Articles | Volume 14, issue 1
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 495–519, 2021
© Author(s) 2021. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Model description paper 26 Jan 2021
Model description paper | 26 Jan 2021
A revised dry deposition scheme for land–atmosphere exchange of trace gases in ECHAM/MESSy v2.54
Tamara Emmerichs et al.
No articles found.
Alex Resovsky, Michel Ramonet, Leonard Rivier, Jerome Tarniewicz, Philippe Ciais, Martin Steinbacher, Ivan Mammarella, Meelis Mölder, Michal Heliasz, Dagmar Kubistin, Matthias Lindauer, Jennifer Müller-Williams, Sebastien Conil, and Richard Engelen
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for AMTShort summary
We present a technical description of a statistical methodology for extracting synoptic and seasonal length anomalies from CO2 time series. The definition of what represents an anomalous signal is somewhat subjective, which we touch on throughout the paper. We show, however, that the method performs reasonably well in extracting portions of the time series influenced by significant NAO+ weather episodes and continent-wide terrestrial biospheric aberrations.
Domenico Taraborrelli, David Cabrera-Perez, Sara Bacer, Sergey Gromov, Jos Lelieveld, Rolf Sander, and Andrea Pozzer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2615–2636,Short summary
Atmospheric pollutants from anthropogenic activities and biomass burning are usually regarded as ozone precursors. Monocyclic aromatics are no exception. Calculations with a comprehensive atmospheric model are consistent with this view but only for air masses close to pollution source regions. However, the same model predicts that aromatics, when transported to remote areas, may effectively destroy ozone. This loss of tropospheric ozone rivals the one attributed to bromine.
Vinod Kumar, Julia Remmers, Steffen Beirle, Joachim Fallmann, Astrid Kerkweg, Jos Lelieveld, Mariano Mertens, Andrea Pozzer, Benedikt Steil, and Thomas Wagner
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for AMTShort summary
We present high resolution regional atmospheric chemistry model simulations focused around Germany. We highlight the importance of spatial resolution of the model itself as well as the input emissions inventory and short scale temporal variability of emissions for simulations. We propose a consistent approach for evaluating the simulated vertical distribution of NO2 using MAX-DOAS measurements while also considering its spatial sensitivity volume and change in sensitivity within this volume.
Jan Pisek, Angela Erb, Lauri Korhonen, Tobias Biermann, Arnaud Carrara, Edoardo Cremonese, Matthias Cuntz, Silvano Fares, Giacomo Gerosa, Thomas Grünwald, Niklas Hase, Michal Heliasz, Andreas Ibrom, Alexander Knohl, Johannes Kobler, Bart Kruijt, Holger Lange, Leena Leppänen, Jean-Marc Limousin, Francisco Ramon Lopez Serrano, Denis Loustau, Petr Lukeš, Lars Lundin, Riccardo Marzuoli, Meelis Mölder, Leonardo Montagnani, Johan Neirynck, Matthias Peichl, Corinna Rebmann, Eva Rubio, Margarida Santos-Reis, Crystal Schaaf, Marius Schmidt, Guillaume Simioni, Kamel Soudani, and Caroline Vincke
Biogeosciences, 18, 621–635,Short summary
Understory vegetation is the most diverse, least understood component of forests worldwide. Understory communities are important drivers of overstory succession and nutrient cycling. Multi-angle remote sensing enables us to describe surface properties by means that are not possible when using mono-angle data. Evaluated over an extensive set of forest ecosystem experimental sites in Europe, our reported method can deliver good retrievals, especially over different forest types with open canopies.
Kyle B. Delwiche, Sara Helen Knox, Avni Malhotra, Etienne Fluet-Chouinard, Gavin McNicol, Sarah Feron, Zutao Ouyang, Dario Papale, Carlo Trotta, Eleonora Canfora, You-Wei Cheah, Danielle Christianson, M. Carmelita R. Alberto, Pavel Alekseychik, Mika Aurela, Dennis Baldocchi, Sheel Bansal, David P. Billesbach, Gil Bohrer, Rosvel Bracho, Nina Buchmann, David I. Campbell, Gerardo Celis, Jiquan Chen, Weinan Chen, Housen Chu, Higo J. Dalmagro, Sigrid Dengel, Ankur R. Desai, Matteo Detto, Han Dolman, Elke Eichelmann, Eugenie Euskirchen, Daniela Famulari, Thomas Friborg, Kathrin Fuchs, Mathias Goeckede, Sébastien Gogo, Mangaliso J. Gondwe, Jordan P. Goodrich, Pia Gottschalk, Scott L. Graham, Martin Heimann, Manuel Helbig, Carole Helfter, Kyle S. Hemes, Takashi Hirano, David Hollinger, Lukas Hörtnagl, Hiroki Iwata, Adrien Jacotot, Joachim Jansen, Gerald Jurasinski, Minseok Kang, Kuno Kasak, John King, Janina Klatt, Franziska Koebsch, Ken W. Krauss, Derrick Y. F. Lai, Ivan Mammarella, Giovanni Manca, Luca Belelli Marchesini, Jaclyn Hatala Matthes, Trofim Maximon, Lutz Merbold, Bhaskar Mitra, Timothy H. Morin, Eiko Nemitz, Mats B. Nilsson, Shuli Niu, Walter C. Oechel, Patricia Y. Oikawa, Keisuke Ono, Matthias Peichl, Olli Peltola, Michele L. Reba, Andrew D. Richardson, William Riley, Benjamin R. K. Runkle, Youngryel Ryu, Torsten Sachs, Ayaka Sakabe, Camilo Rey Sanchez, Edward A. Schuur, Karina V. R. Schäfer, Oliver Sonnentag, Jed P. Sparks, Ellen Stuart-Haëntjens, Cove Sturtevant, Ryan C. Sullivan, Daphne J. Szutu, Jonathan E. Thom, Margaret S. Torn, Eeva-Stiina Tuittila, Jessica Turner, Masahito Ueyama, Alex C. Valach, Rodrigo Vargas, Andrej Varlagin, Alma Vazquez-Lule, Joseph G. Verfaillie, Timo Vesala, George L. Vourlitis, Eric J. Ward, Christian Wille, Georg Wohlfahrt, Guan Xhuan Wong, Zhen Zhang, Donatella Zona, Lisamarie Windham-Myers, Benjamin Poulter, and Robert B. Jackson
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ESSDShort summary
Methane is an important greenhouse gas, yet we lack knowledge about its global emissions and drivers. We present FLUXNET-CH4, a new global collection of methane measurements and a critical resource for the research community. We use FLUXNET-CH4 data to quantify the seasonality of methane emissions from freshwater wetlands, finding that methane seasonality varies strongly with latitude. Our new database and analysis will improve wetland model accuracy and inform greenhouse gas budgets.
Olli Peltola, Toprak Aslan, Andreas Ibrom, Eiko Nemitz, Üllar Rannik, and Ivan Mammarella
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for AMTShort summary
Gas fluxes measured by the eddy covariance (EC) technique are subject to filtering due to unideal instrumentation. For linear first-order systems this filtering causes also a time-lag between vertical wind speed and gas signal which is additional to the gas travel time in the sampling line. The effect of this additional time-lag on EC fluxes is ignored in current EC data processing routines. Here we show that this oversight biases EC fluxes and hence propose an approach to rectify this bias.
Pavel Alekseychik, Aino Korrensalo, Ivan Mammarella, Samuli Launiainen, Eeva-Stiina Tuittila, Ilkka Korpela, and Timo Vesala
Revised manuscript under review for BGShort summary
Bogs of Northern Eurasia represent a major type of peatland ecosystem and contain vast amounts of carbon, but carbon balance monitoring studies on bogs remain scarce. The current project explores six years of carbon balance data obtained using the state-of-art eddy-covariance technique at a Finnish bog Siikaneva. The results reveal relatively low interannual variability indicative of ecosystem resilience to both cool and hot summers, and provides new insight into the seasonal course of C fluxes.
Camille Yver-Kwok, Carole Philippon, Peter Bergamaschi, Tobias Biermann, Francescopiero Calzolari, Huilin Chen, Sebastien Conil, Paolo Cristofanelli, Marc Delmotte, Juha Hatakka, Michal Heliasz, Ove Hermansen, Kateřina Komínková, Dagmar Kubistin, Nicolas Kumps, Olivier Laurent, Tuomas Laurila, Irene Lehner, Janne Levula, Matthias Lindauer, Morgan Lopez, Ivan Mammarella, Giovanni Manca, Per Marklund, Jean-Marc Metzger, Meelis Mölder, Stephen M. Platt, Michel Ramonet, Leonard Rivier, Bert Scheeren, Mahesh Kumar Sha, Paul Smith, Martin Steinbacher, Gabriela Vítková, and Simon Wyss
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 89–116,Short summary
The Integrated Carbon Observation System (ICOS) is a pan-European research infrastructure which provides harmonized and high-precision scientific data on the carbon cycle and the greenhouse gas (GHG) budget. All stations have to undergo a rigorous assessment before being labeled, i.e., receiving approval to join the network. In this paper, we present the labeling process for the ICOS atmospheric network through the 23 stations that were labeled between November 2017 and November 2019.
Toprak Aslan, Olli Peltola, Andreas Ibrom, Eiko Nemitz, Üllar Rannik, and Ivan Mammarella
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for AMTShort summary
Vertical turbulent fluxes of gases measured by the eddy covariance (EC) technique are subject to high frequency losses. There are different methods used to describe this low-pass filtering effect and to correct the measured fluxes. In this study, we analyzed the systematic uncertainty related to this correction for various attenuation and signal-to-noise ratios. A new and robust transfer function method is finally proposed.
Simon Rosanka, Bruno Franco, Lieven Clarisse, Pierre-François Coheur, Andreas Wahner, and Domenico Taraborrelli
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
The strong El Niño in 2015 led to a particular dry season in Indonesia and favoured severe peatland fires. The smouldering conditions of these fires and the high carbon content of peat resulted in high volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. By using a comprehensive atmospheric model, we show that these emissions have a significant impact on the tropospheric composition and oxidation capacity. These emissions are transported into to the lower stratosphere, resulting in a depletion of ozone.
Yuan Zhang, Ana Bastos, Fabienne Maignan, Daniel Goll, Olivier Boucher, Laurent Li, Alessandro Cescatti, Nicolas Vuichard, Xiuzhi Chen, Christof Ammann, M. Altaf Arain, T. Andrew Black, Bogdan Chojnicki, Tomomichi Kato, Ivan Mammarella, Leonardo Montagnani, Olivier Roupsard, Maria J. Sanz, Lukas Siebicke, Marek Urbaniak, Francesco Primo Vaccari, Georg Wohlfahrt, Will Woodgate, and Philippe Ciais
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 5401–5423,Short summary
We improved the ORCHIDEE LSM by distinguishing diffuse and direct light in canopy and evaluated the new model with observations from 159 sites. Compared with the old model, the new model has better sunny GPP and reproduced the diffuse light fertilization effect observed at flux sites. Our simulations also indicate different mechanisms causing the observed GPP enhancement under cloudy conditions at different times. The new model has the potential to study large-scale impacts of aerosol changes.
Simon Rosanka, Rolf Sander, Bruno Franco, Catherine Wespes, Andreas Wahner, and Domenico Taraborrelli
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
In-cloud destruction of ozone depends on hydroperoxyl radicals in cloud droplets, where they are produced by oxidation of oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs). Only rudimentary representations of these processes are currently available in global atmospheric models, if any. By using a comprehensive atmospheric model that includes a complex in-cloud OVOC oxidation scheme, we show that atmospheric oxidants are reduced and models ignoring this process will underpredict clouds as ozone sink.
Simon Rosanka, Rolf Sander, Andreas Wahner, and Domenico Taraborrelli
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for GMDShort summary
The Jülich Aqueous-phase Mechanism of Organic Chemistry (JAMOC) is developed and implemented into the Module Efficiently Calculating the Chemistry of the Atmosphere (MECCA). JAMOC is an explicit in-cloud oxidation scheme for oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs), which is suitable for global model applications. Within in a box-model study, we show that JAMOC yields reduced gas-phase concentrations of most OVOCs and oxidants, except for nitrogen oxides.
Anna B. Harper, Karina E. Williams, Patrick C. McGuire, Maria Carolina Duran Rojas, Debbie Hemming, Anne Verhoef, Chris Huntingford, Lucy Rowland, Toby Marthews, Cleiton Breder Eller, Camilla Mathison, Rodolfo L. B. Nobrega, Nicola Gedney, Pier Luigi Vidale, Fred Otu-Larbi, Divya Pandey, Sebastien Garrigues, Azin Wright, Darren Slevin, Martin G. De Kauwe, Eleanor Blyth, Jonas Ärdo, Andrew Black, Damien Bonal, Nina Buchmann, Benoit Burban, Kathrin Fuchs, Agnès de Grandcourt, Ivan Mammarella, Lutz Merbold, Leonardo Montagnani, Yann Nouvellon, Natalia Restrepo-Coupe, and Georg Wohlfahrt
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for GMDShort summary
Drought is predicted to increase in the future due to climate change. Plants respond to drier soils by reducing stomatal conductance, in order to conserve water and avoid damage, and this response is important for the global carbon cycle and local/regional climate feedbacks. We evaluated ten representations of stress in the JULES land-surface model against site observations, and make recommendations for future use of the model.
Kukka-Maaria Kohonen, Pasi Kolari, Linda M. J. Kooijmans, Huilin Chen, Ulli Seibt, Wu Sun, and Ivan Mammarella
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3957–3975,Short summary
Biosphere–atmosphere gas exchange (flux) measurements of carbonyl sulfide (COS) are becoming popular for estimating biospheric photosynthesis. To compare COS flux measurements across different measurement sites, we need standardized protocols for data processing. We analyze how various data processing steps affect the calculated COS flux and how they differ from carbon dioxide (CO2) flux processing steps, and we aim to settle on a set of recommended protocols for COS flux calculation.
Mariano Mertens, Astrid Kerkweg, Volker Grewe, Patrick Jöckel, and Robert Sausen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 7843–7873,Short summary
We investigate the contribution of land transport emissions to ozone and ozone precursors in Europe and Germany. Our results show that land transport emissions are one of the most important contributors to reactive nitrogen in Europe. The contribution to ozone is in the range of 8 % to 16 % and varies strongly for different seasons. The hots-pots with the largest ozone concentrations are the Po Valley, while the largest concentration to reactive nitrogen is located mainly in western Europe.
Xuefei Li, Outi Wahlroos, Sami Haapanala, Jukka Pumpanen, Harri Vasander, Anne Ojala, Timo Vesala, and Ivan Mammarella
Biogeosciences, 17, 3409–3425,Short summary
We measured CO2 and CH4 fluxes and quantified the global warming potential of different surface areas in a recently created urban wetland in Southern Finland. The ecosystem has a small net climate warming effect which was mainly contributed by the open-water areas. Our results suggest that limiting open-water areas and setting a design preference for areas of emergent vegetation in the establishment of urban wetlands can be a beneficial practice when considering solely the climate impact.
Christopher P. O. Reyer, Ramiro Silveyra Gonzalez, Klara Dolos, Florian Hartig, Ylva Hauf, Matthias Noack, Petra Lasch-Born, Thomas Rötzer, Hans Pretzsch, Henning Meesenburg, Stefan Fleck, Markus Wagner, Andreas Bolte, Tanja G. M. Sanders, Pasi Kolari, Annikki Mäkelä, Timo Vesala, Ivan Mammarella, Jukka Pumpanen, Alessio Collalti, Carlo Trotta, Giorgio Matteucci, Ettore D'Andrea, Lenka Foltýnová, Jan Krejza, Andreas Ibrom, Kim Pilegaard, Denis Loustau, Jean-Marc Bonnefond, Paul Berbigier, Delphine Picart, Sébastien Lafont, Michael Dietze, David Cameron, Massimo Vieno, Hanqin Tian, Alicia Palacios-Orueta, Victor Cicuendez, Laura Recuero, Klaus Wiese, Matthias Büchner, Stefan Lange, Jan Volkholz, Hyungjun Kim, Joanna A. Horemans, Friedrich Bohn, Jörg Steinkamp, Alexander Chikalanov, Graham P. Weedon, Justin Sheffield, Flurin Babst, Iliusi Vega del Valle, Felicitas Suckow, Simon Martel, Mats Mahnken, Martin Gutsch, and Katja Frieler
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1295–1320,Short summary
Process-based vegetation models are widely used to predict local and global ecosystem dynamics and climate change impacts. Due to their complexity, they require careful parameterization and evaluation to ensure that projections are accurate and reliable. The PROFOUND Database provides a wide range of empirical data to calibrate and evaluate vegetation models that simulate climate impacts at the forest stand scale to support systematic model intercomparisons and model development in Europe.
Simon Rosanka, Giang H. T. Vu, Hue M. T. Nguyen, Tien V. Pham, Umar Javed, Domenico Taraborrelli, and Luc Vereecken
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 6671–6686,Short summary
Isocyanic acid, HNCO, is a toxic chemical compound emitted to the atmosphere by biomass burning and by unwanted release in NOx mitigation systems in vehicles such as the AdBlue system. We have studied the loss processes of HNCO, finding that it is unreactive to most atmospheric oxidants and thus has a long chemical lifetime. The main removal is then by deposition on surfaces and transition to aqueous phase, such as clouds. The long lifetime also allows it to be transported to the stratosphere.
Anna-Leah Nickl, Mariano Mertens, Anke Roiger, Andreas Fix, Axel Amediek, Alina Fiehn, Christoph Gerbig, Michal Galkowski, Astrid Kerkweg, Theresa Klausner, Maximilian Eckl, and Patrick Jöckel
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 1925–1943,Short summary
Based on the global and regional chemistry–climate model system MECO(n), we implemented a forecast system to support the planning of measurement campaign research flights with chemical weather forecasts. We applied this system for the first time to provide 6 d forecasts in support of the CoMet 1.0 campaign targeting methane emitted from coal mining ventilation shafts in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin in Poland. We describe the new forecast system and evaluate its forecast skill.
Anna Novelli, Luc Vereecken, Birger Bohn, Hans-Peter Dorn, Georgios I. Gkatzelis, Andreas Hofzumahaus, Frank Holland, David Reimer, Franz Rohrer, Simon Rosanka, Domenico Taraborrelli, Ralf Tillmann, Robert Wegener, Zhujun Yu, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Andreas Wahner, and Hendrik Fuchs
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 3333–3355,Short summary
Experimental evidence from a simulation chamber study shows that the regeneration efficiency of the hydroxyl radical is maintained globally at values higher than 0.5 for a wide range of nitrogen oxide concentrations as a result of isomerizations of peroxy radicals originating from the OH oxidation of isoprene. The available models were tested, and suggestions on how to improve their ability to reproduce the measured radical and oxygenated volatile organic compound concentrations are provided.
Mariano Mertens, Astrid Kerkweg, Volker Grewe, Patrick Jöckel, and Robert Sausen
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 363–383,Short summary
This study investigates if ozone source apportionment results using a tagged tracer approach depend on the resolutions of the applied model and/or emission inventory. For this we apply a global to regional atmospheric chemistry model, which allows us to compare the results on global and regional scales. Our results show that differences on the continental scale (e.g. Europe) are rather small (10 %); on the regional scale, however, differences of up to 30 % were found.
Paul C. Stoy, Tarek S. El-Madany, Joshua B. Fisher, Pierre Gentine, Tobias Gerken, Stephen P. Good, Anne Klosterhalfen, Shuguang Liu, Diego G. Miralles, Oscar Perez-Priego, Angela J. Rigden, Todd H. Skaggs, Georg Wohlfahrt, Ray G. Anderson, A. Miriam J. Coenders-Gerrits, Martin Jung, Wouter H. Maes, Ivan Mammarella, Matthias Mauder, Mirco Migliavacca, Jacob A. Nelson, Rafael Poyatos, Markus Reichstein, Russell L. Scott, and Sebastian Wolf
Biogeosciences, 16, 3747–3775,Short summary
Key findings are the nearly optimal response of T to atmospheric water vapor pressure deficits across methods and scales. Additionally, the notion that T / ET intermittently approaches 1, which is a basis for many partitioning methods, does not hold for certain methods and ecosystems. To better constrain estimates of E and T from combined ET measurements, we propose a combination of independent measurement techniques to better constrain E and T at the ecosystem scale.
Jarmo Mäkelä, Jürgen Knauer, Mika Aurela, Andrew Black, Martin Heimann, Hideki Kobayashi, Annalea Lohila, Ivan Mammarella, Hank Margolis, Tiina Markkanen, Jouni Susiluoto, Tea Thum, Toni Viskari, Sönke Zaehle, and Tuula Aalto
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 4075–4098,Short summary
We assess the differences of six stomatal conductance formulations, embedded into a land–vegetation model JSBACH, on 10 boreal coniferous evergreen forest sites. We calibrate the model parameters using all six functions in a multi-year experiment, as well as for a separate drought event at one of the sites, using the adaptive population importance sampler. The analysis reveals weaknesses in the stomatal conductance formulation-dependent model behaviour that we are able to partially amend.
Petri Kiuru, Anne Ojala, Ivan Mammarella, Jouni Heiskanen, Kukka-Maaria Erkkilä, Heli Miettinen, Timo Vesala, and Timo Huttula
Biogeosciences, 16, 3297–3317,Short summary
Many boreal lakes emit the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2) to the atmosphere. We incorporated four different gas exchange models into a physico-biochemical lake model and studied their ability to simulate lake air–water CO2 fluxes. The inclusion of refined gas exchange models in lake models that simulate carbon cycling is important to assess lake carbon budgets. However, higher estimates for inorganic carbon sources in boreal lakes are needed to balance the CO2 losses to the atmosphere.
Olli Peltola, Timo Vesala, Yao Gao, Olle Räty, Pavel Alekseychik, Mika Aurela, Bogdan Chojnicki, Ankur R. Desai, Albertus J. Dolman, Eugenie S. Euskirchen, Thomas Friborg, Mathias Göckede, Manuel Helbig, Elyn Humphreys, Robert B. Jackson, Georg Jocher, Fortunat Joos, Janina Klatt, Sara H. Knox, Natalia Kowalska, Lars Kutzbach, Sebastian Lienert, Annalea Lohila, Ivan Mammarella, Daniel F. Nadeau, Mats B. Nilsson, Walter C. Oechel, Matthias Peichl, Thomas Pypker, William Quinton, Janne Rinne, Torsten Sachs, Mateusz Samson, Hans Peter Schmid, Oliver Sonnentag, Christian Wille, Donatella Zona, and Tuula Aalto
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 1263–1289,Short summary
Here we develop a monthly gridded dataset of northern (> 45 N) wetland methane (CH4) emissions. The data product is derived using a random forest machine-learning technique and eddy covariance CH4 fluxes from 25 wetland sites. Annual CH4 emissions from these wetlands calculated from the derived data product are comparable to prior studies focusing on these areas. This product is an independent estimate of northern wetland CH4 emissions and hence could be used, e.g. for process model evaluation.
Elisa Männistö, Aino Korrensalo, Pavel Alekseychik, Ivan Mammarella, Olli Peltola, Timo Vesala, and Eeva-Stiina Tuittila
Biogeosciences, 16, 2409–2421,Short summary
We studied methane emitted as episodic bubble release (ebullition) from water and bare peat surfaces of a boreal bog over three years. There was more ebullition from water than from bare peat surfaces, and it was controlled by peat temperature, water level, atmospheric pressure and the weekly temperature sum. However, the contribution of methane bubbles to the total ecosystem methane emission was small. This new information can be used to improve process models of peatland methane dynamics.
Rolf Sander, Andreas Baumgaertner, David Cabrera-Perez, Franziska Frank, Sergey Gromov, Jens-Uwe Grooß, Hartwig Harder, Vincent Huijnen, Patrick Jöckel, Vlassis A. Karydis, Kyle E. Niemeyer, Andrea Pozzer, Hella Riede, Martin G. Schultz, Domenico Taraborrelli, and Sebastian Tauer
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 1365–1385,Short summary
We present the atmospheric chemistry box model CAABA/MECCA which now includes a number of new features: skeletal mechanism reduction, the MOM chemical mechanism for volatile organic compounds, an option to include reactions from the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM) and other chemical mechanisms, updated isotope tagging, improved and new photolysis modules, and the new feature of coexisting multiple chemistry mechanisms. CAABA/MECCA is a community model published under the GPL.
Angelo Finco, Mhairi Coyle, Eiko Nemitz, Riccardo Marzuoli, Maria Chiesa, Benjamin Loubet, Silvano Fares, Eugenio Diaz-Pines, Rainer Gasche, and Giacomo Gerosa
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17945–17961,Short summary
A 1-month field campaign of ozone (O3) flux measurements along a five-level vertical profile of a mature broadleaf forest highlighted that the biosphere–atmosphere exchange of this pollutant is modulated by complex diel dynamics occurring within and below the canopy. The canopy removed nearly 80 % of the O3 deposited to the forest; only a minor part was removed by the soil and the understorey (2 %), while the remaining 18.2 % was removed by chemical reactions with NO mostly emitted from soil.
Ekaterina Ezhova, Ilona Ylivinkka, Joel Kuusk, Kaupo Komsaare, Marko Vana, Alisa Krasnova, Steffen Noe, Mikhail Arshinov, Boris Belan, Sung-Bin Park, Jošt Valentin Lavrič, Martin Heimann, Tuukka Petäjä, Timo Vesala, Ivan Mammarella, Pasi Kolari, Jaana Bäck, Üllar Rannik, Veli-Matti Kerminen, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17863–17881,Short summary
Understanding the connections between aerosols, solar radiation and photosynthesis in terrestrial ecosystems is important for estimates of the CO2 balance in the atmosphere. Atmospheric aerosols and clouds influence solar radiation. In this study, we quantify the aerosol effect on solar radiation in boreal forests and study forest ecosystems response to this change in the radiation conditions. The analysis is based on atmospheric observations from several remote stations in Eurasian forests.
Qiaozhi Zha, Chao Yan, Heikki Junninen, Matthieu Riva, Nina Sarnela, Juho Aalto, Lauriane Quéléver, Simon Schallhart, Lubna Dada, Liine Heikkinen, Otso Peräkylä, Jun Zou, Clémence Rose, Yonghong Wang, Ivan Mammarella, Gabriel Katul, Timo Vesala, Douglas R. Worsnop, Markku Kulmala, Tuukka Petäjä, Federico Bianchi, and Mikael Ehn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17437–17450,Short summary
Vertical measurements of highly oxygenated molecules (HOMs) below and above the forest canopy were performed for the first time in a boreal forest during September 2016. Our results highlight that near-ground HOM measurements may only be representative of a small fraction of the entire nocturnal boundary layer, which may sequentially influence the growth of newly formed particles and SOA formation close to ground surface, where the majority of measurements are conducted.
Pertti Hari, Steffen Noe, Sigrid Dengel, Jan Elbers, Bert Gielen, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Bart Kruijt, Liisa Kulmala, Anders Lindroth, Ivan Mammarella, Tuukka Petäjä, Guy Schurgers, Anni Vanhatalo, Markku Kulmala, and Jaana Bäck
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 13321–13328,Short summary
The development of eddy-covariance measurements of ecosystem CO2 fluxes began a new era in the field studies of photosynthesis. The interpretation of the very variable CO2 fluxes in evergreen forests has been problematic especially in seasonal transition times. We apply two theoretical needle-level equations and show they can predict photosynthetic CO2 flux between the atmosphere and Scots pine forests. This has strong implications for the interpretation of the global change and boreal forests.
Jason A. Ducker, Christopher D. Holmes, Trevor F. Keenan, Silvano Fares, Allen H. Goldstein, Ivan Mammarella, J. William Munger, and Jordan Schnell
Biogeosciences, 15, 5395–5413,Short summary
We have developed an accurate method (SynFlux) to estimate ozone deposition and stomatal uptake across 103 flux tower sites (43 US, 60 Europe), where ozone concentrations and fluxes have not been measured. In all, the SynFlux public dataset provides monthly values of ozone dry deposition for 926 site years across a wide array of ecosystems. The SynFlux dataset will promote further applications to ecosystem, air quality, or climate modeling across the geoscience community.
Scarlet Stadtler, Thomas Kühn, Sabine Schröder, Domenico Taraborrelli, Martin G. Schultz, and Harri Kokkola
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 3235–3260,Short summary
Atmospheric aerosols interact with our climate system and have adverse health effects. Nevertheless, these particles are a source of uncertainty in climate projections and the formation process of secondary aerosols formed by organic gas-phase precursors is particularly not fully understood. In order to gain a deeper understanding of secondary organic aerosol formation, this model system explicitly represents gas-phase and aerosol formation processes. Finally, this allows for process discussion.
Maarten Krol, Marco de Bruine, Lars Killaars, Huug Ouwersloot, Andrea Pozzer, Yi Yin, Frederic Chevallier, Philippe Bousquet, Prabir Patra, Dmitry Belikov, Shamil Maksyutov, Sandip Dhomse, Wuhu Feng, and Martyn P. Chipperfield
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 3109–3130,Short summary
The TransCom inter-comparison project regularly carries out studies to quantify errors in simulated atmospheric transport. This paper presents the first results of an age of air (AoA) inter-comparison of six global transport models. Following a protocol, six models simulated five tracers from which atmospheric transport times can easily be deduced. Results highlight that inter-model differences associated with atmospheric transport are still large and require further analysis.
Chinmay Mallik, Laura Tomsche, Efstratios Bourtsoukidis, John N. Crowley, Bettina Derstroff, Horst Fischer, Sascha Hafermann, Imke Hüser, Umar Javed, Stephan Keßel, Jos Lelieveld, Monica Martinez, Hannah Meusel, Anna Novelli, Gavin J. Phillips, Andrea Pozzer, Andreas Reiffs, Rolf Sander, Domenico Taraborrelli, Carina Sauvage, Jan Schuladen, Hang Su, Jonathan Williams, and Hartwig Harder
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10825–10847,Short summary
OH and HO2 control the transformation of air pollutants and O3 formation. Their implication for air quality over the climatically sensitive Mediterranean region was studied during a field campaign in Cyprus. Production of OH, HO2, and recycled OH was lower in aged marine air masses. Box model simulations of OH and HO2 agreed with measurements except at high terpene concentrations when model RO2 due to terpenes caused large HO2 loss. Autoxidation schemes for RO2 improved the agreement.
Mary E. Whelan, Sinikka T. Lennartz, Teresa E. Gimeno, Richard Wehr, Georg Wohlfahrt, Yuting Wang, Linda M. J. Kooijmans, Timothy W. Hilton, Sauveur Belviso, Philippe Peylin, Róisín Commane, Wu Sun, Huilin Chen, Le Kuai, Ivan Mammarella, Kadmiel Maseyk, Max Berkelhammer, King-Fai Li, Dan Yakir, Andrew Zumkehr, Yoko Katayama, Jérôme Ogée, Felix M. Spielmann, Florian Kitz, Bharat Rastogi, Jürgen Kesselmeier, Julia Marshall, Kukka-Maaria Erkkilä, Lisa Wingate, Laura K. Meredith, Wei He, Rüdiger Bunk, Thomas Launois, Timo Vesala, Johan A. Schmidt, Cédric G. Fichot, Ulli Seibt, Scott Saleska, Eric S. Saltzman, Stephen A. Montzka, Joseph A. Berry, and J. Elliott Campbell
Biogeosciences, 15, 3625–3657,Short summary
Measurements of the trace gas carbonyl sulfide (OCS) are helpful in quantifying photosynthesis at previously unknowable temporal and spatial scales. While CO2 is both consumed and produced within ecosystems, OCS is mostly produced in the oceans or from specific industries, and destroyed in plant leaves in proportion to CO2. This review summarizes the advancements we have made in the understanding of OCS exchange and applications to vital ecosystem water and carbon cycle questions.
Martin G. Schultz, Scarlet Stadtler, Sabine Schröder, Domenico Taraborrelli, Bruno Franco, Jonathan Krefting, Alexandra Henrot, Sylvaine Ferrachat, Ulrike Lohmann, David Neubauer, Colombe Siegenthaler-Le Drian, Sebastian Wahl, Harri Kokkola, Thomas Kühn, Sebastian Rast, Hauke Schmidt, Philip Stier, Doug Kinnison, Geoffrey S. Tyndall, John J. Orlando, and Catherine Wespes
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 1695–1723,Short summary
The chemistry–climate model ECHAM-HAMMOZ contains a detailed representation of tropospheric and stratospheric reactive chemistry and state-of-the-art parameterizations of aerosols. It thus allows for detailed investigations of chemical processes in the climate system. Evaluation of the model with various observational data yields good results, but the model has a tendency to produce too much OH in the tropics. This highlights the important interplay between atmospheric chemistry and dynamics.
Maria Provenzale, Anne Ojala, Jouni Heiskanen, Kukka-Maaria Erkkilä, Ivan Mammarella, Pertti Hari, and Timo Vesala
Biogeosciences, 15, 2021–2032,Short summary
We extensively tested and refined a direct, high-frequency free-water CO2 measurement method to study the lake net ecosystem productivity. The method was first proposed in 2008, but neglected ever since. With high-frequency direct methods, we can calculate the lake productivity more precisely, and parameterise its dependency on environmental variables. This helps us expand our knowledge on the carbon cycle in the water, and leads to a better integration of water bodies in carbon budgets.
Aino Korrensalo, Elisa Männistö, Pavel Alekseychik, Ivan Mammarella, Janne Rinne, Timo Vesala, and Eeva-Stiina Tuittila
Biogeosciences, 15, 1749–1761,Short summary
We measured methane fluxes of a boreal bog from six different plant community types in 2012–2014. We found only little variation in methane fluxes among plant community types. Peat temperature as well as both leaf area of plant species with air channels and of all vegetation are important factors controlling the fluxes. We also detected negative net fluxes indicating methane consumption each year. Our results can be used to improve the models of peatland methane dynamics under climate change.
Astrid Kerkweg, Christiane Hofmann, Patrick Jöckel, Mariano Mertens, and Gregor Pante
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 1059–1076,Short summary
As part of the model documentation of the MECO(n) system, this article documents the basics of the Multi-Model-Driver expansion (MMD v2.0) to two-way coupling and the newly developed generic MESSy submodel GRID (v1.0), which is used by MMD v2.0 for the generalised definition of arbitrary grids and for the transformation of data between them.
Scarlet Stadtler, David Simpson, Sabine Schröder, Domenico Taraborrelli, Andreas Bott, and Martin Schultz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 3147–3171,
Chunjing Qiu, Dan Zhu, Philippe Ciais, Bertrand Guenet, Gerhard Krinner, Shushi Peng, Mika Aurela, Christian Bernhofer, Christian Brümmer, Syndonia Bret-Harte, Housen Chu, Jiquan Chen, Ankur R. Desai, Jiří Dušek, Eugénie S. Euskirchen, Krzysztof Fortuniak, Lawrence B. Flanagan, Thomas Friborg, Mateusz Grygoruk, Sébastien Gogo, Thomas Grünwald, Birger U. Hansen, David Holl, Elyn Humphreys, Miriam Hurkuck, Gerard Kiely, Janina Klatt, Lars Kutzbach, Chloé Largeron, Fatima Laggoun-Défarge, Magnus Lund, Peter M. Lafleur, Xuefei Li, Ivan Mammarella, Lutz Merbold, Mats B. Nilsson, Janusz Olejnik, Mikaell Ottosson-Löfvenius, Walter Oechel, Frans-Jan W. Parmentier, Matthias Peichl, Norbert Pirk, Olli Peltola, Włodzimierz Pawlak, Daniel Rasse, Janne Rinne, Gaius Shaver, Hans Peter Schmid, Matteo Sottocornola, Rainer Steinbrecher, Torsten Sachs, Marek Urbaniak, Donatella Zona, and Klaudia Ziemblinska
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 497–519,Short summary
Northern peatlands store large amount of soil carbon and are vulnerable to climate change. We implemented peatland hydrological and carbon accumulation processes into the ORCHIDEE land surface model. The model was evaluated against EC measurements from 30 northern peatland sites. The model generally well reproduced the spatial gradient and temporal variations in GPP and NEE at these sites. Water table depth was not well predicted but had only small influence on simulated NEE.
Wu Sun, Linda M. J. Kooijmans, Kadmiel Maseyk, Huilin Chen, Ivan Mammarella, Timo Vesala, Janne Levula, Helmi Keskinen, and Ulli Seibt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 1363–1378,Short summary
Most soils consume carbonyl sulfide (COS) and CO due to microbial uptake, but whether boreal forest soils act like this is uncertain. We measured growing season soil COS and CO fluxes in a Finnish pine forest. The soil behaved as a consistent and relatively invariant sink of COS and CO. Uptake rates of COS and CO decrease with soil moisture due to diffusion limitation and increase with respiration because of microbial control. Using COS to infer photosynthesis is not affected by soil COS flux.
Simon Schallhart, Pekka Rantala, Maija K. Kajos, Juho Aalto, Ivan Mammarella, Taina M. Ruuskanen, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 815–832,Short summary
Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have impact to air quality, human health and climate. We investigated the development of VOC exchange in a boreal forest between April and June 2013. VOC exchange and diversity increased towards summer, but over 75 % of the biogenic net exchange was driven by methanol, monoterpenes and acetone only. The boreal forest emitted less than 0.2 % carbon in form of VOCs in relation to the carbon uptake.
Kukka-Maaria Erkkilä, Anne Ojala, David Bastviken, Tobias Biermann, Jouni J. Heiskanen, Anders Lindroth, Olli Peltola, Miitta Rantakari, Timo Vesala, and Ivan Mammarella
Biogeosciences, 15, 429–445,Short summary
Global estimates of freshwater greenhouse gas emissions are usually based on simple gas transfer models that underestimate the emissions. Thus, comparison of different gas transfer models is required for evaluating the uncertainties. This study compares three commonly used methods for estimating greenhouse gas emissions over lakes. We conclude that simple gas transfer models underestimate the emissions and more recent models should be used for global freshwater greenhouse gas emission estimates.
Ben Langford, James Cash, W. Joe F. Acton, Amy C. Valach, C. Nicholas Hewitt, Silvano Fares, Ignacio Goded, Carsten Gruening, Emily House, Athina-Cerise Kalogridis, Valérie Gros, Richard Schafers, Rick Thomas, Mark Broadmeadow, and Eiko Nemitz
Biogeosciences, 14, 5571–5594,Short summary
Isoprene flux measurements made above five European oak forests were reviewed to generate new emission potentials. Six variations of the Guenther algorithms were inverted to back out time series of isoprene emission potential, and then an “average” emission potential was determined using one of four commonly used approaches. Our results show that emission potentials can vary by up to a factor of 4 and highlight the need for the community to now harmonize their approach to reduce uncertainty.
David Cabrera-Perez, Domenico Taraborrelli, Jos Lelieveld, Thorsten Hoffmann, and Andrea Pozzer
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
Aromatic compounds are present in rural and urban atmospheres. The aim of this work is to disentangle the impacts of these compounds in different important atmospheric chemical species with the help of a numerical model. Aromatics have low impact OH, NOx and Ozone concentrations in the global scale (below 4 %). The impact however is larger in the regional scale (up to 10 %). The largest impact is in glyoxal and NO3 concentrations, with changes up to 10 % globally and 40 % regionally.
Yao Gao, Tiina Markkanen, Mika Aurela, Ivan Mammarella, Tea Thum, Aki Tsuruta, Huiyi Yang, and Tuula Aalto
Biogeosciences, 14, 4409–4422,Short summary
We investigated the response of water use efficiency (WUE) to summer drought in a boreal Scots pine forest (Pinus sylvestris) on the daily time scale mainly using EC flux data from the Hyytiälä (southern Finland) flux site. Simulation results from the JSBACH land surface model were also evaluated against the observed results. The performance of three WUE metrics at the ecosystem level (EWUE, IWUE, and uWUE) during the severe summer drought were studied and showed different results.
Linda M. J. Kooijmans, Kadmiel Maseyk, Ulli Seibt, Wu Sun, Timo Vesala, Ivan Mammarella, Pasi Kolari, Juho Aalto, Alessandro Franchin, Roberta Vecchi, Gianluigi Valli, and Huilin Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 11453–11465,Short summary
Carbon cycle studies rely on the accuracy of models to estimate the amount of CO2 being taken up by vegetation. The gas carbonyl sulfide (COS) can serve as a tool to estimate the vegetative CO2 uptake by scaling the ecosystem uptake of COS to that of CO2. Here we investigate the nighttime fluxes of COS. The relationships found in this study will aid in implementing nighttime COS uptake in models, which is key to obtain accurate estimates of vegetative CO2 uptake with the use of COS.
Pavel Alekseychik, Ivan Mammarella, Dmitry Karpov, Sigrid Dengel, Irina Terentieva, Alexander Sabrekov, Mikhail Glagolev, and Elena Lapshina
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 9333–9345,Short summary
West Siberian peatlands occupy a large fraction of land area in the region, and yet little is known about their interaction with the atmosphere. We took the first measurements of CO2 and energy surface balances over a typical bog of West Siberian middle taiga, in the vicinity of the Mukhrino field station (Khanty–Mansiysk). The May–August study in a wet year (2015) revealed a relatively large photosynthetic sink of CO2 that was close to the high end of estimates at bog sites elsewhere.
Stephan Keßel, David Cabrera-Perez, Abraham Horowitz, Patrick R. Veres, Rolf Sander, Domenico Taraborrelli, Maria Tucceri, John N. Crowley, Andrea Pozzer, Christof Stönner, Luc Vereecken, Jos Lelieveld, and Jonathan Williams
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 8789–8804,Short summary
In this study we identify an often overlooked stable oxide of carbon, namely carbon suboxide (C3O2), in ambient air. We have made C3O2 and in the laboratory determined its absorption cross section data and the rate of reaction with two important atmospheric oxidants, OH and O3. By incorporating known sources and sinks in a global model we have generated a first global picture of the distribution of this species in the atmosphere.
Antti-Jussi Kieloaho, Mari Pihlatie, Samuli Launiainen, Markku Kulmala, Marja-Liisa Riekkola, Jevgeni Parshintsev, Ivan Mammarella, Timo Vesala, and Jussi Heinonsalo
Biogeosciences, 14, 1075–1091,Short summary
The alkylamines are important precursors in secondary aerosol formation in boreal forests. We quantified alkylamine concentrations in fungal species present in boreal forests in order to estimate soil as a source of atmospheric alkylamines. Based on our knowledge we estimated possible soil–atmosphere exchange of these compounds. The results shows that the boreal forest soil could act as a source of alkylamines depending on environmental conditions and studied compound.
Alexandra-Jane Henrot, Tanja Stanelle, Sabine Schröder, Colombe Siegenthaler, Domenico Taraborrelli, and Martin G. Schultz
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 903–926,Short summary
This paper describes the basic results of the biogenic emission scheme, based on MEGAN, integrated into the ECHAM6-HAMMOZ chemistry climate model. Sensitivity to vegetation and climate-dependent parameters is also analysed. This version of the model is now suitable for many tropospheric investigations concerning the impact of biogenic volatile organic compound emissions on the ozone budget, secondary aerosol formation, and atmospheric chemistry.
Putian Zhou, Laurens Ganzeveld, Üllar Rannik, Luxi Zhou, Rosa Gierens, Ditte Taipale, Ivan Mammarella, and Michael Boy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 1361–1379,Short summary
We implemented a multi-layer O3 dry deposition model in a 1-D model SOSAA to simulate O3 flux and concentration within and above a boreal forest at SMEAR II in Hyytiälä, Finland, in August 2010. The results showed that when RH > 70 % the O3 uptake on leaf wet skin was ~ 51 % to the total deposition at night and ~ 19 % at daytime. The sub-canopy contribution below 4.2 m was ~ 38 % at daytime. The averaged daily chemical contribution to total O3 alteration inside the canopy was less than 10 %.
Aino Korrensalo, Pavel Alekseychik, Tomáš Hájek, Janne Rinne, Timo Vesala, Lauri Mehtätalo, Ivan Mammarella, and Eeva-Stiina Tuittila
Biogeosciences, 14, 257–269,Short summary
Photosynthetic parameters of peatland plant species were measured over one growing season in an ombrotrophic bog. Based on these measurements, ecosystem-level photosynthesis was calculated for the whole growing season and compared with an estimate derived from micrometeorological measurements. These two estimates corresponded well. Species with low areal cover at the site but high photosynthetic efficiency appeared to be potentially important for the ecosystem-level carbon balance.
Jarmo Mäkelä, Jouni Susiluoto, Tiina Markkanen, Mika Aurela, Heikki Järvinen, Ivan Mammarella, Stefan Hagemann, and Tuula Aalto
Nonlin. Processes Geophys., 23, 447–465,Short summary
The land-based hydrological cycle is one of the key processes controlling the growth and wilting of plants and the amount of carbon vegetation can assimilate. Recent studies have shown that many land surface models have biases in this area. We optimized parameters in one such model (JSBACH) and were able to enhance the model performance in many respects, but the response to drought remained unaffected. Further studies into this aspect should include alternative stomatal conductance formulations.
Üllar Rannik, Olli Peltola, and Ivan Mammarella
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 5163–5181,Short summary
We review available methods for the random error estimation of turbulent fluxes that are widely used by the flux community. Flux errors are evaluated theoretically as well as via numerical calculations by using measured and simulated records. We recommend two flux random errors with clear physical meaning: the total error resulting from stochastic nature of turbulence, well approximated by the method of Finkelstein and Sims (2001), and the error of the flux due to the instrumental noise.
Ivan Mammarella, Olli Peltola, Annika Nordbo, Leena Järvi, and Üllar Rannik
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 4915–4933,Short summary
In this study we have performed an inter-comparison between EddyUH and EddyPro, two public and commonly used software packages for eddy covariance data processing and calculation. The aims are to estimate the flux uncertainty due to the use of different software packages, and to assess the most critical processing steps, determining the largest deviations in the calculated fluxes. We focus not only on water vapour and carbon dioxide fluxes, but also on the methane flux.
Mari Pihlatie, Üllar Rannik, Sami Haapanala, Olli Peltola, Narasinha Shurpali, Pertti J. Martikainen, Saara Lind, Niina Hyvönen, Perttu Virkajärvi, Mark Zahniser, and Ivan Mammarella
Biogeosciences, 13, 5471–5485,Short summary
The sources and sinks of carbon monoxide (CO) in the biosphere are poorly understood. We report the first continuous data series of CO fluxes measured by eddy covariance method in an agricultural bioenergy crop. The CO fluxes were seasonally and diurnally variable demonstrating the parallel consumption and production processes. Radiation was the main driver of CO emissions, and the eddy covariance method was demonstrated as suitable for linking short-term flux dynamics to environmental drivers.
Mariano Mertens, Astrid Kerkweg, Patrick Jöckel, Holger Tost, and Christiane Hofmann
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 3545–3567,Short summary
This fourth part in a series of publications describing the newly developed regional chemistry–climate system MECO(n) is dedicated to the evaluation of MECO(n) with respect to tropospheric gas-phase chemistry. For this, a simulation incorporating two regional instances, one over Europe with 50 km resolution and one over Germany with 12 km resolution, is conducted. The model results are compared with satellite, ground-based and aircraft in situ observations.
Andrey Glazunov, Üllar Rannik, Victor Stepanenko, Vasily Lykosov, Mikko Auvinen, Timo Vesala, and Ivan Mammarella
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 2925–2949,Short summary
Large-eddy simulation (LES) and Lagrangian stochastic modeling of passive particle dispersion were applied to the scalar flux footprint determination in the stable atmospheric boundary layer. The footprint functions obtained in LES were compared with the functions calculated with the use of first-order single-particle Lagrangian stochastic models (LSMs) and zeroth-order Lagrangian stochastic models - the random displacement models (RDMs).
W. Joe F. Acton, Simon Schallhart, Ben Langford, Amy Valach, Pekka Rantala, Silvano Fares, Giulia Carriero, Ralf Tillmann, Sam J. Tomlinson, Ulrike Dragosits, Damiano Gianelle, C. Nicholas Hewitt, and Eiko Nemitz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 7149–7170,Short summary
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) represent a large source of reactive carbon in the atmosphere and hence have a significant impact on air quality. It is therefore important that we can accurately quantify their emission. In this paper we use three methods to determine the fluxes of reactive VOCs from a woodland canopy. We show that two different canopy-scale measurement methods give good agreement, whereas estimates based on leaf-level-based emission underestimate isoprene fluxes.
David Cabrera-Perez, Domenico Taraborrelli, Rolf Sander, and Andrea Pozzer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 6931–6947,Short summary
The global atmospheric budget and distribution of monocyclic aromatic compounds is estimated, using an atmospheric chemistry general circulation model. Simulation results are evaluated with observations with the goal of understanding emission, production and removal of these compounds. Anthropogenic and biomass burning are the main sources of aromatic compounds to the atmosphere. The main sink is photochemical decomposition and in lesser importance dry deposition.
Victor Stepanenko, Ivan Mammarella, Anne Ojala, Heli Miettinen, Vasily Lykosov, and Timo Vesala
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 1977–2006,Short summary
A 1-D lake model is presented, reproducing temperature, oxygen, carbon dioxide and methane. All prognostic variables are treated in unified manner via generic 1-D transport equation. The model is validated vs. comprehensive observational data set gathered at Kuivajärvi Lake (Finland). Our results suggest that a gas transfer through thermocline under intense seiche motions is a bottleneck in quantifying greenhouse gas dynamics in dimictic lakes, calling for further research.
Patrick Jöckel, Holger Tost, Andrea Pozzer, Markus Kunze, Oliver Kirner, Carl A. M. Brenninkmeijer, Sabine Brinkop, Duy S. Cai, Christoph Dyroff, Johannes Eckstein, Franziska Frank, Hella Garny, Klaus-Dirk Gottschaldt, Phoebe Graf, Volker Grewe, Astrid Kerkweg, Bastian Kern, Sigrun Matthes, Mariano Mertens, Stefanie Meul, Marco Neumaier, Matthias Nützel, Sophie Oberländer-Hayn, Roland Ruhnke, Theresa Runde, Rolf Sander, Dieter Scharffe, and Andreas Zahn
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 1153–1200,Short summary
With an advanced numerical global chemistry climate model (CCM) we performed several detailed combined hind-cast and projection simulations of the period 1950 to 2100 to assess the past, present, and potential future dynamical and chemical state of the Earth atmosphere. The manuscript documents the model and the various applied model set-ups and provides a first evaluation of the simulation results from a global perspective as a quality check of the data.
Üllar Rannik, Luxi Zhou, Putian Zhou, Rosa Gierens, Ivan Mammarella, Andrey Sogachev, and Michael Boy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 3145–3160,Short summary
Atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) model coupled with detailed atmospheric chemistry and aerosol dynamical model was used to quantify the role of aerosol and ABL dynamics in the vertical transport of aerosols at a pine forest site in southern Finland. Simulations showed that under dynamical conditions the particle fluxes above canopy can significantly deviate from the dry deposition into the canopy. The deviation can be systematic for certain particle sizes over a period of several days.
Saara E. Lind, Narasinha J. Shurpali, Olli Peltola, Ivan Mammarella, Niina Hyvönen, Marja Maljanen, Mari Räty, Perttu Virkajärvi, and Pertti J. Martikainen
Biogeosciences, 13, 1255–1268,Short summary
We showed that the reed canary grass (RCG) was environmentally friendly from the CO2 balance point of view when cultivated on this mineral soil. When compared to the earlier findings on the same crop on organic soil site, the capacity of the crop to withdraw atmospheric CO2 was even stronger on the present mineral soil site than that on the organic soil site. For full estimation of the climatic impacts of this bioenergy system, a life cycle assessment will be needed.
A. Collalti, S. Marconi, A. Ibrom, C. Trotta, A. Anav, E. D'Andrea, G. Matteucci, L. Montagnani, B. Gielen, I. Mammarella, T. Grünwald, A. Knohl, F. Berninger, Y. Zhao, R. Valentini, and M. Santini
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 479–504,Short summary
This study evaluates the performances of the new version (v.5.1) of 3D-CMCC Forest Ecosystem Model in simulating gross primary productivity (GPP), against eddy covariance GPP data for 10 FLUXNET forest sites across Europe. The model consistently reproduces both in timing and in magnitude daily and monthly GPP variability across all sites, with the exception of the two Mediterranean sites. Inclusion of forest structure within simulation ameliorate in some cases the model output.
A. J. G. Baumgaertner, P. Jöckel, A. Kerkweg, R. Sander, and H. Tost
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 125–135,Short summary
The Community Earth System Model (CESM1) is connected to the the Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy) as a new base model. This allows MESSy users the option to utilize either the state-of-the art spectral element atmosphere dynamical core or the finite volume core of CESM1. Additionally, this makes several other component models available to MESSy users.
Y. Gao, T. Markkanen, T. Thum, M. Aurela, A. Lohila, I. Mammarella, M. Kämäräinen, S. Hagemann, and T. Aalto
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 175–191,
Christiane Hofmann, Astrid Kerkweg, Peter Hoor, and Patrick Jöckel
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
Ozone enhancements at the surface, caused by descending stratospheric air masses along deep tropopause folds, can be reproduced using the model system MECO(n). It is shown that stratosphere-troposphere-exchange (STE) in the vicinity of a tropopause fold occurs in regions of turbulence and diabatic processes. The efﬁciency of mixing is quantiﬁed, showing that almost all of the air masses originating in the tropopause fold are transported into the troposphere during the following two days.
A. Kerkweg and P. Jöckel
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
F. Minunno, M. Peltoniemi, S. Launiainen, M. Aurela, A. Lindroth, A. Lohila, I. Mammarella, K. Minkkinen, and A. Mäkelä
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
H. Fischer, A. Pozzer, T. Schmitt, P. Jöckel, T. Klippel, D. Taraborrelli, and J. Lelieveld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 6971–6980,
Ü. Rannik, S. Haapanala, N. J. Shurpali, I. Mammarella, S. Lind, N. Hyvönen, O. Peltola, M. Zahniser, P. J. Martikainen, and T. Vesala
Biogeosciences, 12, 415–432,
C. Wu, I. Pullinen, S. Andres, G. Carriero, S. Fares, H. Goldbach, L. Hacker, T. Kasal, A. Kiendler-Scharr, E. Kleist, E. Paoletti, A. Wahner, J. Wildt, and Th. F. Mentel
Biogeosciences, 12, 177–191,Short summary
Impacts of soil moisture on de novo monoterpene emissions from several tree species were studied. Mild drought slightly increased MT emissions, but with further progressing drought the emissions decreased to almost zero. Increases of MT emissions were explainable by increases of leaf temperature due to lowered transpirational cooling. The decrease of emissions observed when soil moisture fell below certain thresholds was parameterized, allowing considering impacts of soil moisture in models.
K. Hens, A. Novelli, M. Martinez, J. Auld, R. Axinte, B. Bohn, H. Fischer, P. Keronen, D. Kubistin, A. C. Nölscher, R. Oswald, P. Paasonen, T. Petäjä, E. Regelin, R. Sander, V. Sinha, M. Sipilä, D. Taraborrelli, C. Tatum Ernest, J. Williams, J. Lelieveld, and H. Harder
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 8723–8747,
O. Peltola, A. Hensen, C. Helfter, L. Belelli Marchesini, F. C. Bosveld, W. C. M. van den Bulk, J. A. Elbers, S. Haapanala, J. Holst, T. Laurila, A. Lindroth, E. Nemitz, T. Röckmann, A. T. Vermeulen, and I. Mammarella
Biogeosciences, 11, 3163–3186,
D. R. Gentner, E. Ormeño, S. Fares, T. B. Ford, R. Weber, J.-H. Park, J. Brioude, W. M. Angevine, J. F. Karlik, and A. H. Goldstein
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 5393–5413,
M. S. Long, W. C. Keene, R. C. Easter, R. Sander, X. Liu, A. Kerkweg, and D. Erickson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 3397–3425,
J.-H. Park, S. Fares, R. Weber, and A. H. Goldstein
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 231–244,
O. Peltola, I. Mammarella, S. Haapanala, G. Burba, and T. Vesala
Biogeosciences, 10, 3749–3765,
J.-H. Park, A. H. Goldstein, J. Timkovsky, S. Fares, R. Weber, J. Karlik, and R. Holzinger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 1439–1456,
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marginal grid resolutions: CAIRDIO v1.0Applying a new integrated mass-flux adjustment filter in rapid update cycling of convective-scale data assimilation for the COSMO model (v5.07)On the model uncertainties in Bayesian source reconstruction using an ensemble of weather predictions, the emission inverse modelling system FREAR v1.0, and the Lagrangian transport and dispersion model Flexpart v9.0.2Evaluation of the interactive stratospheric ozone (O3v2) module in the E3SM version 1 Earth system modelDevelopment of an atmospheric chemistry model coupled to the PALM model system 6.0: implementation and first applicationsThe Vertical City Weather Generator (VCWG v1.3.2)A zero-dimensional view of atmospheric degradation of levoglucosan (LEVCHEM_v1) using numerical chamber simulationsThe Nonhydrostatic ICosahedral Atmospheric Model for CMIP6 HighResMIP simulations (NICAM16-S): experimental design, model description, and impacts of model updatesUsing radar observations to evaluate 3-D radar echo structure simulated by the Energy Exascale Earth System Model (E3SM) version 1Development of WRF/CUACE v1.0 model and its preliminary application in simulating air quality in ChinaPyCHAM (v2.1.1): a Python box model for simulating aerosol chambersImproving dust simulations in WRF-Chem v4.1.3 coupled with the GOCART aerosol moduleFALL3D-8.0: a computational model for atmospheric transport and deposition of particles, aerosols and radionuclides – Part 2: Model validationImplementation of a synthetic inflow turbulence generator in idealised WRF v3.6.1 large eddy simulations under neutral atmospheric conditionsNumerical study of the effects of initial conditions and emissions on PM2.5 concentration simulations with CAMx v6.1: a Xi'an case studyA multi-year short-range hindcast experiment with CESM1 for evaluating climate model moist processes from diurnal to interannual timescalesGround-based lidar processing and simulator framework for comparing models and observations (ALCF 1.0)Development of an Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) aerosol index (AI) data assimilation scheme for aerosol modeling over bright surfaces – a step toward direct radiance assimilation in the UV spectrumIntelliO3-ts v1.0: a neural network approach to predict near-surface ozone concentrations in GermanyDevelopment and evaluation of spectral nudging strategy for the simulation of summer precipitation over the Tibetan PlateauISBA-MEB (SURFEX v8.1): model snow evaluation for local-scale forest sitesEvaluating and improving the treatment of gases in radiation schemes: the Correlated K-Distribution Model Intercomparison Project (CKDMIP)GenChem v1.0 – a chemical pre-processing and testing system for atmospheric modellingThe Detailed Emissions Scaling, Isolation, and Diagnostic (DESID) module in the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) Modeling System version 5.3Incoming data quality control in high-resolution urban climate simulations: a Hong Kong–Shenzhen area urban climate simulation as a case study using the WRF/Noah LSM/SLUCM model (Version 3.7.1)Configuration and evaluation of a global unstructured mesh atmospheric model (GRIST-A20.9) based on the variable-resolution approachDescription of the uEMEP_v5 downscaling approach for the EMEP MSC-W chemistry transport modelDevelopment of a three-dimensional variational assimilation system for lidar profile data based on a size-resolved aerosol model in WRF–Chem model v3.9.1 and its application in PM2.5 forecasts across ChinaUsing wavelet transform and dynamic time warping to identify the limitations of the CNN model as an air quality forecasting systemIn-cloud scavenging scheme for sectional aerosol modules – implementation in the framework of the Sectional Aerosol module for Large Scale Applications version 2.0 (SALSA2.0) global aerosol moduleDetection of atmospheric rivers with inline uncertainty quantification: TECA-BARD v1.0.1TITAM (v1.0): the Time-Independent Tracking Algorithm for MedicanesEffects of horizontal resolution and air–sea coupling on simulated moisture source for East Asian precipitation in MetUM GA6/GC2On the tuning of atmospheric inverse methods: comparisons with the European Tracer Experiment (ETEX) and Chernobyl datasets using the atmospheric transport model FLEXPARTWRF4PALM v1.0: A Mesoscale Dynamical Driver for the Microscale PALM Model System 6.0Sensitivity of aerosol optical properties to the aerosol size distribution over central Europe and the Mediterranean Basin using the WRF-Chem v.188.8.131.52 coupled modelPMIF v1.0: assessing the potential of satellite observations to constrain CO2 emissions from large cities and point sources over the globe using synthetic dataMultilayer cloud conditions in trade wind shallow cumulus – confronting two ICON model derivatives with airborne observationsA new parameterization of ice heterogeneous nucleation coupled to aerosol chemistry in WRF-Chem model version 3.5.1: evaluation through ISDAC measurementsPrioritising the sources of pollution in European cities: do air quality modelling applications provide consistent responses?New strategies for vertical transport in chemistry transport models: application to the case of the Mount Etna eruption on 18 March 2012 with CHIMERE v2017r4Sensitivity of spatial aerosol particle distributions to the boundary conditions in the PALM model system 6.0
Dana L. McGuffin, Yuanlong Huang, Richard C. Flagan, Tuukka Petäjä, B. Erik Ydstie, and Peter J. Adams
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1821–1839,Short summary
Atmospheric particle formation, emissions, and growth process rates are significant sources of uncertainty in predicting climate change. We aim to reduce that uncertainty by using measurements from several ground-based sites across Europe. We developed an estimation technique to adapt the governing process rates so model–measurement bias decays. The estimation framework developed has potential to improve model predictions while providing insight into the underlying atmospheric particle physics.
Harald Flentje, Ina Mattis, Zak Kipling, Samuel Rémy, and Werner Thomas
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1721–1751,Short summary
Atmospheric aerosols crucially impact air quality, climate and weather. Thus, global model forecasts of atmospheric constituents are published daily on the ECMWF website and are regularly verified by the CAMS service team. The IFS-AER model is largely able to reproduce observed 3-D distributions of the important particle types over Germany. The particle concentration is mostly captured within several tens of percent, but quantification of some specific processes still remains a challenge.
Jianhui Jiang, Imad El Haddad, Sebnem Aksoyoglu, Giulia Stefenelli, Amelie Bertrand, Nicolas Marchand, Francesco Canonaco, Jean-Eudes Petit, Olivier Favez, Stefania Gilardoni, Urs Baltensperger, and André S. H. Prévôt
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1681–1697,Short summary
We developed a box model with a volatility basis set to simulate organic aerosol (OA) from biomass burning and optimized the vapor-wall-loss-corrected OA yields with a genetic algorithm. The optimized parameterizations were then implemented in the air quality model CAMx v6.5. Comparisons with ambient measurements indicate that the vapor-wall-loss-corrected parameterization effectively improves the model performance in predicting OA, which reduced the mean fractional bias from −72.9 % to −1.6 %.
Oliver Branch, Thomas Schwitalla, Marouane Temimi, Ricardo Fonseca, Narendra Nelli, Michael Weston, Josipa Milovac, and Volker Wulfmeyer
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1615–1637,Short summary
Effective numerical weather forecasting is vital in arid regions like the United Arab Emirates where extreme events like heat waves, flash floods, and dust storms are becoming more severe. This study employs a high-resolution simulation with the WRF-NOAHMP model, and the output is compared with seasonal observation data from 50 weather stations. This type of verification is vital to identify model deficiencies and improve forecasting systems for arid regions.
Lukas Hubert Leufen, Felix Kleinert, and Martin G. Schultz
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1553–1574,Short summary
MLAir provides a coherent end-to-end structure for a typical time series analysis workflow using machine learning (ML). MLAir is adaptable to a wide range of ML use cases, focusing in particular on deep learning. The user has a free hand with the ML model itself and can select from different methods during preprocessing, training, and postprocessing. MLAir offers tools to track the experiment conduction, documents necessary ML parameters, and creates a variety of publication-ready plots.
Davide Ori, Leonie von Terzi, Markus Karrer, and Stefan Kneifel
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1511–1531,Short summary
Snowflakes have very complex shapes, and modeling their properties requires vast computing power. We produced a large number of realistic snowflakes and modeled their average properties by leveraging their fractal structure. Our approach allows modeling the properties of big ensembles of snowflakes, taking into account their natural variability, at a much lower cost. This enables the usage of remote sensing instruments, such as radars, to monitor the evolution of clouds and precipitation.
Jaydeep Singh, Narendra Singh, Narendra Ojha, Amit Sharma, Andrea Pozzer, Nadimpally Kiran Kumar, Kunjukrishnapillai Rajeev, Sachin S. Gunthe, and V. Rao Kotamarthi
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1427–1443,Short summary
Atmospheric models often have limitations in simulating the geographically complex and climatically important central Himalayan region. In this direction, we have performed regional modeling at high resolutions to improve the simulation of meteorology and dynamics through a better representation of the topography. The study has implications for further model applications to investigate the effects of anthropogenic pressure over the Himalaya.
Beatrice Giacomini and Marco G. Giometto
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1409–1426,Short summary
The present work evaluates the suitability of an important class of second-order finite-volume solvers for the large-eddy simulation of atmospheric boundary- layer flows. Results show that these solvers do not capture the dominant mechanisms responsible for momentum transport in boundary layers, leading to a misprediction of relevant flow statistics and to an enhanced sensitivity of the solution to variations in grid resolution.
Michael Weger, Oswald Knoth, and Bernd Heinold
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1469–1492,Short summary
A new numerical air-quality transport model for cities is presented, in which buildings are described diffusively. The used diffusive-obstacles approach helps to reduce the computational costs for high-resolution simulations as the grid spacing can be more coarse than in traditional approaches. The research which led to this model development was primarily motivated by the need for a computationally feasible downscaling tool for urban wind and pollution fields from meteorological model output.
Yuefei Zeng, Alberto de Lozar, Tijana Janjic, and Axel Seifert
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1295–1307,Short summary
A new integrated mass-flux adjustment filter is introduced and examined with an idealized setup for convective-scale radar data assimilation. It is found that the new filter slightly reduces the accuracy of background and analysis states; however, it preserves the main structure of cold pools and primary mesocyclone properties of supercells. More importantly, it successfully diminishes the imbalance in the analysis considerably and improves the forecasts.
Pieter De Meutter, Ian Hoffman, and Kurt Ungar
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1237–1252,Short summary
Inverse atmospheric transport modelling is an important tool in several disciplines. However, the specification of atmospheric transport model error remains challenging. In this paper, we employ a state-of-the-art ensemble technique combined with a state-of-the-art Bayesian inference algorithm to infer point sources. Our research helps to fill the gap in our understanding of model error in the context of inverse atmospheric transport modelling.
Qi Tang, Michael J. Prather, Juno Hsu, Daniel J. Ruiz, Philip J. Cameron-Smith, Shaocheng Xie, and Jean-Christophe Golaz
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1219–1236,
Basit Khan, Sabine Banzhaf, Edward C. Chan, Renate Forkel, Farah Kanani-Sühring, Klaus Ketelsen, Mona Kurppa, Björn Maronga, Matthias Mauder, Siegfried Raasch, Emmanuele Russo, Martijn Schaap, and Matthias Sühring
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1171–1193,Short summary
An atmospheric chemistry model has been implemented in the microscale PALM model system 6.0. This article provides a detailed description of the model, its structure, input requirements, various features and limitations. Several pre-compiled ready-to-use chemical mechanisms are included in the chemistry model code; however, users can also easily implement other mechanisms. A case study is presented to demonstrate the application of the new chemistry model in the urban environment.
Mohsen Moradi, Benjamin Dyer, Amir Nazem, Manoj K. Nambiar, M. Rafsan Nahian, Bruno Bueno, Chris Mackey, Saeran Vasanthakumar, Negin Nazarian, E. Scott Krayenhoff, Leslie K. Norford, and Amir A. Aliabadi
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 961–984,Short summary
The Vertical City Weather Generator (VCWG) is an urban microclimate model developed to predict temporal and vertical variation of potential temperature, wind speed, and specific humidity. VCWG is forced by climate variables at a nearby rural site and coupled to radiation and building energy models. VCWG is evaluated against field observations of the BUBBLE campaign. It is run under exploration mode to assess its performance given urban characteristics, seasonal variations, and climate zones.
Loredana G. Suciu, Robert J. Griffin, and Caroline A. Masiello
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 907–921,Short summary
Understanding the atmospheric degradation of biomass burning tracers such as levoglucosan is essential to decreasing uncertainties in the role of biomass burning in air quality, carbon cycling and paleoclimate. Using a 0-D modeling approach and numerical chamber simulations, we found that the multiphase atmospheric degradation of levoglucosan occurs over timescales of hours to days, can form secondary organic aerosols and affects other key tropospheric gases, such as ozone.
Chihiro Kodama, Tomoki Ohno, Tatsuya Seiki, Hisashi Yashiro, Akira T. Noda, Masuo Nakano, Yohei Yamada, Woosub Roh, Masaki Satoh, Tomoko Nitta, Daisuke Goto, Hiroaki Miura, Tomoe Nasuno, Tomoki Miyakawa, Ying-Wen Chen, and Masato Sugi
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 795–820,Short summary
This paper describes the latest stable version of NICAM, a global atmospheric model, developed for high-resolution climate simulations toward the IPCC Assessment Report. Our model explicitly treats convection, clouds, and precipitation and could reduce the uncertainty of climate change projection. A series of test simulations demonstrated improvements (e.g., high cloud) and issues (e.g., low cloud, precipitation pattern), suggesting further necessity for model improvement and higher resolutions.
Jingyu Wang, Jiwen Fan, Robert A. Houze Jr., Stella R. Brodzik, Kai Zhang, Guang J. Zhang, and Po-Lun Ma
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 719–734,Short summary
This paper presents an evaluation of the E3SM model against NEXRAD radar observations for the warm seasons during 2014–2016. The COSP forward simulator package is implemented in the model to generate radar reflectivity, and the NEXRAD observations are coarsened to the model resolution for comparison. The model severely underestimates the reflectivity above 4 km. Sensitivity tests on the parameters from cumulus parameterization and cloud microphysics do not improve this model bias.
Lei Zhang, Sunling Gong, Tianliang Zhao, Chunhong Zhou, Yuesi Wang, Jiawei Li, Dongsheng Ji, Jianjun He, Hongli Liu, Ke Gui, Xiaomei Guo, Jinhui Gao, Yunpeng Shan, Hong Wang, Yaqiang Wang, Huizheng Che, and Xiaoye Zhang
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 703–718,Short summary
Development of chemical transport models with advanced physics and chemical schemes is important for improving air-quality forecasts. This study develops the chemical module CUACE by updating with a new particle dry deposition scheme and adding heterogenous chemical reactions and couples it with the WRF model. The coupled model (WRF/CUACE) was able to capture well the variations of PM2.5, O3, NO2, and secondary inorganic aerosols in eastern China.
Simon Patrick O'Meara, Shuxuan Xu, David Topping, M. Rami Alfarra, Gerard Capes, Douglas Lowe, Yunqi Shao, and Gordon McFiggans
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 675–702,Short summary
User-friendly and open-source software for simulating aerosol chambers is a valuable tool for research scientists in designing and analysing their experiments. This paper describes a new version of such software and will therefore provide a useful reference for those applying it. Central to the paper is an assessment of the software's accuracy through comparison against previously published simulations.
Alexander Ukhov, Ravan Ahmadov, Georg Grell, and Georgiy Stenchikov
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 473–493,Short summary
We discuss and evaluate the effects of inconsistencies found in the WRF-Chem code when using the GOCART module. First, PM surface concentrations were miscalculated. Second, dust optical depth was underestimated by 25 %–30 %. Third, an inconsistency in the process of gravitational settling led to the overestimation of dust column loadings by 4 %–6 %, PM10 by 2 %–4 %, and the rate of gravitational dust settling by 5 %–10 %. We also presented diagnostics that can be used to estimate these effects.
Andrew T. Prata, Leonardo Mingari, Arnau Folch, Giovanni Macedonio, and Antonio Costa
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 409–436,Short summary
This paper presents FALL3D-8.0, the latest version release of an open-source code with a track record of 15+ years and a growing number of users in the volcanological and atmospheric communities. The code, originally conceived for atmospheric dispersal and deposition of tephra particles, has been extended to model other types of particles, aerosols and radionuclides. This paper details new model applications and validation of FALL3D-8.0 using satellite, ground-deposit load and radionuclide data.
Jian Zhong, Xiaoming Cai, and Zheng-Tong Xie
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 323–336,Short summary
A synthetic inflow turbulence generator was implemented in the idealised Weather Research and Forecasting large eddy simulation. The inflow case yielded a mean velocity profile and second-moment profiles that agreed well with those generated using periodic boundary conditions, after a short adjustment distance. This implementation can be extended to a multi-scale seamless nesting simulation from a meso-scale domain with a kilometre-scale resolution to LES domains with metre-scale resolutions.
Han Xiao, Qizhong Wu, Xiaochun Yang, Lanning Wang, and Huaqiong Cheng
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 223–238,Short summary
Few studies have investigated the effects of initial conditions on the simulation or prediction of PM2.5 concentrations. Here, sensitivity experiments are used to explore the effects of three initial mechanisms (clean, restart, and continuous) and emissions in Xi’an in December 2016. According to this work, if the restart mechanism cannot be used due to computing resource and storage space limitations when forecasting PM2.5 concentrations, a spin-up time of at least 27 h is needed.
Hsi-Yen Ma, Chen Zhou, Yunyan Zhang, Stephen A. Klein, Mark D. Zelinka, Xue Zheng, Shaocheng Xie, Wei-Ting Chen, and Chien-Ming Wu
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 73–90,Short summary
We propose an experimental design of a suite of multi-year, short-term hindcasts and compare them with corresponding observations or measurements for periods based on different weather and climate phenomena. This atypical way of evaluating model performance is particularly useful and beneficial, as these hindcasts can give scientists a robust picture of modeled precipitation, and cloud and radiation processes from their diurnal variation to year-to-year variability.
Peter Kuma, Adrian J. McDonald, Olaf Morgenstern, Richard Querel, Israel Silber, and Connor J. Flynn
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 43–72,
Jianglong Zhang, Robert J. D. Spurr, Jeffrey S. Reid, Peng Xian, Peter R. Colarco, James R. Campbell, Edward J. Hyer, and Nancy L. Baker
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 27–42,Short summary
A first-of-its-kind scheme has been developed for assimilating Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) aerosol index (AI) measurements into the Naval Aerosol Analysis and Predictive System. Improvements in model simulations demonstrate the utility of OMI AI data assimilation for improving the accuracy of aerosol model analysis over cloudy regions and bright surfaces. This study can be considered one of the first attempts at direct radiance assimilation in the UV spectrum for aerosol analyses.
Felix Kleinert, Lukas H. Leufen, and Martin G. Schultz
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1–25,Short summary
With IntelliO3-ts v1.0, we present an artificial neural network as a new forecasting model for daily aggregated near-surface ozone concentrations with a lead time of up to 4 d. We used measurement and reanalysis data from more than 300 German monitoring stations to train, fine tune, and test the model. We show that the model outperforms standard reference models like persistence models and demonstrate that IntelliO3-ts outperforms climatological reference models for the first 2 d.
Ziyu Huang, Lei Zhong, Yaoming Ma, and Yunfei Fu
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for GMDShort summary
Spectral nudging is an effective dynamical downscaling method used to improve precipitation simulations of regional climate models (RCMs). However, the biases of the reference fields over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) would possibly introduce extra biases when spectral nudging is applied. Results show that the precipitation simulations were significantly improved when limiting the application of spectral nudging towards the potential temperature and water vapor mixing ratio over the TP.
Adrien Napoly, Aaron Boone, and Théo Welfringer
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 6523–6545,Short summary
Accurate modeling of snow impact on surface energy and mass fluxes is required from land surface models. This new version of the SURFEX model improves the representation of the snowpack. In particular, it prevents its ablation from occurring too early in the season, which also leads to better soil temperatures and energy fluxes toward the atmosphere. This was made possible with a more explicit and distinct representation of each layer that constitutes the surface (soil, snow, and vegetation).
Robin J. Hogan and Marco Matricardi
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 6501–6521,Short summary
A key component of computer models used to predict weather and climate is the radiation scheme, which calculates how solar and infrared radiation heats and cools the atmosphere and surface, including the important role of greenhouse gases. This paper describes the experimental protocol and large datasets for a new project, CKDMIP, to evaluate and improve the accuracy of the treatment of atmospheric gases in the radiation schemes used worldwide, as well as their computational speed.
David Simpson, Robert Bergström, Alan Briolat, Hannah Imhof, John Johansson, Michael Priestley, and Alvaro Valdebenito
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 6447–6465,Short summary
This paper outlines the structure and usage of the GenChem system, which includes a chemical pre-processor (GenChem.py) and a simple box model (boxChem). GenChem provides scripts and input files for converting chemical equations into differential form for use in atmospheric chemical transport models (CTMs) and/or the boxChem system. Although GenChem is primarily intended for users of the EMEP MSC-W CTM and related systems, boxChem can be run as a stand-alone chemical solver.
Benjamin N. Murphy, Christopher G. Nolte, Fahim Sidi, Jesse O. Bash, K. Wyat Appel, Carey Jang, Daiwen Kang, James Kelly, Rohit Mathur, Sergey Napelenok, George Pouliot, and Havala O. T. Pye
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for GMDShort summary
The algorithms for applying air pollution emission rates in the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model have been improved to better support users and developers. The new features accommodate emissions perturbation studies that are typical in atmospheric research and output a wealth of metadata for each model run so assumptions can be verified and documented. The new approach dramatically enhances the transparency and functionality of this critical of atmospheric modeling.
Zhiqiang Li, Bingcheng Wan, Yulun Zhou, and Hokit Wong
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 6349–6360,Short summary
Our results provide evidence of the effects of incoming land surface data quality on the accuracy of high-resolution urban climate simulations and emphasize the importance of the incoming data quality control.
Yihui Zhou, Yi Zhang, Jian Li, Rucong Yu, and Zhuang Liu
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 6325–6348,Short summary
This paper explores the configuration of a global atmospheric model (global-to-regional integrated forecast system-atmosphere; GRIST-A) with various multiresolution grids. The model performance is evaluated from dry dynamics to simple physics and full physics. The model is able to resolve the fine-scale structures in the grid-refinement region, and the adverse impact due to the mesh transition and the coarse-resolution area can be controlled well.
Bruce Rolstad Denby, Michael Gauss, Peter Wind, Qing Mu, Eivind Grøtting Wærsted, Hilde Fagerli, Alvaro Valdebenito, and Heiko Klein
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 6303–6323,Short summary
Air pollution is both a local and a global problem. Since measurements cannot be made everywhere, mathematical models are used to calculate air quality over cities or countries. Modelling over countries limits the level of detail of the models. For countries, the level of detail is only a few kilometres, so air quality at kerb sides is not properly represented. The uEMEP model is used together with the regional air quality model EMEP MSC-W to model details down to kerb side for all of Norway.
Yanfei Liang, Zengliang Zang, Dong Liu, Peng Yan, Yiwen Hu, Yan Zhou, and Wei You
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 6285–6301,
Ebrahim Eslami, Yunsoo Choi, Yannic Lops, Alqamah Sayeed, and Ahmed Khan Salman
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 6237–6251,Short summary
As using deep learning algorithms has become a popular data analytic technique, atmospheric scientists should have a balanced perception of their strengths and limitations so that they can provide a powerful analysis of complex data with well-established procedures. This study addresses significant limitations of an advanced deep learning algorithm, the convolutional neural network.
Eemeli Holopainen, Harri Kokkola, Anton Laakso, and Thomas Kühn
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 6215–6235,Short summary
This paper introduces an in-cloud wet deposition scheme for liquid and ice phase clouds for global aerosol–climate models. With the default setup, our wet deposition scheme behaves spuriously and better representation can be achieved with this scheme when black carbon is mixed with soluble compounds at emission time. This work is done as many of the global models fail to reproduce the transport of black carbon to the Arctic, which may be due to the poor representation of wet removal in models.
Travis A. O'Brien, Mark D. Risser, Burlen Loring, Abdelrahman A. Elbashandy, Harinarayan Krishnan, Jeffrey Johnson, Christina M. Patricola, John P. O'Brien, Ankur Mahesh, Prabhat, Sarahí Arriaga Ramirez, Alan M. Rhoades, Alexander Charn, Héctor Inda Díaz, and William D. Collins
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 6131–6148,Short summary
Researchers utilize various algorithms to identify extreme weather features in climate data, and we seek to answer this question: given a
plausibleweather event detector, how does uncertainty in the detector impact scientific results? We generate a suite of statistical models that emulate expert identification of weather features. We find that the connection between El Niño and atmospheric rivers – a specific extreme weather type – depends systematically on the design of the detector.
Enrique Pravia-Sarabia, Juan José Gómez-Navarro, Pedro Jiménez-Guerrero, and Juan Pedro Montávez
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 6051–6075,Short summary
This work shows TITAM, a time-independent tracking algorithm specifically suited for Mediterranean tropical-like cyclones, often referred to as medicanes. The methodology developed has the capacity to track multiple simultaneous cyclones, the ability to track a medicane in the presence of intense extratropical lows, and the potential to separate the medicane from other similar structures by handling the intermittent loss of structure and managing the tilting of the axis.
Liang Guo, Ruud J. van der Ent, Nicholas P. Klingaman, Marie-Estelle Demory, Pier Luigi Vidale, Andrew G. Turner, Claudia C. Stephan, and Amulya Chevuturi
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 6011–6028,Short summary
Precipitation over East Asia simulated in the Met Office Unified Model is compared with observations. Moisture sources of EA precipitation are traced using a moisture tracking model. Biases in moisture sources are linked to biases in precipitation. Using the tracking model, changes in moisture sources can be attributed to changes in SST, circulation and associated evaporation. This proves that the method used in this study is useful to identify the causes of biases in regional precipitation.
Ondřej Tichý, Lukáš Ulrych, Václav Šmídl, Nikolaos Evangeliou, and Andreas Stohl
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 5917–5934,Short summary
We study the estimation of the temporal profile of an atmospheric release using formalization as a linear inverse problem. The problem is typically ill-posed, so all state-of-the-art methods need some form of regularization using additional information. We provide a sensitivity study on the prior source term and regularization parameters for the shape of the source term with a demonstration on the ETEX experimental release and the Cs-134 and Cs-137 dataset from the Chernobyl accident.
Dongqi Lin, Basit Khan, Marwan Katurji, Leroy Bird, Ricardo Faria, and Laura E. Revell
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for GMDShort summary
We present an open-source toolbox WRF4PALM which enables simulating weather dynamics within the urban landscapes. WRF4PALM passes meteorological information from the popular Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to the turbulence-resolving PALM model system 6.0. WRF4PALM can potentially extend the use of WRF and PALM with realistic boundary conditions to any part of the world. WRF4PALM will help study air pollution dispersion, wind energy prospecting, and high impact wind forecasting.
Laura Palacios-Peña, Jerome D. Fast, Enrique Pravia-Sarabia, and Pedro Jiménez-Guerrero
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 5897–5915,Short summary
The main objective of this work is to study the impact of the representation of aerosol size distribution on aerosol optical properties over central Europe and the Mediterranean Basin during a summertime aerosol episode using the WRF-Chem online model. Results reveal that the reduction in the standard deviation of the accumulation mode leads to the largest impacts on aerosol optical depth (AOD) representation due to a transfer of particles from the accumulation mode to the coarse mode.
Yilong Wang, Grégoire Broquet, François-Marie Bréon, Franck Lespinas, Michael Buchwitz, Maximilian Reuter, Yasjka Meijer, Armin Loescher, Greet Janssens-Maenhout, Bo Zheng, and Philippe Ciais
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 5813–5831,
Marek Jacob, Pavlos Kollias, Felix Ament, Vera Schemann, and Susanne Crewell
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 5757–5777,Short summary
We compare clouds in different cloud-resolving atmosphere simulations with airborne remote sensing observations. The focus is on warm shallow clouds in the Atlantic trade wind region. Those clouds are climatologically important but challenging for climate models. We use forward operators to apply instrument-specific thresholds for cloud detection to model outputs. In this comparison, the higher-resolution model better reproduces the layered cloud structure.
Setigui Aboubacar Keita, Eric Girard, Jean-Christophe Raut, Maud Leriche, Jean-Pierre Blanchet, Jacques Pelon, Tatsuo Onishi, and Ana Cirisan
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 5737–5755,
Bart Degraeuwe, Enrico Pisoni, and Philippe Thunis
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 5725–5736,Short summary
To make decisions on how to improve air quality, it is useful to identify the main sources of pollution for an area of interest. Often these sources of pollution are identified with complex models that, even if accurate, are time consuming and complex. In this work we use another approach, simplified models, to accomplish the same task. The results, computed with two different set of simplified models, show the main sources of pollution for selected cities, and the associated uncertainties.
Mathieu Lachatre, Sylvain Mailler, Laurent Menut, Solène Turquety, Pasquale Sellitto, Henda Guermazi, Giuseppe Salerno, Tommaso Caltabiano, and Elisa Carboni
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 5707–5723,Short summary
Excessive numerical diffusion is a major limitation in the representation of long-range transport in atmospheric models. In the present study, we focus on excessive diffusion in the vertical direction. We explore three possible ways of addressing this problem: increased vertical resolution, an advection scheme with anti-diffusive properties and more accurate representation of vertical wind. This study focused on a particular volcanic eruption event to improve atmospheric transport modeling.
Mona Kurppa, Pontus Roldin, Jani Strömberg, Anna Balling, Sasu Karttunen, Heino Kuuluvainen, Jarkko V. Niemi, Liisa Pirjola, Topi Rönkkö, Hilkka Timonen, Antti Hellsten, and Leena Järvi
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 5663–5685,Short summary
High-resolution modelling is needed to solve the aerosol concentrations in a complex urban area. Here, the performance of an aerosol module within the PALM model to simulate the detailed horizontal and vertical distribution of aerosol particles is studied. Further, sensitivity to the meteorological and aerosol boundary conditions is assessed using both model and observation data. The horizontal distribution is sensitive to the wind speed and stability, and the vertical to the wind direction.
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Dry deposition to vegetation is a major sink of ground-level ozone. Its parameterization in atmospheric chemistry models represents a significant source of uncertainty for global tropospheric ozone. We extended the current model parameterization with a relevant pathway and important meteorological adjustment factors. The comparison with measurements shows that this enables a more realistic model representation of ozone dry deposition velocity. Globally, annual dry deposition loss increases.
Dry deposition to vegetation is a major sink of ground-level ozone. Its parameterization in...