Articles | Volume 13, issue 3
Model description paper 23 Mar 2020
Model description paper | 23 Mar 2020
Simulating coupled surface–subsurface flows with ParFlow v3.5.0: capabilities, applications, and ongoing development of an open-source, massively parallel, integrated hydrologic model
Benjamin N. O. Kuffour et al.
No articles found.
Mary M. F. O'Neill, Danielle T. Tijerina, Laura E. Condon, and Reed M. Maxwell
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for GMDShort summary
Modeling the hydrologic cycle at high resolution and at large spatial scales is an incredible opportunity and challenge for hydrologists. In this paper, we present the results of a high resolution hydrologic simulation configured over the contiguous United States. We discuss simulated water fluxes through groundwater, soil, plants, and over land, and we compare model results to in situ observations and satellite products in order to build confidence and guide future model development.
Jun Zhang, Laura E. Condon, Hoang Tran, and Reed M. Maxwell
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ESSDShort summary
The existing national topographic datasets for US may not be compatible with gridded hydrologic models. This study provides a national topographic dataset developed to support physically based hydrologic models at 1 km and 250 m over contiguous US. We used a priority flood algorithm to ensure hydrologically drainage networks and evaluated the performance with an integrated hydrologic model. Datasets and scripts are available for either direct data usage or modification of processing as desired.
Tom Gleeson, Thorsten Wagener, Petra Döll, Samuel C. Zipper, Charles West, Yoshihide Wada, Richard Taylor, Bridget Scanlon, Rafael Rosolem, Shams Rahman, Nurudeen Oshinlaja, Reed Maxwell, Min-Hui Lo, Hyungjun Kim, Mary Hill, Andreas Hartmann, Graham Fogg, James S. Famiglietti, Agnès Ducharne, Inge de Graaf, Mark Cuthbert, Laura Condon, Etienne Bresciani, and Marc F. P. Bierkens
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
Yueling Ma, Carsten Montzka, Bagher Bayat, and Stefan Kollet
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for HESSShort summary
This study utilized spatio-temporally continuous precipitation anomaly (pra) and water table depth anomaly (wtda) from integrated hydrologic simulation results over Europe in combination with LSTM networks to capture the time-varying and time-lagged relationship between pra and wtda in order to obtain reliable models to estimate wtda at the individual pixel level.
Stephen R. Maples, Laura Foglia, Graham E. Fogg, and Reed M. Maxwell
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 2437–2456,Short summary
In this study, we use a combination of local- and global-sensitivity analyses to evaluate the relative importance of (1) the configuration of subsurface alluvial geology and (2) the hydraulic properties of geologic facies on recharge processes. Results show that there is a large variation of recharge rates possible in a typical alluvial aquifer system and that the configuration proportion of sand and gravel deposits in the subsurface have a large impact on recharge rates.
Bernd Schalge, Gabriele Baroni, Barbara Haese, Daniel Erdal, Gernot Geppert, Pablo Saavedra, Vincent Haefliger, Harry Vereecken, Sabine Attinger, Harald Kunstmann, Olaf A. Cirpka, Felix Ament, Stefan Kollet, Insa Neuweiler, Harrie-Jan Hendricks Franssen, and Clemens Simmer
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ESSDShort summary
In this study a nine year simulation of complete model output of a coupled atmosphere-land surface-subsurface model on the catchment scale is discussed. We used the Neckar catchment in SW-Germany as the basis of this simulation. Since the dataset includes the full model output it is not only possible to investigate model behaviour and interactions between the component models but also use it as a virtual truth for comparison of for example data assimilation experiments.
Annette Hein, Laura Condon, and Reed Maxwell
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 1931–1950,Short summary
Drought is a natural disaster that can result from changes to temperature, precipitation and/or vegetation. Here we apply a high-resolution computer model to explore the relative importance of each factor on the North American High Plains, one of the most important agricultural regions of the USA. Decreased precipitation caused larger changes in hydrologic variables (evapotranspiration, soil moisture, stream flow and water table levels) than increased temperature or disturbed vegetation did.
Bibi S. Naz, Wolfgang Kurtz, Carsten Montzka, Wendy Sharples, Klaus Goergen, Jessica Keune, Huilin Gao, Anne Springer, Harrie-Jan Hendricks Franssen, and Stefan Kollet
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 277–301,Short summary
This study investigates the value of assimilating coarse-resolution remotely sensed soil moisture data into high-resolution land surface models for improving soil moisture and runoff modeling. The soil moisture estimates in this study, with complete spatio-temporal coverage and improved spatial resolution from the assimilation, offer a new reanalysis product for the monitoring of surface soil water content and other hydrological fluxes at 3 km resolution over Europe.
Wendy Sharples, Ilya Zhukov, Markus Geimer, Klaus Goergen, Sebastian Luehrs, Thomas Breuer, Bibi Naz, Ketan Kulkarni, Slavko Brdar, and Stefan Kollet
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 2875–2895,Short summary
Next-generation geoscientific models are based on complex model implementations and workflows. Next-generation HPC systems require new programming paradigms and code optimization. In order to meet the challenge of running complex simulations on new massively parallel HPC systems, we developed a run control framework that facilitates code portability, code profiling, and provenance tracking to reduce both the duration and the cost of code migration and development, while ensuring reproducibility.
David J. Gardner, Jorge E. Guerra, François P. Hamon, Daniel R. Reynolds, Paul A. Ullrich, and Carol S. Woodward
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 1497–1515,Short summary
As the computational power of supercomputing systems increases, and models for simulating the fluid flow of the Earth's atmosphere operate at higher resolutions, new approaches for advancing these models in time will be necessary. In order to produce the best possible result in the least amount of time, we evaluate a number of splittings, methods, and solvers on two test cases. Based on these results, we identify the most accurate and efficient approaches for consideration in production models.
Laura E. Condon and Reed M. Maxwell
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 1117–1135,Short summary
We evaluate the impact of groundwater–surface water exchanges on the fraction of precipitation that leaves a watershed as either surface runoff or evapotranspiration. Results show that groundwater storage can systematically influence watershed behavior at the land surface. This is an important finding because most studies of tradeoffs between runoff and evapotranspiration assume that watersheds are in a steady-state condition where there are no net exchanges between the surface and subsurface.
James M. Gilbert and Reed M. Maxwell
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 923–947,Short summary
Understanding how groundwater and streamflow interact over large areas is a challenge. In this study we use a computer simulation that calculates water movement and storage at the land surface and in the subsurface within California's San Joaquin River basin to analyze different parts of the watershed. Results show that the mountains may be an important source of groundwater to the Central Valley while differences in relative speed of groundwater and river flow affect their connection patterns.
Bernd Schalge, Jehan Rihani, Gabriele Baroni, Daniel Erdal, Gernot Geppert, Vincent Haefliger, Barbara Haese, Pablo Saavedra, Insa Neuweiler, Harrie-Jan Hendricks Franssen, Felix Ament, Sabine Attinger, Olaf A. Cirpka, Stefan Kollet, Harald Kunstmann, Harry Vereecken, and Clemens Simmer
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Manuscript not accepted for further reviewShort summary
In this work we show how we used a coupled atmosphere-land surface-subsurface model at highest possible resolution to create a testbed for data assimilation. The model was able to capture all important processes and interactions between the compartments as well as showing realistic statistical behavior. This proves that using a model as a virtual truth is possible and it will enable us to develop data assimilation methods where states and parameters are updated across compartment.
Stefan J. Kollet
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 2801–2809,
Wolfgang Kurtz, Guowei He, Stefan J. Kollet, Reed M. Maxwell, Harry Vereecken, and Harrie-Jan Hendricks Franssen
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 1341–1360,Short summary
This paper describes the development of a modular data assimilation (DA) system for the integrated Earth system model TerrSysMP with the help of the PDAF data assimilation library. Currently, pressure and soil moisture data can be used to update model states and parameters in the subsurface compartment of TerrSysMP. Results from an idealized twin experiment show that the developed DA system provides a good parallel performance and is also applicable for high-resolution modelling problems.
P. Shrestha, M. Sulis, C. Simmer, and S. Kollet
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 4317–4326,Short summary
This study highlights the grid resolution dependence of energy and water balance of the 3-D physically based integrated surface-groundwater model. The non-local controls of soil moisture were found to be highly grid resolution dependent, but the local vegetation control strongly modulates the scaling behavior of surface energy fluxes. For coupled runs, variability in patterns of surface fluxes due to this scale dependence can affect the simulated atmospheric boundary layer and local circulation.
X. Han, X. Li, G. He, P. Kumbhar, C. Montzka, S. Kollet, T. Miyoshi, R. Rosolem, Y. Zhang, H. Vereecken, and H.-J. H. Franssen
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
DasPy is a ready to use open source parallel multivariate land data assimilation framework with joint state and parameter estimation using Local Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter. The Community Land Model (4.5) was integrated as model operator. The Community Microwave Emission Modelling platform, COsmic-ray Soil Moisture Interaction Code and the Two-Source Formulation were integrated as observation operators for the multivariate assimilation of soil moisture and soil temperature, respectively.
R. M. Maxwell, L. E. Condon, and S. J. Kollet
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 923–937,Short summary
A model that simulates groundwater and surface water flow has been developed for the major river basins of the continental United States. Fundamental data sets provide input to the model resulting in a natural organization of stream networks and groundwater flow that is compared to observations of surface water and groundwater. Model results show relationships between flow and area that are moderated by aridity and represent an important step toward integrated hydrological prediction.
F. Gasper, K. Goergen, P. Shrestha, M. Sulis, J. Rihani, M. Geimer, and S. Kollet
Geosci. Model Dev., 7, 2531–2543,
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Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 935–959,Short summary
We evaluate polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) as simulated by the chemistry–climate model (CCM) SOCOLv3.1 in comparison with measurements by the CALIPSO satellite. A cold bias results in an overestimated PSC area and mountain-wave ice is underestimated, but we find overall good temporal and spatial agreement of PSC occurrence and composition. This work confirms previous studies indicating that simplified PSC schemes may also achieve good approximations of the fundamental properties of PSCs.
Zhaoyuan Yu, Dongshuang Li, Zhengfang Zhang, Wen Luo, Yuan Liu, Zengjie Wang, and Linwang Yuan
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 875–887,Short summary
Few lossy compression methods consider both the global and local multidimensional coupling correlations, which could lead to information loss in data compression. Here we develop an adaptive lossy compression method, Adaptive-HGFDR, to capture both the global and local variation of multidimensional coupling correlations and improve approximation accuracy. The method can achieve good compression performances for most flux variables with significant spatiotemporal heterogeneity.
Franziska Winterstein and Patrick Jöckel
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 661–674,Short summary
Atmospheric methane is currently a hot topic in climate research. This is partly due to its chemically active nature. We introduce a simplified approach to simulate methane in climate models to enable large sensitivity studies by reducing computational cost but including the crucial feedback of methane on stratospheric water vapour. We further provide options to simulate the isotopic content of methane and to generate output for an inverse optimization technique for emission estimation.
Ruth Petrie, Sébastien Denvil, Sasha Ames, Guillaume Levavasseur, Sandro Fiore, Chris Allen, Fabrizio Antonio, Katharina Berger, Pierre-Antoine Bretonnière, Luca Cinquini, Eli Dart, Prashanth Dwarakanath, Kelsey Druken, Ben Evans, Laurent Franchistéguy, Sébastien Gardoll, Eric Gerbier, Mark Greenslade, David Hassell, Alan Iwi, Martin Juckes, Stephan Kindermann, Lukasz Lacinski, Maria Mirto, Atef Ben Nasser, Paola Nassisi, Eric Nienhouse, Sergey Nikonov, Alessandra Nuzzo, Clare Richards, Syazwan Ridzwan, Michel Rixen, Kim Serradell, Kate Snow, Ag Stephens, Martina Stockhause, Hans Vahlenkamp, and Rick Wagner
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 629–644,Short summary
This paper describes the infrastructure that is used to distribute Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6) data around the world for analysis by the climate research community. It is expected that there will be ~20 PB (petabytes) of data available for analysis. The operations team performed a series of preparation "data challenges" to ensure all components of the infrastructure were operational for when the data became available for timely data distribution and subsequent analysis.
Camilla Mathison, Andrew J. Challinor, Chetan Deva, Pete Falloon, Sébastien Garrigues, Sophie Moulin, Karina Williams, and Andy Wiltshire
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 437–471,Short summary
Sequential cropping (also known as multiple or double cropping) is a common cropping system, particularly in tropical regions. Typically, land surface models only simulate a single crop per year. To understand how sequential crops influence surface fluxes, we implement sequential cropping in JULES to simulate all the crops grown within a year at a given location in a seamless way. We demonstrate the method using a site in Avignon, four locations in India and a regional run for two Indian states.
Chao Wang, Xingqin An, Qing Hou, Zhaobin Sun, Yanjun Li, and Jiangtao Li
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 337–350,
Kalyn Dorheim, Steven J. Smith, and Ben Bond-Lamberty
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 365–375,Short summary
Simple climate models are frequently used in research and decision-making communities because of their tractability and low computational cost. Simple climate models are diverse, including highly idealized and process-based models. Here we present a hybrid approach that combines the strength of two types of simple climate models in a flexible framework. This hybrid approach has provided insights into the climate system and opens an avenue for investigating radiative forcing uncertainties.
David N. Bresch and Gabriela Aznar-Siguan
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 351–363,Short summary
Climate change is a fact and adaptation a necessity. The Economics of Climate Adaptation methodology provides a framework to integrate risk and reward perspectives of different stakeholders, underpinned by the CLIMADA impact modelling platform. This extended version of CLIMADA enables risk assessment and options appraisal in a modular form and occasionally bespoke fashion yet with high reusability of functionalities to foster usage in interdisciplinary studies and international collaboration.
Adam T. Blaker, Manoj Joshi, Bablu Sinha, David P. Stevens, Robin S. Smith, and Joël J.-M. Hirschi
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 275–293,Short summary
FORTE 2.0 is a flexible coupled atmosphere–ocean general circulation model that can be run on modest hardware. We present two 2000-year simulations which show that FORTE 2.0 is capable of producing a stable climate. Earlier versions of FORTE were used for a wide range of studies, ranging from aquaplanet configurations to investigating the cold European winters of 2009–2010. This paper introduces the updated model for which the code and configuration are now publicly available.
Ah-Hyun Kim, Seong Soo Yum, Dong Yeong Chang, and Minsu Park
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 259–273,Short summary
A new method to estimate the sulfate aerosol hygroscopicity parameter (κSO4) is suggested that can consider κSO4 for two different sulfate species instead of prescribing a single κSO4 value, as in most previous studies. The new method simulates more realistic cloud droplet concentrations and, thus, a more realistic cloud albedo effect than the original method. The new method is simple and readily applicable to modeling studies investigating sulfate aerosols’ effect in aerosol–cloud interactions.
Brigitta Szabó, Melanie Weynants, and Tobias K. D. Weber
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 151–175,Short summary
This paper presents updated European prediction algorithms (euptf2) to compute soil hydraulic parameters from easily available soil properties. The new algorithms lead to significantly better predictions and provide a built-in prediction uncertainty computation. The influence of predictor variables on predicted soil hydraulic properties is explored and practical guidance on how to use the derived PTFs is provided. A website and an R package facilitate easy application of the updated predictions.
Zhanshan Ma, Chuanfeng Zhao, Jiandong Gong, Jin Zhang, Zhe Li, Jian Sun, Yongzhu Liu, Jiong Chen, and Qingu Jiang
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 205–221,Short summary
The spin-up in GRAPES_GFS, under different initial fields, goes through a dramatic adjustment in the first half-hour of integration and slow dynamic and thermal adjustments afterwards. It lasts for at least 6 h, with model adjustment gradually completed from lower to upper layers in the model. Thus, the forecast results, at least in the first 6 h, should be avoided when used. In addition, the spin-up process should repeat when the model simulation is interrupted.
Chein-Jung Shiu, Yi-Chi Wang, Huang-Hsiung Hsu, Wei-Ting Chen, Hua-Lu Pan, Ruiyu Sun, Yi-Hsuan Chen, and Cheng-An Chen
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 177–204,Short summary
A cloud macrophysics scheme utilizing grid-mean hydrometeor information is developed and evaluated for climate models. The GFS–TaiESM–Sundqvist (GTS) scheme can simulate variations of cloud fraction associated with relative humidity (RH) in a more consistent way than the default scheme of CAM5.3. Through better cloud–RH distributions, the GTS scheme helps to better represent cloud fraction, cloud radiative forcing, and thermodynamic-related climatic fields in climate simulations.
Katherine A. Crichton, Jamie D. Wilson, Andy Ridgwell, and Paul N. Pearson
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 125–149,Short summary
Temperature is a controller of metabolic processes and therefore also a controller of the ocean's biological carbon pump (BCP). We calibrate a temperature-dependent version of the BCP in the cGENIE Earth system model. Since the pre-industrial period, warming has intensified near-surface nutrient recycling, supporting production and largely offsetting stratification-induced surface nutrient limitation. But at the same time less carbon that sinks out of the surface then reaches the deep ocean.
Jane P. Mulcahy, Colin Johnson, Colin G. Jones, Adam C. Povey, Catherine E. Scott, Alistair Sellar, Steven T. Turnock, Matthew T. Woodhouse, Nathan Luke Abraham, Martin B. Andrews, Nicolas Bellouin, Jo Browse, Ken S. Carslaw, Mohit Dalvi, Gerd A. Folberth, Matthew Glover, Daniel P. Grosvenor, Catherine Hardacre, Richard Hill, Ben Johnson, Andy Jones, Zak Kipling, Graham Mann, James Mollard, Fiona M. O'Connor, Julien Palmiéri, Carly Reddington, Steven T. Rumbold, Mark Richardson, Nick A. J. Schutgens, Philip Stier, Marc Stringer, Yongming Tang, Jeremy Walton, Stephanie Woodward, and Andrew Yool
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 6383–6423,Short summary
Aerosols are an important component of the Earth system. Here, we comprehensively document and evaluate the aerosol schemes as implemented in the physical and Earth system models, HadGEM3-GC3.1 and UKESM1. This study provides a useful characterisation of the aerosol climatology in both models, facilitating the understanding of the numerous aerosol–climate interaction studies that will be conducted for CMIP6 and beyond.
Hao Yu, Li Liu, Chao Sun, Ruizhe Li, Xinzhu Yu, Cheng Zhang, Zhiyuan Zhang, and Bin Wang
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 6253–6263,Short summary
Routing network generation is a major step for initializing the data transfer functionality for model coupling. The distributed implementation for routing network generation (DiRong1.0) proposed in this paper can significantly improve the global implementation of routing network generation used in some existing coupling software, because it does not introduce any gather–broadcast communications and achieves much lower complexity in terms of time, memory, and communication.
Øyvind Seland, Mats Bentsen, Dirk Olivié, Thomas Toniazzo, Ada Gjermundsen, Lise Seland Graff, Jens Boldingh Debernard, Alok Kumar Gupta, Yan-Chun He, Alf Kirkevåg, Jörg Schwinger, Jerry Tjiputra, Kjetil Schanke Aas, Ingo Bethke, Yuanchao Fan, Jan Griesfeller, Alf Grini, Chuncheng Guo, Mehmet Ilicak, Inger Helene Hafsahl Karset, Oskar Landgren, Johan Liakka, Kine Onsum Moseid, Aleksi Nummelin, Clemens Spensberger, Hui Tang, Zhongshi Zhang, Christoph Heinze, Trond Iversen, and Michael Schulz
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 6165–6200,Short summary
The second version of the coupled Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM2) is presented and evaluated. The temperature and precipitation patterns has improved compared to NorESM1. The model reaches present-day warming levels to within 0.2 °C of observed temperature but with a delayed warming during the late 20th century. Under the four scenarios (SSP1-2.6, SSP2-4.5, SSP3-7.0, and SSP5-8.5), the warming in the period of 2090–2099 compared to 1850–1879 reaches 1.3, 2.2, 3.1, and 3.9 K.
Wieke Heldens, Cornelia Burmeister, Farah Kanani-Sühring, Björn Maronga, Dirk Pavlik, Matthias Sühring, Julian Zeidler, and Thomas Esch
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 5833–5873,Short summary
For realistic microclimate simulations in urban areas with PALM 6.0, detailed description of surface types, buildings and vegetation is required. This paper shows how such input data sets can be derived with the example of three German cities. Various data sources are used, including remote sensing, municipal data collections and open data such as OpenStreetMap. The collection and preparation of input data sets is tedious. Future research aims therefore at semi-automated tools to support users.
Emmanuele Russo, Silje Lund Sørland, Ingo Kirchner, Martijn Schaap, Christoph C. Raible, and Ulrich Cubasch
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 5779–5797,Short summary
The parameter space of the COSMO-CLM RCM is investigated for the Central Asia CORDEX domain using a perturbed physics ensemble (PPE) with different parameter values. Results show that only a subset of model parameters presents relevant changes in model performance and these changes depend on the considered region and variable: objective calibration methods are highly necessary in this case. Additionally, the results suggest the need for calibrating an RCM when targeting different domains.
Carley E. Iles, Robert Vautard, Jane Strachan, Sylvie Joussaume, Bernd R. Eggen, and Chris D. Hewitt
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 5583–5607,Short summary
We investigate how increased resolution affects the simulation of European climate extremes for global and regional climate models to inform modelling strategies. Precipitation extremes become heavier with higher resolution, especially over mountains, wind extremes become somewhat stronger, and for temperature extremes warm biases are reduced over mountains. Differences with resolution for the global model appear to come from downscaling effects rather than improved large-scale circulation.
Marie-Estelle Demory, Ségolène Berthou, Jesús Fernández, Silje L. Sørland, Roman Brogli, Malcolm J. Roberts, Urs Beyerle, Jon Seddon, Rein Haarsma, Christoph Schär, Erasmo Buonomo, Ole B. Christensen, James M. Ciarlo ̀, Rowan Fealy, Grigory Nikulin, Daniele Peano, Dian Putrasahan, Christopher D. Roberts, Retish Senan, Christian Steger, Claas Teichmann, and Robert Vautard
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 5485–5506,Short summary
Now that global climate models (GCMs) can run at similar resolutions to regional climate models (RCMs), one may wonder whether GCMs and RCMs provide similar regional climate information. We perform an evaluation for daily precipitation distribution in PRIMAVERA GCMs (25–50 km resolution) and CORDEX RCMs (12–50 km resolution) over Europe. We show that PRIMAVERA and CORDEX simulate similar distributions. Considering both datasets at such a resolution results in large benefits for impact studies.
George C. Hurtt, Louise Chini, Ritvik Sahajpal, Steve Frolking, Benjamin L. Bodirsky, Katherine Calvin, Jonathan C. Doelman, Justin Fisk, Shinichiro Fujimori, Kees Klein Goldewijk, Tomoko Hasegawa, Peter Havlik, Andreas Heinimann, Florian Humpenöder, Johan Jungclaus, Jed O. Kaplan, Jennifer Kennedy, Tamás Krisztin, David Lawrence, Peter Lawrence, Lei Ma, Ole Mertz, Julia Pongratz, Alexander Popp, Benjamin Poulter, Keywan Riahi, Elena Shevliakova, Elke Stehfest, Peter Thornton, Francesco N. Tubiello, Detlef P. van Vuuren, and Xin Zhang
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 5425–5464,Short summary
To estimate the effects of human land use activities on the carbon–climate system, a new set of global gridded land use forcing datasets was developed to link historical land use data to eight future scenarios in a standard format required by climate models. This new generation of land use harmonization (LUH2) includes updated inputs, higher spatial resolution, more detailed land use transitions, and the addition of important agricultural management layers; it will be used for CMIP6 simulations.
Philip Goodwin, Martin Leduc, Antti-Ilari Partanen, H. Damon Matthews, and Alex Rogers
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 5389–5399,Short summary
Numerical climate models are used to make projections of future surface warming for different pathways of future greenhouse gas emissions, where future surface warming will vary from place to place. However, it is so expensive to run complex models using supercomputers that future projections can only be produced for a small number of possible future emissions pathways. This study presents an efficient climate model to make projections of local surface warming using a desktop computer.
Mathieu Vrac and Soulivanh Thao
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 5367–5387,Short summary
We propose a multivariate bias correction (MBC) method to adjust the spatial and/or inter-variable properties of climate simulations, while also accounting for their temporal dependences (e.g., autocorrelations). It consists on a method reordering the ranks of the time series according to their multivariate distance to a reference time series. Results show that temporal correlations are improved while spatial and inter-variable correlations are still satisfactorily corrected.
Hella Garny, Roland Walz, Matthias Nützel, and Thomas Birner
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 5229–5257,Short summary
Numerical models of Earth's climate system have been gaining more and more complexity over the last decades. Therefore, it is important to establish simplified models to improve process understanding. In our study, we present and document the development of a new simplified model setup within the framework of a complex climate model system that uses the same routines to calculate atmospheric dynamics as the complex model but is simplified in the representation of clouds and radiation.
Yingxia Gao, Nicholas P. Klingaman, Charlotte A. DeMott, and Pang-Chi Hsu
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 5191–5209,Short summary
Both the air–sea coupling and ocean mean state affect the fidelity of simulated boreal summer intraseasonal oscillation (BSISO). To elucidate their relative effects on the simulated BSISO, a set of experiments was conducted using a superparameterized AGCM and its coupled version. Both air–sea coupling and cold ocean mean state improve the BSISO amplitude due to the suppression of the overestimated variance, while the former (latter) could further upgrade (degrade) the BSISO propagation.
Zebedee R. J. Nicholls, Malte Meinshausen, Jared Lewis, Robert Gieseke, Dietmar Dommenget, Kalyn Dorheim, Chen-Shuo Fan, Jan S. Fuglestvedt, Thomas Gasser, Ulrich Golüke, Philip Goodwin, Corinne Hartin, Austin P. Hope, Elmar Kriegler, Nicholas J. Leach, Davide Marchegiani, Laura A. McBride, Yann Quilcaille, Joeri Rogelj, Ross J. Salawitch, Bjørn H. Samset, Marit Sandstad, Alexey N. Shiklomanov, Ragnhild B. Skeie, Christopher J. Smith, Steve Smith, Katsumasa Tanaka, Junichi Tsutsui, and Zhiang Xie
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 5175–5190,Short summary
Computational limits mean that we cannot run our most comprehensive climate models for all applications of interest. In such cases, reduced complexity models (RCMs) are used. Here, researchers working on 15 different models present the first systematic community effort to evaluate and compare RCMs: the Reduced Complexity Model Intercomparison Project (RCMIP). Our research ensures that users of RCMs can more easily evaluate the strengths, weaknesses and limitations of their tools.
Jaeyoung Song, Gretchen R. Miller, Anthony T. Cahill, Luiza Maria T. Aparecido, and Georgianne W. Moore
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 5147–5173,Short summary
The performance of a land surface model (CLM4.5 and 5.0) was examined against a suite of measurements from a tropical montane rainforest in Costa Rica. Both versions failed to capture the effects of frequent rainfall events and mountainous terrain on temperature, leaf wetness, photosynthesis, and transpiration. While the new model version eliminated some errors, it still cannot precisely simulate a number of processes. This suggests that two key components of the model need modification.
Patricio Velasquez, Martina Messmer, and Christoph C. Raible
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 5007–5027,Short summary
This work presents a new bias-correction method for precipitation that considers orographic characteristics, which can be used in studies where the latter strongly changes. The three-step correction method consists of a separation into orographic features, correction of low-intensity precipitation, and application of empirical quantile mapping. Seasonal bias induced by the global climate model is fully corrected. Rigorous cross-validations illustrate the method's applicability and robustness.
Johannes Horak, Marlis Hofer, Ethan Gutmann, Alexander Gohm, and Mathias W. Rotach
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for GMDShort summary
The presented process based evaluation of the atmospheric model ICAR is conducted to derive recommendations to increase the likelihood of its results being correct for the right reasons. We conclude that a different diagnosis of the atmospheric background state is necessary, as well as a model top at an elevation of at least 10 km. Alternative boundary conditions at the top were not found effective in reducing this model top elevation. The results have wide implications for future ICAR studies.
Eric Larour, Lambert Caron, Mathieu Morlighem, Surendra Adhikari, Thomas Frederikse, Nicole-Jeanne Schlegel, Erik Ivins, Benjamin Hamlington, Robert Kopp, and Sophie Nowicki
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 4925–4941,Short summary
ISSM-SLPS is a new projection system for future sea level that increases the resolution and accuracy of current projection systems and improves the way uncertainty is treated in such projections. This will pave the way for better inclusion of state-of-the-art results from existing intercomparison efforts carried out by the scientific community, such as GlacierMIP2 or ISMIP6, into sea-level projections.
Hiroshi Yamashita, Feijia Yin, Volker Grewe, Patrick Jöckel, Sigrun Matthes, Bastian Kern, Katrin Dahlmann, and Christine Frömming
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 4869–4890,Short summary
This paper describes the updated submodel AirTraf 2.0 which simulates global air traffic in the ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC) model. Nine aircraft routing options have been integrated, including contrail avoidance, minimum economic costs, and minimum climate impact. Example simulations reveal characteristics of different routing options on air traffic performances. The consistency of the AirTraf simulations is verified with literature data.
Landon A. Rieger, Jason N. S. Cole, John C. Fyfe, Stephen Po-Chedley, Philip J. Cameron-Smith, Paul J. Durack, Nathan P. Gillett, and Qi Tang
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 4831–4843,Short summary
Recently, the stratospheric aerosol forcing dataset used as an input to the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 6 was updated. This work explores the impact of those changes on the modelled historical climates in the CanESM5 and EAMv1 models. Temperature differences in the stratosphere shortly after the Pinatubo eruption are found to be significant, but surface temperatures and precipitation do not show a significant change.
Shaoqing Zhang, Haohuan Fu, Lixin Wu, Yuxuan Li, Hong Wang, Yunhui Zeng, Xiaohui Duan, Wubing Wan, Li Wang, Yuan Zhuang, Hongsong Meng, Kai Xu, Ping Xu, Lin Gan, Zhao Liu, Sihai Wu, Yuhu Chen, Haining Yu, Shupeng Shi, Lanning Wang, Shiming Xu, Wei Xue, Weiguo Liu, Qiang Guo, Jie Zhang, Guanghui Zhu, Yang Tu, Jim Edwards, Allison Baker, Jianlin Yong, Man Yuan, Yangyang Yu, Qiuying Zhang, Zedong Liu, Mingkui Li, Dongning Jia, Guangwen Yang, Zhiqiang Wei, Jingshan Pan, Ping Chang, Gokhan Danabasoglu, Stephen Yeager, Nan Rosenbloom, and Ying Guo
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 4809–4829,Short summary
Science advancement and societal needs require Earth system modelling with higher resolutions that demand tremendous computing power. We successfully scale the 10 km ocean and 25 km atmosphere high-resolution Earth system model to a new leading-edge heterogeneous supercomputer using state-of-the-art optimizing methods, promising the solution of high spatial resolution and time-varying frequency. Corresponding technical breakthroughs are of significance in modelling and HPC design communities.
Gill M. Martin, Richard C. Levine, José M. Rodriguez, and Michael Vellinga
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for GMDShort summary
Our study highlights a number of different techniques that can be employed to investigate the sources of model error. We demonstrate how this methodology can be used to identify the regions and model components responsible for the development of long-standing errors in the Asian Summer Monsoon. Once these are known, further work can be done to explore the local processes contributing to this behaviour and their sensitivity to changes in physical parameterizations and/or model resolution.
Tokuta Yokohata, Tsuguki Kinoshita, Gen Sakurai, Yadu Pokhrel, Akihiko Ito, Masashi Okada, Yusuke Satoh, Etsushi Kato, Tomoko Nitta, Shinichiro Fujimori, Farshid Felfelani, Yoshimitsu Masaki, Toshichika Iizumi, Motoki Nishimori, Naota Hanasaki, Kiyoshi Takahashi, Yoshiki Yamagata, and Seita Emori
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 4713–4747,Short summary
The most significant feature of MIROC-INTEG-LAND is that the land surface model that describes the processes of the energy and water balances, human water management, and crop growth incorporates a land-use decision-making model based on economic activities. The future simulations indicate that changes in climate have significant impacts on crop yields, land use, and irrigation water demand.
Chia-Te Chien, Markus Pahlow, Markus Schartau, and Andreas Oschlies
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 4691–4712,Short summary
We demonstrate sensitivities of tracers to parameters of a new optimality-based plankton–ecosystem model (OPEM) in the UVic-ESCM. We find that changes in phytoplankton subsistence nitrogen quota strongly impact the nitrogen inventory, nitrogen fixation, and elemental stoichiometry of ordinary phytoplankton and diazotrophs. We introduce a new likelihood-based metric for model calibration, and it shows the capability of constraining globally averaged oxygen, nitrate, and DIC concentrations.
Markus Pahlow, Chia-Te Chien, Lionel A. Arteaga, and Andreas Oschlies
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 4663–4690,Short summary
The stoichiometry of marine biotic processes is important for the regulation of atmospheric CO2 and hence the global climate. We replace a simplistic, fixed-stoichiometry plankton module in an Earth system model with an optimal-regulation model with variable stoichiometry. Our model compares better to the observed carbon transfer from the surface to depth and surface nutrient distributions. This work could aid our ability to describe and project the role of marine ecosystems in the Earth system.
Yong Wang, Guang J. Zhang, Shaocheng Xie, Wuyin Lin, George C. Craig, Qi Tang, and Hsi-Yen Ma
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for GMDShort summary
A stochastic deep convection parameterization is implemented into the U.S. Department of Energy Energy Exascale Earth System Model Atmosphere Model version 1 (EAMv1). Compared to the default model, the well-known problem of
too much light rain and too little heavy rainis largely alleviated over the tropics with the stochastic scheme. Results from this study provide important insights into the model performance of EAMv1 when stochasticity is included in deep convective parameterization.
Peter A. Bogenschutz, Shuaiqi Tang, Peter M. Caldwell, Shaocheng Xie, Wuyin Lin, and Yao-Sheng Chen
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 4443–4458,Short summary
This paper documents a tool that has been developed that can be used to accelerate the development and understanding of climate models. This version of the model, known as a the single-column model, is much faster to run than the full climate model, and we demonstrate that this tool can be used to quickly exploit model biases that arise due to physical processes. We show examples of how this single-column model can directly benefit the field.
Ying Liu, Rodrigo Caballero, and Joy Merwin Monteiro
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 4399–4412,Short summary
The calculation of atmospheric radiative transfer is the most computationally expensive part of climate models. Reducing this computational burden could potentially improve our ability to simulate the earth's climate at finer scales. We propose using a statistical model – a deep neural network – to compute approximate radiative transfer in the earth's atmosphere. We demonstrate a significant reduction in computational burden as compared to a traditional scheme, especially when using GPUs.
Lars Nerger, Qi Tang, and Longjiang Mu
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 4305–4321,Short summary
Data assimilation combines observations with numerical models to get an improved estimate of the model state. This work discusses the technical aspects of how a coupled model that simulates the ocean and the atmosphere can be augmented by data assimilation functionality provided in generic form by the open-source software PDAF (Parallel Data Assimilation Framework). A very efficient program is obtained that can be executed on high-performance computers.
Christof G. Beer, Johannes Hendricks, Mattia Righi, Bernd Heinold, Ina Tegen, Silke Groß, Daniel Sauer, Adrian Walser, and Bernadett Weinzierl
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 4287–4303,Short summary
Mineral dust aerosol plays an important role in the climate system. Previously, dust emissions have often been represented in global models by prescribed monthly-mean emission fields representative of a specific year. We now apply an online calculation of wind-driven dust emissions. This results in an improved agreement with observations, due to a better representation of the highly variable dust emissions. Increasing the model resolution led to an additional performance gain.
Nadine Mengis, David P. Keller, Andrew H. MacDougall, Michael Eby, Nesha Wright, Katrin J. Meissner, Andreas Oschlies, Andreas Schmittner, Alexander J. MacIsaac, H. Damon Matthews, and Kirsten Zickfeld
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 4183–4204,Short summary
In this paper, we evaluate the newest version of the University of Victoria Earth System Climate Model (UVic ESCM 2.10). Combining recent model developments as a joint effort, this version is to be used in the next phase of model intercomparison and climate change studies. The UVic ESCM 2.10 is capable of reproducing changes in historical temperature and carbon fluxes well. Additionally, the model is able to reproduce the three-dimensional distribution of many ocean tracers.
Axel Lauer, Veronika Eyring, Omar Bellprat, Lisa Bock, Bettina K. Gier, Alasdair Hunter, Ruth Lorenz, Núria Pérez-Zanón, Mattia Righi, Manuel Schlund, Daniel Senftleben, Katja Weigel, and Sabrina Zechlau
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 4205–4228,Short summary
The Earth System Model Evaluation Tool is a community software tool designed for evaluation and analysis of climate models. New features of version 2.0 include analysis scripts for important large-scale features in climate models, diagnostics for extreme events, regional model and impact evaluation. In this paper, newly implemented climate metrics, emergent constraints for climate-relevant feedbacks and diagnostics for future model projections are described and illustrated with examples.
Brecht Martens, Dominik L. Schumacher, Hendrik Wouters, Joaquín Muñoz-Sabater, Niko E. C. Verhoest, and Diego G. Miralles
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 4159–4181,Short summary
Climate reanalyses are widely used in different fields and an in-depth evaluation of the different variables provided by reanalyses is a necessary means to provide feedback on the quality to their users and the operational centres producing these data sets. In this study, we show the improvements of ECMWF's latest climate reanalysis (ERA5) upon its predecessor (ERA-Interim) in partitioning the available energy at the land surface.
Arthur P. K. Argles, Jonathan R. Moore, Chris Huntingford, Andrew J. Wiltshire, Anna B. Harper, Chris D. Jones, and Peter M. Cox
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 4067–4089,Short summary
The Robust Ecosystem Demography (RED) model simulates cohorts of vegetation through mass classes. RED establishes a framework for representing demographic changes through competition, growth, and mortality across the size distribution of a forest. The steady state of the model can be solved analytically, enabling initialization. When driven by mean growth rates from a land-surface model, RED is able to fit the observed global vegetation map, giving a map of implicit mortality rates.
James A. Franke, Christoph Müller, Joshua Elliott, Alex C. Ruane, Jonas Jägermeyr, Abigail Snyder, Marie Dury, Pete D. Falloon, Christian Folberth, Louis François, Tobias Hank, R. Cesar Izaurralde, Ingrid Jacquemin, Curtis Jones, Michelle Li, Wenfeng Liu, Stefan Olin, Meridel Phillips, Thomas A. M. Pugh, Ashwan Reddy, Karina Williams, Ziwei Wang, Florian Zabel, and Elisabeth J. Moyer
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 3995–4018,Short summary
Improving our understanding of the impacts of climate change on crop yields will be critical for global food security in the next century. The models often used to study the how climate change may impact agriculture are complex and costly to run. In this work, we describe a set of global crop model emulators (simplified models) developed under the Agricultural Model Intercomparison Project. Crop model emulators make agricultural simulations more accessible to policy or decision makers.
Miguel Nogueira, Clément Albergel, Souhail Boussetta, Frederico Johannsen, Isabel F. Trigo, Sofia L. Ermida, João P. A. Martins, and Emanuel Dutra
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 3975–3993,Short summary
We used earth observations to evaluate and improve the representation of land surface temperature (LST) and vegetation coverage over Iberia in CHTESSEL and SURFEX land surface models. We demonstrate the added value of updating the vegetation types and fractions together with the representation of vegetation coverage seasonality. Results show a large reduction in daily maximum LST systematic error during warm months, with neutral impacts in other seasons.
Qiong Zhang, Qiang Li, Qiang Zhang, Ellen Berntell, Josefine Axelsson, Jie Chen, Zixuan Han, Wesley de Nooijer, Zhengyao Lu, Klaus Wyser, and Shuting Yang
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for GMDShort summary
Paleoclimate modelling has long been regarded as a strong out-of-sample test-bed of the climate models that are used for the projection of future climate changes. Here, we document the model experiments setup for the three past warm periods with EC-Earth3-LR and present the results on the large-scale features from the completed production simulations. The simulations demonstrate the good performance of the model to capture the climate response under different climate forcings.
Abu-El-Sha'r, W. Y. and Rihani, J. F.: Application of the high performance computing techniques of parflow simulator to model groundwater flow at Azraq basin, Water Resour. Manage., 21, 409–425, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11269-006-9023-5, 2007.
Ajami, H., McCabe, H. M., Evans, J. P., and Stisen, S.: Assessing the impact of model spin-up on surface water-groundwater interactions using an integrated hydrologic model, Water Resour. Res., 50, 2636–2656, https://doi.org/10.1002/2013WR014258, 2014.
Ajami, H., McCabe, M. F., and Evans, J. P.: Impacts of model initialization on an integrated surface water-groundwater model, Hydrol. Process., 29, 3790–3801, https://doi.org/10.1002/hyp.10478, 2015.
Allievi, A. and Calisal, S. M.: Application of Bubnov-Galerkin formulation to orthogonal grid generation, J. Comput. Phys., 98, 163–173, https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9991(92)90181-W, 1992.
Amdahl, G. M.: Validity of the single processor approach to achieving large scale computing capabilities, in spring joint computer conference, Vol. 37, 256–259, 1967.
Anyah, R. O., Weaver, C. P., Miguez-Macho, G., Fan, Y., and Robock, A.: Incorporating water table dynamics in climate modeling: 3. Simulated groundwater influence on coupled land-atmosphere variability, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 113, 1–15, https://doi.org/10.1029/2007JD009087, 2008.
Ashby, S. F. and Falgout, R. D.: A Parallel Multigrid Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient Algorithm for Groundwater Flow Simulations, Nucl. Sci. Eng., 124, 145–159, 1996.
Ashby, S. F., Falgout, R. D., Smith, S. G., and Tompson, A. F. B.: Modeling groundwater flow on MPPs, Proc. Scalable Parallel Libr. Conf., 17–25, https://doi.org/10.1109/SPLC.1993.365586, 1993.
Ashby, S. F., Falgout, R. D., Tompson, A., and Fogwell, T.: Numerical simulation of groundwater flow on MPPs, 17–25, 1994.
Ashby, S. F., Falgout, R. D., and Tompson, A. F. B.: A Scalable Approach to Modeling Groundwater Flow on Massively Parallel Computers, in In Next Generation Environmental Models and Computational Methods, Vol. 87, 201, 1997.
Atchley, A. L. and Maxwell, R. M.: Influences of subsurface heterogeneity and vegetation cover on soil moisture, surface temperature and evapotranspiration at hillslope scales, Hydrogeol. J., 19, 289–305, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10040-010-0690-1, 2011.
Atchley, A. L., Maxwell, R. M., and Navarre-Sitchler, A. K.: Human health risk assessment of CO2 leakage into overlying aquifers using a stochastic, geochemical reactive transport approach, Environ. Sci. Technol., 47, 5954–5962, https://doi.org/10.1021/es400316c, 2013.
Baldauf, M., Seifert, A., Forstner, J., Majewski, D., and Raschendorfer, M.: Operational Convective-Scale Numerical Weather Prediction with the COSMO Model?: Description and Sensitivities, Am. Meteorol. Soc., 3887–3905, https://doi.org/10.1175/MWR-D-10-05013.1, 2011.
Beisman, J.: Development of a parallel reactive transport model with spatially variable nitrate reduction in a floodplain aquifer, A thesis submitted to the Faculty and the Board of Trustees of the Colorado School of Mines in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science (Hydrology), 2007.
Beisman, J. J., Maxwell, R. M., Navarre-Sitchler, A. K., Steefel, C. I., and Molins, S.: ParCrunchFlow: an efficient, parallel reactive transport simulation tool for physically and chemically heterogeneous saturated subsurface environments, Comput. Geosci., 19, 403–422, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10596-015-9475-x, 2015.
Benson, D. A., Aquino, T., Bolster, D., Engdahl, N., Henri, C. V., and Fernandez-Garcia, D.: A comparison of Eulerian and Lagrangian transport and non-linear reaction algorithms, Adv. Water Resour., 99, 15–37, 2017.
Bettems, J. M., Asensio, H., Bonafe, Duniec, G., Fuhrer, O., Helmert, J., Heret, C., Kazakova, E., Lange, Machulskaya, E., Mazur, A., De Morsier, G., Rianna, G., Rozinkina, I., Vieli, B., and Vogel, G.: The COSMO Priority Project “COLOBOC”: Final Technical Report No 27, 2015.
Beven, K.: Robert E. Horton's perceptual model of infiltration processes, Hydrol. Process., 18, 3447–3460, https://doi.org/10.1002/hyp.5740, 2004.
Bhaskar, A. S., Welty, C., Maxwell, R. M., and Miller, A. J.: Untangling the effects of urban development on subsurface storage in Baltimore, Water Resour. Res., 51, 1158–1181, https://doi.org/10.1002/2014WR016039, 2015.
Briggs, W. L., Henson, V. E., and McCormick, S. F.: A Multigrid Tutorial, 72, Siam, ISBN 13978-0898714623, https://doi.org/10.1137/1.9780898719505, 2000.
Brown, P. N. and Saad, Y.: Hybrid Krylov Methods for Nonlinear Systems of Equations, SIAM J. Sci. Stat. Comput., 11, 450–481, https://doi.org/10.1137/0911026, 1990.
Burstedde, C., Fonseca, J. A., and Kollet, S.: Enhancing speed and scalability of the ParFlow simulation code, Comput. Geosci., 22, 347–361, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10596-017-9696-2, 2018.
Castronova, A. M., Goodall, J. L., and Ercan, M. B.: Integrated modeling within a hydrologic information system: an OpenMI based approach, Environ. Model. Softw., 39, 263–273, 2013.
Celia, M. A., Bouloutas, E. T., and Zarba, R. L.: A general mass-conservative numerical solution for the unsaturated flow equation, Water Resour. Res., 26, 1483–1496, https://doi.org/10.1029/WR026i007p01483, 1990.
Chow, F. K., Kollet, S. J., Maxwell, R. M., and Duan, Q.: Effects of Soil Moisture Heterogeneity on Boundary Layer Flow with Coupled Groundwater, Land-Surface, and Mesoscale Atmospheric Modeling, 17th Symp. Bound. Laters Turbul., https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrs.2010.10.003, 2006.
Collier, A. M., Hindmarsh, A. C., Serban, R., and Woodward, C. S.: User Documentation for kinsol v2.8.2 (SUNDIALS v2.6.2), 1, 120, 2015.
Condon, L. E. and Maxwell, R. M.: Implementation of a linear optimization water allocation algorithm into a fully integrated physical hydrology model, Adv. Water Resour., 60, 135–147, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.advwatres.2013.07.012, 2013.
Condon, L. E. and Maxwell, R. M.: Groundwater-fed irrigation impacts spatially distributed temporal scaling behavior of the natural system: a spatio-temporal framework for understanding water management impacts, Environ. Res. Lett., 9, 034009, https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/9/3/034009, 2014.
Condon, L. E. and Maxwell, R. M.: Evaluating the relationship between topography and groundwater using outputs from a continental-scale integrated hydrology model, Water Resour. Res., 51, 6602–6621, https://doi.org/10.1002/2014WR016774, 2015.
Condon, L. E., Maxwell, R. M., and Gangopadhyay, S.: The impact of subsurface conceptualization on land energy fluxes, Adv. Water Resour., 60, 188–203, https://doi.org/10.1016/J.ADVWATRES.2013.08.001, 2013.
Condon, L. E., Hering, A. S., and Maxwell, R. M.: Quantitative assessment of groundwater controls across major US river basins using a multi-model regression algorithm, Adv. Water Resour., 82, 106–123, https://doi.org/10.1016/J.ADVWATRES.2015.04.008, 2015.
Dai, Y., Zeng, X., Dickinson, R. E., Baker, I., Bonan, G. B., Bosilovich, M. G., Denning, A. S., Dirmeyer, P. A., Houser, P. R., Niu, G., and Oleson, K. W.: The Common Land Model, B. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 84, 1013–1023, https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-84-8-1013, 2003.
Dembo, R. S. and Eisenstat, S. C.: Inexact newton methods, in: SIAM J. Numer. Anal., Vol. 19, 400–408, 1982.
Dennis Jr., J. E. and Schnabel, R. B.: Numerical methods for unconstrained optimization and nonlinear equations, Vol. 16, Siam, 1996.
Duniec, G. and Mazur, A.: COLOBOC-MOSAIC parameterization in COSMO model v. 4.8, COSMO Newsletter, 11, 69–81, 2011.
Durbin, P.: An Approach to Local Refinement of Structured Grids An Approach to Local Refinement of Structured Grids, J. Comput. Phys., 181, 639–653, https://doi.org/10.1006/jcph.2002.7147, 2002.
Eca, L.: 2D orthogonal grid generation with boundary point distribution control, J. Comput. Phys., 125, 440–453, https://doi.org/10.1006/jcph.1996.0106, 1996.
Eisenstat, S. C. and Walker, H. F.: Choosing the Forcing Terms in an Inexact Newton Method, SIAM J. Sci. Comput., 17, 16–32, https://doi.org/10.1137/0917003, 1996.
Ek, M. B., Mitchell, K. E., Lin, Y., Rogers, E., Grunmann, P., Koren, V., Gayno, G., and Tarpley, J. D.: Implementation of Noah land surface model advances in the National Centers for Environmental Prediction operational mesoscale Eta model, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 108, 8851, https://doi.org/10.1029/2002JD003296, 2003.
Engdahl, N. B. and Maxwell, R. M.: Quantifying changes in age distributions and the hydrologic balance of a high-mountain watershed from climate induced variations in recharge, J. Hydrol., 522, 152–162, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2014.12.032, 2015.
Engdahl, N. B., McCallum, J. L., and Massoudieh, A.: Transient age distributions in subsurface hydrologic systems, J. Hydrol., 543, 88–100, 2016.
Falgout, R. D. and Yang, U. M.: Hypre: A Library of High Performance Preconditioners, in International Conference on Computational Science, 632–641, Springer, Berlin, 2002.
Falgout, R. D., Baldwin, C., Bosl, W., Hornung, R., Shumaker, D., Smith, S., Woodward, C. S., and Tompson, A. F. B.: Enabling computational technologies for subsurface simulations, No. UCRL-ID-133255, 97-ERD-035, WM1025000, Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (US), 1999.
Ferguson, I. M. and Maxwell, R. M.: Groundwater-Land Surface-Atmosphere Feedbacks: Impacts of Groundwater Pumping and Irrigation on Land-Atmosphere Interactions, Proc. xviii Int. Conf. Comput. Methods Water Resour., 722–729, 2010.
Ferguson, I. M. and Maxwell, R. M.: Hydrologic and land-energy feedbacks of agricultural water management practices, Environ. Res. Lett., 6, 014006, https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/6/1/014006, 2011.
Ferguson, I. M. and Maxwell, R. M.: Human impacts on terrestrial hydrology: climate change versus pumping and irrigation, Environ. Res. Lett., 7, 044022, https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/7/4/044022, 2012.
Ferguson, I. M., Jefferson, J. L., Maxwell, R. M., and Kollet, S. J.: Effects of root water uptake formulation on simulated water and energy budgets at local and basin scales, Environ. Earth Sci., 75, 316, https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-015-5041-z, 2016.
Frei, S., Fleckenstein, J. H., Kollet, S. J., and Maxwell, R. M.: Patterns and dynamics of river-aquifer exchange with variably-saturated flow using a fully-coupled model, J. Hydrol., 375, 383–393, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2009.06.038, 2009.
Gasper, F., Goergen, K., Shrestha, P., Sulis, M., Rihani, J., Geimer, M., and Kollet, S.: Implementation and scaling of the fully coupled Terrestrial Systems Modeling Platform (TerrSysMP v1.0) in a massively parallel supercomputing environment – a case study on JUQUEEN (IBM Blue Gene/Q), Geosci. Model Dev., 7, 2531–2543, https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-7-2531-2014, 2014.
Gebler, S., Kollet, S., Qu, W., and Vereecken, H.: High resolution modelling of soil moisture patterns with ParFlow-CLM?: Comparison with sensor network data, in: EGU General Assembly Conference Abstracts, 17, 2015.
Gilbert, J. M. and Maxwell, R. M.: Examining regional groundwater–surface water dynamics using an integrated hydrologic model of the San Joaquin River basin, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 923–947, https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-21-923-2017, 2017.
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Integrated hydrologic models (IHMs) were developed in order to allow for more accurate simulations of real-world ecohydrologic conditions. Many IHMs exist, and the literature can be dense, so it is often difficult to understand what a specific model can and cannot do. We provide a review of the current core capabilities, solution techniques, communication structure with other models, some limitations, and potential future improvements of one such open-source integrated model called ParFlow.
Integrated hydrologic models (IHMs) were developed in order to allow for more accurate...