Articles | Volume 7, issue 6
© Author(s) 2014. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
© Author(s) 2014. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Tropical troposphere to stratosphere transport of carbon monoxide and long-lived trace species in the Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere (CLaMS)
Groupe d'étude de l'Atmosphère Météorologique, URA 1357, CNRM-GAME, Météo-France, 42 Av Gaspard Coriolis, 31057 Toulouse CEDEX 1, France
IEK-7, Forschungszentrum Jülich, Jülich, Germany
Laboratoire d'Aérologie, UMR5560, CNRS/INSU-Université de Toulouse 3, 14 Av Edouard Belin, 31400 Toulouse, France
IEK-7, Forschungszentrum Jülich, Jülich, Germany
IEK-7, Forschungszentrum Jülich, Jülich, Germany
School of GeoSciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
CNR-Istituto Nazionale di Ottica (CNR-INO), L. go E. Fermi 6, 50125 Florence, Italy
CNR-Istituto Nazionale di Ottica (CNR-INO), L. go E. Fermi 6, 50125 Florence, Italy
C. M. Volk
Bergische Universität Wuppertal, Wuppertal, Germany
Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt, Institut für Physik der Atmosphäre, Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany
No articles found.
Suvarna Fadnavis, Bernd Heinold, T. P. Sabin, Anne Kubin, Katty Huang, Alexandru Rap, and Rolf Müller
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 10439–10449,Short summary
The influence of the COVID-19 lockdown on the Himalayas caused increases in snow cover and a decrease in runoff, ultimately leading to an enhanced snow water equivalent. Our findings highlight that, out of the two processes causing a retreat of Himalayan glaciers – (1) slow response to global climate change and (2) fast response to local air pollution – a policy action on the latter is more likely to be within the reach of possible policy action to help billions of people in southern Asia.
Mingzhao Liu, Lars Hoffmann, Sabine Griessbach, Zhongyin Cai, Yi Heng, and Xue Wu
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 5197–5217,Short summary
We introduce new and revised chemistry and physics modules in the Massive-Parallel Trajectory Calculations (MPTRAC) Lagrangian transport model aiming to improve the representation of volcanic SO2 transport and depletion. We test these modules in a case study of the Ambae eruption in July 2018 in which the SO2 plume underwent wet removal and convection. The lifetime of SO2 shows highly variable and complex dependencies on the atmospheric conditions at different release heights.
Manfred Ern, Mohamadou A. Diallo, Dina Khordakova, Isabell Krisch, Peter Preusse, Oliver Reitebuch, Jörn Ungermann, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 9549–9583,Short summary
Quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) of the stratospheric tropical winds is an important mode of climate variability but is not well reproduced in free-running climate models. We use the novel global wind observations by the Aeolus satellite and radiosondes to show that the QBO is captured well in three modern reanalyses (ERA-5, JRA-55, and MERRA-2). Good agreement is also found also between Aeolus and reanalyses for large-scale tropical wave modes in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere.
Tanja J. Schuck, Johannes Degen, Eric Hintsa, Peter Hoor, Markus Jesswein, Timo Keber, Daniel Kunkel, Fred Moore, Florian Obersteiner, Matt Rigby, Thomas Wagenhäuser, Luke M. Western, Andreas Zahn, and Andreas Engel
This preprint is open for discussion and under review for Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP).Short summary
We study the interhemispheric gradient of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), a strong long-lived greenhouse gas. Its emissions are stronger in the northern hemisphere, therefore mixing ratios in the southern hemisphere lag behind. Comparing the observations to results from a box model, the model predicts air in the southern hemisphere to be older. For a better agreement, the emissions used as model input need to be increased, their spatial pattern changed, and we need to modify north-south transport.
Abhiraj Bishnoi, Olaf Stein, Catrin I. Meyer, René Redler, Norbert Eicker, Helmuth Haak, Lars Hoffmann, Daniel Klocke, Luis Kornblueh, and Estela Suarez
We enabled the weather and climate model ICON to run in a high-resolution coupled atmosphere-ocean setup on the JUWELS supercomputer, where the ocean and the model I/O runs on the CPU Cluster, while the atmosphere is running simultaneously on GPUs. Compared to a simulation performed on CPUs only, our approach reduces energy consumption by 59 % with comparable runtimes. The experiments serve as preparation for efficient computing of kilometer-scale climate models on future supercomputing systems.
Valerian Hahn, Ralf Meerkötter, Christiane Voigt, Sonja Gisinger, Daniel Sauer, Valéry Catoire, Volker Dreiling, Hugh Coe, Cyrille Flamant, Stefan Kaufmann, Jonas Kleine, Peter Knippertz, Manuel Moser, Philip Rosenberg, Hans Schlager, Alfons Schwarzenboeck, and Jonathan Taylor
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 8515–8530,Short summary
During the DACCIWA campaign in West Africa, we found a 35 % increase in the cloud droplet concentration that formed in a polluted compared with a less polluted environment and a decrease of 17 % in effective droplet diameter. Radiative transfer simulations, based on the measured cloud properties, reveal that these low-level polluted clouds radiate only 2.6 % more energy back to space, compared with a less polluted cloud. The corresponding additional decrease in temperature is rather small.
Sebastian Rhode, Peter Preusse, Manfred Ern, Jörn Ungermann, Lukas Krasauskas, Julio Bacmeister, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 7901–7934,Short summary
Gravity waves (GWs) transport energy vertically and horizontally within the atmosphere and thereby affect wind speeds far from their sources. Here, we present a model that identifies orographic GW sources and predicts the pathways of the excited GWs through the atmosphere for a better understanding of horizontal GW propagation. We use this model to explain physical patterns in satellite observations (e.g., low GW activity above the Himalaya) and predict seasonal patterns of GW propagation.
Midhun George, Maria Dolores Andrés Hernández, Vladyslav Nenakhov, Yangzhuoran Liu, John Philip Burrows, Birger Bohn, Eric Förster, Florian Obersteiner, Andreas Zahn, Theresa Harlaß, Helmut Ziereis, Hans Schlager, Benjamin Schreiner, Flora Kluge, Katja Bigge, and Klaus Pfeilsticker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 7799–7822,Short summary
The applicability of photostationary steady-state (PSS) assumptions to estimate the amount of the sum of peroxy radicals (RO2*) during the EMeRGe airborne observations from the known radical chemistry and onboard measurements of RO2* precursors, photolysis frequencies, and other trace gases such as NOx and O3 was investigated. The comparison of the calculated RO2* with the actual measurements provides an insight into the main processes controlling their concentration in the air masses measured.
Lars Hoffmann, Paul Konopka, Jan Clemens, and Bärbel Vogel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 7589–7609,Short summary
Atmospheric convection plays a key role in tracer transport in the troposphere. Global meteorological forecasts and reanalyses typically have a coarse spatiotemporal resolution that does not adequately resolve the dynamics, transport, and mixing of air associated with storm systems or deep convection. We discuss the application of the extreme convection parameterization in a Lagrangian transport model to improve simulations of tracer transport from the boundary layer into the free troposphere.
Cristina Peña-Ortiz, Nurial Pilar Plaza, David Gallego, and Felix Plöger
This preprint is open for discussion and under review for Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP).Short summary
Although water vapour (H2O) in the lower stratosphere is only a few molecules among 1 million air molecules, atmospheric radiative forcing and surface temperature are particularly sensible to small changes in its concentration. Monsoon regions play a key role in H2O transport and in its concentration in the lower stratosphere. We show how the QBO has a major impact on H2O over the Asian monsoon during August through changes in temperature caused by the QBO modulation of convection.
Rolf Müller, Uli Pöschl, Thomas Koop, Thomas Peter, and Ken Carslaw
This preprint is open for discussion and under review for Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP).Short summary
This paper is a short summary of the scientific work of Paul Crutzen and its impact on society. Particular focus is on his role as a founding member of the journal atmospheric chemistry and physics (ACP) and the Anthropocene.
Bärbel Vogel, Michael Volk, Johannes Wintel, Valentin Lauther, Jan Clemens, Jens-Uwe Grooß, Gebhard Günther, Lars Hoffmann, Johannes C. Laube, Rolf Müller, Felix Ploeger, and Fred Stroh
This preprint is open for discussion and under review for Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP).Short summary
Atmospheric concentrations of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide have increased substantially because of human activities. However, their sources in South Asia are poorly quantified. Here, we present high temporal and vertical resolution aircraft measurements up to 20 km during the Asian summer monsoon where rapid upward transport of surface pollutants to greater altitudes occurs. Using model simulations, we successfully reconstruct observed CO2 profiles and evaluate meteorological reanalysis.
Reinhold Spang, Rolf Müller, and Alexandru Rap
Cirrus clouds play an important role in the radiation budget of the Earth. Despite recent progress in the observations of cirrus, the radiative impact of thin cirrus clouds (UTC) in the tropopause region and in the lowermost stratosphere remains poorly constrained. Sensitivity model simulations with different ice parameter provide an uncertainty range for the radiative effect of UTCs. There is a need for better observed UTCs to enable the simulation of their potentially large effect on climate.
Luis F. Millán, Gloria L. Manney, Harald Boenisch, Michaela I. Hegglin, Peter Hoor, Daniel Kunkel, Thierry Leblanc, Irina Petropavlovskikh, Kaley Walker, Krzysztof Wargan, and Andreas Zahn
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 2957–2988,Short summary
The determination of atmospheric composition trends in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) is still highly uncertain. We present the creation of dynamical diagnostics to map several ozone datasets (ozonesondes, lidars, aircraft, and satellite measurements) in geophysically based coordinate systems. The diagnostics can also be used to analyze other greenhouse gases relevant to surface climate and UTLS chemistry.
Claudio Belotti, Flavio Barbara, Marco Barucci, Giovanni Bianchini, Francesco D'Amato, Samuele Del Bianco, Gianluca Di Natale, Marco Gai, Alessio Montori, Filippo Pratesi, Markus Rettinger, Christian Rolf, Ralf Sussmann, Thomas Trickl, Silvia Viciani, Hannes Vogelmann, and Luca Palchetti
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 2511–2529,Short summary
FIRMOS (Far-Infrared Radiation Mobile Observation System) is a spectroradiometer measuring in the far-infrared, developed to support the preparation of the FORUM (Far-infrared Outgoing Radiation Understanding and Monitoring) satellite mission. In this paper, we describe the instrument, its data products, and the results of the comparison with a suite of observations made from a high-altitude site during a field campaign, in winter 2018–2019.
Paul Konopka, Christian Rolf, Marc von Hobe, Sergey M. Khaykin, Benjamin Clouser, Elizabeth Moyer, Fabrizio Ravegnani, Francesco D'Amato, Silvia Viciani, Nicole Spelten, Armin Afchine, Martina Krämer, Fred Stroh, and Felix Ploeger
We studied water vapor in a critical region of the atmosphere, the Asian summer monsoon anticyclone, using rare in-situ observations. Our study shows that extremely high water vapor values observed above the Asian monsoon anticyclone still undergo significant freeze-drying, and that water vapor concentrations set by the Lagrangian dry point are a better proxy for the stratospheric water vapor budget than rare observations of enhanced water mixing ratios.
Konstantin Franz Fotios Ntokas, Jörn Ungermann, Martin Kaufmann, Tom Neubert, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for AMTShort summary
A nano-satellite was developed to obtain 1-D vertical temperature profiles in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere, which can be used to derive wave parameters needed for atmospheric models. A new processing method is shown, which allows to extract two 1-D temperature profiles. The location of the two profiles is analyzed, as it is needed for deriving wave parameters. We show that this method is feasible, which however will increase the requirements of an accurate calibration and processing.
Jan Clemens, Bärbel Vogel, Lars Hoffmann, Sabine Griessbach, Nicole Thomas, Survana Fadnavis, Rolf Müller, Thomas Peter, and Felix Ploeger
The source regions of the Asian tropopause aerosol layer are under debate. We use balloon-borne measurements of the layer above Nainital (India) in August 2016 and atmospheric transport models, to find the ATALs source regions. Most air originate from the Tibetan plateau. However, the measured ATAL was stronger when more air originated from the Indo-Gangetic plain and weaker when more air originated from the Pacific. Hence, the results indicate important anthropogenic contributions to the ATAL.
Elena De La Torre Castro, Tina Jurkat-Witschas, Armin Afchine, Volker Grewe, Valerian Hahn, Simon Kirschler, Martina Krämer, Johannes Lucke, Nicole Spelten, Heini Wernli, Martin Zöger, and Christiane Voigt
In this study we show the differences in the microphysical properties between high latitudes (HL) cirrus and mid-latitude (ML) cirrus over the Arctic, North Atlantic, and Central Europe during summer. The in situ measurements are combined with backward trajectories to investigate the influence of the region of cloud formation. We show that HL cirrus are characterized by lower concentration of larger ice crystals compared to ML cirrus.
Francesco Cairo, Martina Krämer, Armin Afchine, Luca Di Liberto, Sergey Khaykin, Lorenza Lucaferri, Valentin Mitev, Max Port, Christian Rolf, Marcel Snels, Nicole Spelten, Ralf Weigel, and Stephan Borrmann
Cirrus clouds have been observed over the Hymalaian region between 10 km and the tropopause at 17–18 km. Data from backscattersonde, hygrometers and particle cloud spectrometers have been compared to assess their consistency. Empirical relationships between optical parameters accessible with remote sensing lidars, and cloud microphysical parameters, as Ice Water Content, Particle Number and Surface Area Density, and particle aspherical fraction, have been established.
Chuan-Yao Lin, Wan-Chin Chen, Yi-Yun Chien, Charles C. K. Chou, Chian-Yi Liu, Helmut Ziereis, Hans Schlager, Eric Förster, Florian Obersteiner, Ovid O. Krüger, Bruna A. Holanda, Mira L. Pöhlker, Katharina Kaiser, Johannes Schneider, Birger Bohn, Klaus Pfeilsticker, Benjamin Weyland, Maria Dolores Andrés Hernández, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2627–2647,Short summary
During the EMeRGe campaign in Asia, atmospheric pollutants were measured on board the HALO aircraft. The WRF-Chem model was employed to evaluate the biomass burning (BB) plume transported from Indochina and its impact on the downstream areas. The combination of BB aerosol enhancement with cloud water resulted in a reduction in incoming shortwave radiation at the surface in southern China and the East China Sea, which potentially has significant regional climate implications.
Yun Li, Christoph Mahnke, Susanne Rohs, Ulrich Bundke, Nicole Spelten, Georgios Dekoutsidis, Silke Groß, Christiane Voigt, Ulrich Schumann, Andreas Petzold, and Martina Krämer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2251–2271,Short summary
The radiative effect of aviation-induced cirrus is closely related to ambient conditions and its microphysical properties. Our study investigated the occurrence of contrail and natural cirrus measured above central Europe in spring 2014. It finds that contrail cirrus appears frequently in the pressure range 200 to 245 hPa and occurs more often in slightly ice-subsaturated environments than expected. Avoiding slightly ice-subsaturated regions by aviation might help mitigate contrail cirrus.
Frederik Harzer, Hella Garny, Felix Ploeger, Harald Bönisch, Peter Hoor, and Thomas Birner
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Stratospheric ozone is important for both stratospheric and surface climate. Here, we study the statistical relation between year-by-year fluctuations in winter-mean lower stratospheric ozone and the strength of the stratospheric polar vortex. These fluctuations are found to be primarily associated with variations in transport, with non-trivial combinations of polar-cap downwelling due to radiative cooling and quasi-horizontal mixing due to dissipating planetary waves.
Hans-Christoph Lachnitt, Peter Hoor, Daniel Kunkel, Martina Bramberger, Andreas Dörnbrack, Stefan Müller, Philipp Reutter, Andreas Giez, Thorsten Kaluza, and Markus Rapp
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 355–373,Short summary
We present an analysis of high-resolution airborne measurements during a flight of the DEEPWAVE 2014 campaign in New Zealand. The focus of this flight was to study the effects of enhanced mountain wave activity over the Southern Alps. We discuss changes in the upstream and downstream distributions of N2O and CO and show that these changes are related to turbulence-induced trace gas fluxes which have persistent effects on the trace gas composition in the lower stratosphere.
Reimar Bauer, Jens-Uwe Grooß, Jörn Ungermann, May Bär, Markus Geldenhuys, and Lars Hoffmann
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 8983–8997,Short summary
The Mission Support System (MSS) is an open source software package that has been used for planning flight tracks of scientific aircraft in multiple measurement campaigns during the last decade. Here, we describe the MSS software and its use during the SouthTRAC measurement campaign in 2019. As an example for how the MSS software is used in conjunction with many datasets, we describe the planning of a single flight probing orographic gravity waves propagating up into the lower mesosphere.
Qiuyu Chen, Konstantin Ntokas, Björn Linder, Lukas Krasauskas, Manfred Ern, Peter Preusse, Jörn Ungermann, Erich Becker, Martin Kaufmann, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 7071–7103,Short summary
Observations of phase speed and direction spectra as well as zonal mean net gravity wave momentum flux are required to understand how gravity waves reach the mesosphere–lower thermosphere and how they there interact with background flow. To this end we propose flying two CubeSats, each deploying a spatial heterodyne spectrometer for limb observation of the airglow. End-to-end simulations demonstrate that individual gravity waves are retrieved faithfully for the expected instrument performance.
Laura Tomsche, Andreas Marsing, Tina Jurkat-Witschas, Johannes Lucke, Stefan Kaufmann, Katharina Kaiser, Johannes Schneider, Monika Scheibe, Hans Schlager, Lenard Röder, Horst Fischer, Florian Obersteiner, Andreas Zahn, Martin Zöger, Jos Lelieveld, and Christiane Voigt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 15135–15151,Short summary
The detection of sulfur compounds in the upper troposphere (UT) and lower stratosphere (LS) is a challenge. In-flight measurements of SO2 and sulfate aerosol were performed during the BLUESKY mission in spring 2020 under exceptional atmospheric conditions. Reduced sinks in the dry UTLS and lower but still significant air traffic influenced the enhanced SO2 in the UT, and aged volcanic plumes enhanced the LS sulfate aerosol impacting the atmospheric radiation budget and global climate.
Manfred Ern, Peter Preusse, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 15093–15133,Short summary
Based on data from the HIRDLS and SABER infrared limb sounding satellite instruments, we investigate the intermittency of global distributions of gravity wave (GW) potential energies and GW momentum fluxes in the stratosphere and mesosphere using probability distribution functions (PDFs) and Gini coefficients. We compare GW intermittency in different regions, seasons, and altitudes. These results can help to improve GW parameterizations and the distributions of GWs resolved in models.
Markus Jesswein, Rafael P. Fernandez, Lucas Berná, Alfonso Saiz-Lopez, Jens-Uwe Grooß, Ryan Hossaini, Eric C. Apel, Rebecca S. Hornbrook, Elliot L. Atlas, Donald R. Blake, Stephen Montzka, Timo Keber, Tanja Schuck, Thomas Wagenhäuser, and Andreas Engel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 15049–15070,Short summary
This study presents the global and seasonal distribution of the two major brominated short-lived substances CH2Br2 and CHBr3 in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere based on observations from several aircraft campaigns. They show similar seasonality for both hemispheres, except in the respective hemispheric autumn lower stratosphere. A comparison with the TOMCAT and CAM-Chem models shows good agreement in the annual mean but larger differences in the seasonal consideration.
Bernard Legras, Clair Duchamp, Pasquale Sellitto, Aurélien Podglajen, Elisa Carboni, Richard Siddans, Jens-Uwe Grooß, Sergey Khaykin, and Felix Ploeger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14957–14970,Short summary
The long-duration atmospheric impact of the Tonga eruption in January 2022 is a plume of water and sulfate aerosols in the stratosphere that persisted for more than 6 months. We study this evolution using several satellite instruments and analyse the unusual behaviour of this plume as sulfates and water first moved down rapidly and then separated into two layers. We also report the self-organization in compact and long-lived patches.
Mohamadou A. Diallo, Felix Ploeger, Michaela I. Hegglin, Manfred Ern, Jens-Uwe Grooß, Sergey Khaykin, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14303–14321,Short summary
The quasi-biennial oacillation disruption events in both 2016 and 2020 decreased lower-stratospheric water vapour and ozone. Differences in the strength and depth of the anomalous lower-stratospheric circulation and ozone are due to differences in tropical upwelling and cold-point temperature induced by lower-stratospheric planetary and gravity wave breaking. The differences in water vapour are due to higher cold-point temperature in 2020 induced by Australian wildfire.
Oliver Appel, Franziska Köllner, Antonis Dragoneas, Andreas Hünig, Sergej Molleker, Hans Schlager, Christoph Mahnke, Ralf Weigel, Max Port, Christiane Schulz, Frank Drewnick, Bärbel Vogel, Fred Stroh, and Stephan Borrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13607–13630,Short summary
This paper clarifies the chemical composition of the Asian tropopause aerosol layer (ATAL) by means of airborne in situ aerosol mass spectrometry (AMS). Ammonium nitrate and organics are found to significantly contribute to the particle layer, while sulfate does not show a layered structure. An analysis of the single-particle mass spectra suggests that secondary particle formation and subsequent growth dominate the particle composition, rather than condensation on pre-existing primary particles.
Paul Konopka, Mengchu Tao, Marc von Hobe, Lars Hoffmann, Corinna Kloss, Fabrizio Ravegnani, C. Michael Volk, Valentin Lauther, Andreas Zahn, Peter Hoor, and Felix Ploeger
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 7471–7487,Short summary
Pure trajectory-based transport models driven by meteorology derived from reanalysis products (ERA5) take into account only the resolved, advective part of transport. That means neither mixing processes nor unresolved subgrid-scale advective processes like convection are included. The Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere (CLaMS) includes these processes. We show that isentropic mixing dominates unresolved transport. The second most important transport process is unresolved convection.
Simon F. Reifenberg, Anna Martin, Matthias Kohl, Sara Bacer, Zaneta Hamryszczak, Ivan Tadic, Lenard Röder, Daniel J. Crowley, Horst Fischer, Katharina Kaiser, Johannes Schneider, Raphael Dörich, John N. Crowley, Laura Tomsche, Andreas Marsing, Christiane Voigt, Andreas Zahn, Christopher Pöhlker, Bruna A. Holanda, Ovid Krüger, Ulrich Pöschl, Mira Pöhlker, Patrick Jöckel, Marcel Dorf, Ulrich Schumann, Jonathan Williams, Birger Bohn, Joachim Curtius, Hardwig Harder, Hans Schlager, Jos Lelieveld, and Andrea Pozzer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10901–10917,Short summary
In this work we use a combination of observational data from an aircraft campaign and model results to investigate the effect of the European lockdown due to COVID-19 in spring 2020. Using model results, we show that the largest relative changes to the atmospheric composition caused by the reduced emissions are located in the upper troposphere around aircraft cruise altitude, while the largest absolute changes are present at the surface.
Clare E. Singer, Benjamin W. Clouser, Sergey M. Khaykin, Martina Krämer, Francesco Cairo, Thomas Peter, Alexey Lykov, Christian Rolf, Nicole Spelten, Armin Afchine, Simone Brunamonti, and Elisabeth J. Moyer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 4767–4783,Short summary
In situ measurements of water vapor in the upper troposphere are necessary to study cloud formation and hydration of the stratosphere but challenging due to cold–dry conditions. We compare measurements from three water vapor instruments from the StratoClim campaign in 2017. In clear sky (clouds), point-by-point differences were <1.5±8 % (<1±8 %). This excellent agreement allows detection of fine-scale structures required to understand the impact of convection on stratospheric water vapor.
Liubov Poshyvailo-Strube, Rolf Müller, Stephan Fueglistaler, Michaela I. Hegglin, Johannes C. Laube, C. Michael Volk, and Felix Ploeger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9895–9914,Short summary
Brewer–Dobson circulation (BDC) controls the composition of the stratosphere, which in turn affects radiation and climate. As the BDC cannot be measured directly, it is necessary to infer its strength and trends indirectly. In this study, we test in the
model worlddifferent methods for estimating the mean age of air trends based on a combination of stratospheric water vapour and methane data. We also provide simple practical advice of a more reliable estimation of the mean age of air trends.
Linda Smoydzin and Peter Hoor
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7193–7206,Short summary
Our study presents a detailed analysis of the spatial and temporal distribution of elevated CO level in the upper troposphere over the Pacific using 20 years of MOPITT data. We create a climatology of severe pollution episodes and use trajectory calculations to link each particular pollution event detected in MOPITT satellite data with a distinct source region. Additionally, we analyse uplift mechanisms such as WCB-related upward transport.
Suvarna Fadnavis, Prashant Chavan, Akash Joshi, Sunil M. Sonbawne, Asutosh Acharya, Panuganti C. S. Devara, Alexandru Rap, Felix Ploeger, and Rolf Müller
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7179–7191,Short summary
We show that large amounts of anthropogenic aerosols are transported from South Asia to the northern Indian Ocean. These aerosols are then lifted into the UTLS by the ascending branch of the Hadley circulation. They are further transported to the Southern Hemisphere and downward via westerly ducts over the tropical Atlantic and Pacific. These aerosols increase tropospheric heating, resulting in an increase in water vapor, which is then transported to the UTLS.
Zhongyin Cai, Sabine Griessbach, and Lars Hoffmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6787–6809,Short summary
Using AIRS and TROPOMI sulfur dioxide retrievals and the Lagrangian transport model MPTRAC, we present an improved reconstruction of injection parameters of the 2019 Raikoke eruption. Reconstructions agree well between using AIRS nighttime and TROPOMI daytime retrievals, showing the potential of our approach to create a long-term volcanic sulfur dioxide inventory from nearly 20 years of AIRS retrievals.
Ling Zou, Sabine Griessbach, Lars Hoffmann, and Reinhold Spang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6677–6702,Short summary
Ice clouds in the stratosphere (SICs) greatly affect the water vapor balance and radiation budget in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS). We quantified the global SICs and analyzed their relationships with tropopause temperature, double tropopauses, UTLS clouds, gravity waves, and stratospheric aerosols. The correlations between SICs and all abovementioned processes indicate that the occurrence of and variability in SICs are spatiotemporally dependent on different processes.
M. Dolores Andrés Hernández, Andreas Hilboll, Helmut Ziereis, Eric Förster, Ovid O. Krüger, Katharina Kaiser, Johannes Schneider, Francesca Barnaba, Mihalis Vrekoussis, Jörg Schmidt, Heidi Huntrieser, Anne-Marlene Blechschmidt, Midhun George, Vladyslav Nenakhov, Theresa Harlass, Bruna A. Holanda, Jennifer Wolf, Lisa Eirenschmalz, Marc Krebsbach, Mira L. Pöhlker, Anna B. Kalisz Hedegaard, Linlu Mei, Klaus Pfeilsticker, Yangzhuoran Liu, Ralf Koppmann, Hans Schlager, Birger Bohn, Ulrich Schumann, Andreas Richter, Benjamin Schreiner, Daniel Sauer, Robert Baumann, Mariano Mertens, Patrick Jöckel, Markus Kilian, Greta Stratmann, Christopher Pöhlker, Monica Campanelli, Marco Pandolfi, Michael Sicard, José L. Gómez-Amo, Manuel Pujadas, Katja Bigge, Flora Kluge, Anja Schwarz, Nikos Daskalakis, David Walter, Andreas Zahn, Ulrich Pöschl, Harald Bönisch, Stephan Borrmann, Ulrich Platt, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5877–5924,Short summary
EMeRGe provides a unique set of in situ and remote sensing airborne measurements of trace gases and aerosol particles along selected flight routes in the lower troposphere over Europe. The interpretation uses also complementary collocated ground-based and satellite measurements. The collected data help to improve the current understanding of the complex spatial distribution of trace gases and aerosol particles resulting from mixing, transport, and transformation of pollution plumes over Europe.
Felix Ploeger and Hella Garny
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5559–5576,Short summary
We investigate hemispheric asymmetries in stratospheric circulation changes in the last 2 decades in model simulations and atmospheric observations. We find that observed trace gas changes can be explained by a structural circulation change related to a deepening circulation in the Northern Hemisphere relative to the Southern Hemisphere. As this asymmetric signal is small compared to internal variability observed circulation trends over the recent past are not in contradiction to climate models.
Lars Hoffmann, Paul F. Baumeister, Zhongyin Cai, Jan Clemens, Sabine Griessbach, Gebhard Günther, Yi Heng, Mingzhao Liu, Kaveh Haghighi Mood, Olaf Stein, Nicole Thomas, Bärbel Vogel, Xue Wu, and Ling Zou
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 2731–2762,Short summary
We describe the new version (2.2) of the Lagrangian transport model MPTRAC, which has been ported for application on GPUs. The model was verified by comparing kinematic trajectories and synthetic tracer simulations for the free troposphere and stratosphere from GPUs and CPUs. Benchmarking showed a speed-up of a factor of 16 of GPU-enabled simulations compared to CPU-only runs, indicating the great potential of applying GPUs for Lagrangian transport simulations on upcoming HPC systems.
Lars Hoffmann and Reinhold Spang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 4019–4046,Short summary
We present an intercomparison of 2009–2018 lapse rate tropopause characteristics as derived from ECMWF's ERA5 and ERA-Interim reanalyses. Large-scale features are similar, but ERA5 shows notably larger variability, which we mainly attribute to UTLS temperature fluctuations due to gravity waves being better resolved by ECMWF's IFS forecast model. Following evaluation with radiosondes and GPS data, we conclude ERA5 will be a more suitable asset for tropopause-related studies in future work.
Jan Clemens, Felix Ploeger, Paul Konopka, Raphael Portmann, Michael Sprenger, and Heini Wernli
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3841–3860,Short summary
Highly polluted air flows from the surface to higher levels of the atmosphere during the Asian summer monsoon. At high levels, the air is trapped within eddies. Here, we study how air masses can leave the eddy within its cutoff, how they distribute, and how their chemical composition changes. We found evidence for transport from the eddy to higher latitudes over the North Pacific and even Alaska. During transport, trace gas concentrations within cutoffs changed gradually, showing steady mixing.
Helmut Ziereis, Peter Hoor, Jens-Uwe Grooß, Andreas Zahn, Greta Stratmann, Paul Stock, Michael Lichtenstern, Jens Krause, Vera Bense, Armin Afchine, Christian Rolf, Wolfgang Woiwode, Marleen Braun, Jörn Ungermann, Andreas Marsing, Christiane Voigt, Andreas Engel, Björn-Martin Sinnhuber, and Hermann Oelhaf
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3631–3654,Short summary
Airborne observations were conducted in the lowermost Arctic stratosphere during the winter of 2015/2016. The observed distribution of reactive nitrogen shows clear indications of nitrification in mid-winter and denitrification in late winter. This was caused by the formation of polar stratospheric cloud particles, which were observed during several flights. The sedimentation and evaporation of these particles and the descent of air masses cause a redistribution of reactive nitrogen.
Sergey M. Khaykin, Elizabeth Moyer, Martina Krämer, Benjamin Clouser, Silvia Bucci, Bernard Legras, Alexey Lykov, Armin Afchine, Francesco Cairo, Ivan Formanyuk, Valentin Mitev, Renaud Matthey, Christian Rolf, Clare E. Singer, Nicole Spelten, Vasiliy Volkov, Vladimir Yushkov, and Fred Stroh
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3169–3189,Short summary
The Asian monsoon anticyclone is the key contributor to the global annual maximum in lower stratospheric water vapour. We investigate the impact of deep convection on the lower stratospheric water using a unique set of observations aboard the high-altitude M55-Geophysica aircraft deployed in Nepal in summer 2017 within the EU StratoClim project. We find that convective plumes of wet air can persist within the Asian anticyclone for weeks, thereby enhancing the occurrence of high-level clouds.
Paul F. Baumeister and Lars Hoffmann
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 1855–1874,Short summary
The efficiency of the numerical simulation of radiative transport is shown on modern server-class graphics cards (GPUs). The low-cost prefactor on GPUs compared to general-purpose processors (CPUs) enables future large retrieval campaigns for multi-channel data from infrared sounders aboard low-orbit satellites. The validated research software JURASSIC is available in the public domain.
Valentin Lauther, Bärbel Vogel, Johannes Wintel, Andrea Rau, Peter Hoor, Vera Bense, Rolf Müller, and C. Michael Volk
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 2049–2077,Short summary
We show airborne in situ measurements of the very short-lived ozone-depleting substances CH2Cl2 and CHCl3, revealing particularly high concentrations of both species in the lower stratosphere. Back-trajectory calculations and 3D model simulations show that the air masses with high concentrations originated in the Asian boundary layer and were transported via the Asian summer monsoon. We also identify a fast transport pathway into the stratosphere via the North American monsoon and by hurricanes.
Zhiting Wang, Nils Hase, Wenshou Tian, and Mengchu Tao
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Publication in ACP not foreseenShort summary
The distribution of trace gases in the stratosphere impacts the thermal and dynamical structures of the atmosphere. The spatial structure of the trace gases is determined by the residual circulation and stirring and mixing processes. Currently the stirring is purely constrained due to lack of observation. Here we develop a diagnosis for stirring mainly based on the trace gas contour. The method is applied for estimating stirring and mixing effects on methane concentration in a polar vortex.
Dina Khordakova, Christian Rolf, Jens-Uwe Grooß, Rolf Müller, Paul Konopka, Andreas Wieser, Martina Krämer, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 1059–1079,Short summary
Extreme storms transport humidity from the troposphere to the stratosphere. Here it has a strong impact on the climate. With ongoing global warming, we expect more storms and, hence, an enhancement of this effect. A case study was performed in order to measure the impact of the direct injection of water vapor into the lower stratosphere. The measurements displayed a significant transport of water vapor into the lower stratosphere, and this was supported by satellite and reanalysis data.
Manuel Baumgartner, Christian Rolf, Jens-Uwe Grooß, Julia Schneider, Tobias Schorr, Ottmar Möhler, Peter Spichtinger, and Martina Krämer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 65–91,Short summary
An important mechanism for the appearance of ice particles in the upper troposphere at low temperatures is homogeneous nucleation. This process is commonly described by the
Koop line, predicting the humidity at freezing. However, laboratory measurements suggest that the freezing humidities are above the Koop line, motivating the present study to investigate the influence of different physical parameterizations on the homogeneous freezing with the help of a detailed numerical model.
Cornelia Strube, Peter Preusse, Manfred Ern, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 18641–18668,Short summary
High gravity wave (GW) momentum fluxes in the lower stratospheric southern polar vortex around 60° S are still poorly understood. Few GW sources are found at these latitudes. We present a ray tracing case study on waves resolved in high-resolution global model temperatures southeast of New Zealand. We show that lateral propagation of more than 1000 km takes place below 20 km altitude, and a variety of orographic and non-orographic sources located north of 50° S generate the wave field.
Markus Jesswein, Heiko Bozem, Hans-Christoph Lachnitt, Peter Hoor, Thomas Wagenhäuser, Timo Keber, Tanja Schuck, and Andreas Engel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 17225–17241,Short summary
This study presents and compares inorganic chlorine (Cly) derived from observations with the HALO research aircraft in the Antarctic late winter–early fall 2019 and the Arctic winter 2015–2016. Trend-corrected correlations from the Northern Hemisphere show excellent agreement with those from the Southern Hemisphere. After observation allocation inside and outside the vortex based on N2O measurements, results of the two campaigns reveal substantial differences in Cly within the respective vortex.
Paul D. Hamer, Virginie Marécal, Ryan Hossaini, Michel Pirre, Gisèle Krysztofiak, Franziska Ziska, Andreas Engel, Stephan Sala, Timo Keber, Harald Bönisch, Elliot Atlas, Kirstin Krüger, Martyn Chipperfield, Valery Catoire, Azizan A. Samah, Marcel Dorf, Phang Siew Moi, Hans Schlager, and Klaus Pfeilsticker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 16955–16984,Short summary
Bromoform is a stratospheric ozone-depleting gas released by seaweed and plankton transported to the stratosphere via convection in the tropics. We study the chemical interactions of bromoform and its derivatives within convective clouds using a cloud-scale model and observations. Our findings are that soluble bromine gases are efficiently washed out and removed within the convective clouds and that most bromine is transported vertically to the upper troposphere in the form of bromoform.
Tiziana Bräuer, Christiane Voigt, Daniel Sauer, Stefan Kaufmann, Valerian Hahn, Monika Scheibe, Hans Schlager, Felix Huber, Patrick Le Clercq, Richard H. Moore, and Bruce E. Anderson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 16817–16826,Short summary
Over half of aviation climate impact is caused by contrails. Biofuels can reduce the ice crystal numbers in contrails and mitigate the climate impact. The experiment ECLIF II/NDMAX in 2018 assessed the effects of biofuels on contrails and aviation emissions. The NASA DC-8 aircraft performed measurements inside the contrail of the DLR A320. One reference fuel and two blends of the biofuel HEFA and kerosene are analysed. We find a max reduction of contrail ice numbers through biofuel use of 40 %.
Hugh C. Pumphrey, Michael J. Schwartz, Michelle L. Santee, George P. Kablick III, Michael D. Fromm, and Nathaniel J. Livesey
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 16645–16659,Short summary
Forest fires in British Columbia in August 2017 caused an unusual phenomonon: smoke and gases from the fires rose quickly to a height of 10 km. From there, the pollution continued to rise more slowly for many weeks, travelling around the world as it did so. In this paper, we describe how we used data from a satellite instrument to observe this polluted volume of air. The satellite has now been working for 16 years but has observed only three events of this type.
Yu-Wen Chen, Yi-Chun Chen, Charles C.-K. Chou, Hui-Ming Hung, Shih-Yu Chang, Lisa Eirenschmalz, Michael Lichtenstern, Helmut Ziereis, Hans Schlager, Greta Stratmann, Katharina Kaiser, Johannes Schneider, Stephan Borrmann, Florian Obersteiner, Eric Förster, Andreas Zahn, Wei-Nai Chen, Po-Hsiung Lin, Shuenn-Chin Chang, Maria Dolores Andrés Hernández, Pao-Kuan Wang, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
By presenting an approach using EMeRGe-Asia airborne field measurements and surface observations, this study shows that the fraction of OH reactivity due to SO2-OH reaction has a significant correlation with the sulfate concentration. Approximately 30 % of sulfate is produced by SO2-OH reaction. Our results underline the importance of SO2-OH gas-phase oxidation in sulfate formation, and demonstrate that the method can be applied to other regions and under different meteorological conditions.
Gianluca Di Natale, Marco Barucci, Claudio Belotti, Giovanni Bianchini, Francesco D'Amato, Samuele Del Bianco, Marco Gai, Alessio Montori, Ralf Sussmann, Silvia Viciani, Hannes Vogelmann, and Luca Palchetti
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6749–6758,Short summary
The importance of cirrus and mixed-phase clouds in the Earth radiation budget has been proven by many studies. In this paper the properties that characterize these clouds are retrieved from lidar and far-infrared spectral measurements performed in winter 2018/19 on the Zugspitze (Germany). The synergy of lidar and spectrometer measurements allowed us to assess the exponent k of the power-law relationship between the backscattering and the extinction coefficients.
Meike K. Rotermund, Vera Bense, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Andreas Engel, Jens-Uwe Grooß, Peter Hoor, Tilman Hüneke, Timo Keber, Flora Kluge, Benjamin Schreiner, Tanja Schuck, Bärbel Vogel, Andreas Zahn, and Klaus Pfeilsticker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15375–15407,Short summary
Airborne total bromine (Brtot) and tracer measurements suggest Brtot-rich air masses persistently protruded into the lower stratosphere (LS), creating a high Brtot region over the North Atlantic in fall 2017. The main source is via isentropic transport by the Asian monsoon and to a lesser extent transport across the extratropical tropopause as quantified by a Lagrange model. The transport of Brtot via Central American hurricanes is also observed. Lastly, the impact of Brtot on LS O3 is assessed.
Christoph Mahnke, Ralf Weigel, Francesco Cairo, Jean-Paul Vernier, Armin Afchine, Martina Krämer, Valentin Mitev, Renaud Matthey, Silvia Viciani, Francesco D'Amato, Felix Ploeger, Terry Deshler, and Stephan Borrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15259–15282,Short summary
In 2017, in situ aerosol measurements were conducted aboard the M55 Geophysica in the Asian monsoon region. The vertical particle mixing ratio profiles show a distinct layer (15–18.5 km), the Asian tropopause aerosol layer (ATAL). The backscatter ratio (BR) was calculated based on the aerosol size distributions and compared with the BRs detected by a backscatter probe and a lidar aboard M55, and by the CALIOP lidar. All four methods show enhanced BRs in the ATAL altitude range (max. at 17.5 km).
Prashant Chavan, Suvarna Fadnavis, Tanusri Chakroborty, Christopher E. Sioris, Sabine Griessbach, and Rolf Müller
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14371–14384,Short summary
Biomass burning (BB) over Asia is a strong source of carbonaceous aerosols during spring. Here, we show an outflow of Asian BB carbonaceous aerosols into the UTLS. These aerosols enhance atmospheric heating and produce circulation changes that lead to the enhancement of water vapor in the UTLS over the tropics. In the stratosphere, water vapor is further transported to the South Pole by the Brewer–Dobson circulation. Enhancement of water vapor in the UTLS has implications for climate change.
Jayanarayanan Kuttippurath, Wuhu Feng, Rolf Müller, Pankaj Kumar, Sarath Raj, Gopalakrishna Pillai Gopikrishnan, and Raina Roy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14019–14037,Short summary
The Arctic winter/spring 2020 was one of the coldest with a strong and long-lasting vortex, high chlorine activation, severe denitrification, and unprecedented ozone loss. The loss was even equal to the levels of some of the warm Antarctic winters. Total column ozone values below 220 DU for several weeks and ozone loss saturation were observed during the period. These results show an unusual meteorology and warrant dedicated studies on the impact of climate change on ozone loss.
Manfred Ern, Mohamadou Diallo, Peter Preusse, Martin G. Mlynczak, Michael J. Schwartz, Qian Wu, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13763–13795,Short summary
Details of the driving of the semiannual oscillation (SAO) of the tropical winds in the middle atmosphere are still not known. We investigate the SAO and its driving by small-scale gravity waves (GWs) using satellite data and different reanalyses. In a large altitude range, GWs mainly drive the SAO westerlies, but in the upper mesosphere GWs seem to drive both SAO easterlies and westerlies. Reanalyses reproduce some features of the SAO but are limited by model-inherent damping at upper levels.
Ralf Weigel, Christoph Mahnke, Manuel Baumgartner, Martina Krämer, Peter Spichtinger, Nicole Spelten, Armin Afchine, Christian Rolf, Silvia Viciani, Francesco D'Amato, Holger Tost, and Stephan Borrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13455–13481,Short summary
In July and August 2017, the StratoClim mission took place in Nepal with eight flights of the M-55 Geophysica at up to 20 km in the Asian monsoon anticyclone. New particle formation (NPF) next to cloud ice was detected in situ by abundant nucleation-mode aerosols (> 6 nm) along with ice particles (> 3 µm). NPF was observed mainly below the tropopause, down to 15 % being non-volatile residues. Observed intra-cloud NPF indicates its importance for the composition in the tropical tropopause layer.
Luca Palchetti, Marco Barucci, Claudio Belotti, Giovanni Bianchini, Bertrand Cluzet, Francesco D'Amato, Samuele Del Bianco, Gianluca Di Natale, Marco Gai, Dina Khordakova, Alessio Montori, Hilke Oetjen, Markus Rettinger, Christian Rolf, Dirk Schuettemeyer, Ralf Sussmann, Silvia Viciani, Hannes Vogelmann, and Frank Gunther Wienhold
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 4303–4312,Short summary
The FIRMOS far-infrared (IR) prototype, developed for the preparation of the ESA FORUM mission, was deployed for the first time at Mt. Zugspitze at 3000 m altitude to measure the far-IR spectrum of atmospheric emissions. The measurements, including co-located radiometers, lidars, radio soundings, weather, and surface properties, provide a unique dataset to study radiative properties of water vapour, cirrus clouds, and snow emissivity over the IR emissions, including the under-explored far-IR.
Corwin J. Wright, Neil P. Hindley, M. Joan Alexander, Laura A. Holt, and Lars Hoffmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5873–5886,Short summary
Measuring atmospheric gravity waves in low vertical-resolution data is technically challenging, especially when the waves are significantly longer in the vertical than in the length of the measurement domain. We introduce and demonstrate a modification to the existing Stockwell transform methods of characterising these waves that address these problems, with no apparent reduction in the other capabilities of the technique.
Ralf Weigel, Christoph Mahnke, Manuel Baumgartner, Antonis Dragoneas, Bärbel Vogel, Felix Ploeger, Silvia Viciani, Francesco D'Amato, Silvia Bucci, Bernard Legras, Beiping Luo, and Stephan Borrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11689–11722,Short summary
In July and August 2017, eight StratoClim mission flights of the Geophysica reached up to 20 km in the Asian monsoon anticyclone. New particle formation (NPF) was identified in situ by abundant nucleation-mode aerosols (6–15 nm in diameter) with mixing ratios of up to 50 000 mg−1. NPF occurred most frequently at 12–16 km with fractions of non-volatile residues of down to 15 %. Abundance and productivity of observed NPF indicate its ability to promote the Asian tropopause aerosol layer.
Thorsten Kaluza, Daniel Kunkel, and Peter Hoor
Weather Clim. Dynam., 2, 631–651,Short summary
We present a 10-year analysis on the occurrence of strong wind shear in the Northern Hemisphere, focusing on the region around the transport barrier that separates the first two layers of the atmosphere. The major result of our analysis is that strong wind shear above a certain threshold occurs frequently and nearly exclusively in this region, which, as an indicator for turbulent mixing, might have major implications concerning the separation efficiency of the transport barrier.
Ling Zou, Lars Hoffmann, Sabine Griessbach, Reinhold Spang, and Lunche Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10457–10475,Short summary
Ice clouds in the lowermost stratosphere (SICs) have important impacts on the radiation budget and climate change. We quantified the occurrence of SICs over North America and analysed its relations with convective systems and gravity waves to investigate potential formation mechanisms of SICs. Deep convection is proved to be the primary factor linked to the occurrence of SICs over North America.
Markus Geldenhuys, Peter Preusse, Isabell Krisch, Christoph Zülicke, Jörn Ungermann, Manfred Ern, Felix Friedl-Vallon, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10393–10412,Short summary
A large-scale gravity wave (GW) was observed spanning the whole of Greenland. The GWs proposed in this paper come from a new jet–topography mechanism. The topography compresses the flow and triggers a change in u- and v-wind components. The jet becomes out of geostrophic balance and sheds energy in the form of GWs to restore the balance. This topography–jet interaction was not previously considered by the community, rendering the impact of the gravity waves largely unaccounted for.
Lukas Krasauskas, Jörn Ungermann, Peter Preusse, Felix Friedl-Vallon, Andreas Zahn, Helmut Ziereis, Christian Rolf, Felix Plöger, Paul Konopka, Bärbel Vogel, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10249–10272,Short summary
A Rossby wave (RW) breaking event was observed over the North Atlantic during the WISE measurement campaign in October 2017. Infrared limb sounding measurements of trace gases in the lower stratosphere, including high-resolution 3-D tomographic reconstruction, revealed complex spatial structures in stratospheric tracers near the polar jet related to previous RW breaking events. Backward-trajectory analysis and tracer correlations were used to study mixing and stratosphere–troposphere exchange.
Nuria Pilar Plaza, Aurélien Podglajen, Cristina Peña-Ortiz, and Felix Ploeger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9585–9607,Short summary
We study the role of different processes in setting the lower stratospheric water vapour. We find that mechanisms involving ice microphysics and small-scale mixing produce the strongest increase in water vapour, in particular over the Asian Monsoon. Small-scale mixing has a special relevance as it improves the agreement with observations at seasonal and intra-seasonal timescales, contrary to the North American Monsoon case, in which large-scale temperatures still dominate its variability.
Michael Weimer, Jennifer Buchmüller, Lars Hoffmann, Ole Kirner, Beiping Luo, Roland Ruhnke, Michael Steiner, Ines Tritscher, and Peter Braesicke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9515–9543,Short summary
We show that we are able to directly simulate polar stratospheric clouds formed locally in a mountain wave and represent their effect on the ozone chemistry with the global atmospheric chemistry model ICON-ART. Thus, we show the first simulations that close the gap between directly resolved mountain-wave-induced polar stratospheric clouds and their representation at coarse global resolutions.
Felix Ploeger, Mohamadou Diallo, Edward Charlesworth, Paul Konopka, Bernard Legras, Johannes C. Laube, Jens-Uwe Grooß, Gebhard Günther, Andreas Engel, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8393–8412,Short summary
We investigate the global stratospheric circulation (Brewer–Dobson circulation) in the new ECMWF ERA5 reanalysis based on age of air simulations, and we compare it to results from the preceding ERA-Interim reanalysis. Our results show a slower stratospheric circulation and higher age for ERA5. The age of air trend in ERA5 over the 1989–2018 period is negative throughout the stratosphere, related to multi-annual variability and a potential contribution from changes in the reanalysis system.
Gerald Wetzel, Felix Friedl-Vallon, Norbert Glatthor, Jens-Uwe Grooß, Thomas Gulde, Michael Höpfner, Sören Johansson, Farahnaz Khosrawi, Oliver Kirner, Anne Kleinert, Erik Kretschmer, Guido Maucher, Hans Nordmeyer, Hermann Oelhaf, Johannes Orphal, Christof Piesch, Björn-Martin Sinnhuber, Jörn Ungermann, and Bärbel Vogel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8213–8232,Short summary
Measurements of the pollutants C2H6, C2H2, HCOOH, and PAN were performed in the North Atlantic UTLS region with the airborne limb imager GLORIA in 2017. Enhanced amounts of these species were detected in the upper troposphere and even in the lowermost stratosphere (PAN). Main sources of these gases are forest fires in North America and anthropogenic pollution in South Asia. Simulations of EMAC and CAMS are qualitatively able to reproduce the measured data but underestimate the absolute amounts.
Neil P. Hindley, Corwin J. Wright, Alan M. Gadian, Lars Hoffmann, John K. Hughes, David R. Jackson, John C. King, Nicholas J. Mitchell, Tracy Moffat-Griffin, Andrew C. Moss, Simon B. Vosper, and Andrew N. Ross
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7695–7722,Short summary
One limitation of numerical atmospheric models is spatial resolution. For atmospheric gravity waves (GWs) generated over small mountainous islands, the driving effect of these waves on atmospheric circulations can be underestimated. Here we use a specialised high-resolution model over South Georgia island to compare simulated stratospheric GWs to colocated 3-D satellite observations. We find reasonable model agreement with observations, with some GW amplitudes much larger than expected.
Mohamadou Diallo, Manfred Ern, and Felix Ploeger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7515–7544,Short summary
Despite good agreement in the spatial structure, there are substantial differences in the strength of the Brewer–Dobson circulation (BDC) and its modulations in the UTLS and upper stratosphere. The tropical upwelling is generally weaker in ERA5 than in ERAI due to weaker planetary and gravity wave breaking in the UTLS. Analysis of the BDC trend shows an acceleration of the BDC of about 1.5 % decade-1 due to the long-term intensification in wave breaking, consistent with climate predictions.
Xiaolu Yan, Paul Konopka, Marius Hauck, Aurélien Podglajen, and Felix Ploeger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6627–6645,Short summary
Inter-hemispheric transport is important for understanding atmospheric tracers because of the asymmetry in emissions between the Southern Hemisphere (SH) and Northern Hemisphere (NH). This study finds that the air masses from the NH extratropics to the atmosphere are about 5 times larger than those from the SH extratropics. The interplay between the Asian summer monsoon and westerly ducts triggers the cross-Equator transport from the NH to the SH in boreal summer and fall.
Franziska Köllner, Johannes Schneider, Megan D. Willis, Hannes Schulz, Daniel Kunkel, Heiko Bozem, Peter Hoor, Thomas Klimach, Frank Helleis, Julia Burkart, W. Richard Leaitch, Amir A. Aliabadi, Jonathan P. D. Abbatt, Andreas B. Herber, and Stephan Borrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6509–6539,Short summary
We present in situ observations of vertically resolved particle chemical composition in the summertime Arctic lower troposphere. Our analysis demonstrates the strong vertical contrast between particle properties within the boundary layer and aloft. Emissions from vegetation fires and anthropogenic sources in northern Canada, Europe, and East Asia influenced particle composition in the free troposphere. Organics detected in Arctic aerosol particles can partly be identified as dicarboxylic acids.
Irene Bartolome Garcia, Reinhold Spang, Jörn Ungermann, Sabine Griessbach, Martina Krämer, Michael Höpfner, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3153–3168,Short summary
Cirrus clouds contribute to the general radiation budget of the Earth. Measuring optically thin clouds is challenging but the IR limb sounder GLORIA possesses the necessary technical characteristics to make it possible. This study analyses data from the WISE campaign obtained with GLORIA. We developed a cloud detection method and derived characteristics of the observed cirrus-like cloud top, cloud bottom or position with respect to the tropopause.
Maxi Boettcher, Andreas Schäfler, Michael Sprenger, Harald Sodemann, Stefan Kaufmann, Christiane Voigt, Hans Schlager, Donato Summa, Paolo Di Girolamo, Daniele Nerini, Urs Germann, and Heini Wernli
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5477–5498,Short summary
Warm conveyor belts (WCBs) are important airstreams in extratropical cyclones, often leading to the formation of intense precipitation. We present a case study that involves aircraft, lidar and radar observations of water and clouds in a WCB ascending from western Europe across the Alps towards the Baltic Sea during the field campaigns HyMeX and T-NAWDEX-Falcon in October 2012. A probabilistic trajectory measure and an airborne tracer experiment were used to confirm the long pathway of the WCB.
Sabine Robrecht, Bärbel Vogel, Simone Tilmes, and Rolf Müller
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2427–2455,Short summary
Column ozone protects life on Earth from radiation damage. Stratospheric chlorine compounds cause immense ozone loss in polar winter. Whether similar loss processes can occur in the lower stratosphere above North America today or in future is a matter of debate. We show that these ozone loss processes are very unlikely today or in future independently of whether sulfate geoengineering is applied and that less than 0.1 % of column ozone would be destroyed by this process in any future scenario.
Joan Stude, Heinfried Aufmhoff, Hans Schlager, Markus Rapp, Frank Arnold, and Boris Strelnikov
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 983–993,Short summary
In this paper we describe the instrument ROMARA and show data from the first flight on a research rocket. On the way through the atmosphere, the instrument detects positive and negative, natural occurring ions before returning back to ground. ROMARA was successfully launched together with other instruments into a special radar echo. We detected typical, light ions of positive and negative charge and heavy negative ions, but no heavy positive ions.
Marc von Hobe, Felix Ploeger, Paul Konopka, Corinna Kloss, Alexey Ulanowski, Vladimir Yushkov, Fabrizio Ravegnani, C. Michael Volk, Laura L. Pan, Shawn B. Honomichl, Simone Tilmes, Douglas E. Kinnison, Rolando R. Garcia, and Jonathon S. Wright
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1267–1285,Short summary
The Asian summer monsoon (ASM) is known to foster transport of polluted tropospheric air into the stratosphere. To test and amend our picture of ASM vertical transport, we analyse distributions of airborne trace gas observations up to 20 km altitude near the main ASM vertical conduit south of the Himalayas. We also show that a new high-resolution version of the global chemistry climate model WACCM is able to reproduce the observations well.
Johannes Schneider, Ralf Weigel, Thomas Klimach, Antonis Dragoneas, Oliver Appel, Andreas Hünig, Sergej Molleker, Franziska Köllner, Hans-Christian Clemen, Oliver Eppers, Peter Hoppe, Peter Hoor, Christoph Mahnke, Martina Krämer, Christian Rolf, Jens-Uwe Grooß, Andreas Zahn, Florian Obersteiner, Fabrizio Ravegnani, Alexey Ulanovsky, Hans Schlager, Monika Scheibe, Glenn S. Diskin, Joshua P. DiGangi, John B. Nowak, Martin Zöger, and Stephan Borrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 989–1013,Short summary
During five aircraft missions, we detected aerosol particles containing meteoric material in the lower stratosphere. The stratospheric measurements span a latitude range from 15 to 68° N, and we find that at potential temperature levels of more than 40 K above the tropopause; particles containing meteoric material occur at similar abundance fractions across latitudes and seasons. We conclude that meteoric material is efficiently distributed between high and low latitudes by isentropic mixing.
Corinna Kloss, Gwenaël Berthet, Pasquale Sellitto, Felix Ploeger, Ghassan Taha, Mariam Tidiga, Maxim Eremenko, Adriana Bossolasco, Fabrice Jégou, Jean-Baptiste Renard, and Bernard Legras
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 535–560,Short summary
The year 2019 was particularly rich for the stratospheric aerosol layer due to two volcanic eruptions (at Raikoke and Ulawun) and wildfire events. With satellite observations and models, we describe the exceptionally complex situation following the Raikoke eruption. The respective plume overwhelmed the Northern Hemisphere stratosphere in terms of aerosol load and resulted in the highest climate impact throughout the past decade.
Jörn Ungermann, Irene Bartolome, Sabine Griessbach, Reinhold Spang, Christian Rolf, Martina Krämer, Michael Höpfner, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 7025–7045,Short summary
This study examines the potential of new IR limb imager instruments and tomographic methods for cloud detection purposes. Simple color-ratio-based methods are examined and compared against more involved nonlinear convex optimization. In a second part, 3-D measurements of the airborne limb sounder GLORIA taken during the Wave-driven ISentropic Exchange campaign are used to exemplarily derive the location and extent of small-scale cirrus clouds with high spatial accuracy.
Manuel Baumgartner, Ralf Weigel, Allan H. Harvey, Felix Plöger, Ulrich Achatz, and Peter Spichtinger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15585–15616,Short summary
The potential temperature is routinely used in atmospheric science. We review its derivation and suggest a new potential temperature, based on a temperature-dependent parameterization of the dry air's specific heat capacity. Moreover, we compare the new potential temperature to the common one and discuss the differences which become more important at higher altitudes. Finally, we indicate some consequences of using the new potential temperature in typical applications.
Edward J. Charlesworth, Ann-Kristin Dugstad, Frauke Fritsch, Patrick Jöckel, and Felix Plöger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15227–15245,Short summary
Modeling the stratosphere requires models with good representations of chemical transport. To do this, nearly all models divide the atmosphere into boxes. This creates some unwanted problems. However, the only other option is to divide the atmosphere into balloons, and this method is very complicated. Here, we use a model which uses this balloon-like method to estimate the impacts of this method on chemical transport. We find significant differences in sensitive regions of the stratosphere.
Sreeharsha Hanumanthu, Bärbel Vogel, Rolf Müller, Simone Brunamonti, Suvarna Fadnavis, Dan Li, Peter Ölsner, Manish Naja, Bhupendra Bahadur Singh, Kunchala Ravi Kumar, Sunil Sonbawne, Hannu Jauhiainen, Holger Vömel, Beiping Luo, Teresa Jorge, Frank G. Wienhold, Ruud Dirkson, and Thomas Peter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14273–14302,Short summary
During boreal summer, anthropogenic sources yield the Asian Tropopause Aerosol Layer (ATAL), found in Asia between about 13 and 18 km altitude. Balloon-borne measurements of the ATAL conducted in northern India in 2016 show the strong variability of the ATAL. To explain its observed variability, model simulations are performed to deduce the origin of air masses on the Earth's surface, which is important to develop recommendations for regulations of anthropogenic surface emissions of the ATAL.
Joram J. D. Hooghiem, Maria Elena Popa, Thomas Röckmann, Jens-Uwe Grooß, Ines Tritscher, Rolf Müller, Rigel Kivi, and Huilin Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13985–14003,Short summary
Wildfires release a large quantity of pollutants that can reach the stratosphere through pyro-convection events. In September 2017, a stratospheric plume was accidentally sampled during balloon soundings in northern Finland. The source of the plume was identified to be wildfire smoke based on in situ measurements of carbon monoxide (CO) and stable isotope analysis of CO. Furthermore, the age of the plume was estimated using backwards transport modelling to be ~24 d, with its origin in Canada.
Yuli Zhang, Mengchu Tao, Jinqiang Zhang, Yi Liu, Hongbin Chen, Zhaonan Cai, and Paul Konopka
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13343–13354,
Martina Krämer, Christian Rolf, Nicole Spelten, Armin Afchine, David Fahey, Eric Jensen, Sergey Khaykin, Thomas Kuhn, Paul Lawson, Alexey Lykov, Laura L. Pan, Martin Riese, Andrew Rollins, Fred Stroh, Troy Thornberry, Veronika Wolf, Sarah Woods, Peter Spichtinger, Johannes Quaas, and Odran Sourdeval
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12569–12608,Short summary
To improve the representations of cirrus clouds in climate predictions, extended knowledge of their properties and geographical distribution is required. This study presents extensive airborne in situ and satellite remote sensing climatologies of cirrus and humidity, which serve as a guide to cirrus clouds. Further, exemplary radiative characteristics of cirrus types and also in situ observations of tropical tropopause layer cirrus and humidity in the Asian monsoon anticyclone are shown.
Andrew Orr, J. Scott Hosking, Aymeric Delon, Lars Hoffmann, Reinhold Spang, Tracy Moffat-Griffin, James Keeble, Nathan Luke Abraham, and Peter Braesicke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12483–12497,Short summary
Polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) are clouds found in the Antarctic winter stratosphere and are implicated in the formation of the ozone hole. These clouds can sometimes be formed or enhanced by mountain waves, formed as air passes over hills or mountains. However, this important mechanism is missing in coarse-resolution climate models, limiting our ability to simulate ozone. This study examines an attempt to include the effects of mountain waves and their impact on PSCs and ozone.
Flora Kluge, Tilman Hüneke, Matthias Knecht, Michael Lichtenstern, Meike Rotermund, Hans Schlager, Benjamin Schreiner, and Klaus Pfeilsticker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12363–12389,Short summary
The presented study reports on airborne measurements of formaldehyde, glyoxal, methylglyoxal, and CO over the Amazon basin and lays a special focus on the influence of biomass burning emissions on the atmospheric profiles of these carbonyl compounds within the planetary boundary layer as well as in the free and upper troposphere.
Silvia Bucci, Bernard Legras, Pasquale Sellitto, Francesco D'Amato, Silvia Viciani, Alessio Montori, Antonio Chiarugi, Fabrizio Ravegnani, Alexey Ulanovsky, Francesco Cairo, and Fred Stroh
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12193–12210,Short summary
The paper presents and evaluates a transport analysis method to study the convective injection of air in the upper troposphere–lower stratosphere of the Asian monsoon anticyclone region. The approach is thereby used to analyse the trace gas data collected during the StratoClim aircraft campaign. The results showed that fresh convective air can be injected fast at a high level of the atmosphere (above 17 km), with potential impacts on the stratospheric chemistry of the Northern Hemisphere.
Isabell Krisch, Manfred Ern, Lars Hoffmann, Peter Preusse, Cornelia Strube, Jörn Ungermann, Wolfgang Woiwode, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11469–11490,Short summary
In 2016, a scientific research flight above Scandinavia acquired various atmospheric data (temperature, gas composition, etc.). Through advanced 3-D reconstruction methods, a superposition of multiple gravity waves was identified. An in-depth analysis enabled the characterisation of these waves as well as the identification of their sources. This work will enable a better understanding of atmosphere dynamics and could lead to improved climate projections.
Hirofumi Ohyama, Isamu Morino, Voltaire A. Velazco, Theresa Klausner, Gerry Bagtasa, Matthäus Kiel, Matthias Frey, Akihiro Hori, Osamu Uchino, Tsuneo Matsunaga, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Joshua P. DiGangi, Yonghoon Choi, Glenn S. Diskin, Sally E. Pusede, Alina Fiehn, Anke Roiger, Michael Lichtenstern, Hans Schlager, Pao K. Wang, Charles C.-K. Chou, Maria Dolores Andrés-Hernández, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5149–5163,Short summary
Column-averaged dry-air mole fractions of CO2 and CH4 measured by a solar viewing portable Fourier transform spectrometer (EM27/SUN) were validated with in situ profile data obtained during the transfer flights of two aircraft campaigns. Atmospheric dynamical properties based on ERA5 and WRF-Chem were used as criteria for selecting the best aircraft profiles for the validation. The resulting air-mass-independent correction factors for the EM27/SUN data were 0.9878 for CO2 and 0.9829 for CH4.
Francesco Grieco, Kristell Pérot, Donal Murtagh, Patrick Eriksson, Peter Forkman, Bengt Rydberg, Bernd Funke, Kaley A. Walker, and Hugh C. Pumphrey
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5013–5031,Short summary
We present a unique – by time extension and geographical coverage – dataset of satellite observations of carbon monoxide (CO) in the mesosphere which will allow us to study dynamical processes, since CO is a very good tracer of circulation in the mesosphere. Previously, the dataset was unusable due to instrumental artefacts that affected the measurements. We identify the cause of the artefacts, eliminate them and prove the quality of the results by comparing with other instrument measurements.
Cornelia Strube, Manfred Ern, Peter Preusse, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4927–4945,Short summary
We present how inertial instabilities affect gravity wave background removal filters on different temperature data sets. Vertical filtering has to remove a part of the gravity wave spectrum to eliminate inertial instability remnants, while horizontal filtering leaves typical gravity wave scales untouched. In addition, we show that it is possible to separate inertial instabilities from gravity wave perturbations for infrared limb-sounding satellite profiles using a cutoff zonal wavenumber of 6.
W. Richard Leaitch, John K. Kodros, Megan D. Willis, Sarah Hanna, Hannes Schulz, Elisabeth Andrews, Heiko Bozem, Julia Burkart, Peter Hoor, Felicia Kolonjari, John A. Ogren, Sangeeta Sharma, Meng Si, Knut von Salzen, Allan K. Bertram, Andreas Herber, Jonathan P. D. Abbatt, and Jeffrey R. Pierce
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10545–10563,Short summary
Black carbon is a factor in the warming of the Arctic atmosphere due to its ability to absorb light, but the uncertainty is high and few observations have been made in the high Arctic above 80° N. We combine airborne and ground-based observations in the springtime Arctic, at and above 80° N, with simulations from a global model to show that light absorption by black carbon may be much larger than modelled. However, the uncertainty remains high.
Ling Zou, Sabine Griessbach, Lars Hoffmann, Bing Gong, and Lunche Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9939–9959,Short summary
Cirrus clouds appearing in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere have important impacts on the radiation budget and climate change. We revisited global stratospheric cirrus clouds with CALIPSO and for the first time with MIPAS satellite observations. Stratospheric cirrus clouds related to deep convection are frequently detected in the tropics. At middle latitudes, MIPAS detects more than twice as many stratospheric cirrus clouds due to higher detection sensitivity.
Johannes C. Laube, Emma C. Leedham Elvidge, Karina E. Adcock, Bianca Baier, Carl A. M. Brenninkmeijer, Huilin Chen, Elise S. Droste, Jens-Uwe Grooß, Pauli Heikkinen, Andrew J. Hind, Rigel Kivi, Alexander Lojko, Stephen A. Montzka, David E. Oram, Steve Randall, Thomas Röckmann, William T. Sturges, Colm Sweeney, Max Thomas, Elinor Tuffnell, and Felix Ploeger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9771–9782,Short summary
We demonstrate that AirCore technology, which is based on small low-cost balloons, can provide access to trace gas measurements such as CFCs at ultra-low abundances. This is a new way to quantify ozone-depleting, and related, substances in the stratosphere, which is largely inaccessible to aircraft. We show two potential uses: (a) tracking the stratospheric circulation, which is predicted to change, and (b) assessing three common meteorological reanalyses driving a global stratospheric model.
Jonathon S. Wright, Xiaoyi Sun, Paul Konopka, Kirstin Krüger, Bernard Legras, Andrea M. Molod, Susann Tegtmeier, Guang J. Zhang, and Xi Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8989–9030,Short summary
High clouds are influential in tropical climate. Although reanalysis cloud fields are essentially model products, they are indirectly constrained by observations and offer global coverage with direct links to advanced water and energy cycle metrics, giving them many useful applications. We describe how high cloud fields are generated in reanalyses, assess their realism and reliability in the tropics, and evaluate how differences in these fields affect other aspects of the reanalysis state.
Marius Hauck, Harald Bönisch, Peter Hoor, Timo Keber, Felix Ploeger, Tanja J. Schuck, and Andreas Engel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8763–8785,Short summary
This study features an extended inversion method that includes transport across the extratropical tropopause to derive age spectra in the lowermost stratosphere from in situ trace gas measurements. The refined method is validated in a model setup and applied to data gained with the HALO research aircraft. Results are congruent with the findings of previous studies so that the method provides a promising toolset for the analysis of stratospheric dynamics based on observations in the future.
Andreas Petzold, Patrick Neis, Mihal Rütimann, Susanne Rohs, Florian Berkes, Herman G. J. Smit, Martina Krämer, Nicole Spelten, Peter Spichtinger, Philippe Nédélec, and Andreas Wahner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8157–8179,Short summary
The first analysis of 15 years of global-scale water vapour and relative humidity observations by passenger aircraft in the MOZAIC and IAGOS programmes resolves detailed features of water vapour and ice-supersaturated air in the mid-latitude tropopause. Key results provide in-depth insight into seasonal and regional variability and chemical signatures of ice-supersaturated air masses, including trend analyses, and show a close link to cirrus clouds and their highly important effects on climate.
Rocco Sedona, Lars Hoffmann, Reinhold Spang, Gabriele Cavallaro, Sabine Griessbach, Michael Höpfner, Matthias Book, and Morris Riedel
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3661–3682,Short summary
Polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) play a key role in polar ozone depletion in the stratosphere. In this paper, we explore the potential of applying machine learning (ML) methods to classify PSC observations of infrared spectra to classify PSC types. ML methods have proved to reach results in line with those obtained using well-established approaches. Among the considered ML methods, random forest (RF) seems to be the most promising one, being able to produce explainable classification results.
Yajun Zhu, Martin Kaufmann, Qiuyu Chen, Jiyao Xu, Qiucheng Gong, Jilin Liu, Daikang Wei, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3033–3042,Short summary
OH airglow emissions can be used to derive rotational temperature and trace constituents in the mesopause region, but systematic differences exist for the follow-up data using OH emission radiance as measured by SCIAMACHY and SABER. This paper makes a comparison of OH emission radiance as measured by them and shows the systematic differences between the two measurements. The radiometric calibration of the two instruments could potentially explain the differences between the two measurements.
Bruna A. Holanda, Mira L. Pöhlker, David Walter, Jorge Saturno, Matthias Sörgel, Jeannine Ditas, Florian Ditas, Christiane Schulz, Marco Aurélio Franco, Qiaoqiao Wang, Tobias Donth, Paulo Artaxo, Henrique M. J. Barbosa, Stephan Borrmann, Ramon Braga, Joel Brito, Yafang Cheng, Maximilian Dollner, Johannes W. Kaiser, Thomas Klimach, Christoph Knote, Ovid O. Krüger, Daniel Fütterer, Jošt V. Lavrič, Nan Ma, Luiz A. T. Machado, Jing Ming, Fernando G. Morais, Hauke Paulsen, Daniel Sauer, Hans Schlager, Johannes Schneider, Hang Su, Bernadett Weinzierl, Adrian Walser, Manfred Wendisch, Helmut Ziereis, Martin Zöger, Ulrich Pöschl, Meinrat O. Andreae, and Christopher Pöhlker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4757–4785,Short summary
Biomass burning smoke from African savanna and grassland is transported across the South Atlantic Ocean in defined layers within the free troposphere. The combination of in situ aircraft and ground-based measurements aided by satellite observations showed that these layers are transported into the Amazon Basin during the early dry season. The influx of aged smoke, enriched in black carbon and cloud condensation nuclei, has important implications for the Amazonian aerosol and cloud cycling.
Dan Li, Bärbel Vogel, Rolf Müller, Jianchun Bian, Gebhard Günther, Felix Ploeger, Qian Li, Jinqiang Zhang, Zhixuan Bai, Holger Vömel, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4133–4152,Short summary
Low ozone and low water vapour signatures in the UTLS were investigated using balloon-borne measurements and trajectory calculations. The results show that deep convection in tropical cyclones over the western Pacific transports boundary air parcels with low ozone into the tropopause region. Subsequently, these air parcels are dehydrated when passing the lowest temperature region (< 190 K) during quasi-horizontal advection.
Sabine Griessbach, Lars Hoffmann, Reinhold Spang, Peggy Achtert, Marc von Hobe, Nina Mateshvili, Rolf Müller, Martin Riese, Christian Rolf, Patric Seifert, and Jean-Paul Vernier
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 1243–1271,Short summary
In this paper we study the cloud top height derived from MIPAS measurements. Previous studies showed contradictory results with respect to MIPAS, both underestimating and overestimating cloud top height. We used simulations and found that overestimation and/or underestimation depend on cloud extinction. To support our findings we compared MIPAS cloud top heights of volcanic sulfate aerosol with measurements from CALIOP, ground-based lidar, and ground-based twilight measurements.
Fan Mei, Jian Wang, Jennifer M. Comstock, Ralf Weigel, Martina Krämer, Christoph Mahnke, John E. Shilling, Johannes Schneider, Christiane Schulz, Charles N. Long, Manfred Wendisch, Luiz A. T. Machado, Beat Schmid, Trismono Krisna, Mikhail Pekour, John Hubbe, Andreas Giez, Bernadett Weinzierl, Martin Zoeger, Mira L. Pöhlker, Hans Schlager, Micael A. Cecchini, Meinrat O. Andreae, Scot T. Martin, Suzane S. de Sá, Jiwen Fan, Jason Tomlinson, Stephen Springston, Ulrich Pöschl, Paulo Artaxo, Christopher Pöhlker, Thomas Klimach, Andreas Minikin, Armin Afchine, and Stephan Borrmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 661–684,Short summary
In 2014, the US DOE G1 aircraft and the German HALO aircraft overflew the Amazon basin to study how aerosols influence cloud cycles under a clean condition and around a tropical megacity. This paper describes how to meaningfully compare similar measurements from two research aircraft and identify the potential measurement issue. We also discuss the uncertainty range for each measurement for further usage in model evaluation and satellite data validation.
Xiaolu Yan, Paul Konopka, Felix Ploeger, Aurélien Podglajen, Jonathon S. Wright, Rolf Müller, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 15629–15649,Short summary
The Asian and North American summer monsoons (ASM and NASM) have considerable influence on stratospheric chemistry and physics. More air mass is transported from the monsoon regions to the tropical stratosphere when the tracers are released clearly below the tropopause than when they are released close to the tropopause. Results for different altitudes of air origin reveal two transport pathways (monsoon and tropical) from the upper troposphere over the monsoon regions to the tropical pipe.
Neil P. Hindley, Corwin J. Wright, Nathan D. Smith, Lars Hoffmann, Laura A. Holt, M. Joan Alexander, Tracy Moffat-Griffin, and Nicholas J. Mitchell
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 15377–15414,Short summary
In this study, a 3–D Stockwell transform is applied to AIRS–Aqua satellite observations in the first extended 3–D study of stratospheric gravity waves over the Southern Ocean during winter. A dynamic environment is revealed that contains some of the most intense gravity wave sources on Earth. A particularly striking result is a large–scale meridional convergence of gravity wave momentum flux towards latitudes near 60 °S, something which is not normally considered in model parameterisations.
Heiko Bozem, Peter Hoor, Daniel Kunkel, Franziska Köllner, Johannes Schneider, Andreas Herber, Hannes Schulz, W. Richard Leaitch, Amir A. Aliabadi, Megan D. Willis, Julia Burkart, and Jonathan P. D. Abbatt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 15049–15071,Short summary
We present airborne trace gas measurements in the European and Canadian Arctic for July 2014 and April 2015. Based on CO and CO2 in situ data as well as 10 d kinematic back trajectories, we characterize the prevailing transport regimes and derive a tracer-based diagnostic for the determination of the polar dome boundary. Using the tracer-derived boundary, an analysis of the recent transport history of air masses within the polar dome reveals significant differences between spring and summer.
Qiuyu Chen, Martin Kaufmann, Yajun Zhu, Jilin Liu, Ralf Koppmann, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 13891–13910,Short summary
Atomic oxygen is one of the most important trace species in the mesopause region. A common technique to derive it from satellite measurements is to measure airglow emissions involved in the photochemistry of oxygen. In this work, hydroxyl nightglow measured by the GOMOS instrument on Envisat is used to derive a 10-year dataset of atomic oxygen in the middle and upper atmosphere. Annual and semiannual oscillations are observed in the data. The new data are consistent with various other datasets.
Marleen Braun, Jens-Uwe Grooß, Wolfgang Woiwode, Sören Johansson, Michael Höpfner, Felix Friedl-Vallon, Hermann Oelhaf, Peter Preusse, Jörn Ungermann, Björn-Martin Sinnhuber, Helmut Ziereis, and Peter Braesicke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 13681–13699,Short summary
We analyse nitrification of the LMS in the Arctic winter 2015–2016 based on GLORIA measurements. Vertical cross sections of HNO3 for several flights show complex fine–scale structures and enhanced values down to 9 km. The extent of overall nitrification is quantified based on HNO3–O3 correlations and reaches between 5 ppbv and 7 ppbv at potential temperature levels between 350 and 380 K. Further, we compare our result with the atmospheric model CLaMS.
Corinna Kloss, Gwenaël Berthet, Pasquale Sellitto, Felix Ploeger, Silvia Bucci, Sergey Khaykin, Fabrice Jégou, Ghassan Taha, Larry W. Thomason, Brice Barret, Eric Le Flochmoen, Marc von Hobe, Adriana Bossolasco, Nelson Bègue, and Bernard Legras
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 13547–13567,Short summary
With satellite measurements and transport models, we show that a plume resulting from strong Canadian fires in July/August 2017 was not only distributed throughout the northern/higher latitudes, but also reached the faraway tropics, aided by the circulation of Asian monsoon anticyclone. The regional climate impact in the wider Asian monsoon area in September exceeds the impact of the Asian tropopause aerosol layer by a factor of ~ 3 and compares to that of an advected moderate volcanic eruption.
Daniel Kunkel, Peter Hoor, Thorsten Kaluza, Jörn Ungermann, Björn Kluschat, Andreas Giez, Hans-Christoph Lachnitt, Martin Kaufmann, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12607–12630,Short summary
In this study we present a mixing process around the tropopause in extratropical baroclinic waves. We analyze airborne data from a flight during the WISE campaign in autumn 2017 over the North Atlantic. We use idealized experiments to study the mixing process. Although the process occurs on a small geographical scale, it might be of importance due to its relation to a frequent feature of the extratropical UTLS. The process is relevant for STE but is not fully included in climatologies.
Vanessa Brocchi, Gisèle Krysztofiak, Adrien Deroubaix, Greta Stratmann, Daniel Sauer, Hans Schlager, Konrad Deetz, Guillaume Dayma, Claude Robert, Stéphane Chevrier, and Valéry Catoire
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 11401–11411,Short summary
This study reports the first flaring in situ measurements in southern West Africa. According to the measurements, oil rig flaring plumes in Ghana lead to increases in NO2 and aerosols but not always in CO and not in SO2. Flaring measurements can be reproduced using FLEXPART model, adjusting both the emission flux and the injection height. The DACCIWA satellite flaring inventory provides a reasonable estimate of flaring emission.
Andreas Marsing, Tina Jurkat-Witschas, Jens-Uwe Grooß, Stefan Kaufmann, Romy Heller, Andreas Engel, Peter Hoor, Jens Krause, and Christiane Voigt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 10757–10772,Short summary
We study the partitioning of inorganic chlorine into active (ozone-depleting) and reservoir species in the lowermost stratosphere of the Arctic polar vortex, using novel in situ aircraft measurements in winter 2015/2016. We observe a change in recovery pathways of the reservoirs HCl and ClONO2 with increasing potential temperature. A comparison with the CLaMS model relates the observations to the vortex-wide evolution and confirms unresolved discrepancies in the mid-winter HCl distribution.
Suvarna Fadnavis, Rolf Müller, Gayatry Kalita, Matthew Rowlinson, Alexandru Rap, Jui-Lin Frank Li, Blaž Gasparini, and Anton Laakso
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 9989–10008,Short summary
This paper highlights the impact of Asian anthropogenic emission changes in SO2 on sulfate loading in the Asian upper troposphere–lower stratosphere from a global chemistry–climate model and satellite remote sensing. Estimated seasonal mean direct radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere induced by the increase in Indian SO2 is −0.2–−1.5 W m2 over India. Chinese SO2 emission reduction leads to a positive radiative forcing of ~0.6–6 W m2 over China. It will likely decrease Indian rainfall.
Matthias Nützel, Aurélien Podglajen, Hella Garny, and Felix Ploeger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 8947–8966,Short summary
We investigate the transport pathways of water vapour from the upper troposphere in the Asian monsoon region to the stratosphere. In the employed chemistry-transport model we use a tagging method, such that the impact of different source regions on the stratospheric water vapour budget can be quantified. A key finding is that the Asian monsoon (compared to other source regions) is very efficient in transporting air masses and water vapour to the tropical and extratropical stratosphere.
Dan Chen, Cornelia Strube, Manfred Ern, Peter Preusse, and Martin Riese
Ann. Geophys., 37, 487–506,Short summary
In this paper, for the first time, absolute gravity wave momentum flux (GWMF) on temporal scales from terannual variation up to solar cycle length is investigated. The systematic spectral analysis of SABER absolute GWMF is presented and physically interpreted. The various roles of filtering and oblique propagating are discussed, which is likely an important factor for MLT dynamics, and hence can be used as a stringent test bed of the reproduction of such features in global models.
Sören Johansson, Michelle L. Santee, Jens-Uwe Grooß, Michael Höpfner, Marleen Braun, Felix Friedl-Vallon, Farahnaz Khosrawi, Oliver Kirner, Erik Kretschmer, Hermann Oelhaf, Johannes Orphal, Björn-Martin Sinnhuber, Ines Tritscher, Jörn Ungermann, Kaley A. Walker, and Wolfgang Woiwode
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 8311–8338,Short summary
We present a study based on GLORIA aircraft and MLS/ACE-FTS/CALIOP satellite measurements during the Arctic winter 2015/16, which demonstrate (for the Arctic) unusual chlorine deactivation into HCl instead of ClONO2 due to low ozone abundances in the lowermost stratosphere, with a focus at 380 K potential temperature. The atmospheric models CLaMS and EMAC are evaluated, and measured ClONO2 is linked with transport and in situ deactivation in the lowermost stratosphere.
Paul Konopka, Mengchu Tao, Felix Ploeger, Mohamadou Diallo, and Martin Riese
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 2441–2462,Short summary
CLaMS is a Lagrangian transport model suitable for simulating atmospheric transport and chemistry. The novel approach of CLaMS is its description of atmospheric mixing. Whereas the common approach is to minimize the numerical diffusion ever present in the modeling of transport, CLaMS is a first attempt to apply this
undesirable disturbing effectto parametrize the true physical mixing. In this paper, we show how this concept works both in the stratosphere and in the troposphere.
Thorsten Kaluza, Daniel Kunkel, and Peter Hoor
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 6621–6636,Short summary
We present a comprehensive mean evolution of the tropopause inversion layer in mid-latitudes, an atmospheric feature that is located in the region that separates the well-mixed troposphere and the stably stratified stratosphere. We counter-intuitively find this region, which is expected to stabilise atmospheric flow, to exhibit favourable conditions for turbulent exchange between troposphere and stratosphere. This is an important result concerning the overall assessment of exchange processes.
Mengchu Tao, Paul Konopka, Felix Ploeger, Xiaolu Yan, Jonathon S. Wright, Mohamadou Diallo, Stephan Fueglistaler, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 6509–6534,Short summary
This paper examines the annual and interannual variations as well as long-term trend of modeled stratospheric water vapor with a Lagrangian chemical transport model driven by ERA-I, MERRA-2 and JRA-55. We find reasonable consistency among the annual cycle, QBO and the variabilities induced by ENSO and volcanic aerosols. The main discrepancies are linked to the differences in reanalysis upwelling rates in the lower stratosphere. The trends are sensitive to the reanalyses that drives the model.
Bärbel Vogel, Rolf Müller, Gebhard Günther, Reinhold Spang, Sreeharsha Hanumanthu, Dan Li, Martin Riese, and Gabriele P. Stiller
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 6007–6034,Short summary
We identified the transport pathways of air masses from the region of the Asian monsoon (e.g. pollution and greenhouse gases caused by increasing population and growing industries in Asia) into the lower stratosphere. Even small changes of the chemical composition of the lower stratosphere have an impact on surface climate (e.g. surface temperatures). Therefore, it is important to identify transport pathways to the stratosphere to allow potential environmental risks to be assessed.
Felix Ploeger, Bernard Legras, Edward Charlesworth, Xiaolu Yan, Mohamadou Diallo, Paul Konopka, Thomas Birner, Mengchu Tao, Andreas Engel, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 6085–6105,Short summary
We analyse the change in the circulation of the middle atmosphere based on current generation meteorological reanalysis data sets. We find that long-term changes from 1989 to 2015 are similar for the chosen reanalyses, mainly resembling the forced response in climate model simulations to climate change. For shorter periods circulation changes are less robust, and the representation of decadal variability appears to be a major uncertainty for modelling the circulation of the middle atmosphere.
Sabine Robrecht, Bärbel Vogel, Jens-Uwe Grooß, Karen Rosenlof, Troy Thornberry, Andrew Rollins, Martina Krämer, Lance Christensen, and Rolf Müller
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 5805–5833,Short summary
The potential destruction of stratospheric ozone in the mid-latitudes has been discussed recently. We analysed this ozone loss mechanism and its sensitivities. In a certain temperature range, we found a threshold in water vapour, which has to be exceeded for ozone loss to occur. We show the dependence of this water vapour threshold on temperature, sulfate content and air composition. This study provides a basis to estimate the impact of potential sulphate geoengineering on stratospheric ozone.
Corinna Kloss, Marc von Hobe, Michael Höpfner, Kaley A. Walker, Martin Riese, Jörn Ungermann, Birgit Hassler, Stefanie Kremser, and Greg E. Bodeker
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 2129–2138,Short summary
Are regional and seasonal averages from only a few satellite measurements, all aligned along a specific path, representative? Probably not. We present a method to adjust for the so-called
sampling biasand investigate its influence on derived long-term trends. The method is illustrated and validated for a long-lived trace gas (carbonyl sulfide), and it is shown that the influence of the sampling bias is too small to change scientific conclusions on long-term trends.
Rolf Sander, Andreas Baumgaertner, David Cabrera-Perez, Franziska Frank, Sergey Gromov, Jens-Uwe Grooß, Hartwig Harder, Vincent Huijnen, Patrick Jöckel, Vlassis A. Karydis, Kyle E. Niemeyer, Andrea Pozzer, Hella Riede, Martin G. Schultz, Domenico Taraborrelli, and Sebastian Tauer
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 1365–1385,Short summary
We present the atmospheric chemistry box model CAABA/MECCA which now includes a number of new features: skeletal mechanism reduction, the MOM chemical mechanism for volatile organic compounds, an option to include reactions from the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM) and other chemical mechanisms, updated isotope tagging, improved and new photolysis modules, and the new feature of coexisting multiple chemistry mechanisms. CAABA/MECCA is a community model published under the GPL.
Lars Hoffmann, Gebhard Günther, Dan Li, Olaf Stein, Xue Wu, Sabine Griessbach, Yi Heng, Paul Konopka, Rolf Müller, Bärbel Vogel, and Jonathon S. Wright
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 3097–3124,Short summary
ECMWF's new ERA5 reanalysis provides higher spatiotemporal resolution, yielding an improved representation of meso- and synoptic-scale features of the atmosphere. We assessed the impact of this challenging new data set on Lagrangian trajectory calculations for the free troposphere and stratosphere. Key findings are considerable transport deviations between the ERA5 and ERA-Interim simulations as well as significantly improved conservation of potential temperature in the stratosphere for ERA5.
Meng Si, Erin Evoy, Jingwei Yun, Yu Xi, Sarah J. Hanna, Alina Chivulescu, Kevin Rawlings, Daniel Veber, Andrew Platt, Daniel Kunkel, Peter Hoor, Sangeeta Sharma, W. Richard Leaitch, and Allan K. Bertram
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 3007–3024,Short summary
We investigated the importance of mineral dust, sea spray aerosol, and anthropogenic aerosol to the ice-nucleating particle (INP) population in the Canadian Arctic during spring 2016. The results suggest that mineral dust transported from the Gobi Desert was a major source of the INP population studied, and that sea spray aerosol decreased the ice-nucleating ability of mineral dust. The results should be useful for testing and improving models used to predict INPs and climate in the Arctic.
Jonathan P. D. Abbatt, W. Richard Leaitch, Amir A. Aliabadi, Allan K. Bertram, Jean-Pierre Blanchet, Aude Boivin-Rioux, Heiko Bozem, Julia Burkart, Rachel Y. W. Chang, Joannie Charette, Jai P. Chaubey, Robert J. Christensen, Ana Cirisan, Douglas B. Collins, Betty Croft, Joelle Dionne, Greg J. Evans, Christopher G. Fletcher, Martí Galí, Roya Ghahreman, Eric Girard, Wanmin Gong, Michel Gosselin, Margaux Gourdal, Sarah J. Hanna, Hakase Hayashida, Andreas B. Herber, Sareh Hesaraki, Peter Hoor, Lin Huang, Rachel Hussherr, Victoria E. Irish, Setigui A. Keita, John K. Kodros, Franziska Köllner, Felicia Kolonjari, Daniel Kunkel, Luis A. Ladino, Kathy Law, Maurice Levasseur, Quentin Libois, John Liggio, Martine Lizotte, Katrina M. Macdonald, Rashed Mahmood, Randall V. Martin, Ryan H. Mason, Lisa A. Miller, Alexander Moravek, Eric Mortenson, Emma L. Mungall, Jennifer G. Murphy, Maryam Namazi, Ann-Lise Norman, Norman T. O'Neill, Jeffrey R. Pierce, Lynn M. Russell, Johannes Schneider, Hannes Schulz, Sangeeta Sharma, Meng Si, Ralf M. Staebler, Nadja S. Steiner, Jennie L. Thomas, Knut von Salzen, Jeremy J. B. Wentzell, Megan D. Willis, Gregory R. Wentworth, Jun-Wei Xu, and Jacqueline D. Yakobi-Hancock
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2527–2560,Short summary
The Arctic is experiencing considerable environmental change with climate warming, illustrated by the dramatic decrease in sea-ice extent. It is important to understand both the natural and perturbed Arctic systems to gain a better understanding of how they will change in the future. This paper summarizes new insights into the relationships between Arctic aerosol particles and climate, as learned over the past five or so years by a large Canadian research consortium, NETCARE.
Hannes Schulz, Marco Zanatta, Heiko Bozem, W. Richard Leaitch, Andreas B. Herber, Julia Burkart, Megan D. Willis, Daniel Kunkel, Peter M. Hoor, Jonathan P. D. Abbatt, and Rüdiger Gerdes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2361–2384,Short summary
Aircraft vertical profiles of black carbon (BC) aerosol from the High Canadian Arctic have shown systematic variability in different levels of the cold, stably stratified polar dome. During spring and summer, efficiencies of BC supply by transport (often from gas flaring and wildfire-affected regions) were different in the lower dome than at higher levels, as apparent from changes in mean particle size and mixing ratios with CO. Summer BC concentrations were a factor of 10 lower than in spring.
Aurélien Podglajen and Felix Ploeger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 1767–1783,Short summary
The age spectrum (distribution of transit times) provides a compact description of transport from the surface to a given point in the atmosphere. It also determines the surface-emitted tracer content of an air parcel. We propose a method to invert this relation in order to retrieve age spectra from tracer concentrations and demonstrate its feasibility in idealized and model setups. Applied to observations, the approach might help to better constrain atmospheric transport timescales.
Lukas Krasauskas, Jörn Ungermann, Stefan Ensmann, Isabell Krisch, Erik Kretschmer, Peter Preusse, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 853–872,Short summary
Many limb sounder measurements from the same atmospheric region taken at different angles can be combined into a 3-D tomographic image of the atmosphere. Mathematically, this is a complex, computationally expensive, underdetermined problem that needs additional constraints (regularisation). We introduce an improved regularisation method based on physical properties of the atmosphere with a new irregular grid implementation. Simulated data tests show improved results and lower computational cost.
Ines Tritscher, Jens-Uwe Grooß, Reinhold Spang, Michael C. Pitts, Lamont R. Poole, Rolf Müller, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 543–563,Short summary
We present Lagrangian simulations of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) for the Arctic winter 2009/2010 and the Antarctic winter 2011 using the Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere (CLaMS). The paper comprises a detailed model description with ice PSCs and related dehydration being the focus of this study. Comparisons between our simulations and observations from different satellites on season-long and vortex-wide scales as well as for single PSC events show an overall good agreement.
Mohamadou Diallo, Paul Konopka, Michelle L. Santee, Rolf Müller, Mengchu Tao, Kaley A. Walker, Bernard Legras, Martin Riese, Manfred Ern, and Felix Ploeger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 425–446,Short summary
This paper assesses the structural changes in the shallow and transition branches of the BDC induced by El Nino using the Lagrangian model simulations driven by ERAi and JRA-55 combined with MLS observations. We found a clear evidence of a weakening of the transition branch due to an upward shift in the dissipation height of the planetary and gravity waves and a strengthening of the shallow branch due to enhanced GW breaking in the tropics–subtropics and PW breaking at high latitudes.
Dan Li, Bärbel Vogel, Rolf Müller, Jianchun Bian, Gebhard Günther, Qian Li, Jinqiang Zhang, Zhixuan Bai, Holger Vömel, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17979–17994,Short summary
Balloon-borne measurements performed over Lhasa in August 2013 are investigated using CLaMS trajectory calculations. Here, we focus on high ozone mixing ratios in the free troposphere. Our findings demonstrate that both stratospheric intrusions and convective transport of air pollution play a major role in enhancing middle and upper tropospheric ozone.
Xue Wu, Sabine Griessbach, and Lars Hoffmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 15859–15877,Short summary
Volcanic aerosol is an important source of sulfur for Antarctica, where local sources of sulfur are rare. Midlatitude and high-latitude volcanism can directly influence the aerosol budget of the polar stratosphere, but tropical volcanic eruptions can also enhance polar aerosols by transport. Our study investigates pathway and transport processes of volcanic aerosol from the tropics to the lower stratosphere over Antarctica by combining Lagrangian transport simulation and satellite observations.
Annette Filges, Christoph Gerbig, Chris W. Rella, John Hoffnagle, Herman Smit, Martina Krämer, Nicole Spelten, Christian Rolf, Zoltán Bozóki, Bernhard Buchholz, and Volker Ebert
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 5279–5297,
Mohamadou Diallo, Martin Riese, Thomas Birner, Paul Konopka, Rolf Müller, Michaela I. Hegglin, Michelle L. Santee, Mark Baldwin, Bernard Legras, and Felix Ploeger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 13055–13073,Short summary
The unprecedented timing of an El Niño event aligned with the disrupted QBO in 2015–2016 caused a perturbation to the stratospheric circulation, affecting trace gases. This paper resolves the puzzling response of the lower stratospheric water vapor by showing that the QBO disruption reversed the lower stratosphere moistening triggered by the alignment of the El Niño event with a westerly QBO in early boreal winter.
Suvarna Fadnavis, Chaitri Roy, Rajib Chattopadhyay, Christopher E. Sioris, Alexandru Rap, Rolf Müller, K. Ravi Kumar, and Raghavan Krishnan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11493–11506,Short summary
Rapid industrialization, traffic growth and urbanization resulted in a significant increase in the tropospheric trace gases over Asia. There is global concern about rising levels of these trace gases. The monsoon convection transports these gases to the upper-level-anticyclone. In this study, we show transport of these gases to the extratropics via eddy-shedding from the anticyclone. We also deliberate on changes in ozone heating rates due to the transport of Asian trace gases.
Isabell Krisch, Jörn Ungermann, Peter Preusse, Erik Kretschmer, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 4327–4344,Short summary
Three-dimensional temperature measurements of the atmosphere are required to address current research questions concerning the propagation of gravity waves. Limited angle tomography (LAT) with measurements from an airborne infrared limb imager can provide such 3-D temperature measurements. Wave parameters derived from such LAT measurements achieve an accuracy similar to that derived from full angle tomography, if the orientation of the flight path is optimized with respect to the gravity wave.
Aurélien Chauvigné, Olivier Jourdan, Alfons Schwarzenboeck, Christophe Gourbeyre, Jean François Gayet, Christiane Voigt, Hans Schlager, Stefan Kaufmann, Stephan Borrmann, Sergej Molleker, Andreas Minikin, Tina Jurkat, and Ulrich Schumann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 9803–9822,Short summary
This paper demonstrates a new form of statistical analysis of contrail to cirrus evolution. The authors show well-separated analyses of the different stages of the contrail's evolution, which allows us to study their optical, microphysical, and chemical properties. These results could be used to develop representative parameterizations of the scattering and geometrical properties of the ice crystals’ shapes and sizes, observed in the visible wavelength range.
Armin Afchine, Christian Rolf, Anja Costa, Nicole Spelten, Martin Riese, Bernhard Buchholz, Volker Ebert, Romy Heller, Stefan Kaufmann, Andreas Minikin, Christiane Voigt, Martin Zöger, Jessica Smith, Paul Lawson, Alexey Lykov, Sergey Khaykin, and Martina Krämer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 4015–4031,Short summary
The ice water content (IWC) of cirrus clouds is an essential parameter that determines their radiative properties and is thus important for climate simulations. Experimental investigations of IWCs measured on board research aircraft reveal that their accuracy is influenced by the sampling position. IWCs detected at the aircraft roof deviate significantly from wing, side or bottom IWCs. The reasons are deflections of the gas streamlines and ice particle trajectories behind the aircraft cockpit.
Martin Kaufmann, Friedhelm Olschewski, Klaus Mantel, Brian Solheim, Gordon Shepherd, Michael Deiml, Jilin Liu, Rui Song, Qiuyu Chen, Oliver Wroblowski, Daikang Wei, Yajun Zhu, Friedrich Wagner, Florian Loosen, Denis Froehlich, Tom Neubert, Heinz Rongen, Peter Knieling, Panos Toumpas, Jinjun Shan, Geshi Tang, Ralf Koppmann, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 3861–3870,Short summary
The concept and optical layout of a limb sounder using a spatial heterodyne spectrometer is presented. The instrument fits onto a nano-satellite platform, such as a CubeSat. It is designed for the derivation of temperatures in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere. The design parameters of the optics and a radiometric assessment of the instrument as well as the main characterization and calibration steps are discussed.
Jens-Uwe Grooß, Rolf Müller, Reinhold Spang, Ines Tritscher, Tobias Wegner, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Wuhu Feng, Douglas E. Kinnison, and Sasha Madronich
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 8647–8666,Short summary
We investigate a discrepancy between model simulations and observations of HCl in the dark polar stratosphere. In early winter, the less-well-studied period of the onset of chlorine activation, observations show a much faster depletion of HCl than simulations of three models. This points to some unknown process that is currently not represented in the models. Various hypotheses for potential causes are investigated that partly reduce the discrepancy. The impact on polar ozone depletion is low.
Liubov Poshyvailo, Rolf Müller, Paul Konopka, Gebhard Günther, Martin Riese, Aurélien Podglajen, and Felix Ploeger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 8505–8527,Short summary
Water vapour (H2O) in the UTLS is a key player for global radiation, which is critical for predictions of future climate change. We investigate the effects of current uncertainties in tropopause temperature, horizontal transport and small-scale mixing on simulated H2O, using the Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere. Our sensitivity studies provide new insights into the leading processes controlling stratospheric H2O, important for assessing and improving climate model projections.
Stefan Lossow, Dale F. Hurst, Karen H. Rosenlof, Gabriele P. Stiller, Thomas von Clarmann, Sabine Brinkop, Martin Dameris, Patrick Jöckel, Doug E. Kinnison, Johannes Plieninger, David A. Plummer, Felix Ploeger, William G. Read, Ellis E. Remsberg, James M. Russell, and Mengchu Tao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 8331–8351,Short summary
Trend estimates of lower stratospheric H2O derived from the FPH observations at Boulder and a merged zonal mean satellite data set clearly differ for the time period from the late 1980s to 2010. We investigate if a sampling bias between Boulder and the zonal mean around the Boulder latitude can explain these trend discrepancies. Typically they are small and not sufficient to explain the trend discrepancies in the observational database.
Xiaolu Yan, Paul Konopka, Felix Ploeger, Mengchu Tao, Rolf Müller, Michelle L. Santee, Jianchun Bian, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 8079–8096,Short summary
Many works investigate the impact of ENSO on the troposphere. However, only a few works check the impact of ENSO at higher altitudes. Here, we analyse the impact of ENSO on the vicinity of the tropopause using reanalysis, satellite, in situ and model data. We find that ENSO shows the strongest signal in winter, but its impact can last until early the next summer. The ENSO anomaly is insignificant in late summer. Our study can help to understand the atmosphere propagation after ENSO.
Rui Song, Martin Kaufmann, Manfred Ern, Jörn Ungermann, Guang Liu, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 3161–3175,Short summary
In this paper, we propose a new observation strategy, called
sweep mode, for a real three-dimensional tomographic reconstruction of gravity waves in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere by modifying the observation geometry of conventional limb-sounding measurements. It enhances the horizontal resolution that typical limb sounders can achieve while at the same time retaining the good vertical resolution they have.
Jens Krause, Peter Hoor, Andreas Engel, Felix Plöger, Jens-Uwe Grooß, Harald Bönisch, Timo Keber, Björn-Martin Sinnhuber, Wolfgang Woiwode, and Hermann Oelhaf
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 6057–6073,Short summary
We present tracer measurements of CO and N2O measured during the POLSTRACC aircraft campaign in winter 2015–2016. We found enhanced CO values relative to N2O in the polar lower stratosphere in addition to the ageing of this region during winter. By using model simulations it was possible to link this enhancement to an increased mixing of the tropical tropopause. We thus conclude that the polar lower stratosphere in late winter is strongly influenced by quasi-isentropic mixing from the tropics.
Manfred Ern, Quang Thai Trinh, Peter Preusse, John C. Gille, Martin G. Mlynczak, James M. Russell III, and Martin Riese
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 857–892,Short summary
The gravity wave climatology based on atmospheric infrared limb emissions observed by satellite (GRACILE) is a global data set of gravity wave (GW) distributions in the stratosphere and the mesosphere observed by the infrared limb sounding satellite instruments HIRDLS and SABER. Typical distributions of multiple GW parameters are provided. Possible applications are scientific studies, comparison with other observations, or comparison with resolved or parametrized GW distributions in models.
Klaus-Dirk Gottschaldt, Hans Schlager, Robert Baumann, Duy Sinh Cai, Veronika Eyring, Phoebe Graf, Volker Grewe, Patrick Jöckel, Tina Jurkat-Witschas, Christiane Voigt, Andreas Zahn, and Helmut Ziereis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 5655–5675,Short summary
This study places aircraft trace gas measurements from within the Asian summer monsoon anticyclone into the context of regional, intra- and interannual variability. We find that the processes reflected in the measurements are present throughout multiple simulated monsoon seasons. Dynamical instabilities, photochemical ozone production, lightning and entrainments from the lower troposphere and from the tropopause region determine the distinct composition of the anticyclone and its outflow.
Reinhold Spang, Lars Hoffmann, Rolf Müller, Jens-Uwe Grooß, Ines Tritscher, Michael Höpfner, Michael Pitts, Andrew Orr, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 5089–5113,Short summary
This paper represents an unprecedented pole-covering day- and nighttime climatology of the polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) based on satellite measurements, their spatial distribution, and composition of different particle types. The climatology has a high potential for the validation and improvement of PSC schemes in chemical transport and chemistry–climate models, which is important for a better prediction of future polar ozone loss in a changing climate.
Quang Thai Trinh, Manfred Ern, Eelco Doornbos, Peter Preusse, and Martin Riese
Ann. Geophys., 36, 425–444,
Rolf Müller, Jens-Uwe Grooß, Abdul Mannan Zafar, Sabine Robrecht, and Ralph Lehmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2985–2997,Short summary
This paper revisits the chemistry leading to strong ozone depletion in the Antarctic. We focus on the heart of the ozone layer in the lowermost stratosphere in the core of the vortex. We argue that chemical cycles (referred to as HCl null cycles) that have hitherto been largely neglected counteract the deactivation of chlorine and are therefore key to ozone depletion in the core of the Antarctic vortex. The key process to full activation of chlorine is the photolysis of formaldehyde.
Christian Rolf, Bärbel Vogel, Peter Hoor, Armin Afchine, Gebhard Günther, Martina Krämer, Rolf Müller, Stefan Müller, Nicole Spelten, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2973–2983,Short summary
The Asian monsoon is a pronounced circulation system linked to rapid vertical transport of surface air from India and east Asia in the summer months. We found, based on aircraft measurements, higher concentration of water vapor in the lowermost stratosphere caused by the Asian monsoon. Enrichment of water vapor concentrations in the lowermost stratosphere impacts the radiation budget and thus climate. Understanding those variations in water vapor is important for climate projections.
Thomas Rößler, Olaf Stein, Yi Heng, Paul Baumeister, and Lars Hoffmann
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 575–592,Short summary
In this study, we performed an assessment of truncation errors and computational efficiency of trajectory calculations using six popular numerical integration schemes of the Runge–Kutta family. More than 5000 transport simulations for different seasons and regions of the free troposphere and stratosphere were conducted, driven by the latest version of ECMWF operational analyses and forecasts. The study provides guidelines to achieve the most accurate and efficient trajectory calculations.
Meinrat O. Andreae, Armin Afchine, Rachel Albrecht, Bruna Amorim Holanda, Paulo Artaxo, Henrique M. J. Barbosa, Stephan Borrmann, Micael A. Cecchini, Anja Costa, Maximilian Dollner, Daniel Fütterer, Emma Järvinen, Tina Jurkat, Thomas Klimach, Tobias Konemann, Christoph Knote, Martina Krämer, Trismono Krisna, Luiz A. T. Machado, Stephan Mertes, Andreas Minikin, Christopher Pöhlker, Mira L. Pöhlker, Ulrich Pöschl, Daniel Rosenfeld, Daniel Sauer, Hans Schlager, Martin Schnaiter, Johannes Schneider, Christiane Schulz, Antonio Spanu, Vinicius B. Sperling, Christiane Voigt, Adrian Walser, Jian Wang, Bernadett Weinzierl, Manfred Wendisch, and Helmut Ziereis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 921–961,Short summary
We made airborne measurements of aerosol particle concentrations and properties over the Amazon Basin. We found extremely high concentrations of very small particles in the region between 8 and 14 km altitude all across the basin, which had been recently formed by gas-to-particle conversion at these altitudes. This makes the upper troposphere a very important source region of atmospheric particles with significant implications for the Earth's climate system.
Hugh C. Pumphrey, Norbert Glatthor, Peter F. Bernath, Christopher D. Boone, James W. Hannigan, Ivan Ortega, Nathaniel J. Livesey, and William G. Read
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 691–703,Short summary
The Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) is a satellite instrument that has been measuring the amount of various gases in the atmosphere since 2004. In late 2015 and 2016 it observed unusual amounts of hydrogen cyanide (HCN), a gas produced when vegetation is burned. We compare the MLS observations to similar observations from other instruments. The excess HCN is shown to come from fires in Indonesia. There are more fires than usual in 2015–16 due to a drought caused by an El Niño event.
Antonio Chiarugi, Silvia Viciani, Francesco D'Amato, and Mike Burton
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 329–339,Short summary
Assessing emissions of volcanos has a three-fold importance: providing input for climate evolution models (CO2 is one of the major constituents of emissions), quantifying pollutant emissions (HCl, HF and SO2 are released in hundreds of tons/day) and monitoring the status of the magmatic chambers. For these purposes we realized gas analysers based on spectroscopic techniques, which must be sensitive, light and resistant to the emitted gases. This paper reports on the measurement of CO2 and HF.
Catrin I. Meyer, Manfred Ern, Lars Hoffmann, Quang Thai Trinh, and M. Joan Alexander
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 215–232,Short summary
We investigate stratospheric gravity wave observations by the Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) and the High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS). Waves seen by AIRS contribute significantly to momentum flux, which indicates a calculated momentum flux factor. AIRS and HIRDLS agree well in the phase structure of the wave events and also in the seasonal and latitudinal patterns of gravity wave activity and can be used complementary to each other.
Isabell Krisch, Peter Preusse, Jörn Ungermann, Andreas Dörnbrack, Stephen D. Eckermann, Manfred Ern, Felix Friedl-Vallon, Martin Kaufmann, Hermann Oelhaf, Markus Rapp, Cornelia Strube, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 14937–14953,Short summary
Using the infrared limb imager GLORIA, the 3-D structure of mesoscale gravity waves in the lower stratosphere was measured for the first time, allowing for a complete 3-D characterization of the waves. This enables the precise determination of the sources of the waves in the mountain regions of Iceland with backward ray tracing. Forward ray tracing shows oblique propagation, an effect generally neglected in global atmospheric models.
Romy Heller, Christiane Voigt, Stuart Beaton, Andreas Dörnbrack, Andreas Giez, Stefan Kaufmann, Christian Mallaun, Hans Schlager, Johannes Wagner, Kate Young, and Markus Rapp
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 14853–14869,
Rui Song, Martin Kaufmann, Jörn Ungermann, Manfred Ern, Guang Liu, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 4601–4612,Short summary
Gravity waves (GWs) play an important role in atmospheric dynamics. In this work, we propose a new observation strategy for GWs in the mesopause region by combining limb and sub-limb satellite-borne remote sensing measurements for improving the spatial resolution of temperatures that are retrieved from atmospheric soundings. It shows that one major advantage of this observation strategy is that much smaller-scale GWs can be observed.
Franziska Köllner, Johannes Schneider, Megan D. Willis, Thomas Klimach, Frank Helleis, Heiko Bozem, Daniel Kunkel, Peter Hoor, Julia Burkart, W. Richard Leaitch, Amir A. Aliabadi, Jonathan P. D. Abbatt, Andreas B. Herber, and Stephan Borrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 13747–13766,Short summary
We conducted aircraft-based single particle chemical composition measurements in the Canadian high Arctic during summer. Our results provide evidence for a marine-biogenic influence on secondary formation of particulate trimethylamine in the Arctic boundary layer. Understanding emission sources and further processes controlling aerosol number concentration and chemical composition in the pristine Arctic summer is crucial for modeling future climate in the area.
Xue Wu, Sabine Griessbach, and Lars Hoffmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 13439–13455,Short summary
This study is focused on the Sarychev eruption in 2009. Based on Lagrangian model simulations and satellite data, the equatorward transport of the plume and aerosol from the Sarychev eruption is confirmed, and the transport is facilitated by the Asian summer monsoon anticyclonic circulations. The aerosol transported to the tropics remained for months and dispersed upward, which could make the Sarychev eruption have a similar global climate impact as a tropical volcanic eruption.
Tilman Hüneke, Oliver-Alex Aderhold, Jannik Bounin, Marcel Dorf, Eric Gentry, Katja Grossmann, Jens-Uwe Grooß, Peter Hoor, Patrick Jöckel, Mareike Kenntner, Marvin Knapp, Matthias Knecht, Dominique Lörks, Sabrina Ludmann, Sigrun Matthes, Rasmus Raecke, Marcel Reichert, Jannis Weimar, Bodo Werner, Andreas Zahn, Helmut Ziereis, and Klaus Pfeilsticker
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 4209–4234,Short summary
This paper describes a novel instrument for the aircraft-borne remote sensing of trace gases and liquid and solid water. Until recently, such measurements could only be evaluated under clear-sky conditions. We present a characterization and error assessment of the novel "scaling method", which allows for the retrieval of absolute trace gas concentrations under all sky conditions, significantly expanding the applicability of such measurements to study atmospheric photochemistry.
Florian Berkes, Patrick Neis, Martin G. Schultz, Ulrich Bundke, Susanne Rohs, Herman G. J. Smit, Andreas Wahner, Paul Konopka, Damien Boulanger, Philippe Nédélec, Valerie Thouret, and Andreas Petzold
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 12495–12508,Short summary
This study highlights the importance of independent global measurements with high and long-term accuracy to quantify long-term changes, especially in the UTLS region, and to help identify inconsistencies between different data sets of observations and models. Here we investigated temperature trends over different regions within a climate-sensitive area of the atmosphere and demonstrated the value of the IAGOS temperature observations as an anchor point for the evaluation of reanalyses.
Katharina Schütze, James Charles Wilson, Stephan Weinbruch, Nathalie Benker, Martin Ebert, Gebhard Günther, Ralf Weigel, and Stephan Borrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 12475–12493,Short summary
Stratospheric particles were collected in the polar stratosphere in winter 1999/2000. Besides the well-studied volatile particles from that region, the main findings of this study are stable carbonaceous particles in the sub-micrometer size range. In addition to carbon, many particles show the elements Si, Fe, Cr and Ni to a minor amount. Based on exclusion, carbonaceous material from IDPs and residues from meteoric ablation and fragmentation remain as the most probable sources.
Anja Costa, Jessica Meyer, Armin Afchine, Anna Luebke, Gebhard Günther, James R. Dorsey, Martin W. Gallagher, Andre Ehrlich, Manfred Wendisch, Darrel Baumgardner, Heike Wex, and Martina Krämer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 12219–12238,Short summary
The paper presents 38 h of in situ cloud spectrometer observations of microphysical cloud properties in the Arctic, midlatitudes and tropics. The clouds are classified via particle concentrations, size distributions, and – as a novelty – small particle aspherical fractions. Cloud-type profiles are given for different temperatures and locations. The results confine regions where different cloud transformation processes occurred and emphasise the importance of small particle shape detection.
Marcus Klingebiel, André Ehrlich, Fanny Finger, Timo Röschenthaler, Suad Jakirlić, Matthias Voigt, Stefan Müller, Rolf Maser, Manfred Wendisch, Peter Hoor, Peter Spichtinger, and Stephan Borrmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 3485–3498,Short summary
Microphysical and radiation measurements were collected with the unique AIRcraft TOwed Sensor Shuttle (AIRTOSS) – Learjet tandem platform. It is a combination of a Learjet 35A research aircraft and an instrumented aerodynamic bird, which can be detached from and retracted back to the aircraft during flight. AIRTOSS and Learjet are equipped with radiative, cloud microphysical, trace gas, and meteorological instruments to study cirrus clouds.
Gabriele P. Stiller, Federico Fierli, Felix Ploeger, Chiara Cagnazzo, Bernd Funke, Florian J. Haenel, Thomas Reddmann, Martin Riese, and Thomas von Clarmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 11177–11192,Short summary
The discrepancy between modelled and observed 25-year trends of the strength of the stratospheric Brewer–Dobson circulation (BDC) is still not resolved. With our paper we trace the observed hemispheric dipole structure of age of air trends back to natural variability in shorter-term (decadal) time frames. Beyond this we demonstrate that after correction for the decadal natural variability the remaining trend for the first decade of the 21st century is consistent with model simulations.
Jean-Christophe Raut, Louis Marelle, Jerome D. Fast, Jennie L. Thomas, Bernadett Weinzierl, Katharine S. Law, Larry K. Berg, Anke Roiger, Richard C. Easter, Katharina Heimerl, Tatsuo Onishi, Julien Delanoë, and Hans Schlager
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 10969–10995,Short summary
We study the cross-polar transport of plumes from Siberian fires to the Arctic in summer, both in terms of transport pathways and efficiency of deposition processes. Those plumes containing soot may originate from anthropogenic and biomass burning sources in mid-latitude regions and may impact the Arctic climate by depositing on snow and ice surfaces. We evaluate the role of the respective source contributions, investigate the transport of plumes and treat pathway-dependent removal of particles.
Corwin J. Wright, Neil P. Hindley, Lars Hoffmann, M. Joan Alexander, and Nicholas J. Mitchell
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 8553–8575,Short summary
We introduce a novel 3-D method of measuring atmospheric gravity waves, based around a 3-D Stockwell transform. Our method lets us measure new properties, including wave intrinsic frequencies and phase and group velocities. We apply it to data from the AIRS satellite instrument over the Southern Andes for two consecutive winters. Our results show clear evidence that the waves measured are primarily orographic in origin, and that their group velocity vectors are focused into the polar night jet.
Andrea Mues, Maheswar Rupakheti, Christoph Münkel, Axel Lauer, Heiko Bozem, Peter Hoor, Tim Butler, and Mark G. Lawrence
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 8157–8176,Short summary
Ceilometer measurements taken in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal, were used to study the temporal and spatial evolution of the mixing layer height in the valley. This provides important information on the vertical structure of the atmosphere and can thus also help to understand the mixing of air pollutants (e.g. black carbon) in the valley. The seasonal and diurnal cycles of the mixing layer were found to be highly dependent on meteorology and mainly anticorrelated to black carbon concentrations.
Lars Hoffmann, Albert Hertzog, Thomas Rößler, Olaf Stein, and Xue Wu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 8045–8061,Short summary
We present an intercomparison of temperatures and horizontal winds of five meteorological data sets (ECMWF operational analysis, ERA-Interim, MERRA, MERRA-2, and NCEP/NCAR) in the Antarctic lower stratosphere. The assessment is based on 19 superpressure balloon flights during the Concordiasi field campaign in September 2010 to January 2011. The balloon data are used to successfully validate trajectory calculations with the new Lagrangian particle dispersion model MPTRAC.
Simone Dietmüller, Hella Garny, Felix Plöger, Patrick Jöckel, and Duy Cai
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 7703–7719,
Felix Ploeger, Paul Konopka, Kaley Walker, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 7055–7066,Short summary
Pollution transport from the surface to the stratosphere within the Asian summer monsoon circulation may cause harmful effects on stratospheric chemistry and climate. We investigate air mass transport from the monsoon anticyclone into the stratosphere, combining model simulations with satellite trace gas measurements. We show evidence for two transport pathways from the monsoon: (i) into the tropical stratosphere and (ii) into the Northern Hemisphere extratropical lower stratosphere.
Klaus-D. Gottschaldt, Hans Schlager, Robert Baumann, Heiko Bozem, Veronika Eyring, Peter Hoor, Patrick Jöckel, Tina Jurkat, Christiane Voigt, Andreas Zahn, and Helmut Ziereis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 6091–6111,Short summary
We present upper-tropospheric trace gas measurements in the Asian summer monsoon anticyclone, obtained with the HALO research aircraft in September 2012. The anticyclone is one of the largest atmospheric features on Earth, but many aspects of it are not well understood. With the help of model simulations we find that entrainments from the tropopause region and the lower troposphere, combined with photochemistry and dynamical instabilities, can explain the observations.
Julia Burkart, Megan D. Willis, Heiko Bozem, Jennie L. Thomas, Kathy Law, Peter Hoor, Amir A. Aliabadi, Franziska Köllner, Johannes Schneider, Andreas Herber, Jonathan P. D. Abbatt, and W. Richard Leaitch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 5515–5535,Short summary
Our aircraft study for the first time systematically investigates aerosol size distributions, including ultrafine particles (5–20 nm in diameter), in the Arctic summertime atmosphere. We find that ultrafine particles occur very frequently in the boundary layer and not aloft, suggesting a surface source of these particles. Understanding aerosol properties and sources is crucial to predict climate and especially important in the Arctic as this region responds extremely fast to climate change.
Dan Li, Bärbel Vogel, Jianchun Bian, Rolf Müller, Laura L. Pan, Gebhard Günther, Zhixuan Bai, Qian Li, Jinqiang Zhang, Qiujun Fan, and Holger Vömel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 4657–4672,Short summary
High-resolution ozone and water vapour profiles over Lhasa, China, were measured in August 2013. The correlations between ozone and water vapour profiles show a strong variability in the upper troposphere. These relationships were investigated using CLaMS trajectory calculations. The model results demonstrate that three tropical cyclones (Jebi, Utor, and Trami), occurring over the western Pacific, had a strong impact on the vertical structure of ozone and water vapour profiles.
Bin Chen, Bärbel Vogel, Xiangde Xu, and Shuai Yang
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript has not been submittedShort summary
The Asian summer monsoon anticyclone is associated with a region in which surface emissions have been shown to enter the lower stratosphere in the Northern Hemisphe.We quantitatively characterized the properties of troposphere-to-stratosophere transport in term of the climatological sources and its variability in sub-seasoanal scale. This is the first attempt to examine the spatiotemporal evolution of convection sources at the sub-seasonal scale, particularly from a climatologic perspective.
Johannes Wagner, Andreas Dörnbrack, Markus Rapp, Sonja Gisinger, Benedikt Ehard, Martina Bramberger, Benjamin Witschas, Fernando Chouza, Stephan Rahm, Christian Mallaun, Gerd Baumgarten, and Peter Hoor
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 4031–4052,
Lars Hoffmann, Reinhold Spang, Andrew Orr, M. Joan Alexander, Laura A. Holt, and Olaf Stein
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 2901–2920,Short summary
We introduce a 10-year record (2003–2012) of AIRS/Aqua observations of gravity waves in the polar lower stratosphere. The data set was optimized to study the impact of gravity waves on the formation of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs). We discuss the temporal and spatial patterns of gravity wave activity, validate explicitly resolved small-scale temperature fluctuations in the ECMWF data, and present a survey of gravity-wave-induced PSC formation events using joint AIRS and MIPAS observations.
Ulrich Schumann, Christoph Kiemle, Hans Schlager, Ralf Weigel, Stephan Borrmann, Francesco D'Amato, Martina Krämer, Renaud Matthey, Alain Protat, Christiane Voigt, and C. Michael Volk
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 2311–2346,Short summary
A long-lived (1 h) contrail and overshooting convection were observed in the tropics, near Darwin, Australia. The data are used to study the contrail life cycle at low temperatures and cirrus from deep overturning convection in the lower tropical stratosphere. Airborne in situ, lidar, profiler, radar, and satellite data, as well as a photo, are used to distinguish contrail cirrus from convective cirrus and to study the origin of the observed ice and aerosol, up to 2.3 km above the tropopause.
Chaitri Roy, Suvarna Fadnavis, Rolf Müller, D. C. Ayantika, Felix Ploeger, and Alexandru Rap
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 1297–1311,Short summary
In the monsoon season, Asian NOx emissions are rapidly transported to the UTLS and can impact ozone in the UTLS. From chemistry–climate model simulations, we show that increasing Asian NOx emissions have enhanced ozone radiative forcing over Southeast Asia, which leads to significant warming over the Tibetan Plateau and increase precipitation over India. However, a further increase in NOx emissions elicited negative precipitation due to reversal of monsoon Hadley circulation.
Ulrich Schumann, Robert Baumann, Darrel Baumgardner, Sarah T. Bedka, David P. Duda, Volker Freudenthaler, Jean-Francois Gayet, Andrew J. Heymsfield, Patrick Minnis, Markus Quante, Ehrhard Raschke, Hans Schlager, Margarita Vázquez-Navarro, Christiane Voigt, and Zhien Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 403–438,Short summary
The initially linear clouds often seen behind aircraft are known as contrails. Contrails are prototype cirrus clouds forming under well-known conditions, but with less certain life cycle and climate effects. This paper collects contrail data from a large set of measurements and compares them among each other and with models. The observations show consistent contrail properties over a wide range of aircraft and atmosphere conditions. The dataset is available for further research.
Bärbel Vogel, Gebhard Günther, Rolf Müller, Jens-Uwe Grooß, Armin Afchine, Heiko Bozem, Peter Hoor, Martina Krämer, Stefan Müller, Martin Riese, Christian Rolf, Nicole Spelten, Gabriele P. Stiller, Jörn Ungermann, and Andreas Zahn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 15301–15325,Short summary
The identification of transport pathways from the Asian monsoon anticyclone into the lower stratosphere is unclear. Global simulations with the CLaMS model demonstrate that source regions in Asia and in the Pacific Ocean have a significant impact on the chemical composition of the lower stratosphere of the Northern Hemisphere by flooding the extratropical lower stratosphere with young moist air masses. Two main horizontal transport pathways from the Asian monsoon anticyclone are identified.
Gerard Ancellet, Nikos Daskalakis, Jean Christophe Raut, David Tarasick, Jonathan Hair, Boris Quennehen, François Ravetta, Hans Schlager, Andrew J. Weinheimer, Anne M. Thompson, Bryan Johnson, Jennie L. Thomas, and Katharine S. Law
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 13341–13358,Short summary
An integrated analysis of all the ozone observations (lidar, sondes, and airborne in situ measurements) conducted during the 2008 IPY campaigns is performed and the processes that determine summer ozone concentrations over Greenland and Canada are discussed. Combined with a regional model simulation (WRFChem), the analysis of ozone, CO, and PV latitudinal and vertical variability allows the determination of the influence of stratospheric sources and biomass burning and anthropogenic emissions.
Sergey M. Khaykin, Jean-Pierre Pommereau, Emmanuel D. Riviere, Gerhard Held, Felix Ploeger, Melanie Ghysels, Nadir Amarouche, Jean-Paul Vernier, Frank G. Wienhold, and Dmitry Ionov
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 12273–12286,Short summary
The study makes use of a series of field experiments conducted in Brazil and aimed at studying the processes controlling the composition of the tropical lower stratosphere. High-resolution balloon-borne measurements together with global-coverage satellite observations and weather radar acquisitions are analysed using trajectory and transport modelling in order to evaluate the contribution of different transport pathways to the stratospheric water budget.
W. Richard Leaitch, Alexei Korolev, Amir A. Aliabadi, Julia Burkart, Megan D. Willis, Jonathan P. D. Abbatt, Heiko Bozem, Peter Hoor, Franziska Köllner, Johannes Schneider, Andreas Herber, Christian Konrad, and Ralf Brauner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11107–11124,Short summary
Thought to be mostly unimportant for summertime Arctic liquid-water clouds, airborne observations show that atmospheric aerosol particles 50 nm in diameter or smaller and most likely from natural sources are often involved in cloud formation in the pristine Arctic summer. The result expands the reference for aerosol forcing of climate. Further, for extremely low droplet concentrations, no evidence is found for a connection between cloud liquid water and aerosol particle concentrations.
Sabine Griessbach, Lars Hoffmann, Reinhold Spang, Marc von Hobe, Rolf Müller, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 4399–4423,Short summary
A new method for detecting aerosol in the UTLS based on infrared limb emission measurements is presented. The method was developed using radiative transfer simulations (including scattering) and Envisat MIPAS measurements. Results are presented for volcanic ash and sulfate aerosol originating from the Grimsvötn (Iceland), Puyehue–Cordon Caulle (Chile), and Nabro (Eritrea) eruptions in 2011 and compared with AIRS volcanic ash and SO2 measurements.
Stefan Müller, Peter Hoor, Heiko Bozem, Ellen Gute, Bärbel Vogel, Andreas Zahn, Harald Bönisch, Timo Keber, Martina Krämer, Christian Rolf, Martin Riese, Hans Schlager, and Andreas Engel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 10573–10589,Short summary
In situ airborne measurements performed during TACTS/ESMVal 2012 were analysed to investigate the chemical compostion of the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. N2O, CO and O3 data show an increase in tropospherically affected air masses within the extratropical stratosphere from August to September 2012, which originate from the Asian monsoon region. Thus, the Asian monsoon anticyclone significantly affected the chemical composition of the extratropical stratosphere during summer 2012.
Felix Ploeger and Thomas Birner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 10195–10213,Short summary
We investigate the aging of air in the stratosphere caused by transport due to Brewer's circulation, using the Boundary Impulse Evolving Response (BIER) method. The age spectra show multiple peaks caused by the seasonal and inter-annual variations of transport. The modal age is controlled by the residual circulation in the tropics and winter hemisphere extratropics and by mixing in the summer hemisphere. Analysis of the full age spectrum is strongly recommended for model inter-comparisons.
Reinhold Spang, Lars Hoffmann, Michael Höpfner, Sabine Griessbach, Rolf Müller, Michael C. Pitts, Andrew M. W. Orr, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 3619–3639,Short summary
We present a new classification approach for different polar stratospheric cloud types. The so-called Bayesian classifier estimates the most likely probability that one of the three PSC types (ice, NAT, or STS) dominates the characteristics of a measured infrared spectrum. The entire measurement period of the satellite instrument MIPAS from July 2002 to April 2013 is processed using the new classifier.
Manfred Ern, Quang Thai Trinh, Martin Kaufmann, Isabell Krisch, Peter Preusse, Jörn Ungermann, Yajun Zhu, John C. Gille, Martin G. Mlynczak, James M. Russell III, Michael J. Schwartz, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 9983–10019,Short summary
Sudden stratospheric warmings (SSWs) influence the atmospheric circulation over a large range of altitudes and latitudes. We investigate the global distribution of small-scale gravity waves (GWs) during SSWs as derived from 13 years of satellite observations. We find that GWs may play an important role for triggering SSWs by preconditioning the polar vortex, as well as during long-lasting vortex recovery phases after SSWs. The GW distribution during SSWs displays strong day-to-day variability.
Wolfgang Woiwode, Michael Höpfner, Lei Bi, Michael C. Pitts, Lamont R. Poole, Hermann Oelhaf, Sergej Molleker, Stephan Borrmann, Marcus Klingebiel, Gennady Belyaev, Andreas Ebersoldt, Sabine Griessbach, Jens-Uwe Grooß, Thomas Gulde, Martina Krämer, Guido Maucher, Christof Piesch, Christian Rolf, Christian Sartorius, Reinhold Spang, and Johannes Orphal
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 9505–9532,Short summary
The analysis of spectral signatures of a polar stratospheric cloud in airborne infrared remote sensing observations in the Arctic in combination with further collocated measurements supports the view that the observed cloud consisted of highly aspherical nitric acid trihydrate particles. A characteristic "shoulder-like" spectral signature may be exploited for identification of large, highly aspherical nitric acid trihydrate particles involved in denitrification of the polar winter stratosphere.
Lars Hoffmann, Alison W. Grimsdell, and M. Joan Alexander
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 9381–9397,Short summary
We present a 12-year record (2003-2014) of stratospheric gravity wave activity at Southern Hemisphere orographic hotspots as observed by the AIRS/Aqua satellite instrument. We introduce a method to discriminate between gravity waves from orographic or other sources and propose a simple model to predict the occurrence of mountain waves using zonal wind thresholds. The prediction model can help to disentangle upper level wind effects from low level source and other influences.
David A. Newnham, George P. Ford, Tracy Moffat-Griffin, and Hugh C. Pumphrey
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 3309–3323,Short summary
We demonstrate the feasibility of measuring polar atmospheric winds over the altitude range 23–97 km using ground-based millimetre-wave Doppler radiometry. Atmospheric and instrument simulations were carried out for Halley station, Antarctica. This remote sensing technique will provide continuous horizontal wind observations in the stratosphere and mesosphere where measurements are currently very limited. The data are needed for meteorological analyses and atmospheric modelling applications.
Jörn Ungermann, Mandfred Ern, Martin Kaufmann, Rolf Müller, Reinhold Spang, Felix Ploeger, Bärbel Vogel, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 8389–8403,Short summary
This paper presents an analysis of temperature and the trace gases PAN and O3 in the Asian Summer Monsoon (ASM) region. The positive PAN anomaly consisting of polluted air is confined vertically within the main ASM anticyclone, whereas a recently shed eddy exhibits enhanced PAN VMRs for 1 to 2 km above the thermal tropopause. This implies that eddy shedding provides a very rapid horizontal transport pathway of Asian pollution into the extratropical lowermost stratosphere.
Martin Ebert, Ralf Weigel, Konrad Kandler, Gebhard Günther, Sergej Molleker, Jens-Uwe Grooß, Bärbel Vogel, Stephan Weinbruch, and Stephan Borrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 8405–8421,Short summary
Stratospheric aerosol particles were collected within the arctic vortex in late winter. The chemical composition of refractory particles were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. More than 750 refractory particles with diameters above 500 nm were found consisting of silicates, Fe- and Ca-rich particles and metal mixtures. The detection of refractory particles in the late winter polar stratosphere has strong implications for the formation of polar stratospheric clouds and ozone depletion.
Amir A. Aliabadi, Jennie L. Thomas, Andreas B. Herber, Ralf M. Staebler, W. Richard Leaitch, Hannes Schulz, Kathy S. Law, Louis Marelle, Julia Burkart, Megan D. Willis, Heiko Bozem, Peter M. Hoor, Franziska Köllner, Johannes Schneider, Maurice Levasseur, and Jonathan P. D. Abbatt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 7899–7916,Short summary
For the first time, ship emissions of an ice-breaker, the Amundsen, is characterized while breaking ice in the Canadian Arctic using the plume intercepts by the Polar 6 aircraft. The study is novel, estimating lower plume expansion rates over the stable Arctic marine boundary layer and different emissions factors for oxides of nitrogen, black carbon, and carbon monoxide, compared to plume intercept studies in mid latitudes. These results can inform policy making and emission inventory datasets.
Megan D. Willis, Julia Burkart, Jennie L. Thomas, Franziska Köllner, Johannes Schneider, Heiko Bozem, Peter M. Hoor, Amir A. Aliabadi, Hannes Schulz, Andreas B. Herber, W. Richard Leaitch, and Jonathan P. D. Abbatt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 7663–7679,Short summary
We present a case study focused on an aerosol growth event observed in the Canadian High Arctic during summer. Using measurements of aerosol chemical and physical properties we find evidence for aerosol growth into cloud condensation nuclei-active sizes, through marine-influenced secondary organic aerosol formation. Understanding the mechanisms that control the formation and growth of aerosol is crucial for our ability to predict cloud properties, and therefore radiative balance and climate.
Quang Thai Trinh, Silvio Kalisch, Peter Preusse, Manfred Ern, Hye-Yeong Chun, Stephen D. Eckermann, Min-Jee Kang, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 7335–7356,Short summary
Convection is an important source of atmospheric gravity waves (GWs). In this work, scales of convective GWs seen by limb sounders were first defined based on observed spectral information. Interactions of these waves with the background were considered. Long-scale convective GWs addressed by this approach showed significant importance in driving the QBO. Zonal mean of GW momentum flux and its vertical gradients are in good agreement with respective observations provided by limb sounders.
Charlotte Marinke Hoppe, Felix Ploeger, Paul Konopka, and Rolf Müller
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 6223–6239,
Florian Berkes, Peter Hoor, Heiko Bozem, Daniel Kunkel, Michael Sprenger, and Stephan Henne
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 6011–6025,Short summary
We presented airborne measurements of CO2 and O3 across the entrainment zone over a semi-remote environment in southwestern Germany in late summer 2011 . For the first time CO2 and O3 were used as tracer to identify mixing through this transport barrier. We demonstrated that the tracer--tracer correlation of CO2 and O3 is a powerful tool to identify entrainment and mixing.
Anna E. Luebke, Armin Afchine, Anja Costa, Jens-Uwe Grooß, Jessica Meyer, Christian Rolf, Nicole Spelten, Linnea M. Avallone, Darrel Baumgardner, and Martina Krämer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 5793–5809,Short summary
In this study, we present observational evidence to show that two distinct types of cirrus clouds exist – in situ origin and liquid origin cirrus. These two types differ by their formation mechanism and other properties. Airborne, in-cloud measurements of cloud ice water content (IWC), ice crystal concentration (Nice), and ice crystal size from the 2014 ML-CIRRUS campaign provide cloud samples that have been divided and analyzed according to their origin type.
Yi Heng, Lars Hoffmann, Sabine Griessbach, Thomas Rößler, and Olaf Stein
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 1627–1645,Short summary
A new inverse modeling and simulation system is developed to enable efficient and reliable transport simulations of volcanic SO2 at large scale. The complex time- and altitude-dependent volcanic emission pattern of the Nabro eruption is identified by our inversion algorithm. The simulation results show good agreements with different satellite observations in terms of SO2 horizontal distributions, and help to further reveal the complex transport processes such as the Asian monsoon circulation.
N. Sobanski, M. J. Tang, J. Thieser, G. Schuster, D. Pöhler, H. Fischer, W. Song, C. Sauvage, J. Williams, J. Fachinger, F. Berkes, P. Hoor, U. Platt, J. Lelieveld, and J. N. Crowley
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 4867–4883,Short summary
The nitrate radical (NO3) is an important nocturnal oxidant. By measuring NO3, its precursors (nitrogen dioxide and ozone) and several trace gases with which it reacts, we examined the chemical and meteorological factors influencing the lifetime of NO3 at a semi-rural mountain site. Unexpectedly long lifetimes, approaching 1 h, were observed on several nights and were associated with a low-lying residual layer. We discuss the role of other reactions that convert NO2 to NO3.
Tobias Wegner, Michael C. Pitts, Lamont R. Poole, Ines Tritscher, Jens-Uwe Grooß, and Hideaki Nakajima
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 4569–4577,Short summary
Satellite observations are used to constrain areas with large backscatter values areas inside the polar vortex. Surface area is derived from these observations and used in heterogeneous modeling. Satellite gas species observations show a decrease in HCl downwind of areas with large surface area density indicating heterogeneous processing inside these areas. This decrease can only be simulated if a realistic surface area is assumed demonstrating the importance of polar stratospheric cloud.
Martina Krämer, Christian Rolf, Anna Luebke, Armin Afchine, Nicole Spelten, Anja Costa, Jessica Meyer, Martin Zöger, Jessica Smith, Robert L. Herman, Bernhard Buchholz, Volker Ebert, Darrel Baumgardner, Stephan Borrmann, Marcus Klingebiel, and Linnea Avallone
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 3463–3483,Short summary
A guide to cirrus clouds is compiled from extensive model simulations and aircraft observations. Two types of cirrus are found: rather thin in situ cirrus that form directly as ice and thicker liquid origin cirrus consisting of uplifted frozen liquid drops. Over Europe, thinner in situ and liquid origin cirrus occur often together with frontal systems, while over the US and the Tropics, thick liquid origin cirrus formed in large convective systems are detected more frequently.
Louis Marelle, Jennie L. Thomas, Jean-Christophe Raut, Kathy S. Law, Jukka-Pekka Jalkanen, Lasse Johansson, Anke Roiger, Hans Schlager, Jin Kim, Anja Reiter, and Bernadett Weinzierl
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2359–2379,
D. Kunkel, P. Hoor, and V. Wirth
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 541–560,Short summary
By conducting various simulations of dry and moist baroclinic life cycles, we aimed to improve the understanding of whether dynamical or diabatic processes are more relevant to form a tropopause inversion layer at midlatitudes. Most importantly, our experiments highlighted the role of different moisture related processes for the formation and evolution of the tropopause inversion layer with varying relevance and strength in different phases of the baroclinic life cycles.
K. Weigel, A. Rozanov, F. Azam, K. Bramstedt, R. Damadeo, K.-U. Eichmann, C. Gebhardt, D. Hurst, M. Kraemer, S. Lossow, W. Read, N. Spelten, G. P. Stiller, K. A. Walker, M. Weber, H. Bovensmann, and J. P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 133–158,Short summary
The SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY) aboard the Envisat satellite provided measurements between 2002 and 2012 with different viewing geometries. The limb viewing geometry allows the retrieval of water vapour profiles in the UTLS (upper troposphere and lower stratosphere) from the near-infrared spectral range (1353–1410 nm). Here, we present data version 3.01 and compare it to other water vapour data.
Christiane Hofmann, Astrid Kerkweg, Peter Hoor, and Patrick Jöckel
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
Ozone enhancements at the surface, caused by descending stratospheric air masses along deep tropopause folds, can be reproduced using the model system MECO(n). It is shown that stratosphere-troposphere-exchange (STE) in the vicinity of a tropopause fold occurs in regions of turbulence and diabatic processes. The efﬁciency of mixing is quantiﬁed, showing that almost all of the air masses originating in the tropopause fold are transported into the troposphere during the following two days.
B. Vogel, G. Günther, R. Müller, J.-U. Grooß, and M. Riese
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 13699–13716,Short summary
The Asian summer monsoon circulation is an important global circulation system associated with strong upward transport of tropospheric source gases. We show that the contribution of different boundary source regions to the Asian monsoon anticyclone strongly depends on its intra-seasonal variability and that emissions from Asia have a significant impact on the chemical compositions of the lowermost stratosphere of the Northern Hemisphere at the end of the monsoon season in Sep./Oct. 2012.
F. Ploeger, C. Gottschling, S. Griessbach, J.-U. Grooß, G. Guenther, P. Konopka, R. Müller, M. Riese, F. Stroh, M. Tao, J. Ungermann, B. Vogel, and M. von Hobe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 13145–13159,Short summary
The Asian summer monsoon provides an important pathway of tropospheric source gases and pollution into the lower stratosphere. This transport is characterized by deep convection and steady upwelling, combined with confinement inside a large-scale anticyclonic circulation in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. In this paper, we show that a barrier to horizontal transport in the monsoon can be determined from a local maximum in the gradient of potential vorticity.
C. Rolf, A. Afchine, H. Bozem, B. Buchholz, V. Ebert, T. Guggenmoser, P. Hoor, P. Konopka, E. Kretschmer, S. Müller, H. Schlager, N. Spelten, O. Sumińska-Ebersoldt, J. Ungermann, A. Zahn, and M. Krämer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 9143–9158,
T. Guggenmoser, J. Blank, A. Kleinert, T. Latzko, J. Ungermann, F. Friedl-Vallon, M. Höpfner, M. Kaufmann, E. Kretschmer, G. Maucher, T. Neubert, H. Oelhaf, P. Preusse, M. Riese, H. Rongen, M. K. Sha, O. Sumińska-Ebersoldt, and V. Tan
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 3147–3161,Short summary
The plane-carried Gimballed Limb Observer for Radiance Imaging of the Atmosphere (GLORIA) measures the thermal radiation emitted by gases and particles in the atmosphere, in a height range of about 5-20 km. In between these measurements, GLORIA is pointed at known radiation sources for calibration. Noise in these calibration measurements can lead to artefacts in the final products. In this paper, we present new techniques which exploit GLORIA's imaging capabilities to reduce these noise effects.
M. Tao, P. Konopka, F. Ploeger, J.-U. Grooß, R. Müller, C. M. Volk, K. A. Walker, and M. Riese
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 8695–8715,Short summary
A remarkable major stratospheric sudden warming during the boreal winter 2008/09 is studied with the Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere (CLaMS). We investigate how mixing triggered by this event correlates the wave forcing and how transport and mixing affect the composition of the whole stratosphere in the Northern Hemisphere, by using the tracer-tracer correlation technique.
J. Meyer, C. Rolf, C. Schiller, S. Rohs, N. Spelten, A. Afchine, M. Zöger, N. Sitnikov, T. D. Thornberry, A. W. Rollins, Z. Bozóki, D. Tátrai, V. Ebert, B. Kühnreich, P. Mackrodt, O. Möhler, H. Saathoff, K. H. Rosenlof, and M. Krämer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 8521–8538,
M. Höpfner, C. D. Boone, B. Funke, N. Glatthor, U. Grabowski, A. Günther, S. Kellmann, M. Kiefer, A. Linden, S. Lossow, H. C. Pumphrey, W. G. Read, A. Roiger, G. Stiller, H. Schlager, T. von Clarmann, and K. Wissmüller
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 7017–7037,
W. Woiwode, O. Sumińska-Ebersoldt, H. Oelhaf, M. Höpfner, G. V. Belyaev, A. Ebersoldt, F. Friedl-Vallon, J.-U. Grooß, T. Gulde, M. Kaufmann, A. Kleinert, M. Krämer, E. Kretschmer, T. Kulessa, G. Maucher, T. Neubert, C. Piesch, P. Preusse, M. Riese, H. Rongen, C. Sartorius, G. Schardt, A. Schönfeld, D. Schuettemeyer, M. K. Sha, F. Stroh, J. Ungermann, C. M. Volk, and J. Orphal
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 2509–2520,
J. Ungermann, J. Blank, M. Dick, A. Ebersoldt, F. Friedl-Vallon, A. Giez, T. Guggenmoser, M. Höpfner, T. Jurkat, M. Kaufmann, S. Kaufmann, A. Kleinert, M. Krämer, T. Latzko, H. Oelhaf, F. Olchewski, P. Preusse, C. Rolf, J. Schillings, O. Suminska-Ebersoldt, V. Tan, N. Thomas, C. Voigt, A. Zahn, M. Zöger, and M. Riese
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 2473–2489,Short summary
The GLORIA sounder is an airborne infrared limb-imager combining a two-dimensional infrared detector with a Fourier transform spectrometer. It was operated aboard the new German Gulfstream G550 research aircraft HALO during the TACTS and ESMVAL campaigns in summer 2012. This paper describes the retrieval of temperature, as well as H2O, HNO3, and O3 cross sections from GLORIA dynamics mode spectra. A high correlation is achieved between the remote sensing and the in situ trace gas measurements.
W. Frey, R. Schofield, P. Hoor, D. Kunkel, F. Ravegnani, A. Ulanovsky, S. Viciani, F. D'Amato, and T. P. Lane
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 6467–6486,Short summary
This study examines the simulated downward transport and mixing of stratospheric air into the upper tropical troposphere as observed on a research flight during the SCOUT-O3 campaign in connection with a deep convective system, using the WRF model. Passive tracers are initialised to study the impact of the deep convection on the tracers and water vapour. We use the model to explain the processes causing the transport and also expose areas of inconsistencies between the model and observations.
M. Ern, P. Preusse, and M. Riese
Ann. Geophys., 33, 483–504,Short summary
The forcings of the semiannual oscillation (SAO) of the tropical zonal wind in the stratopause region are investigated based on ERA-Interim reanalysis and HIRDLS satellite observations. In particular, the SAO driving by mesoscale gravity waves is estimated directly from satellite observations of gravity waves. Our study confirms previous indirect evidence that planetary waves dominate during the westward driving of the SAO, while gravity waves mainly provide eastward forcing.
S. A. Monks, S. R. Arnold, L. K. Emmons, K. S. Law, S. Turquety, B. N. Duncan, J. Flemming, V. Huijnen, S. Tilmes, J. Langner, J. Mao, Y. Long, J. L. Thomas, S. D. Steenrod, J. C. Raut, C. Wilson, M. P. Chipperfield, G. S. Diskin, A. Weinheimer, H. Schlager, and G. Ancellet
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3575–3603,Short summary
Multi-model simulations of Arctic CO, O3 and OH are evaluated using observations. Models show highly variable concentrations but the relative importance of emission regions and types is robust across the models, demonstrating the importance of biomass burning as a source. Idealised tracer experiments suggest that some of the model spread is due to variations in simulated transport from Europe in winter and from Asia throughout the year.
Q. T. Trinh, S. Kalisch, P. Preusse, H.-Y. Chun, S. D. Eckermann, M. Ern, and M. Riese
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 1491–1517,
P. Neis, H. G. J. Smit, M. Krämer, N. Spelten, and A. Petzold
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 1233–1243,
O. Kirner, R. Müller, R. Ruhnke, and H. Fischer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 2019–2030,Short summary
We use multi-year simulations of the chemistry--climate model EMAC to investigate the impact that the various types of PSCs have on Antarctic chlorine activation and ozone loss. Heterogeneous chemistry on liquid particles is responsible for more than 90% of the ozone depletion in Antarctic spring in the model simulations. In high southern latitudes, heterogeneous chemistry on ice particles causes only up to 5 DU of additional ozone depletion and chemistry on NAT particles less than 0.5 DU.
A. Orr, J. S. Hosking, L. Hoffmann, J. Keeble, S. M. Dean, H. K. Roscoe, N. L. Abraham, S. Vosper, and P. Braesicke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 1071–1086,
R. Spang, G. Günther, M. Riese, L. Hoffmann, R. Müller, and S. Griessbach
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 927–950,Short summary
Here we present observations of the Cryogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmosphere (CRISTA) of cirrus cloud and water vapour in August 1997 in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) region. The observations indicate a considerable flux of moisture from the upper tropical troposphere into the extra-tropical lowermost stratosphere (LMS), resulting in the occurrence of high-altitude optically thin cirrus clouds in the LMS.
H. C. Pumphrey, W. G. Read, N. J. Livesey, and K. Yang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 195–209,Short summary
Volcanic eruptions can be violent enough to inject sulfur dioxide into the stratosphere: the layer of the atmosphere which contains the ozone layer. Sulfur dioxide is a gas, but once it is in the stratosphere various chemical reactions convert it into tiny particles. These particles can alter the Earth's climate by reflecting sunlight. In this paper we describe how we used a satellite instrument called the Microwave Limb Sounder to observe volcanic sulfur dioxide in the stratosphere.
M. Kaufmann, J. Blank, T. Guggenmoser, J. Ungermann, A. Engel, M. Ern, F. Friedl-Vallon, D. Gerber, J. U. Grooß, G. Guenther, M. Höpfner, A. Kleinert, E. Kretschmer, Th. Latzko, G. Maucher, T. Neubert, H. Nordmeyer, H. Oelhaf, F. Olschewski, J. Orphal, P. Preusse, H. Schlager, H. Schneider, D. Schuettemeyer, F. Stroh, O. Suminska-Ebersoldt, B. Vogel, C. M. Volk, W. Woiwode, and M. Riese
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 81–95,
Y. Ren, R. Baumann, and H. Schlager
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 69–80,
D. Tátrai, Z. Bozóki, H. Smit, C. Rolf, N. Spelten, M. Krämer, A. Filges, C. Gerbig, G. Gulyás, and G. Szabó
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 33–42,Short summary
Airborne hygrometry is very important in climate research, and the interest in knowing not only water vapor concentration but (cirrus) cloud content as well is increasing. The authors provide a photoacoustic spectroscopy-based dual-channel hygrometer system that can be a good solution for such measurements. The instrument was proven to operate properly from ground level up to the lower stratosphere, giving the possibility even for cirrus cloud studies.
L. Hoffmann, M. J. Alexander, C. Clerbaux, A. W. Grimsdell, C. I. Meyer, T. Rößler, and B. Tournier
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 4517–4537,Short summary
We present stratospheric gravity wave observations from 4.3 micron radiance measurements by the nadir sounders AIRS and IASI. Three case studies demonstrate that AIRS and IASI provide a consistent picture of the temporal development of individual gravity wave events. Statistical comparisons based on five years of data (2008-2012) also showed similar patterns of gravity wave activity. Long-term records from combined satellite data are an exciting prospect for future gravity wave research.
B. Vogel, G. Günther, R. Müller, J.-U. Grooß, P. Hoor, M. Krämer, S. Müller, A. Zahn, and M. Riese
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 12745–12762,Short summary
Enhanced tropospheric trace gases (e.g. pollutants) were measured in situ in the lowermost stratosphere over Northern Europe on 26 September 2012 during the TACTS aircraft campaign. We found that the combination of rapid uplift by a typhoon and eastward eddy shedding from the Asian monsoon anticyclone is a novel fast transport pathway that may carry boundary emissions from Southeast Asia/western Pacific within approximately 5 weeks to the lowermost stratosphere in Northern Europe.
D. L. Finney, R. M. Doherty, O. Wild, H. Huntrieser, H. C. Pumphrey, and A. M. Blyth
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 12665–12682,Short summary
Lightning is important in atmospheric chemistry models as a source of nitrogen oxides which affect the greenhouse gases ozone and methane. We present a new approach to modelling lightning using the upward movement of ice in clouds, an essential part of the charging mechanism in thunderstorms. The new approach performs well compared to those already in use and provides a novel, physically based scheme that has the potential to improve the robustness of simulated flash rates and emissions.
L. Hoffmann, C. M. Hoppe, R. Müller, G. S. Dutton, J. C. Gille, S. Griessbach, A. Jones, C. I. Meyer, R. Spang, C. M. Volk, and K. A. Walker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 12479–12497,Short summary
Stratospheric lifetimes determine the global warming and ozone depletion potentials of chlorofluorocarbons. We present new estimates of the CFC-11/CFC-12 lifetime ratio from satellite and model data (ACE-FTS, HIRDLS, MIPAS, and EMAC/CLaMS). Our estimates of 0.46+/-0.04 (satellites) and 0.48+/-0.07 (model) are in excellent agreement with the recent SPARC reassessment. Having smaller uncertainties than other studies, our results can help to better constrain future CFC lifetime recommendations.
R. Weigel, C. M. Volk, K. Kandler, E. Hösen, G. Günther, B. Vogel, J.-U. Grooß, S. Khaykin, G. V. Belyaev, and S. Borrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 12319–12342,
C. M. Hoppe, L. Hoffmann, P. Konopka, J.-U. Grooß, F. Ploeger, G. Günther, P. Jöckel, and R. Müller
Geosci. Model Dev., 7, 2639–2651,
J. Y. Jia, P. Preusse, M. Ern, H.-Y. Chun, J. C. Gille, S. D. Eckermann, and M. Riese
Ann. Geophys., 32, 1373–1394,
W. Woiwode, J.-U. Grooß, H. Oelhaf, S. Molleker, S. Borrmann, A. Ebersoldt, W. Frey, T. Gulde, S. Khaykin, G. Maucher, C. Piesch, and J. Orphal
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 11525–11544,
F. Friedl-Vallon, T. Gulde, F. Hase, A. Kleinert, T. Kulessa, G. Maucher, T. Neubert, F. Olschewski, C. Piesch, P. Preusse, H. Rongen, C. Sartorius, H. Schneider, A. Schönfeld, V. Tan, N. Bayer, J. Blank, R. Dapp, A. Ebersoldt, H. Fischer, F. Graf, T. Guggenmoser, M. Höpfner, M. Kaufmann, E. Kretschmer, T. Latzko, H. Nordmeyer, H. Oelhaf, J. Orphal, M. Riese, G. Schardt, J. Schillings, M. K. Sha, O. Suminska-Ebersoldt, and J. Ungermann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 3565–3577,
A. Kunz, N. Spelten, P. Konopka, R. Müller, R. M. Forbes, and H. Wernli
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 10803–10822,
S. Molleker, S. Borrmann, H. Schlager, B. Luo, W. Frey, M. Klingebiel, R. Weigel, M. Ebert, V. Mitev, R. Matthey, W. Woiwode, H. Oelhaf, A. Dörnbrack, G. Stratmann, J.-U. Grooß, G. Günther, B. Vogel, R. Müller, M. Krämer, J. Meyer, and F. Cairo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 10785–10801,
P. Preusse, M. Ern, P. Bechtold, S. D. Eckermann, S. Kalisch, Q. T. Trinh, and M. Riese
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 10483–10508,
D. W. Fahey, R.-S. Gao, O. Möhler, H. Saathoff, C. Schiller, V. Ebert, M. Krämer, T. Peter, N. Amarouche, L. M. Avallone, R. Bauer, Z. Bozóki, L. E. Christensen, S. M. Davis, G. Durry, C. Dyroff, R. L. Herman, S. Hunsmann, S. M. Khaykin, P. Mackrodt, J. Meyer, J. B. Smith, N. Spelten, R. F. Troy, H. Vömel, S. Wagner, and F. G. Wienhold
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 3177–3213,
M. Riese, H. Oelhaf, P. Preusse, J. Blank, M. Ern, F. Friedl-Vallon, H. Fischer, T. Guggenmoser, M. Höpfner, P. Hoor, M. Kaufmann, J. Orphal, F. Plöger, R. Spang, O. Suminska-Ebersoldt, J. Ungermann, B. Vogel, and W. Woiwode
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 1915–1928,
J. Tian, N. Riemer, M. West, L. Pfaffenberger, H. Schlager, and A. Petzold
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 5327–5347,
S. Griessbach, L. Hoffmann, R. Spang, and M. Riese
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 1487–1507,
C. M. Hoppe, H. Elbern, and J. Schwinger
Geosci. Model Dev., 7, 1025–1036,
I. Engel, B. P. Luo, S. M. Khaykin, F. G. Wienhold, H. Vömel, R. Kivi, C. R. Hoyle, J.-U. Grooß, M. C. Pitts, and T. Peter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 3231–3246,