Efisio Solazzo, Chunjing Qiu, Roberto Pilli, Igor B. Konovalov, Richard A. Houghton, Dirk Günther, Lucia Perugini, Monica Crippa, Raphael Ganzenmüller, Ingrid T. Luijkx, Pete Smith, Saqr Munassar, Rona L. Thompson, Giulia Conchedda, Guillaume Monteil, Marko Scholze, Ute Karstens, Patrick Brockmann, and Albertus Johannes Dolman
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 2363–2406,Short summary
This study is topical and provides a state-of-the-art scientific overview of data availability from bottom-up and top-down CO2 fossil emissions and CO2 land fluxes in the EU27+UK. The data integrate recent emission inventories with ecosystem data, land carbon models and regional/global inversions for the European domain, aiming at reconciling CO2 estimates with official country-level UNFCCC national GHG inventories in support to policy and facilitating real-time verification procedures.
Joël Thanwerdas, Marielle Saunois, Antoine Berchet, Isabelle Pison, Bruce H. Vaughn, Sylvia Englund Michel, and Philippe Bousquet
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for GMDShort summary
Estimating CH4 sources by exploiting observations within an inverse modeling framework is a powerful approach. Here, a new system designed to assimilate δ13C(CH4) observations together with CH4 observations is presented. By optimizing both emissions and associated source signatures of multiple emission categories, this new system can efficiently differentiate co-located emission categories and provide estimates of CH4 sources that are consistent with isotopic data.
Alkuin Maximilian Koenig, Olivier Magand, Paolo Laj, Marcos Andrade, Isabel Moreno, Fernando Velarde, Grover Salvatierra, René Gutierrez, Luis Blacutt, Diego Aliaga, Thomas Reichler, Karine Sellegri, Olivier Laurent, Michel Ramonet, and Aurélien Dommergue
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3447–3472,Short summary
The environmental cycling of atmospheric mercury, a harmful global contaminant, is still not sufficiently constrained, partly due to missing data in remote regions. Here, we address this issue by presenting 20 months of atmospheric mercury measurements, sampled in the Bolivian Andes. We observe a significant seasonal pattern, whose key features we explore. Moreover, we deduce ratios to constrain South American biomass burning mercury emissions and the mercury uptake by the Amazon rainforest.
Nicolas Maury, Gregory C. Roberts, Fleur Couvreux, Titouan Verdu, Pierre Narvor, Najda Villefranque, Simon Lacroix, and Gautier Hattenberger
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for AMTShort summary
The manuscript aims to use Large-Eddy simulations of cumulus clouds to design a sampling strategy that allows to follow cumulus clouds with Remotely Piloted Aircrafts and document the cloud spatial heterogeneities. Different possible explorations by RPAs are investigated and the use of Gaussian Process Regression permits the reconstruction of LWC distribution with only one RPA.
Matthias Schneider, Benjamin Ertl, Christopher J. Diekmann, Farahnaz Khosrawi, Amelie N. Röhling, Frank Hase, Darko Dubravica, Omaira E. García, Eliezer Sepúlveda, Tobias Borsdorff, Jochen Landgraf, Alba Lorente, Huilin Chen, Rigel Kivi, Thomas Laemmel, Michel Ramonet, Cyril Crevoisier, Jérome Pernin, Martin Steinbacher, Frank Meinhardt, Nicholas M. Deutscher, David W. T. Griffith, Voltaire A. Velazco, and David F. Pollard
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for AMTShort summary
We present a computationally very efficient method for the synergetic use of different remote sensing data sets. We apply the method to IASI vertical profile and TROPOMI total column space borne methane observations and thus gain sensitivity for the tropospheric methane partial columns, which is not achievable by the individual use of TROPOMI and IASI. These synergetic effects are evaluated theoretically and by inter-comparisons to independent references of TCCON, AirCore, and GAW.
Bo Zhang, Hongyu Liu, James H. Crawford, Gao Chen, T. Duncan Fairlie, Scott Chambers, Chang-Hee Kang, Alastair G. Williams, Kai Zhang, David B. Considine, Melissa P. Sulprizio, and Robert M. Yantosca
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1861–1887,Short summary
We simulate atmospheric 222Rn using the GEOS-Chem model to improve understanding of 222Rn emissions and characterize convective transport in the model. We demonstrate the potential of a customized global 222Rn emission scenario to improve simulated surface 222Rn concentrations and seasonality. We assess convective transport using observed 222Rn vertical profiles. Results have important implications for using chemical transport models to interpret the transport of trace gases and aerosols.
Shamil Maksyutov, Tomohiro Oda, Makoto Saito, Rajesh Janardanan, Dmitry Belikov, Johannes W. Kaiser, Ruslan Zhuravlev, Alexander Ganshin, Vinu K. Valsala, Arlyn Andrews, Lukasz Chmura, Edward Dlugokencky, László Haszpra, Ray L. Langenfelds, Toshinobu Machida, Takakiyo Nakazawa, Michel Ramonet, Colm Sweeney, and Douglas Worthy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1245–1266,Short summary
In order to improve the top-down estimation of the anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, a high-resolution inverse modelling technique was developed for applications to global transport modelling of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. A coupled Eulerian–Lagrangian transport model and its adjoint are combined with surface fluxes at 0.1° resolution to provide high-resolution forward simulation and inverse modelling of surface fluxes accounting for signals from emission hot spots.
Camille Yver-Kwok, Carole Philippon, Peter Bergamaschi, Tobias Biermann, Francescopiero Calzolari, Huilin Chen, Sebastien Conil, Paolo Cristofanelli, Marc Delmotte, Juha Hatakka, Michal Heliasz, Ove Hermansen, Kateřina Komínková, Dagmar Kubistin, Nicolas Kumps, Olivier Laurent, Tuomas Laurila, Irene Lehner, Janne Levula, Matthias Lindauer, Morgan Lopez, Ivan Mammarella, Giovanni Manca, Per Marklund, Jean-Marc Metzger, Meelis Mölder, Stephen M. Platt, Michel Ramonet, Leonard Rivier, Bert Scheeren, Mahesh Kumar Sha, Paul Smith, Martin Steinbacher, Gabriela Vítková, and Simon Wyss
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 89–116,Short summary
The Integrated Carbon Observation System (ICOS) is a pan-European research infrastructure which provides harmonized and high-precision scientific data on the carbon cycle and the greenhouse gas (GHG) budget. All stations have to undergo a rigorous assessment before being labeled, i.e., receiving approval to join the network. In this paper, we present the labeling process for the ICOS atmospheric network through the 23 stations that were labeled between November 2017 and November 2019.
Robert J. Parker, Alex Webb, Hartmut Boesch, Peter Somkuti, Rocio Barrio Guillo, Antonio Di Noia, Nikoleta Kalaitzi, Jasdeep S. Anand, Peter Bergamaschi, Frederic Chevallier, Paul I. Palmer, Liang Feng, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Dietrich G. Feist, David W. T. Griffith, Frank Hase, Rigel Kivi, Isamu Morino, Justus Notholt, Young-Suk Oh, Hirofumi Ohyama, Christof Petri, David F. Pollard, Coleen Roehl, Mahesh K. Sha, Kei Shiomi, Kimberly Strong, Ralf Sussmann, Yao Té, Voltaire A. Velazco, Thorsten Warneke, Paul O. Wennberg, and Debra Wunch
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 3383–3412,Short summary
This work presents the latest release of the University of Leicester GOSAT methane data and acts as the definitive description of this dataset. We detail the processing, validation and evaluation involved in producing these data and highlight its many applications. With now over a decade of global atmospheric methane observations, this dataset has helped, and will continue to help, us better understand the global methane budget and investigate how it may respond to a future changing climate.
Yuanhong Zhao, Marielle Saunois, Philippe Bousquet, Xin Lin, Antoine Berchet, Michaela I. Hegglin, Josep G. Canadell, Robert B. Jackson, Makoto Deushi, Patrick Jöckel, Douglas Kinnison, Ole Kirner, Sarah Strode, Simone Tilmes, Edward J. Dlugokencky, and Bo Zheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13011–13022,Short summary
Decadal trends and variations in OH are critical for understanding atmospheric CH4 evolution. We quantify the impacts of OH trends and variations on the CH4 budget by conducting CH4 inversions on a decadal scale with an ensemble of OH fields. We find the negative OH anomalies due to enhanced fires can reduce the optimized CH4 emissions by up to 10 Tg yr−1 during El Niño years and the positive OH trend from 1986 to 2010 results in a ∼ 23 Tg yr−1 additional increase in optimized CH4 emissions.
Alina Fiehn, Julian Kostinek, Maximilian Eckl, Theresa Klausner, Michał Gałkowski, Jinxuan Chen, Christoph Gerbig, Thomas Röckmann, Hossein Maazallahi, Martina Schmidt, Piotr Korbeń, Jarosław Neçki, Pawel Jagoda, Norman Wildmann, Christian Mallaun, Rostyslav Bun, Anna-Leah Nickl, Patrick Jöckel, Andreas Fix, and Anke Roiger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12675–12695,Short summary
A severe reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is necessary to fulfill the Paris Agreement. We use aircraft- and ground-based in situ observations of trace gases and wind speed from two flights over the Upper Silesian Coal Basin, Poland, for independent emission estimation. The derived methane emission estimates are within the range of emission inventories, carbon dioxide estimates are in the lower range and carbon monoxide emission estimates are slightly higher than emission inventory values.
Guillaume Monteil, Grégoire Broquet, Marko Scholze, Matthew Lang, Ute Karstens, Christoph Gerbig, Frank-Thomas Koch, Naomi E. Smith, Rona L. Thompson, Ingrid T. Luijkx, Emily White, Antoon Meesters, Philippe Ciais, Anita L. Ganesan, Alistair Manning, Michael Mischurow, Wouter Peters, Philippe Peylin, Jerôme Tarniewicz, Matt Rigby, Christian Rödenbeck, Alex Vermeulen, and Evie M. Walton
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12063–12091,Short summary
The paper presents the first results from the EUROCOM project, a regional atmospheric inversion intercomparison exercise involving six European research groups. It aims to produce an estimate of the net carbon flux between the European terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere for the period 2006–2015, based on constraints provided by observed CO2 concentrations and using inverse modelling techniques. The use of six different models enables us to investigate the robustness of the results.
Ingeborg Levin, Ute Karstens, Markus Eritt, Fabian Maier, Sabrina Arnold, Daniel Rzesanke, Samuel Hammer, Michel Ramonet, Gabriela Vítková, Sebastien Conil, Michal Heliasz, Dagmar Kubistin, and Matthias Lindauer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11161–11180,Short summary
Based on observations and Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT) footprint modelling, a sampling strategy has been developed for tall tower stations of the Integrated Carbon Observation System (ICOS) research infrastructure atmospheric station network. This strategy allows independent quality control of in situ measurements, provides representative coverage of the influence area of the sites, and is capable of automated targeted sampling of fossil fuel CO2 emission hotspots.
Yuanhong Zhao, Marielle Saunois, Philippe Bousquet, Xin Lin, Antoine Berchet, Michaela I. Hegglin, Josep G. Canadell, Robert B. Jackson, Edward J. Dlugokencky, Ray L. Langenfelds, Michel Ramonet, Doug Worthy, and Bo Zheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9525–9546,Short summary
The hydroxyl radical (OH), which is the dominant sink of methane (CH4), plays a key role in closing the global methane budget. This study quantifies how uncertainties in the hydroxyl radical can influence top-down estimates of CH4 emissions based on 4D Bayesian inversions with different OH fields and the same surface observations. We show that uncertainties in CH4 emissions driven by different OH fields are comparable to the uncertainties given by current bottom-up and top-down estimations.
Dipayan Paul, Hubertus A. Scheeren, Henk G. Jansen, Bert A. M. Kers, John B. Miller, Andrew M. Crotwell, Sylvia E. Michel, Luciana V. Gatti, Lucas G. Domingues, Caio S. C. Correia, Raiane A. L. Neves, Harro A. J. Meijer, and Wouter Peters
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4051–4064,Short summary
For reliable measurements of CO2 mole fractions and its stable isotope composition in air samples, one needs to carefully dry them during collection. Here we describe evaluation of a portable, consumable-free and power-free Nafion-based drying system that is currently being used for sample collection over the Amazon. Laboratory tests indicate that this Nafion-based system does not influence the mole fraction measurements of CH4, CO, N2O, SF6, and CO2 and the stable isotope composition of CO2.
Marielle Saunois, Ann R. Stavert, Ben Poulter, Philippe Bousquet, Josep G. Canadell, Robert B. Jackson, Peter A. Raymond, Edward J. Dlugokencky, Sander Houweling, Prabir K. Patra, Philippe Ciais, Vivek K. Arora, David Bastviken, Peter Bergamaschi, Donald R. Blake, Gordon Brailsford, Lori Bruhwiler, Kimberly M. Carlson, Mark Carrol, Simona Castaldi, Naveen Chandra, Cyril Crevoisier, Patrick M. Crill, Kristofer Covey, Charles L. Curry, Giuseppe Etiope, Christian Frankenberg, Nicola Gedney, Michaela I. Hegglin, Lena Höglund-Isaksson, Gustaf Hugelius, Misa Ishizawa, Akihiko Ito, Greet Janssens-Maenhout, Katherine M. Jensen, Fortunat Joos, Thomas Kleinen, Paul B. Krummel, Ray L. Langenfelds, Goulven G. Laruelle, Licheng Liu, Toshinobu Machida, Shamil Maksyutov, Kyle C. McDonald, Joe McNorton, Paul A. Miller, Joe R. Melton, Isamu Morino, Jurek Müller, Fabiola Murguia-Flores, Vaishali Naik, Yosuke Niwa, Sergio Noce, Simon O'Doherty, Robert J. Parker, Changhui Peng, Shushi Peng, Glen P. Peters, Catherine Prigent, Ronald Prinn, Michel Ramonet, Pierre Regnier, William J. Riley, Judith A. Rosentreter, Arjo Segers, Isobel J. Simpson, Hao Shi, Steven J. Smith, L. Paul Steele, Brett F. Thornton, Hanqin Tian, Yasunori Tohjima, Francesco N. Tubiello, Aki Tsuruta, Nicolas Viovy, Apostolos Voulgarakis, Thomas S. Weber, Michiel van Weele, Guido R. van der Werf, Ray F. Weiss, Doug Worthy, Debra Wunch, Yi Yin, Yukio Yoshida, Wenxin Zhang, Zhen Zhang, Yuanhong Zhao, Bo Zheng, Qing Zhu, Qiuan Zhu, and Qianlai Zhuang
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1561–1623,Short summary
Understanding and quantifying the global methane (CH4) budget is important for assessing realistic pathways to mitigate climate change. We have established a consortium of multidisciplinary scientists under the umbrella of the Global Carbon Project to synthesize and stimulate new research aimed at improving and regularly updating the global methane budget. This is the second version of the review dedicated to the decadal methane budget, integrating results of top-down and bottom-up estimates.
Joel Alroe, Luke T. Cravigan, Branka Miljevic, Graham R. Johnson, Paul Selleck, Ruhi S. Humphries, Melita D. Keywood, Scott D. Chambers, Alastair G. Williams, and Zoran D. Ristovski
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8047–8062,Short summary
We present findings from an austral summer voyage across the full latitudinal width of the Southern Ocean, south of Australia. Aerosol properties were strongly influenced by marine biological activity, synoptic-scale weather systems, and long-range transport of continental-influenced air masses. The meteorological history of the sampled air masses is shown to have a vital limiting influence on cloud condensation nuclei and the accuracy of modelled sea spray aerosol concentrations.
Pierre Sepulchre, Arnaud Caubel, Jean-Baptiste Ladant, Laurent Bopp, Olivier Boucher, Pascale Braconnot, Patrick Brockmann, Anne Cozic, Yannick Donnadieu, Jean-Louis Dufresne, Victor Estella-Perez, Christian Ethé, Frédéric Fluteau, Marie-Alice Foujols, Guillaume Gastineau, Josefine Ghattas, Didier Hauglustaine, Frédéric Hourdin, Masa Kageyama, Myriam Khodri, Olivier Marti, Yann Meurdesoif, Juliette Mignot, Anta-Clarisse Sarr, Jérôme Servonnat, Didier Swingedouw, Sophie Szopa, and Delphine Tardif
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 3011–3053,Short summary
Our paper describes IPSL-CM5A2, an Earth system model that can be integrated for long (several thousands of years) climate simulations. We describe the technical aspects, assess the model computing performance and evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the model, by comparing pre-industrial and historical runs to the previous-generation model simulations and to observations. We also present a Cretaceous simulation as a case study to show how the model simulates deep-time paleoclimates.
Franz Slemr, Lynwill Martin, Casper Labuschagne, Thumeka Mkololo, Hélène Angot, Olivier Magand, Aurélien Dommergue, Philippe Garat, Michel Ramonet, and Johannes Bieser
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 7683–7692,Short summary
Monitoring of atmospheric mercury (Hg) concentrations is an important part of the effectiveness evaluation of the Minamata Convention on Hg. Hg concentrations in 2012–2017 at Cape Point, South Africa, and at Amsterdam Island in the remote Indian Ocean are comparable, and no trend or a slightly downward trend was observed at both stations. Over the 2007–2017 period an upward trend was observed at CPT which was driven mainly by the 2007–2014 data. The trend and its change are discussed.
Jean-Luc Baray, Laurent Deguillaume, Aurélie Colomb, Karine Sellegri, Evelyn Freney, Clémence Rose, Joël Van Baelen, Jean-Marc Pichon, David Picard, Patrick Fréville, Laëtitia Bouvier, Mickaël Ribeiro, Pierre Amato, Sandra Banson, Angelica Bianco, Agnès Borbon, Lauréline Bourcier, Yannick Bras, Marcello Brigante, Philippe Cacault, Aurélien Chauvigné, Tiffany Charbouillot, Nadine Chaumerliac, Anne-Marie Delort, Marc Delmotte, Régis Dupuy, Antoine Farah, Guy Febvre, Andrea Flossmann, Christophe Gourbeyre, Claude Hervier, Maxime Hervo, Nathalie Huret, Muriel Joly, Victor Kazan, Morgan Lopez, Gilles Mailhot, Angela Marinoni, Olivier Masson, Nadège Montoux, Marius Parazols, Frédéric Peyrin, Yves Pointin, Michel Ramonet, Manon Rocco, Martine Sancelme, Stéphane Sauvage, Martina Schmidt, Emmanuel Tison, Mickaël Vaïtilingom, Paolo Villani, Miao Wang, Camille Yver-Kwok, and Paolo Laj
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3413–3445,Short summary
CO-PDD (Cézeaux-Aulnat-Opme-puy de Dôme) is a fully instrumented platform for atmospheric research. The four sites located at different altitudes from 330 to 1465 m around Clermont-Ferrand (France) host in situ and remote sensing instruments to measure atmospheric composition, including long-term trends and variability, to study interconnected processes (microphysical, chemical, biological, chemical, and dynamical) and to provide a reference point for climate models.
Claudia Grossi, Scott D. Chambers, Olivier Llido, Felix R. Vogel, Victor Kazan, Alessandro Capuana, Sylvester Werczynski, Roger Curcoll, Marc Delmotte, Arturo Vargas, Josep-Anton Morguí, Ingeborg Levin, and Michel Ramonet
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2241–2255,Short summary
The sustainable support of radon metrology at the environmental level offers new scientific possibilities for the quantification of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and the determination of their source terms as well as for the identification of radioactive sources for the assessment of radiation exposure. This study helps to harmonize the techniques commonly used for atmospheric radon and radon progeny activity concentration measurements.
Antoine Berchet, Isabelle Pison, Patrick M. Crill, Brett Thornton, Philippe Bousquet, Thibaud Thonat, Thomas Hocking, Joël Thanwerdas, Jean-Daniel Paris, and Marielle Saunois
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 3987–3998,Short summary
Methane isotopes in the atmosphere can help us differentiate between emission processes. A large variety of natural and anthropogenic emission types are active in the Arctic and are unsatisfactorily understood and documented up to now. A ship-based campaign was carried out in summer 2014, providing a unique dataset of isotopic measurements in the Arctic Ocean. Using a chemistry-transport model, we link these measurements to circumpolar emissions and retrieve information about their signature.
Sébastien Conil, Julie Helle, Laurent Langrene, Olivier Laurent, Marc Delmotte, and Michel Ramonet
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 6361–6383,Short summary
Continuous measurements of greenhouse gases using high-precision spectrometers started in 2011 on a tall tower with three sampling inlets at 10 m, 50 m and 120 m above the ground at the OPE station, in the eastern part of France. The measurement strategy for carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and carbon monoxide (CO) follows the ICOS recommendations. Over the 2011–2018 period, the CO2 and CH4 data show trends with annual growth rates of 2.4 ppm yr−1 and 8.8 ppb yr−1 at the 120 m level.
Melita Keywood, Paul Selleck, Fabienne Reisen, David Cohen, Scott Chambers, Min Cheng, Martin Cope, Suzanne Crumeyrolle, Erin Dunne, Kathryn Emmerson, Rosemary Fedele, Ian Galbally, Rob Gillett, Alan Griffiths, Elise-Andree Guerette, James Harnwell, Ruhi Humphries, Sarah Lawson, Branka Miljevic, Suzie Molloy, Jennifer Powell, Jack Simmons, Zoran Ristovski, and Jason Ward
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 1883–1903,Short summary
The Sydney Particle Study increased scientific knowledge of the processes leading to particle formation and transformations in Sydney through two comprehensive observation programs which are described in detail here. The data set and its analysis underpin comprehensive chemical transport modelling tools that can be used to assist in the development of a long-term control strategy for particles in Sydney and thus reduce the impact of particles on human health.
Minqiang Zhou, Bavo Langerock, Mahesh Kumar Sha, Nicolas Kumps, Christian Hermans, Christof Petri, Thorsten Warneke, Huilin Chen, Jean-Marc Metzger, Rigel Kivi, Pauli Heikkinen, Michel Ramonet, and Martine De Mazière
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 6125–6141,Short summary
In this study, CH4 vertical profile is retrieved by SFIT4 code from FTIR NIR spectra based on six sites during 2016–2017. The degree of freedom for signal of the SFIT4NIR retrieval is about 2.4, with two distinct species of information in the troposphere and in the stratosphere. By comparison against other measurements, e.g. TCCON standard products, satellite observations and AirCore measurements, the uncertainties of the SFIT4NIR total column and partial columns are estimated and discussed.
Jinghui Lian, François-Marie Bréon, Grégoire Broquet, T. Scott Zaccheo, Jeremy Dobler, Michel Ramonet, Johannes Staufer, Diego Santaren, Irène Xueref-Remy, and Philippe Ciais
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 13809–13825,Short summary
CO2 emissions within urban areas impact nearby and downwind concentrations. A different system, based on bi-wavelength laser measurements, has been deployed over Paris. It samples CO2 concentrations along horizontal lines, between a transceiver and a reflector. In this paper, we analyze the measurements provided by this system, together with the more classical in situ sampling and high-resolution modeling. We focus on the temporal and spatial variability of atmospheric CO2 concentrations.
Minqiang Zhou, Bavo Langerock, Corinne Vigouroux, Mahesh Kumar Sha, Christian Hermans, Jean-Marc Metzger, Huilin Chen, Michel Ramonet, Rigel Kivi, Pauli Heikkinen, Dan Smale, David F. Pollard, Nicholas Jones, Voltaire A. Velazco, Omaira E. García, Matthias Schneider, Mathias Palm, Thorsten Warneke, and Martine De Mazière
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5979–5995,Short summary
The differences between the TCCON and NDACC XCO measurements are investigated and discussed based on six NDACC–TCCON sites (Ny-Ålesund, Bremen, Izaña, Saint-Denis, Wollongong and Lauder) using data over the period 2007–2017. The smoothing errors from both TCCON and NDACC measurements are estimated. In addition, the scaling factor of the TCCON XCO data is reassessed by comparing with the AirCore measurements at Sodankylä and Orléans.
Yuanhong Zhao, Marielle Saunois, Philippe Bousquet, Xin Lin, Antoine Berchet, Michaela I. Hegglin, Josep G. Canadell, Robert B. Jackson, Didier A. Hauglustaine, Sophie Szopa, Ann R. Stavert, Nathan Luke Abraham, Alex T. Archibald, Slimane Bekki, Makoto Deushi, Patrick Jöckel, Béatrice Josse, Douglas Kinnison, Ole Kirner, Virginie Marécal, Fiona M. O'Connor, David A. Plummer, Laura E. Revell, Eugene Rozanov, Andrea Stenke, Sarah Strode, Simone Tilmes, Edward J. Dlugokencky, and Bo Zheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 13701–13723,Short summary
The role of hydroxyl radical changes in methane trends is debated, hindering our understanding of the methane cycle. This study quantifies how uncertainties in the hydroxyl radical may influence methane abundance in the atmosphere based on the inter-model comparison of hydroxyl radical fields and model simulations of CH4 abundance with different hydroxyl radical scenarios during 2000–2016. We show that hydroxyl radical changes could contribute up to 54 % of model-simulated methane biases.
Joël Thanwerdas, Marielle Saunois, Antoine Berchet, Isabelle Pison, Didier Hauglustaine, Michel Ramonet, Cyril Crevoisier, Bianca Baier, Colm Sweeney, and Philippe Bousquet
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
Oxidation by the hydroxyl radical (OH) is the dominant atmospheric sink for methane, contributing to approximately 90 % of the total methane loss. Chemical losses by reaction with atomic oxygen (O1D) and chlorine radicals (Cl) in the stratosphere are other sinks, contributing about 3 % to the total methane destruction. We assess here the impact of atomic Cl on atmospheric methane mixing ratios, methane atmospheric loss and atmospheric isotopic δ13C-CH4 values.
Thibaud Thonat, Marielle Saunois, Isabelle Pison, Antoine Berchet, Thomas Hocking, Brett F. Thornton, Patrick M. Crill, and Philippe Bousquet
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12141–12161,Short summary
This paper discusses the methane isotopic signals that could be detected at instrumental surface sites in the northern high latitudes using a 3–D chemistry transport model. Isotopic signals may be used in atmospheric inverse systems to better characterize methane emissions and changes. We show that depending on the source magnitude and the location of the site, detecting isotopic signals of specific individual sources may be challenging for the new generation of methane isotope instruments.
Dafina Kikaj, Janja Vaupotič, and Scott D. Chambers
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 4455–4477,Short summary
A new method was developed to identify persistent temperature inversion events in a subalpine basin using a radon-based method (RBM). By comparing with an existing pseudo-vertical temperature gradient method, the RBM was shown to be more reliable and seasonally independent. The RBM has the potential to increase the understanding of meteorological controls on air pollution episodes in complex terrain beyond the capability of contemporary atmospheric stability classification tools.
Haiyan Ni, Ru-Jin Huang, Junji Cao, Wenting Dai, Jiamao Zhou, Haoyue Deng, Anita Aerts-Bijma, Harro A. J. Meijer, and Ulrike Dusek
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 10405–10422,Short summary
We apply radiocarbon source apportionment of more volatile organic carbon (mvOC) to winter aerosol samples from six Chinese cities. We find a consistently larger contribution of fossil sources to mvOC than to secondary or total organic carbon. Fossil mvOC concentrations are strongly correlated with primary fossil OC but not with secondary fossil OC. The variability in nonfossil mvOC seems to be related to both primary and secondary biomass burning sources.
Greet Janssens-Maenhout, Monica Crippa, Diego Guizzardi, Marilena Muntean, Edwin Schaaf, Frank Dentener, Peter Bergamaschi, Valerio Pagliari, Jos G. J. Olivier, Jeroen A. H. W. Peters, John A. van Aardenne, Suvi Monni, Ulrike Doering, A. M. Roxana Petrescu, Efisio Solazzo, and Gabriel D. Oreggioni
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 959–1002,Short summary
In support of the Paris Agreement, EDGARv4.3.2 provides global annual estimates, broken down into IPCC-compliant source-sector levels, from 1970 to 2012. The anthropogenic CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions were calculated bottom up with international statistics and emission factors for 226 countries and spatially distributed. EDGARv4.3.2 is input for the top-down modelling of the Global Carbon Project and EU policy-making, needing GHG emission estimates for each country at the climate negotiations.
Anna Agustí-Panareda, Michail Diamantakis, Sébastien Massart, Frédéric Chevallier, Joaquín Muñoz-Sabater, Jérôme Barré, Roger Curcoll, Richard Engelen, Bavo Langerock, Rachel M. Law, Zoë Loh, Josep Anton Morguí, Mark Parrington, Vincent-Henri Peuch, Michel Ramonet, Coleen Roehl, Alex T. Vermeulen, Thorsten Warneke, and Debra Wunch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 7347–7376,Short summary
This paper demonstrates the benefits of using global models with high horizontal resolution to represent atmospheric CO2 patterns associated with evolving weather. The modelling of CO2 weather is crucial to interpret the variability from ground-based and satellite CO2 observations, which can then be used to infer CO2 fluxes in atmospheric inversions. The benefits of high resolution come from an improved representation of the topography, winds, tracer transport and CO2 flux distribution.
Emmanuel Arzoumanian, Felix R. Vogel, Ana Bastos, Bakhram Gaynullin, Olivier Laurent, Michel Ramonet, and Philippe Ciais
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 2665–2677,Short summary
We tested commercial lower-cost CO2 sensors in laboratory and field studies to see if they can measure atmospheric CO2 mole fractions with less than 1 ppm bias (with monthly calibration), to allow continuous urban CO2 monitoring. We find that the sensors' CO2 readings are influenced by temperature, atmospheric pressure and water vapour content, but this can be corrected for by adding sensors (T, p, RH) and carefully calibrating each sensor against a high-precision instrument.
Emily D. White, Matthew Rigby, Mark F. Lunt, T. Luke Smallman, Edward Comyn-Platt, Alistair J. Manning, Anita L. Ganesan, Simon O'Doherty, Ann R. Stavert, Kieran Stanley, Mathew Williams, Peter Levy, Michel Ramonet, Grant L. Forster, Andrew C. Manning, and Paul I. Palmer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 4345–4365,Short summary
Understanding carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes from the terrestrial biosphere on a national scale is important for evaluating land use strategies to mitigate climate change. We estimate emissions of CO2 from the UK biosphere using atmospheric data in a top-down approach. Our findings show that bottom-up estimates from models of biospheric fluxes overestimate the amount of CO2 uptake in summer. This suggests these models wrongly estimate or omit key processes, e.g. land disturbance due to harvest.
Matthias Frey, Mahesh K. Sha, Frank Hase, Matthäus Kiel, Thomas Blumenstock, Roland Harig, Gregor Surawicz, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Kei Shiomi, Jonathan E. Franklin, Hartmut Bösch, Jia Chen, Michel Grutter, Hirofumi Ohyama, Youwen Sun, André Butz, Gizaw Mengistu Tsidu, Dragos Ene, Debra Wunch, Zhensong Cao, Omaira Garcia, Michel Ramonet, Felix Vogel, and Johannes Orphal
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 1513–1530,Short summary
In a 3.5-year long study, the long-term performance of a mobile EM27/SUN spectrometer, used for greenhouse gas observations, is checked with respect to a co-located reference spectrometer. We find that the EM27/SUN is stable on timescales of several years, qualifying it for permanent carbon cycle studies. The performance of an ensemble of 30 EM27/SUN spectrometers was also tested in the framework of the COllaborative Carbon Column Observing Network (COCCON) and found to be very uniform.
Carole Helfter, Neil Mullinger, Massimo Vieno, Simon O'Doherty, Michel Ramonet, Paul I. Palmer, and Eiko Nemitz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 3043–3063,Short summary
We present a novel approach to estimate the annual budgets of carbon dioxide (881.0 ± 128.5 Tg) and methane (2.55 ± 0.48 Tg) of the British Isles from shipborne measurements taken over a 3-year period (2015–2017). This study brings independent verification of the emission budgets estimated using alternative products and investigates the seasonality of these emissions, which is usually not possible.
Antje Hoheisel, Christiane Yeman, Florian Dinger, Henrik Eckhardt, and Martina Schmidt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 1123–1139,Short summary
In this study, we developed and applied a mobile instrument set-up to determine the carbon isotope source signature by measuring the plume of different methane sources. Therefore, we carefully characterised the analyser especially with regard to cross sensitivities of the gas matrix. During 21 field campaigns we determined mean carbon isotope values of three dairy farms, a biogas plant, a landfill, a wastewater treatment plant, an active deep coal mine and two natural gas facilities in Germany.
Ann R. Stavert, Rachel M. Law, Marcel van der Schoot, Ray L. Langenfelds, Darren A. Spencer, Paul B. Krummel, Scott D. Chambers, Alistair G. Williams, Sylvester Werczynski, Roger J. Francey, and Russell T. Howden
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 1103–1121,Short summary
The Southern Ocean is a key sink of carbon dioxide (CO2), but efforts to study trends in and the variability of the sink have been hindered by the limited number of CO2 measurements in this region. Here we describe a set of new in situ continuous (minutely) atmospheric CO2 observations. We show that this new record better captures long-term changes and seasonality than traditional 2-weekly flask records. As such, this data set will provide key insights into the changing Southern Ocean sink.
Haiyan Ni, Ru-Jin Huang, Junji Cao, Weiguo Liu, Ting Zhang, Meng Wang, Harro A. J. Meijer, and Ulrike Dusek
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 16363–16383,Short summary
Seasonal changes in organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) sources in Xi'an, China, are investigated based on measurements of radiocarbon and the stable isotope 13C. Relative contributions to EC from biomass burning, coal combustion, and vehicle emissions change substantially between different seasons. Biomass burning contributes 60 % to the EC increment in winter. Comparing concentrations and sources of primary OC to total OC suggests non-negligible OC loss due to active photochemistry.
Marine Remaud, Frédéric Chevallier, Anne Cozic, Xin Lin, and Philippe Bousquet
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 4489–4513,Short summary
We compare several versions of a global atmospheric transport model for the simulation of CO2. The representation of subgrid-scale processes modulates the interhemispheric gradient and the amplitude of the seasonal cycle in the Northern Hemisphere. It has the largest impact over Brazil. Refining the horizontal resolution improves the simulation near emission hotspots or along the coastlines. The sensitivities to the land surface model and to the increase in vertical resolution are marginal.
Minqiang Zhou, Bavo Langerock, Corinne Vigouroux, Mahesh Kumar Sha, Michel Ramonet, Marc Delmotte, Emmanuel Mahieu, Whitney Bader, Christian Hermans, Nicolas Kumps, Jean-Marc Metzger, Valentin Duflot, Zhiting Wang, Mathias Palm, and Martine De Mazière
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 13881–13901,Short summary
This study focuses on atmospheric CO and CH4 time series and seasonal variations on Reunion Island based on in situ and FTIR measurements from two sites, Saint Denis and Maido. Ground-based in situ and FTIR (NDACC and TCCON) measurements are used to show their complementarity with regards to obtaining the CO and CH4 concentrations at the surface and in the troposphere and stratosphere. FLEXPART and GEOS-Chem models are applied to understand the seasonal variations of CO and CH4 at this site.
Cyrille Flamant, Adrien Deroubaix, Patrick Chazette, Joel Brito, Marco Gaetani, Peter Knippertz, Andreas H. Fink, Gaëlle de Coetlogon, Laurent Menut, Aurélie Colomb, Cyrielle Denjean, Rémi Meynadier, Philip Rosenberg, Regis Dupuy, Pamela Dominutti, Jonathan Duplissy, Thierry Bourrianne, Alfons Schwarzenboeck, Michel Ramonet, and Julien Totems
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 12363–12389,Short summary
This work sheds light on the complex mechanisms by which coastal shallow circulations distribute atmospheric pollutants over the densely populated southern West African region. Pollutants of concern are anthropogenic emissions from coastal cities, as well as biomass burning aerosol and dust associated with long-range transport. The complex vertical distribution of aerosols over coastal southern West Africa is investigated using airborne observations and numerical simulations.
Maarten Krol, Marco de Bruine, Lars Killaars, Huug Ouwersloot, Andrea Pozzer, Yi Yin, Frederic Chevallier, Philippe Bousquet, Prabir Patra, Dmitry Belikov, Shamil Maksyutov, Sandip Dhomse, Wuhu Feng, and Martyn P. Chipperfield
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 3109–3130,Short summary
The TransCom inter-comparison project regularly carries out studies to quantify errors in simulated atmospheric transport. This paper presents the first results of an age of air (AoA) inter-comparison of six global transport models. Following a protocol, six models simulated five tracers from which atmospheric transport times can easily be deduced. Results highlight that inter-model differences associated with atmospheric transport are still large and require further analysis.
Xin Lin, Philippe Ciais, Philippe Bousquet, Michel Ramonet, Yi Yin, Yves Balkanski, Anne Cozic, Marc Delmotte, Nikolaos Evangeliou, Nuggehalli K. Indira, Robin Locatelli, Shushi Peng, Shilong Piao, Marielle Saunois, Panangady S. Swathi, Rong Wang, Camille Yver-Kwok, Yogesh K. Tiwari, and Lingxi Zhou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 9475–9497,Short summary
We simulate CH4 and CO2 using a zoomed global transport model with a horizontal resolution of ~50 km over South and East Asia, as well as a standard model version for comparison. Model performance is evaluated for both gases and versions at multiple timescales against a new collection of surface stations over this key GHG-emitting region. The evaluation at different timescales and comparisons between gases and model versions have implications for possible model improvements and inversions.
Christine Lac, Jean-Pierre Chaboureau, Valéry Masson, Jean-Pierre Pinty, Pierre Tulet, Juan Escobar, Maud Leriche, Christelle Barthe, Benjamin Aouizerats, Clotilde Augros, Pierre Aumond, Franck Auguste, Peter Bechtold, Sarah Berthet, Soline Bielli, Frédéric Bosseur, Olivier Caumont, Jean-Martial Cohard, Jeanne Colin, Fleur Couvreux, Joan Cuxart, Gaëlle Delautier, Thibaut Dauhut, Véronique Ducrocq, Jean-Baptiste Filippi, Didier Gazen, Olivier Geoffroy, François Gheusi, Rachel Honnert, Jean-Philippe Lafore, Cindy Lebeaupin Brossier, Quentin Libois, Thibaut Lunet, Céline Mari, Tomislav Maric, Patrick Mascart, Maxime Mogé, Gilles Molinié, Olivier Nuissier, Florian Pantillon, Philippe Peyrillé, Julien Pergaud, Emilie Perraud, Joris Pianezze, Jean-Luc Redelsperger, Didier Ricard, Evelyne Richard, Sébastien Riette, Quentin Rodier, Robert Schoetter, Léo Seyfried, Joël Stein, Karsten Suhre, Marie Taufour, Odile Thouron, Sandra Turner, Antoine Verrelle, Benoît Vié, Florian Visentin, Vincent Vionnet, and Philippe Wautelet
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 1929–1969,Short summary
This paper presents the Meso-NH model version 5.4, which is an atmospheric non-hydrostatic research model that is applied on synoptic to turbulent scales. The model includes advanced numerical techniques and state-of-the-art physics parameterization schemes. It has been expanded to provide capabilities for a range of Earth system prediction applications such as chemistry and aerosols, electricity and lightning, hydrology, wildland fires, volcanic eruptions, and cyclones with ocean coupling.
Fabien Brosse, Maud Leriche, Céline Mari, and Fleur Couvreux
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 6601–6624,Short summary
The cleansing capacity of the atmosphere is studied through the hydroxyl radical (OH) chemical reactivity in numerical simulations of natural and urban environments. Turbulence-driven segregation of chemical compounds in the atmospheric boundary layer is explored and may partially explain discrepancies between observed and modeled OH reactivity in both environments.
Abdelhadi El Yazidi, Michel Ramonet, Philippe Ciais, Gregoire Broquet, Isabelle Pison, Amara Abbaris, Dominik Brunner, Sebastien Conil, Marc Delmotte, Francois Gheusi, Frederic Guerin, Lynn Hazan, Nesrine Kachroudi, Giorgos Kouvarakis, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, Leonard Rivier, and Dominique Serça
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 1599–1614,
Isabelle Pison, Antoine Berchet, Marielle Saunois, Philippe Bousquet, Grégoire Broquet, Sébastien Conil, Marc Delmotte, Anita Ganesan, Olivier Laurent, Damien Martin, Simon O'Doherty, Michel Ramonet, T. Gerard Spain, Alex Vermeulen, and Camille Yver Kwok
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 3779–3798,Short summary
Methane emissions on the national scale in France in 2012 are inferred by assimilating continuous atmospheric mixing ratio measurements from nine stations of the European network ICOS. Two complementary inversion set-ups are computed and analysed: (i) a regional run correcting for the spatial distribution of fluxes in France and (ii) a sectorial run correcting fluxes for activity sectors on the national scale. The results are compared with existing inventories and other regional inversions.
Magnus Gålfalk, Martin Karlson, Patrick Crill, Philippe Bousquet, and David Bastviken
Biogeosciences, 15, 1549–1557,Short summary
We describe a quick in situ method for mapping ground surface cover, calculating areas of each surface type in a 10 x 10 m plot for each measurement. The method is robust, weather-independent, easily carried out, and uses wide-field imaging with a standard remote-controlled camera mounted on a very long extendible monopod from a height of 3–4.5 m. The method enables collection of detailed field reference data, critical in many remote sensing applications, such as wetland mapping.
Irène Xueref-Remy, Elsa Dieudonné, Cyrille Vuillemin, Morgan Lopez, Christine Lac, Martina Schmidt, Marc Delmotte, Frédéric Chevallier, François Ravetta, Olivier Perrussel, Philippe Ciais, François-Marie Bréon, Grégoire Broquet, Michel Ramonet, T. Gerard Spain, and Christophe Ampe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 3335–3362,Short summary
Urbanized and industrialized areas are the largest source of fossil CO2. This work analyses the atmospheric CO2 variability observed from the first in situ network deployed in the Paris megacity area. Gradients of several ppm are found between the rural, peri-urban and urban sites at the diurnal to the seasonal scales. Wind direction and speed as well as boundary layer dynamics, correlated to highly variable urban emissions, are shown to be key regulator factors of the observed CO2 records.
Panagiotis Kountouris, Christoph Gerbig, Christian Rödenbeck, Ute Karstens, Thomas Frank Koch, and Martin Heimann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 3027–3045,
Panagiotis Kountouris, Christoph Gerbig, Christian Rödenbeck, Ute Karstens, Thomas F. Koch, and Martin Heimann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 3047–3064,
Taku Umezawa, Carl A. M. Brenninkmeijer, Thomas Röckmann, Carina van der Veen, Stanley C. Tyler, Ryo Fujita, Shinji Morimoto, Shuji Aoki, Todd Sowers, Jochen Schmitt, Michael Bock, Jonas Beck, Hubertus Fischer, Sylvia E. Michel, Bruce H. Vaughn, John B. Miller, James W. C. White, Gordon Brailsford, Hinrich Schaefer, Peter Sperlich, Willi A. Brand, Michael Rothe, Thomas Blunier, David Lowry, Rebecca E. Fisher, Euan G. Nisbet, Andrew L. Rice, Peter Bergamaschi, Cordelia Veidt, and Ingeborg Levin
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 1207–1231,Short summary
Isotope measurements are useful for separating different methane sources. However, the lack of widely accepted standards and calibration methods for stable carbon and hydrogen isotopic ratios of methane in air has caused significant measurement offsets among laboratories. We conducted worldwide interlaboratory comparisons, surveyed the literature and assessed them systematically. This study may be of help in future attempts to harmonize data sets of isotopic composition of atmospheric methane.
Peter Bergamaschi, Ute Karstens, Alistair J. Manning, Marielle Saunois, Aki Tsuruta, Antoine Berchet, Alexander T. Vermeulen, Tim Arnold, Greet Janssens-Maenhout, Samuel Hammer, Ingeborg Levin, Martina Schmidt, Michel Ramonet, Morgan Lopez, Jost Lavric, Tuula Aalto, Huilin Chen, Dietrich G. Feist, Christoph Gerbig, László Haszpra, Ove Hermansen, Giovanni Manca, John Moncrieff, Frank Meinhardt, Jaroslaw Necki, Michal Galkowski, Simon O'Doherty, Nina Paramonova, Hubertus A. Scheeren, Martin Steinbacher, and Ed Dlugokencky
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 901–920,Short summary
European methane (CH4) emissions are estimated for 2006–2012 using atmospheric in situ measurements from 18 European monitoring stations and 7 different inverse models. Our analysis highlights the potential significant contribution of natural emissions from wetlands (including peatlands and wet soils) to the total European emissions. The top-down estimates of total EU-28 CH4 emissions are broadly consistent with the sum of reported anthropogenic CH4 emissions and the estimated natural emissions.
Sébastien Ars, Grégoire Broquet, Camille Yver Kwok, Yelva Roustan, Lin Wu, Emmanuel Arzoumanian, and Philippe Bousquet
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 5017–5037,Short summary
This study presents a new concept for estimating the pollutant emission rates of a site combining the tracer release method, local-scale atmospheric transport modelling and a statistical atmospheric inversion approach. The potential of this new concept is evaluated with a practical implementation based on a series of inversions of controlled methane and tracer point sources in different spatial configurations to assess the efficiency of the method in comparison with the classic tracer method.
Heather Graven, Colin E. Allison, David M. Etheridge, Samuel Hammer, Ralph F. Keeling, Ingeborg Levin, Harro A. J. Meijer, Mauro Rubino, Pieter P. Tans, Cathy M. Trudinger, Bruce H. Vaughn, and James W. C. White
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 4405–4417,Short summary
Modelling of carbon isotopes 13C and 14C in land and ocean components of Earth system models provides opportunities for new insights and improved understanding of global carbon cycling, and for model evaluation. We compiled existing historical datasets to define the annual mean carbon isotopic composition of atmospheric CO2 for 1850–2015 that can be used in CMIP6 and other modelling activities.
Marc D. Mallet, Maximilien J. Desservettaz, Branka Miljevic, Andelija Milic, Zoran D. Ristovski, Joel Alroe, Luke T. Cravigan, E. Rohan Jayaratne, Clare Paton-Walsh, David W. T. Griffith, Stephen R. Wilson, Graham Kettlewell, Marcel V. van der Schoot, Paul Selleck, Fabienne Reisen, Sarah J. Lawson, Jason Ward, James Harnwell, Min Cheng, Rob W. Gillett, Suzie B. Molloy, Dean Howard, Peter F. Nelson, Anthony L. Morrison, Grant C. Edwards, Alastair G. Williams, Scott D. Chambers, Sylvester Werczynski, Leah R. Williams, V. Holly L. Winton, Brad Atkinson, Xianyu Wang, and Melita D. Keywood
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 13681–13697,Short summary
Fires play an important role within atmosphere. Gaseous and aerosol emissions influence Earth's temperature but these emissions can vary drastically across region and season. The SAFIRED (Savannah Fires in the Early Dry Season) campaign was undertaken at the Australian Tropical Research Station in north Australia during the 2014 early dry season. This paper presents an overview of the fires in this region, the measurements of their emissions and the implications of these fires on the atmosphere.
Zhiting Wang, Thorsten Warneke, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Justus Notholt, Ute Karstens, Marielle Saunois, Matthias Schneider, Ralf Sussmann, Harjinder Sembhi, David W. T. Griffith, Dave F. Pollard, Rigel Kivi, Christof Petri, Voltaire A. Velazco, Michel Ramonet, and Huilin Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 13283–13295,Short summary
In this paper we separate the biases of atmospheric methane models into stratospheric and tropospheric parts. It is observed in other studies that simulated total columns of atmospheric methane present a latitudinal bias compared to measurements. The latitudinal gradients are considered to be from the stratosphere. However, our results show that the latitudinal biases could come from the troposphere in two of three models evaluated in this study.
Dean Howard, Peter F. Nelson, Grant C. Edwards, Anthony L. Morrison, Jenny A. Fisher, Jason Ward, James Harnwell, Marcel van der Schoot, Brad Atkinson, Scott D. Chambers, Alan D. Griffiths, Sylvester Werczynski, and Alastair G. Williams
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 11623–11636,Short summary
Mercury, a toxic metal, can be transported globally through the atmosphere, with deposition to ecosystems an important pathway to human exposure. 2 years of atmospheric mercury monitoring in tropical Australia supports recent evidence that Southern Hemisphere concentrations are lower than previously thought. Exchange between the atmosphere and ecosystems can take place on daily scales, with night deposition offset by morning re-emission. This could be an important transport pathway for mercury.
Marielle Saunois, Philippe Bousquet, Ben Poulter, Anna Peregon, Philippe Ciais, Josep G. Canadell, Edward J. Dlugokencky, Giuseppe Etiope, David Bastviken, Sander Houweling, Greet Janssens-Maenhout, Francesco N. Tubiello, Simona Castaldi, Robert B. Jackson, Mihai Alexe, Vivek K. Arora, David J. Beerling, Peter Bergamaschi, Donald R. Blake, Gordon Brailsford, Lori Bruhwiler, Cyril Crevoisier, Patrick Crill, Kristofer Covey, Christian Frankenberg, Nicola Gedney, Lena Höglund-Isaksson, Misa Ishizawa, Akihiko Ito, Fortunat Joos, Heon-Sook Kim, Thomas Kleinen, Paul Krummel, Jean-François Lamarque, Ray Langenfelds, Robin Locatelli, Toshinobu Machida, Shamil Maksyutov, Joe R. Melton, Isamu Morino, Vaishali Naik, Simon O'Doherty, Frans-Jan W. Parmentier, Prabir K. Patra, Changhui Peng, Shushi Peng, Glen P. Peters, Isabelle Pison, Ronald Prinn, Michel Ramonet, William J. Riley, Makoto Saito, Monia Santini, Ronny Schroeder, Isobel J. Simpson, Renato Spahni, Atsushi Takizawa, Brett F. Thornton, Hanqin Tian, Yasunori Tohjima, Nicolas Viovy, Apostolos Voulgarakis, Ray Weiss, David J. Wilton, Andy Wiltshire, Doug Worthy, Debra Wunch, Xiyan Xu, Yukio Yoshida, Bowen Zhang, Zhen Zhang, and Qiuan Zhu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 11135–11161,Short summary
Following the Global Methane Budget 2000–2012 published in Saunois et al. (2016), we use the same dataset of bottom-up and top-down approaches to discuss the variations in methane emissions over the period 2000–2012. The changes in emissions are discussed both in terms of trends and quasi-decadal changes. The ensemble gathered here allows us to synthesise the robust changes in terms of regional and sectorial contributions to the increasing methane emissions.
Greet Janssens-Maenhout, Monica Crippa, Diego Guizzardi, Marilena Muntean, Edwin Schaaf, Frank Dentener, Peter Bergamaschi, Valerio Pagliari, Jos G. J. Olivier, Jeroen A. H. W. Peters, John A. van Aardenne, Suvi Monni, Ulrike Doering, and A. M. Roxana Petrescu
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
The Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research supports climate policy making with a global dataset at disaggregated country & source-sector level for 1970–2012. This dataset is not only unique in its space/time coverage, but also in its completeness & consistency of CO2, CH4 & N2O emissions compilation for all anthropogenic activities except land use. Comparison with UNFCCC values show that estimates are within the uncertainty range, but have an annual variation smaller than this range.
Habib Senghor, Éric Machu, Frédéric Hourdin, and Amadou Thierno Gaye
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 8395–8410,Short summary
This work focus on the distribution of dust particles emitted in western Africa and having consequences on human health and marine ecosystems. The understanding of their fate requires a better understanding of the processes governing their variability. Using satellite observations and ground measurements, we present the seasonality of their distribution and explain the processes responsible for this distribution as well as their transition from the African continent towards the Atlantic Ocean.
Thibaud Thonat, Marielle Saunois, Philippe Bousquet, Isabelle Pison, Zeli Tan, Qianlai Zhuang, Patrick M. Crill, Brett F. Thornton, David Bastviken, Ed J. Dlugokencky, Nikita Zimov, Tuomas Laurila, Juha Hatakka, Ove Hermansen, and Doug E. J. Worthy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 8371–8394,Short summary
Atmospheric methane simulations in the Arctic have been made for 2012 and compared to continuous observations at six measurement sites. All methane sources significantly affect the measurements at all stations, at least at the synoptic scale, except for biomass burning. An appropriate modelling framework combined with continuous observations of atmospheric methane enables us to gain knowledge on regional methane sources, including those which are usually poorly represented, such as freshwater.
Clare Paton-Walsh, Élise-Andrée Guérette, Dagmar Kubistin, Ruhi Humphries, Stephen R. Wilson, Doreena Dominick, Ian Galbally, Rebecca Buchholz, Mahendra Bhujel, Scott Chambers, Min Cheng, Martin Cope, Perry Davy, Kathryn Emmerson, David W. T. Griffith, Alan Griffiths, Melita Keywood, Sarah Lawson, Suzie Molloy, Géraldine Rea, Paul Selleck, Xue Shi, Jack Simmons, and Voltaire Velazco
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 9, 349–362,Short summary
The MUMBA campaign provides a detailed snapshot of the atmospheric composition in an urban coastal environment with strong biogenic sources nearby. This campaign involved collaboration between several institutes and was undertaken to provide a case study for atmospheric models in a poorly sampled region of the globe.
Lucie Rottner, Christophe Baehr, Fleur Couvreux, Guylaine Canut, and Thomas Rieutord
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 6531–6546,Short summary
In this study we explore a new way to model sub-grid turbulence using particle systems. The ability of particle systems to model small-scale turbulence is evaluated using high-resolution numerical simulations performed with the atmospheric model Meso-NH. The study shows that the particle system is able to reproduce much finer turbulent structures than the high-resolution simulations. It also provides an estimate of the effective spatial and temporal resolution of the numerical models.
Irène Ventrillard, Irène Xueref-Remy, Martina Schmidt, Camille Yver Kwok, Xavier Faïn, and Daniele Romanini
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 1803–1812,Short summary
We present a comparison of CO measurements performed with a portable OF-CEAS laser spectrometer against a high-performance gas chromatograph. For both surface and airborne measurements, the instruments show an excellent agreement very close to the 2 ppb World Meteorological Organization recommendation for CO inter-laboratory comparison. This work establishes that this laser technique allows for the development of sensitive, compact, robust and reliable instruments for in situ trace-gas analysis.
Dominik Schmithüsen, Scott Chambers, Bernd Fischer, Stefan Gilge, Juha Hatakka, Victor Kazan, Rolf Neubert, Jussi Paatero, Michel Ramonet, Clemens Schlosser, Sabine Schmid, Alex Vermeulen, and Ingeborg Levin
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 1299–1312,Short summary
A European-wide 222radon/222radon progeny comparison study has been conducted at nine measurement stations in order to determine differences between existing 222radon instrumentation and atmospheric data sets, respectively. Mean differences up to 45 % were found between monitors. These differences need to be taken into account if the data shall serve for quantitative regional atmospheric transport model validation.
Ulrike Dusek, Regina Hitzenberger, Anne Kasper-Giebl, Magdalena Kistler, Harro A. J. Meijer, Sönke Szidat, Lukas Wacker, Rupert Holzinger, and Thomas Röckmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 3233–3251,Short summary
Measurements of the radioactive carbon isotope 14C allow to identify the sources of aerosol carbon. We report an extensive 14C source apportionment record in the Netherlands with samples covering a whole year. We discovered that long-range transport has a large influence on aerosol carbon levels. Fossil fuel carbon is least influenced by long-range transport and more regional in origin. Biomass burning seems to be a minor source of aerosol carbon in the Netherlands.
Clémence Rose, Karine Sellegri, Isabel Moreno, Fernando Velarde, Michel Ramonet, Kay Weinhold, Radovan Krejci, Marcos Andrade, Alfred Wiedensohler, Patrick Ginot, and Paolo Laj
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 1529–1541,Short summary
Using an indirect method based on particle size distribution measurements, we show that new particle formation (NPF) is responsible for a large contribution to the cloud condensation nuclei concentration at the highest observatory in the world (Bolivia, 5240 m a.s.l.) as expected from some global model predictions. We also provide unique results related to the influence of the boundary layer on the NPF process, showing direct evidence for the important NPF frequency in the free troposphere.
Sander Houweling, Peter Bergamaschi, Frederic Chevallier, Martin Heimann, Thomas Kaminski, Maarten Krol, Anna M. Michalak, and Prabir Patra
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 235–256,Short summary
The aim of this paper is to present an overview of inverse modeling methods, developed over the years, for estimating the global sources and sinks of the greenhouse gas methane from atmospheric measurements. It provides insight into how techniques and estimates have evolved over time, what the remaining shortcomings are, new developments, and promising future directions.
Marielle Saunois, Philippe Bousquet, Ben Poulter, Anna Peregon, Philippe Ciais, Josep G. Canadell, Edward J. Dlugokencky, Giuseppe Etiope, David Bastviken, Sander Houweling, Greet Janssens-Maenhout, Francesco N. Tubiello, Simona Castaldi, Robert B. Jackson, Mihai Alexe, Vivek K. Arora, David J. Beerling, Peter Bergamaschi, Donald R. Blake, Gordon Brailsford, Victor Brovkin, Lori Bruhwiler, Cyril Crevoisier, Patrick Crill, Kristofer Covey, Charles Curry, Christian Frankenberg, Nicola Gedney, Lena Höglund-Isaksson, Misa Ishizawa, Akihiko Ito, Fortunat Joos, Heon-Sook Kim, Thomas Kleinen, Paul Krummel, Jean-François Lamarque, Ray Langenfelds, Robin Locatelli, Toshinobu Machida, Shamil Maksyutov, Kyle C. McDonald, Julia Marshall, Joe R. Melton, Isamu Morino, Vaishali Naik, Simon O'Doherty, Frans-Jan W. Parmentier, Prabir K. Patra, Changhui Peng, Shushi Peng, Glen P. Peters, Isabelle Pison, Catherine Prigent, Ronald Prinn, Michel Ramonet, William J. Riley, Makoto Saito, Monia Santini, Ronny Schroeder, Isobel J. Simpson, Renato Spahni, Paul Steele, Atsushi Takizawa, Brett F. Thornton, Hanqin Tian, Yasunori Tohjima, Nicolas Viovy, Apostolos Voulgarakis, Michiel van Weele, Guido R. van der Werf, Ray Weiss, Christine Wiedinmyer, David J. Wilton, Andy Wiltshire, Doug Worthy, Debra Wunch, Xiyan Xu, Yukio Yoshida, Bowen Zhang, Zhen Zhang, and Qiuan Zhu
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 8, 697–751,Short summary
An accurate assessment of the methane budget is important to understand the atmospheric methane concentrations and trends and to provide realistic pathways for climate change mitigation. The various and diffuse sources of methane as well and its oxidation by a very short lifetime radical challenge this assessment. We quantify the methane sources and sinks as well as their uncertainties based on both bottom-up and top-down approaches provided by a broad international scientific community.
Sauveur Belviso, Ilja Marco Reiter, Benjamin Loubet, Valérie Gros, Juliette Lathière, David Montagne, Marc Delmotte, Michel Ramonet, Cerise Kalogridis, Benjamin Lebegue, Nicolas Bonnaire, Victor Kazan, Thierry Gauquelin, Catherine Fernandez, and Bernard Genty
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14909–14923,Short summary
The role that soil, foliage, and atmospheric dynamics have on surface OCS exchange in a Mediterranean forest ecosystem in southern France (O3HP) was investigated in June of 2012 and 2013 with essentially a top-down approach. Atmospheric data suggest that the site is appropriate for estimating GPP directly from eddy covariance measurements of OCS fluxes, but it is less adequate for scaling NEE to GPP from observations of vertical gradients of OCS relative to CO2 during the daytime.
Johannes Staufer, Grégoire Broquet, François-Marie Bréon, Vincent Puygrenier, Frédéric Chevallier, Irène Xueref-Rémy, Elsa Dieudonné, Morgan Lopez, Martina Schmidt, Michel Ramonet, Olivier Perrussel, Christine Lac, Lin Wu, and Philippe Ciais
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14703–14726,
Shushi Peng, Shilong Piao, Philippe Bousquet, Philippe Ciais, Bengang Li, Xin Lin, Shu Tao, Zhiping Wang, Yuan Zhang, and Feng Zhou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14545–14562,Short summary
Methane is an important greenhouse gas, which accounts for about 20 % of the warming induced by long-lived greenhouse gases since 1750. Anthropogenic methane emissions from China may have been growing rapidly in the past decades because of increased coal mining and fast growing livestock. A good long-term methane emissions dataset is still lacking. Here, we produced a detailed bottom-up inventory of anthropogenic methane emissions from the eight major source sectors in China during 1980–2010.
Sander van der Laan, Swagath Manohar, Alex Vermeulen, Fred Bosveld, Harro Meijer, Andrew Manning, Michiel van der Molen, and Ingrid van der Laan-Luijkx
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 5523–5533,Short summary
A new methodology is presented to estimate regional-scale surface fluxes of 222Rn. 222Rn is an increasingly important trace gas which is used to calculate regional-scale greenhouse gas emissions and to validate atmospheric transport models. We tested our method at two atmospheric research stations in the Netherlands and compared our results with measurements from accumulation chambers and two recently published 222Rn soil flux maps for Europe.
Palmira Messina, Juliette Lathière, Katerina Sindelarova, Nicolas Vuichard, Claire Granier, Josefine Ghattas, Anne Cozic, and Didier A. Hauglustaine
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14169–14202,Short summary
We provide BVOC emissions for the present scenario, employing the updated ORCHIDEE emission module and the MEGAN model. The modelling community still faces the problem of emission model evaluation because of the absence of adequate observations. The accurate analysis performed, employing the two models, allowed the various processes modelled to be investigated, in order to fully understand the origin of the mismatch between the model estimates and to quantify the emission uncertainties.
V. Holly L. Winton, Ross Edwards, Andrew R. Bowie, Melita Keywood, Alistair G. Williams, Scott D. Chambers, Paul W. Selleck, Maximilien Desservettaz, Marc D. Mallet, and Clare Paton-Walsh
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 12829–12848,Short summary
The deposition of soluble aerosol iron (Fe) can initiate nitrogen fixation and trigger toxic algal blooms in nitrate-poor tropical waters. We present dry season soluble Fe data from northern Australia that reflect coincident dust and biomass burning sources of soluble Fe. Our results show that while biomass burning species are not a direct source of soluble Fe, biomass burning may substantially enhance the solubility of mineral dust with fractional Fe solubility up to 12 % in mixed aerosols.
Dipayan Paul, Huilin Chen, Henk A. Been, Rigel Kivi, and Harro A. J. Meijer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 4997–5006,Short summary
Here we describe the determination of C-14 concentration in stratospheric CO2 samples collected using the AirCore sampling method. Two stratospheric AirCore profiles, collected in Sodankylä, were used for this study. The stratospheric profile was divided into six sections. CO2 from each section was extracted and converted to graphite for the determination of C-14 using AMS. Through this study, we show that the AirCore is a viable and valuable sampling method for stratospheric C-14 measurements.
Andreas Ostler, Ralf Sussmann, Prabir K. Patra, Sander Houweling, Marko De Bruine, Gabriele P. Stiller, Florian J. Haenel, Johannes Plieninger, Philippe Bousquet, Yi Yin, Marielle Saunois, Kaley A. Walker, Nicholas M. Deutscher, David W. T. Griffith, Thomas Blumenstock, Frank Hase, Thorsten Warneke, Zhiting Wang, Rigel Kivi, and John Robinson
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 4843–4859,Short summary
Our evaluation of column-averaged methane (XCH4) in models and TCCON reveals latitudinal biases between 0.4 % and 2.1 % originating from an inter-model spread in stratospheric CH4. Substituting model stratospheric CH4 fields by satellite data significantly reduces the large XCH4 bias observed for one model. For other models, showing only minor biases, the impact is ambiguous; i.e., the satellite uncertainty range hinders a more accurate model evaluation needed to improve inverse modeling.
Lynn Hazan, Jérôme Tarniewicz, Michel Ramonet, Olivier Laurent, and Amara Abbaris
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 4719–4736,Short summary
The ATC automatically processes atmospheric greenhouse gases mole fractions of data sent daily by the ICOS network, this includes calibration and water vapor corrections. Data are stored in a database which has been developed with an emphasis on traceability. Instrument calibration and manual quality control lead to automatic revaluation of the mole fractions calculated in near-real time. Calibration corrections avoid artificial gradients between sites that could lead to error in flux estimates.
E. N. Koffi, P. Bergamaschi, U. Karstens, M. Krol, A. Segers, M. Schmidt, I. Levin, A. T. Vermeulen, R. E. Fisher, V. Kazan, H. Klein Baltink, D. Lowry, G. Manca, H. A. J. Meijer, J. Moncrieff, S. Pal, M. Ramonet, H. A. Scheeren, and A. G. Williams
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 3137–3160,Short summary
We evaluate the capability of the TM5 model to reproduce observations of the boundary layer dynamics and the associated variability of trace gases close to the surface, using 222Rn. Focusing on the European scale, we compare the TM5 boundary layer heights with observations from radiosondes, lidar, and ceilometer. Furthermore, we compare TM5 simulations of 222Rn activity concentrations, using a novel, process-based 222Rn flux map over Europe, with 222Rn harmonized measurements from 10 stations.
Guylaine Canut, Fleur Couvreux, Marie Lothon, Dominique Legain, Bruno Piguet, Astrid Lampert, William Maurel, and Eric Moulin
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 4375–4386,Short summary
Turbulent processes of the atmospheric boundary layer contribute the most to transfers between the surface and the atmosphere. Typically, turbulent boundary layer parameters are measured by sonic anemometers on masts and by research aircraft. This is to measure in situ turbulent parameters in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) at altitudes above 50 m. For this purpose, our team have developed a system under a tethered balloon which has been in use since 2010.
Cindy Cressot, Isabelle Pison, Peter J. Rayner, Philippe Bousquet, Audrey Fortems-Cheiney, and Frédéric Chevallier
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 9089–9108,Short summary
Several hypothesis have been made to attribute current trends in atmospheric methane to particular regions. In this context, this work aims at evaluating how well anomalies in methane emissions can be detected at the regional scale with currently available observing systems: two space-borne instruments and a surface network. Our results show that inter-annual analyses of methane emissions inferred by atmospheric inversions should always include an uncertainty assessment.
Fleur Couvreux, Eric Bazile, Guylaine Canut, Yann Seity, Marie Lothon, Fabienne Lohou, Françoise Guichard, and Erik Nilsson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 8983–9002,Short summary
This study evaluates the ability of operational models to predict the boundary-layer turbulent processes and mesoscale variability observed during the Boundary Layer Late-Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence field campaign. The models succeed in reproducing the variability from one day to another in terms of cloud cover, temperature and boundary-layer depth. However, they exhibit some systematic biases. The high-resolution model reproduces the vertical structures better.
Alan D. Griffiths, Scott D. Chambers, Alastair G. Williams, and Sylvester Werczynski
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 2689–2707,Short summary
Surface-based two-filter radon detectors monitor the ambient concentration of atmospheric radon-222, a natural tracer of mixing and transport. They are sensitive, but respond slowly to ambient changes in radon concentration. In this paper, a deconvolution method is used to successfully correct observations for the instrument response. Case studies demonstrate that it is beneficial, sometimes necessary, to account for the detector response, especially when studying near-surface mixing.
Alex Boon, Grégoire Broquet, Deborah J. Clifford, Frédéric Chevallier, David M. Butterfield, Isabelle Pison, Michel Ramonet, Jean-Daniel Paris, and Philippe Ciais
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 6735–6756,Short summary
We measured carbon dioxide and methane concentrations at four near-ground sites located in London, 2012. We investigated the potential for using these measurements, alongside numerical modelling, to help us to understand urban greenhouse gas emissions. Low-level sites were highly sensitive to local emissions, which questions our ability to use measurements from near-ground sites in cities in some modelling applications. A gradient approach was found to be beneficial to reduce model–data errors.
Antoine Berchet, Philippe Bousquet, Isabelle Pison, Robin Locatelli, Frédéric Chevallier, Jean-Daniel Paris, Ed J. Dlugokencky, Tuomas Laurila, Juha Hatakka, Yrjo Viisanen, Doug E. J. Worthy, Euan Nisbet, Rebecca Fisher, James France, David Lowry, Viktor Ivakhov, and Ove Hermansen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 4147–4157,Short summary
We propose insights based on atmospheric observations around the Arctic circle to evaluate estimates of methane emissions to the atmosphere from the East Siberian Arctic Shelf. Based on a comprehensive statistical analysis of the observations and of high-resolution transport simulations, annual methane emissions from ESAS are estimated to range from 0.0 to 4.5 TgCH4 yr−1, with a maximum in summer and very low emissions in winter.
Benjamin Lebegue, Martina Schmidt, Michel Ramonet, Benoit Wastine, Camille Yver Kwok, Olivier Laurent, Sauveur Belviso, Ali Guemri, Carole Philippon, Jeremiah Smith, and Sebastien Conil
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 1221–1238,Short summary
In this study, we tested seven N2O analyzers from five different companies and compared the results with established techniques. The test protocols included the characterization of the short-term and long-term repeatability, drift, temperature dependence, linearity and sensitivity to water vapor. All of the analyzers showed a standard deviation better than 0.1 ppb for the 10-min averages. Some analyzers would benefit from improvements in temperature stability and water vapour correction.
Y. Yin, F. Chevallier, P. Ciais, G. Broquet, A. Fortems-Cheiney, I. Pison, and M. Saunois
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 13433–13451,Short summary
We studied the global CO concentration decline over the recent decade with a sophisticated atmospheric inversion system assimilating MOPITT CO retrievals, surface methane and surface methyl chloroform in situ measurements. The inversion interprets the CO concentration decline as a 23% decrease in the CO emissions from 2002 to 2011, twice the negative trend estimated by emission inventories. In contrast to bottom-up inventories, we find negative trends over China and South-east Asia.
U. Karstens, C. Schwingshackl, D. Schmithüsen, and I. Levin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 12845–12865,Short summary
Detailed 222Rn flux maps are a prerequisite for the use of radon in atmospheric transport studies. We present a high-resolution 222Rn flux map for Europe, based on a parameterization of 222Rn production and transport in the soil. Spatial variations in 222Rn exhalation rates are determined by soil uranium content, water table depth and soil texture. Temporal variations are related to soil moisture variations as the diffusion in the soil depends on available air-filled pore space.
R. J. Parker, H. Boesch, K. Byckling, A. J. Webb, P. I. Palmer, L. Feng, P. Bergamaschi, F. Chevallier, J. Notholt, N. Deutscher, T. Warneke, F. Hase, R. Sussmann, S. Kawakami, R. Kivi, D. W. T. Griffith, and V. Velazco
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 4785–4801,Short summary
Atmospheric CH4 is an important greenhouse gas. Long-term global observations are necessary to understand its behaviour, with satellite observations playing a key role. The "proxy" retrieval method is one of the most successful but relies on the contribution from atmospheric CO2 models. This work assesses the significance of the uncertainty from the model CO2 within the retrieval and determines that despite this uncertainty the data are still valuable for determining sources and sinks of CH4.
T. Dubos, S. Dubey, M. Tort, R. Mittal, Y. Meurdesoif, and F. Hourdin
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 3131–3150,Short summary
The design of the icosahedral atmospheric dynamical core DYNAMICO is presented. The key contribution is to combine a strict separatation of kinematics from dynamics to a Hamiltonian formulation of the equations of motion in a non-Eulerian vertical coordinate to achieve energetic consistency. This approach allows for a unified treatment of various equations of motion: multi-layer shallow-water equations and hydrostatic primitive equations.
M. Lopez, M. Schmidt, M. Ramonet, J.-L. Bonne, A. Colomb, V. Kazan, P. Laj, and J.-M. Pichon
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 3941–3958,
C. Yver Kwok, O. Laurent, A. Guemri, C. Philippon, B. Wastine, C. W. Rella, C. Vuillemin, F. Truong, M. Delmotte, V. Kazan, M. Darding, B. Lebègue, C. Kaiser, I. Xueref-Rémy, and M. Ramonet
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 3867–3892,Short summary
We present the results of tests of CRDS instruments in the laboratory (47 instruments) and in the field (15 instruments). We demonstrate that, thanks to rigorous testing, newer models generally perform better than older models, especially in terms of reproducibility between instruments. In the field, we see the importance of individual diagnostics during the installation phase, and we show the value of calibration and target gases that assess the quality of the data.
A. Berchet, I. Pison, F. Chevallier, J.-D. Paris, P. Bousquet, J.-L. Bonne, M. Y. Arshinov, B. D. Belan, C. Cressot, D. K. Davydov, E. J. Dlugokencky, A. V. Fofonov, A. Galanin, J. Lavrič, T. Machida, R. Parker, M. Sasakawa, R. Spahni, B. D. Stocker, and J. Winderlich
Biogeosciences, 12, 5393–5414,
C. Darbieu, F. Lohou, M. Lothon, J. Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, F. Couvreux, P. Durand, D. Pino, E. G. Patton, E. Nilsson, E. Blay-Carreras, and B. Gioli
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 10071–10086,Short summary
A case study of the BLLAST experiment is considered to explore the decay of turbulence that occurs in the convective boundary layer over land during the afternoon. Based on observations and on a large-eddy simulation, the analysis reveals two phases in the afternoon: a first quasi-stationary phase when the turbulent kinetic energy slowly decays without significant change in the turbulence structure and a second phase of more rapid decay with a change in spectral turbulence characteristics.
R. Locatelli, P. Bousquet, M. Saunois, F. Chevallier, and C. Cressot
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 9765–9780,
X. Lin, N. K. Indira, M. Ramonet, M. Delmotte, P. Ciais, B. C. Bhatt, M. V. Reddy, D. Angchuk, S. Balakrishnan, S. Jorphail, T. Dorjai, T. T. Mahey, S. Patnaik, M. Begum, C. Brenninkmeijer, S. Durairaj, R. Kirubagaran, M. Schmidt, P. S. Swathi, N. V. Vinithkumar, C. Yver Kwok, and V. K. Gaur
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 9819–9849,Short summary
We present 5-year flask measurements (2007–2011) of greenhouse gases (GHGs) at three atmospheric stations in India. The results suggest significant sources of CO2, CH4, N2O, CO, and H2 over S and NE India, while SF6 sources are weak. The seasonal cycles for each species reflect the seasonality of sources/sinks and influences of the Indian monsoon circulations. The data show potential to infer regional patterns of GHG fluxes and atmospheric transport over this under-documented region.
G. van der Wel, H. Fischer, H. Oerter, H. Meyer, and H. A. J. Meijer
The Cryosphere, 9, 1601–1616,Short summary
The diffusion of the stable water isotope signal during firnification of snow is a temperature-dependent process. Therefore, past local temperatures can be derived from the differential diffusion length. In this paper we develop a new method for determining this quantity and compare it with the existing method. Both methods are applied to a large number of synthetic data sets to assess the precision and accuracy of the reconstruction and to a section of the Antarctic EDML ice core record.
L. Molina, G. Broquet, P. Imbach, F. Chevallier, B. Poulter, D. Bonal, B. Burban, M. Ramonet, L. V. Gatti, S. C. Wofsy, J. W. Munger, E. Dlugokencky, and P. Ciais
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 8423–8438,
C. E. Yver Kwok, D. Müller, C. Caldow, B. Lebègue, J. G. Mønster, C. W. Rella, C. Scheutz, M. Schmidt, M. Ramonet, T. Warneke, G. Broquet, and P. Ciais
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 2853–2867,Short summary
This study presents two methods for estimating methane emissions from a waste water treatment plant (WWTP) along with results from a measurement campaign at a WWTP in Valence, France. We show that the tracer release method is suitable to quantify facility emissions, while the chamber measurements, provide insights into individual processes. We confirm that the open basins are not a major source of CH4 on the WWTP but that the pretreatment and sludge treatment are the main emitters.
F. Hourdin, M. Gueye, B. Diallo, J.-L. Dufresne, J. Escribano, L. Menut, B. Marticoréna, G. Siour, and F. Guichard
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 6775–6788,Short summary
New parameterizations of the convective boundary layer are used to better represent the diurnal cycle of near-surface wind over Sahara and Sahel in a climate model and the associated emission of dust.
L. G. van der Wel, H. A. Been, R. S. W. van de Wal, C. J. P. P. Smeets, and H. A. J. Meijer
The Cryosphere, 9, 1089–1103,Short summary
We performed 2H isotope diffusion measurements in the upper 3 metres of firn at Summit, Greenland, by following over a 4-year period isotope-enriched snow that we deposited. We found that the diffusion process was much less rapid than in the most commonly used model. We discuss several aspects of the diffusion process that are still poorly constrained and might lead to this discrepancy. Quantitative knowledge of diffusion is necessary for use of the diffusion process itself as a climate proxy.
A. S. Lansø, J. Bendtsen, J. H. Christensen, L. L. Sørensen, H. Chen, H. A. J. Meijer, and C. Geels
Biogeosciences, 12, 2753–2772,Short summary
The air-sea CO2 exchange is investigated in the coastal region of the Baltic Sea and Danish inner waters. The impact of short-term variability in atmospheric CO2 on the air-sea CO2 exchange is examined, and it is found that ignoring short-term variability in the atmospheric CO2 creates a significant bias in the CO2 exchange. Atmospheric short-term variability is not always included in studies of the air-sea CO2 exchange, but based on the present study, we recommend it to be so in the future.
S. D. Chambers, A. G. Williams, J. Crawford, and A. D. Griffiths
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 1175–1190,
P. Bergamaschi, M. Corazza, U. Karstens, M. Athanassiadou, R. L. Thompson, I. Pison, A. J. Manning, P. Bousquet, A. Segers, A. T. Vermeulen, G. Janssens-Maenhout, M. Schmidt, M. Ramonet, F. Meinhardt, T. Aalto, L. Haszpra, J. Moncrieff, M. E. Popa, D. Lowry, M. Steinbacher, A. Jordan, S. O'Doherty, S. Piacentino, and E. Dlugokencky
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 715–736,
Z. M. Loh, R. M. Law, K. D. Haynes, P. B. Krummel, L. P. Steele, P. J. Fraser, S. D. Chambers, and A. G. Williams
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 305–317,Short summary
The paper compares methane observations at Cape Grim, Tasmania, with model-simulated methane to better constrain methane fluxes from southeastern Australia. Inventory estimates of anthropogenic methane emissions appear to be supported by observed atmospheric methane. A missing methane source in springtime (October to November) is tentatively attributed to wetland emissions.
M. Alexe, P. Bergamaschi, A. Segers, R. Detmers, A. Butz, O. Hasekamp, S. Guerlet, R. Parker, H. Boesch, C. Frankenberg, R. A. Scheepmaker, E. Dlugokencky, C. Sweeney, S. C. Wofsy, and E. A. Kort
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 113–133,
M. F. Schibig, M. Steinbacher, B. Buchmann, I. T. van der Laan-Luijkx, S. van der Laan, S. Ranjan, and M. C. Leuenberger
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 57–68,
A. Agustí-Panareda, S. Massart, F. Chevallier, S. Boussetta, G. Balsamo, A. Beljaars, P. Ciais, N. M. Deutscher, R. Engelen, L. Jones, R. Kivi, J.-D. Paris, V.-H. Peuch, V. Sherlock, A. T. Vermeulen, P. O. Wennberg, and D. Wunch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 11959–11983,Short summary
This paper presents a new operational CO2 forecast product as part of the Copernicus Atmospheric Services suite of atmospheric composition products, using the state-of-the-art numerical weather prediction model from the European Centre of Medium-Range Weather Forecasts. The evaluation with independent observations shows that the forecast has skill in predicting the synoptic variability of CO2. The online simulation of CO2 fluxes from vegetation contributes to this skill.
H. Angot, M. Barret, O. Magand, M. Ramonet, and A. Dommergue
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 11461–11473,
T. P. C. van Noije, P. Le Sager, A. J. Segers, P. F. J. van Velthoven, M. C. Krol, W. Hazeleger, A. G. Williams, and S. D. Chambers
Geosci. Model Dev., 7, 2435–2475,
M. Lothon, F. Lohou, D. Pino, F. Couvreux, E. R. Pardyjak, J. Reuder, J. Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, P Durand, O. Hartogensis, D. Legain, P. Augustin, B. Gioli, D. H. Lenschow, I. Faloona, C. Yagüe, D. C. Alexander, W. M. Angevine, E Bargain, J. Barrié, E. Bazile, Y. Bezombes, E. Blay-Carreras, A. van de Boer, J. L. Boichard, A. Bourdon, A. Butet, B. Campistron, O. de Coster, J. Cuxart, A. Dabas, C. Darbieu, K. Deboudt, H. Delbarre, S. Derrien, P. Flament, M. Fourmentin, A. Garai, F. Gibert, A. Graf, J. Groebner, F. Guichard, M. A. Jiménez, M. Jonassen, A. van den Kroonenberg, V. Magliulo, S. Martin, D. Martinez, L. Mastrorillo, A. F. Moene, F. Molinos, E. Moulin, H. P. Pietersen, B. Piguet, E. Pique, C. Román-Cascón, C. Rufin-Soler, F. Saïd, M. Sastre-Marugán, Y. Seity, G. J. Steeneveld, P. Toscano, O. Traullé, D. Tzanos, S. Wacker, N. Wildmann, and A. Zaldei
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 10931–10960,
S. D. Chambers, S.-B. Hong, A. G. Williams, J. Crawford, A. D. Griffiths, and S.-J. Park
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 9903–9916,
M. Schmidt, M. Lopez, C. Yver Kwok, C. Messager, M. Ramonet, B. Wastine, C. Vuillemin, F. Truong, B. Gal, E. Parmentier, O. Cloué, and P. Ciais
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 2283–2296,
D. Bozhinova, M. K. van der Molen, I. R. van der Velde, M. C. Krol, S. van der Laan, H. A. J. Meijer, and W. Peters
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 7273–7290,
U. Dusek, M. Monaco, M. Prokopiou, F. Gongriep, R. Hitzenberger, H. A. J. Meijer, and T. Röckmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 1943–1955,
R. L. Thompson, K. Ishijima, E. Saikawa, M. Corazza, U. Karstens, P. K. Patra, P. Bergamaschi, F. Chevallier, E. Dlugokencky, R. G. Prinn, R. F. Weiss, S. O'Doherty, P. J. Fraser, L. P. Steele, P. B. Krummel, A. Vermeulen, Y. Tohjima, A. Jordan, L. Haszpra, M. Steinbacher, S. Van der Laan, T. Aalto, F. Meinhardt, M. E. Popa, J. Moncrieff, and P. Bousquet
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 6177–6194,
R. L. Thompson, P. K. Patra, K. Ishijima, E. Saikawa, M. Corazza, U. Karstens, C. Wilson, P. Bergamaschi, E. Dlugokencky, C. Sweeney, R. G. Prinn, R. F. Weiss, S. O'Doherty, P. J. Fraser, L. P. Steele, P. B. Krummel, M. Saunois, M. Chipperfield, and P. Bousquet
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 4349–4368,
M. Ménégoz, G. Krinner, Y. Balkanski, O. Boucher, A. Cozic, S. Lim, P. Ginot, P. Laj, H. Gallée, P. Wagnon, A. Marinoni, and H. W. Jacobi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 4237–4249,
S. Houweling, M. Krol, P. Bergamaschi, C. Frankenberg, E. J. Dlugokencky, I. Morino, J. Notholt, V. Sherlock, D. Wunch, V. Beck, C. Gerbig, H. Chen, E. A. Kort, T. Röckmann, and I. Aben
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 3991–4012,
C. Cressot, F. Chevallier, P. Bousquet, C. Crevoisier, E. J. Dlugokencky, A. Fortems-Cheiney, C. Frankenberg, R. Parker, I. Pison, R. A. Scheepmaker, S. A. Montzka, P. B. Krummel, L. P. Steele, and R. L. Langenfelds
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 577–592,
J. F. Chang, N. Viovy, N. Vuichard, P. Ciais, T. Wang, A. Cozic, R. Lardy, A.-I. Graux, K. Klumpp, R. Martin, and J.-F. Soussana
Geosci. Model Dev., 6, 2165–2181,
I. Pison, B. Ringeval, P. Bousquet, C. Prigent, and F. Papa
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 11609–11623,
C. Rose, J. Boulon, M. Hervo, H. Holmgren, E. Asmi, M. Ramonet, P. Laj, and K. Sellegri
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 11573–11594,
V. V. S. S. Sarma, A. Lenton, R. M. Law, N. Metzl, P. K. Patra, S. Doney, I. D. Lima, E. Dlugokencky, M. Ramonet, and V. Valsala
Biogeosciences, 10, 7035–7052,
J.-L. Baray, Y. Courcoux, P. Keckhut, T. Portafaix, P. Tulet, J.-P. Cammas, A. Hauchecorne, S. Godin Beekmann, M. De Mazière, C. Hermans, F. Desmet, K. Sellegri, A. Colomb, M. Ramonet, J. Sciare, C. Vuillemin, C. Hoareau, D. Dionisi, V. Duflot, H. Vérèmes, J. Porteneuve, F. Gabarrot, T. Gaudo, J.-M. Metzger, G. Payen, J. Leclair de Bellevue, C. Barthe, F. Posny, P. Ricaud, A. Abchiche, and R. Delmas
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 2865–2877,
C. E. Yver-Kwok, D. Müller, C. Caldow, B. Lebegue, J. G. Mønster, C. W. Rella, C. Scheutz, M. Schmidt, M. Ramonet, T. Warneke, G. Broquet, and P. Ciais
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
R. Locatelli, P. Bousquet, F. Chevallier, A. Fortems-Cheney, S. Szopa, M. Saunois, A. Agusti-Panareda, D. Bergmann, H. Bian, P. Cameron-Smith, M. P. Chipperfield, E. Gloor, S. Houweling, S. R. Kawa, M. Krol, P. K. Patra, R. G. Prinn, M. Rigby, R. Saito, and C. Wilson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 9917–9937,
G. Broquet, F. Chevallier, F.-M. Bréon, N. Kadygrov, M. Alemanno, F. Apadula, S. Hammer, L. Haszpra, F. Meinhardt, J. A. Morguí, J. Necki, S. Piacentino, M. Ramonet, M. Schmidt, R. L. Thompson, A. T. Vermeulen, C. Yver, and P. Ciais
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 9039–9056,
V. Beck, C. Gerbig, T. Koch, M. M. Bela, K. M. Longo, S. R. Freitas, J. O. Kaplan, C. Prigent, P. Bergamaschi, and M. Heimann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 7961–7982,
M. Lopez, M. Schmidt, M. Delmotte, A. Colomb, V. Gros, C. Janssen, S. J. Lehman, D. Mondelain, O. Perrussel, M. Ramonet, I. Xueref-Remy, and P. Bousquet
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 7343–7358,
I. T. van der Laan-Luijkx, S. van der Laan, C. Uglietti, M. F. Schibig, R. E. M. Neubert, H. A. J. Meijer, W. A. Brand, A. Jordan, J. M. Richter, M. Rothe, and M. C. Leuenberger
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 1805–1815,
A. Berchet, I. Pison, F. Chevallier, P. Bousquet, S. Conil, M. Geever, T. Laurila, J. Lavrič, M. Lopez, J. Moncrieff, J. Necki, M. Ramonet, M. Schmidt, M. Steinbacher, and J. Tarniewicz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 7115–7132,
N. Evangeliou, Y. Balkanski, A. Cozic, and A. P. Møller
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 7183–7198,
M. Krol, W. Peters, P. Hooghiemstra, M. George, C. Clerbaux, D. Hurtmans, D. McInerney, F. Sedano, P. Bergamaschi, M. El Hajj, J. W. Kaiser, D. Fisher, V. Yershov, and J.-P. Muller
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 4737–4747,
M. Ménégoz, G. Krinner, Y. Balkanski, A. Cozic, O. Boucher, and P. Ciais
The Cryosphere, 7, 537–554,
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Lee T. Murray, Eric M. Leibensperger, Clara Orbe, Loretta J. Mickley, and Melissa Sulprizio
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 5789–5823,Short summary
Chemical-transport models are tools used to study air pollution and inform public policy. However, they are limited by the availability of archived meteorology. Here, we describe how the GEOS-Chem chemical-transport model may now be driven by meteorology archived from a state-of-the-art general circulation model for past and future climates, allowing it to be used to explore the impact of climate change on air pollution and atmospheric composition.
Syuichi Itahashi, Rohit Mathur, Christian Hogrefe, Sergey L. Napelenok, and Yang Zhang
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 5751–5768,Short summary
The Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system extended for hemispheric-scale applications (H-CMAQ) incorporated the satellite-constrained degassing SO2 emissions from 50 volcanos across the Northern Hemisphere. The impact on tropospheric sulfate aerosol (SO42−) is assessed for 2010. Although the considered volcanic emissions occurred at or below the middle of free troposphere (500 hPa), SO42− enhancements of more than 10 % were detected up to the top of free troposphere (250 hPa).
Annika Vogel and Hendrik Elbern
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 5583–5605,Short summary
While atmospheric chemical forecasts rely on uncertain model parameters, their huge dimensions hamper an efficient uncertainty estimation. This study presents a novel approach to efficiently sample these uncertainties by extracting dominant dependencies and correlations. Applying the algorithm to biogenic emissions, their uncertainties can be estimated from a low number of dominant components. This states the capability of an efficient treatment of parameter uncertainties in atmospheric models.
Jianbing Jin, Arjo Segers, Hai Xiang Lin, Bas Henzing, Xiaohui Wang, Arnold Heemink, and Hong Liao
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 5607–5622,Short summary
When discussing the accuracy of a dust forecast, the shape and position of the plume as well as the intensity are key elements. The position forecast determines which locations will be affected, while the intensity only describes the actual dust level. A dust forecast with position misfit directly results in incorrect timing profiles of dust loads. In this paper, an image-morphing-based data assimilation is designed for realigning a simulated dust plume to correct for the position error.
Timofei Sukhodolov, Tatiana Egorova, Andrea Stenke, William T. Ball, Christina Brodowsky, Gabriel Chiodo, Aryeh Feinberg, Marina Friedel, Arseniy Karagodin-Doyennel, Thomas Peter, Jan Sedlacek, Sandro Vattioni, and Eugene Rozanov
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 5525–5560,Short summary
This paper features the new atmosphere–ocean–aerosol–chemistry–climate model SOCOLv4.0 and its validation. The model performance is evaluated against reanalysis products and observations of atmospheric circulation and trace gas distribution, with a focus on stratospheric processes. Although we identified some problems to be addressed in further model upgrades, we demonstrated that SOCOLv4.0 is already well suited for studies related to chemistry–climate–aerosol interactions.
Haipeng Lin, Daniel J. Jacob, Elizabeth W. Lundgren, Melissa P. Sulprizio, Christoph A. Keller, Thibaud M. Fritz, Sebastian D. Eastham, Louisa K. Emmons, Patrick C. Campbell, Barry Baker, Rick D. Saylor, and Raffaele Montuoro
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 5487–5506,Short summary
Emissions are a central component of atmospheric chemistry models. The Harmonized Emissions Component (HEMCO) is a software component for computing emissions from a user-selected ensemble of emission inventories and algorithms. It allows users to select, add, and scale emissions from different sources through a configuration file with no change to the model source code. We demonstrate the implementation of HEMCO in several models, all sharing the same HEMCO core code and database library.
Eckhard Kadasch, Matthias Sühring, Tobias Gronemeier, and Siegfried Raasch
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 5435–5465,Short summary
In this paper, we provide a technical description of a newly developed interface for coupling the PALM model system 6.0 to the weather prediction model COSMO. The interface allows users of PALM to simulate the detailed atmospheric flow for relatively small regions of tens of kilometres under specific weather conditions, for instance, periods around observation campaigns or extreme weather situations. We demonstrate the interface using a benchmark simulation.
Sebastien Massart, Niels Bormann, Massimo Bonavita, and Cristina Lupu
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 5467–5485,Short summary
Numerical weather predictions combine data from satellites with atmospheric forecasts. Some satellites measure the radiance emitted by the Earth's surface. To use this data, one must have knowledge of the surface properties, like the temperature of the thin layer above the surface. Error in this temperature leads to a misuse of the satellite data and affects the quality of the weather forecast. We updated our approach to better estimate this temperature, which should help improve the forecast.
Saulo R. Freitas, Georg A. Grell, and Haiqin Li
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 5393–5411,Short summary
Convection parameterization (CP) is a component of atmospheric models aiming to represent the statistical effects of subgrid-scale convective clouds. Because the atmosphere contains circulations with a broad spectrum of scales, the truncation needed to run models in computers requires the introduction of parameterizations to account for processes that are not explicitly resolved. We detail recent developments in the Grell–Freitas CP, which has been applied in several regional and global models.
Edmund Ryan and Oliver Wild
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 5373–5391,Short summary
Atmospheric chemistry transport models are important tools to investigate the local, regional and global controls on atmospheric composition and air quality. In this study, we estimate some of the model parameters using machine learning and statistics. Our findings identify the level of error and spatial coverage in the O2 and CO data that are needed to achieve good parameter estimates. We also highlight the benefits of using multiple constraints to calibrate atmospheric chemistry models.
Antoine Berchet, Espen Sollum, Rona L. Thompson, Isabelle Pison, Joël Thanwerdas, Grégoire Broquet, Frédéric Chevallier, Tuula Aalto, Adrien Berchet, Peter Bergamaschi, Dominik Brunner, Richard Engelen, Audrey Fortems-Cheiney, Christoph Gerbig, Christine D. Groot Zwaaftink, Jean-Matthieu Haussaire, Stephan Henne, Sander Houweling, Ute Karstens, Werner L. Kutsch, Ingrid T. Luijkx, Guillaume Monteil, Paul I. Palmer, Jacob C. A. van Peet, Wouter Peters, Philippe Peylin, Elise Potier, Christian Rödenbeck, Marielle Saunois, Marko Scholze, Aki Tsuruta, and Yuanhong Zhao
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 5331–5354,Short summary
We present here the Community Inversion Framework (CIF) to help rationalize development efforts and leverage the strengths of individual inversion systems into a comprehensive framework. The CIF is a programming protocol to allow various inversion bricks to be exchanged among researchers. The ensemble of bricks makes a flexible, transparent and open-source Python-based tool. We describe the main structure and functionalities and demonstrate it in a simple academic case.
Katrin Frieda Gehrke, Matthias Sühring, and Björn Maronga
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 5307–5329,
James Weber, Scott Archer-Nicholls, Nathan Luke Abraham, Youngsub M. Shin, Thomas J. Bannan, Carl J. Percival, Asan Bacak, Paulo Artaxo, Michael Jenkin, M. Anwar H. Khan, Dudley E. Shallcross, Rebecca H. Schwantes, Jonathan Williams, and Alex T. Archibald
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 5239–5268,Short summary
The new mechanism CRI-Strat 2 features state-of-the-art isoprene chemistry not previously available in UKCA and improves UKCA's ability to reproduce observed concentrations of isoprene, monoterpenes, and OH in tropical regions. The enhanced ability to model isoprene, the most widely emitted non-methane volatile organic compound (VOC), will allow understanding of how isoprene and other biogenic VOCs affect atmospheric composition and, through biosphere–atmosphere feedbacks, climate change.
Zhiyong Wu, Leiming Zhang, John T. Walker, Paul A. Makar, Judith A. Perlinger, and Xuemei Wang
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 5093–5105,Short summary
A community dry deposition algorithm for modeling the gaseous dry deposition process in chemistry transport models was extended to include an additional 12 oxidized volatile organic compounds and hydrogen cyanide based on their physicochemical properties and was then evaluated using field flux measurements over a mixed forest. This study provides a useful tool that is needed in chemistry transport models with increasing complexity for simulating an important atmospheric process.
Huan Fang, Wendell W. Walters, David Mase, and Greg Michalski
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 5001–5022,Short summary
A new photochemical reaction scheme that incorporates nitrogen isotopes has been developed to simulate isotope tracers in air pollution. The model contains 16 N compounds, and 96 reactions involving N used in the Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Mechanism (RACM) were replicated using 15N in a new mechanism called iNRACM. The model is able to predict d15N variations in NOx, HONO, and HNO3 that are similar to those observed in aerosol and gases in the troposphere.
Christina Heinze-Deml, Sebastian Sippel, Angeline G. Pendergrass, Flavio Lehner, and Nicolai Meinshausen
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 4977–4999,Short summary
Quantifying dynamical and thermodynamical components of regional precipitation change is a key challenge in climate science. We introduce a novel statistical model (Latent Linear Adjustment Autoencoder) that combines the flexibility of deep neural networks with the robustness advantages of linear regression. The method enables estimation of the contribution of a coarse-scale atmospheric circulation proxy to daily precipitation at high resolution and in a spatially coherent manner.
Jaroslav Resler, Kryštof Eben, Jan Geletič, Pavel Krč, Martin Rosecký, Matthias Sühring, Michal Belda, Vladimír Fuka, Tomáš Halenka, Peter Huszár, Jan Karlický, Nina Benešová, Jana Ďoubalová, Kateřina Honzáková, Josef Keder, Šárka Nápravníková, and Ondřej Vlček
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 4797–4842,Short summary
We describe validation of the PALM model v6.0 against measurements collected during two observational campaigns in Dejvice, Prague. The study focuses on the evaluation of the newly developed or improved radiative and energy balance modules in PALM related to urban modelling. In addition to the energy-related quantities, it also evaluates air flow and air quality under street canyon conditions.
Xiaoling Liu, August L. Weinbren, He Chang, Jovan M. Tadić, Marikate E. Mountain, Michael E. Trudeau, Arlyn E. Andrews, Zichong Chen, and Scot M. Miller
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 4683–4696,Short summary
Observations of greenhouse gases have become far more numerous in recent years due to new satellite observations. The sheer size of these datasets makes it challenging to incorporate these data into statistical models and use these data to estimate greenhouse gas sources and sinks. In this paper, we develop an approach to reduce the size of these datasets while preserving the most information possible. We subsequently test this approach using satellite observations of carbon dioxide.
Claudio A. Belis, Guido Pirovano, Maria Gabriella Villani, Giuseppe Calori, Nicola Pepe, and Jean Philippe Putaud
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 4731–4750,Short summary
The study presents an in-depth analysis of the implications that using different CTM source apportionment approaches (tagged species and brute force) have for the source allocation of secondary inorganic aerosol, an important component of PM10 and PM2.5. A set of runs combining different emission levels and models was carried out, aiming to describe the situations in which strong non-linearity may lead the two approaches to deliver different results and when they are expected to be comparable.
Luolin Wu, Jian Hang, Xuemei Wang, Min Shao, and Cheng Gong
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 4655–4681,Short summary
In order to investigate street-scale flow and air quality, this study has developed APFoam 1.0 to examine the reactive pollutant formation and dispersion in the urban area. The model has been validated and shows good agreement with wind tunnel experimental data. Model sensitivity cases reveal that vehicle emissions, background concentrations, and wind conditions are the key factors affecting the photochemical reaction process.
Lin Huang, Song Liu, Zeyuan Yang, Jia Xing, Jia Zhang, Jiang Bian, Siwei Li, Shovan Kumar Sahu, Shuxiao Wang, and Tie-Yan Liu
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 4641–4654,Short summary
Accurate estimation of emissions is a prerequisite for effectively controlling air pollution, but current methods lack either sufficient data or a representation of nonlinearity. Here, we proposed a novel deep learning method to model the dual relationship between emissions and pollutant concentrations. Emissions can be updated by back-propagating the gradient of the loss function measuring the deviation between simulations and observations, resulting in better model performance.
Christian Zeman, Nils P. Wedi, Peter D. Dueben, Nikolina Ban, and Christoph Schär
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 4617–4639,Short summary
Kilometer-scale atmospheric models allow us to partially resolve thunderstorms and thus improve their representation. We present an intercomparison between two distinct atmospheric models for 2 summer days with heavy thunderstorms over Europe. We show the dependence of precipitation and vertical wind speed on spatial and temporal resolution and also discuss the possible influence of the system of equations, numerical methods, and diffusion in the models.
Edward C. Chan and Timothy M. Butler
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 4555–4572,Short summary
A large-eddy simulation based chemical transport model is implemented for an idealized street canyon. The dynamics of the model are evaluated using stationary measurements. A transient model run is also conducted over a 24 h period, where variations of pollutant concentrations indicate dependence on emissions, background concentrations, and solar state. Comparison stationary model runs show changes in flow structure concentrations.
Yongkang Xue, Tandong Yao, Aaron A. Boone, Ismaila Diallo, Ye Liu, Xubin Zeng, William K. M. Lau, Shiori Sugimoto, Qi Tang, Xiaoduo Pan, Peter J. van Oevelen, Daniel Klocke, Myung-Seo Koo, Tomonori Sato, Zhaohui Lin, Yuhei Takaya, Constantin Ardilouze, Stefano Materia, Subodh K. Saha, Retish Senan, Tetsu Nakamura, Hailan Wang, Jing Yang, Hongliang Zhang, Mei Zhao, Xin-Zhong Liang, J. David Neelin, Frederic Vitart, Xin Li, Ping Zhao, Chunxiang Shi, Weidong Guo, Jianping Tang, Miao Yu, Yun Qian, Samuel S. P. Shen, Yang Zhang, Kun Yang, Ruby Leung, Yuan Qiu, Daniele Peano, Xin Qi, Yanling Zhan, Michael A. Brunke, Sin Chan Chou, Michael Ek, Tianyi Fan, Hong Guan, Hai Lin, Shunlin Liang, Helin Wei, Shaocheng Xie, Haoran Xu, Weiping Li, Xueli Shi, Paulo Nobre, Yan Pan, Yi Qin, Jeff Dozier, Craig R. Ferguson, Gianpaolo Balsamo, Qing Bao, Jinming Feng, Jinkyu Hong, Songyou Hong, Huilin Huang, Duoying Ji, Zhenming Ji, Shichang Kang, Yanluan Lin, Weiguang Liu, Ryan Muncaster, Patricia de Rosnay, Hiroshi G. Takahashi, Guiling Wang, Shuyu Wang, Weicai Wang, Xu Zhou, and Yuejian Zhu
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 4465–4494,Short summary
The subseasonal prediction of extreme hydroclimate events such as droughts/floods has remained stubbornly low for years. This paper presents a new international initiative which, for the first time, introduces spring land surface temperature anomalies over high mountains to improve precipitation prediction through remote effects of land–atmosphere interactions. More than 40 institutions worldwide are participating in this effort. The experimental protocol and preliminary results are presented.
Michal Belda, Jaroslav Resler, Jan Geletič, Pavel Krč, Björn Maronga, Matthias Sühring, Mona Kurppa, Farah Kanani-Sühring, Vladimír Fuka, Kryštof Eben, Nina Benešová, and Mikko Auvinen
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 4443–4464,Short summary
The analysis summarizes how sensitive the modelling of urban environment is to changes in physical parameters describing the city (e.g. reflectivity of surfaces) and to several heat island mitigation scenarios in a city quarter in Prague, Czech Republic. We used the large-eddy simulation modelling system PALM 6.0. Surface parameters connected to radiation show the highest sensitivity in this configuration. For heat island mitigation, urban vegetation is shown to be the most effective measure.
Ying Wei, Xueshun Chen, Huansheng Chen, Yele Sun, Wenyi Yang, Huiyun Du, Qizhong Wu, Dan Chen, Xiujuan Zhao, Jie Li, and Zifa Wang
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 4411–4428,Short summary
The sub-grid particle formation (SGPF) in plumes plays an important role in air pollution and climate. We coupled an SGPF scheme to a chemical transport model with an aerosol microphysics module and applied it to investigate the SGPF impact over China. The scheme clearly improved the model performance in simulating aerosol components and particle number at typical sites influenced by point sources. The results indicate the significant effects of SGPF on aerosol particles in industrial areas.
Eduardo Rossi and Costanza Bonadonna
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 4379–4400,Short summary
SCARLET-1.0 is a MATLAB package that creates virtual aggregates starting from a population of irregular shapes. Shapes are described in terms of the Standard Triangulation Language (STL) format, and this allows importing a great variety of shapes, such as from 3D scanning. The package produces a new STL file as an output and different analytical information about the packing, such as the porosity. It has been specifically designed for use in volcanology and scientific education.
Chun-Hsu Su, Nathan Eizenberg, Dörte Jakob, Paul Fox-Hughes, Peter Steinle, Christopher J. White, and Charmaine Franklin
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 4357–4378,Short summary
The Bureau of Meteorology Atmospheric Regional Reanalysis for Australia (BARRA) has produced a very high-resolution reconstruction of Australian historical weather from 1990 to 2018. This paper demonstrates the added weather and climate information to supplement coarse- or moderate-resolution regional and global reanalyses. The new climate data can allow greater understanding of past weather, including extreme events, at very local kilometre scales.
Jun Meng, Randall V. Martin, Paul Ginoux, Melanie Hammer, Melissa P. Sulprizio, David A. Ridley, and Aaron van Donkelaar
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 4249–4260,Short summary
Dust emissions in models, for example, GEOS-Chem, have a strong nonlinear dependence on meteorology, which means dust emission strengths calculated from different resolution meteorological fields are different. Offline high-resolution dust emissions with an optimized global dust strength, presented in this work, can be implemented into GEOS-Chem as offline emission inventory so that it could promote model development by harmonizing dust emissions across simulations of different resolutions.
Simon Rosanka, Rolf Sander, Andreas Wahner, and Domenico Taraborrelli
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 4103–4115,Short summary
The Jülich Aqueous-phase Mechanism of Organic Chemistry (JAMOC) is developed and implemented into the Module Efficiently Calculating the Chemistry of the Atmosphere (MECCA). JAMOC is an explicit in-cloud oxidation scheme for oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs), which is suitable for global model applications. Within a box-model study, we show that JAMOC yields reduced gas-phase concentrations of most OVOCs and oxidants, except for nitrogen oxides.
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 4143–4158,Short summary
Within the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS), a forecasting system calculating the city source contribution for the surface urban background PM10 in European cities has been developed. The system uses the EMEP model and this paper presents the product by focusing on an event which occurred from 1 to 9 December 2016.
Erik Johansson, Abhay Devasthale, Michael Tjernström, Annica M. L. Ekman, Klaus Wyser, and Tristan L'Ecuyer
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 4087–4101,Short summary
Understanding the coupling of clouds to large-scale circulation is a grand challenge for the climate community. Cloud radiative heating (CRH) is a key parameter in this coupling and is therefore essential to model realistically. We, therefore, evaluate a climate model against satellite observations. Our findings indicate good agreement in the seasonal pattern of CRH even if the magnitude differs. We also find that increasing the horizontal resolution in the model has little effect on the CRH.
Xiaoyang Chen, Yang Zhang, Kai Wang, Daniel Tong, Pius Lee, Youhua Tang, Jianping Huang, Patrick C. Campbell, Jeff Mcqueen, Havala O. T. Pye, Benjamin N. Murphy, and Daiwen Kang
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 3969–3993,Short summary
The continuously updated National Air Quality Forecast Capability (NAQFC) provides air quality forecasts. To support the development of the next-generation NAQFC, we evaluate a prototype of GFSv15-CMAQv5.0.2. The performance and the potential improvements for the system are discussed. This study can provide a scientific basis for further development of NAQFC and help it to provide more accurate air quality forecasts to the public over the contiguous United States.
Dawei Li, Yudi Liu, and Chaohui Chen
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 4019–4034,Short summary
In the daily weather forecast business, numerical weather prediction is mainly used to forecast precipitation, but its performance for nowcasting tasks within 0–2 h is very poor. Hence, we hope to use machine learning to improve the accuracy and resolution of quantitative precipitation nowcasting (QPN) tasks. Previous works focused on the extrapolation of radar echo without using abundant meteorological data. Therefore, we designed a model using three kinds of data for QPN in eastern china.
Mark R. Muetzelfeldt, Robert S. Plant, Peter A. Clark, Alison J. Stirling, and Steven J. Woolnough
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 4035–4049,Short summary
Wind shear causes organized convection in the tropics, producing, e.g., squall lines. We have developed a procedure for producing a climatology of sheared wind profiles in a climate model and demonstrated that the profiles are linked with organized convection, both in terms of their structure and their spatio-temporal distribution. The procedure could be used to diagnose organization of convection in a climate model, which could lead to improvements in the model's representation of convection.
Carlos Román-Cascón, Marie Lothon, Fabienne Lohou, Oscar Hartogensis, Jordi Vila-Guerau de Arellano, David Pino, Carlos Yagüe, and Eric R. Pardyjak
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 3939–3967,Short summary
The type of vegetation (or land cover) and its status influence the heat and water transfers between the surface and the air, affecting the processes that develop in the atmosphere at different (but connected) spatiotemporal scales. In this work, we investigate how these transfers are affected by the way the surface is represented in a widely used weather model. The results encourage including realistic high-resolution and updated land cover databases in models to improve their predictions.
Phuc T. M. Ha, Ryoki Matsuda, Yugo Kanaya, Fumikazu Taketani, and Kengo Sudo
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 3813–3841,Short summary
Policies to mitigate air pollution require an understanding of tropospheric oxidizing capacity, which is controlled by mechanisms including heterogeneous processes on aerosols and clouds. This study uses a chemistry–climate model CHASER (MIROC) to explore the heterogeneous effects in the troposphere for -2.96 % O3, -2.19 % NOx, +3.28 % CO, and +5.91 % CH4 lifetime. Besides, these processes affect polluted areas and remote areas and can bring challenges to pollution reduction efforts.
Robin Stoffer, Caspar M. van Leeuwen, Damian Podareanu, Valeriu Codreanu, Menno A. Veerman, Martin Janssens, Oscar K. Hartogensis, and Chiel C. van Heerwaarden
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 3769–3788,Short summary
Turbulent flows are often simulated with the large-eddy simulation (LES) technique, which requires subgrid models to account for the smallest scales. Current subgrid models often require strong simplifying assumptions. We therefore developed a subgrid model based on artificial neural networks, which requires fewer assumptions. Our data-driven SGS model showed high potential in accurately representing the smallest scales but still introduced instability when incorporated into an actual LES.
Xu Feng, Haipeng Lin, Tzung-May Fu, Melissa P. Sulprizio, Jiawei Zhuang, Daniel J. Jacob, Heng Tian, Yaping Ma, Lijuan Zhang, Xiaolin Wang, Qi Chen, and Zhiwei Han
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 3741–3768,Short summary
WRF-GC is an online coupling of the WRF meteorological model and GEOS-Chem chemical transport model for regional atmospheric chemistry and air quality modeling. In WRF-GC v2.0, we implemented the aerosol–radiation interactions and aerosol–cloud interactions, as well as the capability to nest multiple domains for high-resolution simulations based on the modular framework of WRF-GC v1.0. This allows the GEOS-Chem users to investigate the meteorology–atmospheric chemistry interactions.
Robin D. Lamboll, Chris D. Jones, Ragnhild B. Skeie, Stephanie Fiedler, Bjørn H. Samset, Nathan P. Gillett, Joeri Rogelj, and Piers M. Forster
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 3683–3695,Short summary
Lockdowns to avoid the spread of COVID-19 have created an unprecedented reduction in human emissions. We can estimate the changes in emissions at a country level, but to make predictions about how this will affect our climate, we need more precise information about where the emissions happen. Here we combine older estimates of where emissions normally occur with very recent estimates of sector activity levels to enable different groups to make simulations of the climatic effects of lockdown.
Nina Črnivec and Bernhard Mayer
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 3663–3682,Short summary
This study aims to advance the cloud–radiation interplay treatment in global weather and climate prediction, focusing on cloud horizontal inhomogeneity misrepresentation. We explore the potential of the Tripleclouds method for diverse cloud types, namely the stratocumulus, cirrus and cumulonimbus. The validity of global cloud variability estimate with various condensate distribution assumptions is assessed. Optimizations for overcast and extremely heterogeneous cloudiness are further endorsed.
Dien Wu, John C. Lin, Henrique F. Duarte, Vineet Yadav, Nicholas C. Parazoo, Tomohiro Oda, and Eric A. Kort
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 3633–3661,Short summary
A model (SMUrF) is presented that estimates biogenic CO2 fluxes over cities around the globe to separate out biogenic fluxes from anthropogenic emissions. The model leverages satellite-based solar-induced fluorescence data and a machine-learning technique. We evaluate the biogenic fluxes against flux observations and show contrasts between biogenic and anthropogenic fluxes over cities, revealing urban–rural flux gradients, diurnal cycles, and the resulting imprints on atmospheric-column CO2.
Sarah Sparrow, Andrew Bowery, Glenn D. Carver, Marcus O. Köhler, Pirkka Ollinaho, Florian Pappenberger, David Wallom, and Antje Weisheimer
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 3473–3486,Short summary
This paper describes how the research version of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts’ Integrated Forecast System is combined with climateprediction.net’s public volunteer computing resource to develop OpenIFS@home. Thousands of volunteer personal computers simulated slightly different realizations of Tropical Cyclone Karl to demonstrate the performance of the large-ensemble forecast. OpenIFS@Home offers researchers a new tool to study weather forecasts and related questions.
Guillaume Monteil and Marko Scholze
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 3383–3406,Short summary
LUMIA is a Python library for atmospheric inversions, originally developed at Lund University to perform regional atmospheric CO2 inversions. The inversions rely on coupling the regional transport model FLEXPART and the global transport model TM5. The paper presents the modeling setup and some first results, and it introduces the LUMIA Python package as a toolbox for inversions beyond the use case presented in the paper.
Tobias Gronemeier, Kerstin Surm, Frank Harms, Bernd Leitl, Björn Maronga, and Siegfried Raasch
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 3317–3333,Short summary
We demonstrate the capability of the PALM model system version 6.0 to simulate urban boundary layers. The studied situation includes a real-world building setup of the HafenCity area in Hamburg, Germany. We evaluate the simulation results against wind-tunnel measurements utilizing PALM's virtual measurement module. The comparison reveals an overall high agreement between simulation results and wind-tunnel measurements including mean wind speed and direction as well as turbulence statistics.
Sara M. Blichner, Moa K. Sporre, Risto Makkonen, and Terje K. Berntsen
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 3335–3359,Short summary
Aerosol–cloud interactions are the largest contributor to climate forcing uncertainty. In this study we combine two common approaches to aerosol representation in global models: a sectional scheme, which is closer to first principals, for the smallest particles forming in the atmosphere and a log-modal scheme, which is faster, for the larger particles. With this approach, we improve the aerosol representation compared to observations, while only increasing the computational cost by 15 %.
Timothy Glotfelty, Diana Ramírez-Mejía, Jared Bowden, Adrian Ghilardi, and J. Jason West
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 3215–3249,Short summary
Land use and land cover change is a major contributor to climate change in Africa. Here we document deficiencies in how a weather model represents the land surface of Africa and how we modify a common land surface model to overcome these deficiencies. Our tests reveal that the default weather model does not accurately predict and transition the properties of different African biomes and growing cycles. This paper demonstrates that our modified model addresses these limitations.
Mario Eduardo Gavidia-Calderón, Sergio Ibarra-Espinosa, Youngseob Kim, Yang Zhang, and Maria de Fatima Andrade
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 3251–3268,Short summary
The MUNICH model was used to calculate pollutant concentrations inside the streets of São Paulo. The VEIN emission model provided the vehicular emissions and the coordinates of the streets. We used information from an air quality station to account for pollutant concentrations over the street rooftops. Results showed that when emissions are calibrated, MUNICH satisfied the performance criteria. MUNICH can be used to evaluate the impact of traffic-related air pollution on public health.
Xiaoli G. Larsén and Jana Fischereit
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 3141–3158,Short summary
For the first time, turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) calculated from the explicit wake parameterization (EWP) in WRF is examined using high-frequency measurements over a wind farm and compared with that calculated using the Fitch et al. (2012) scheme. We examined the effect of farm-induced TKE advection in connection with the Fitch scheme. Through a case study with a low-level jet (LLJ), we analyzed the key features of LLJs and raised the issue of interaction between wind farms and LLJs.
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