Articles | Volume 12, issue 2
Development and technical paper
12 Feb 2019
Development and technical paper | 12 Feb 2019
DATeS: a highly extensible data assimilation testing suite v1.0
Ahmed Attia and Adrian Sandu
No articles found.
Andrey A. Popov, Amit N. Subrahmanya, and Adrian Sandu
Nonlin. Processes Geophys., 29, 241–253,Short summary
Numerical weather prediction requires the melding of both computational model and data obtained from sensors such as satellites. We focus on one algorithm to accomplish this. We aim to aid its use by additionally supplying it with data obtained from separate models that describe the average behavior of the computational model at any given time. We show that our approach outperforms the standard approaches to this problem.
Andrey A. Popov and Adrian Sandu
Nonlin. Processes Geophys., 26, 109–122,Short summary
This work has to do with a small part of existing algorithms that are used in applications such as predicting the weather. We provide empirical evidence that our new technique works well on small but representative models. This might lead to creation of a better weather forecast and potentially save lives as in the case of hurricane prediction.
Related subject area
Atmospheric sciencesThe Comprehensive Automobile Research System (CARS) – a Python-based automobile emissions inventory modelValidation of turbulent heat transfer models against eddy covariance flux measurements over a seasonally ice-covered lakeRegional evaluation of the performance of the global CAMS chemical modeling system over the United States (IFS cycle 47r1)Order of magnitude wall time improvement of variational methane inversions by physical parallelization: a demonstration using TM5-4DVARSimulated microphysical properties of winter storms from bulk-type microphysics schemes and their evaluation in the Weather Research and Forecasting (v4.1.3) model during the ICE-POP 2018 field campaignA novel method for objective identification of 3-D potential vorticity anomaliesMultiple same-level and telescoping nesting in GFDL's dynamical coreGlobal, high-resolution mapping of tropospheric ozone – explainable machine learning and impact of uncertaintiesAssessing the roles emission sources and atmospheric processes play in simulating δ15N of atmospheric NOx and NO3− using CMAQ (version 5.2.1) and SMOKE (version 4.6)The Regional Coupled Suite (RCS-IND1): application of a flexible regional coupled modelling framework to the Indian region at kilometre scaleA comparative analysis for a deep learning model (hyDL-CO v1.0) and Kalman filter to predict CO concentrations in ChinaEarth System Model Aerosol–Cloud Diagnostics (ESMAC Diags) package, version 1: assessing E3SM aerosol predictions using aircraft, ship, and surface measurementsEffects of vertical ship exhaust plume distributions on urban pollutant concentration – a sensitivity study with MITRAS v2.0 and EPISODE-CityChem v1.4An emergency response model for the formation and dispersion of plumes originating from major fires (BUOYANT v4.20)Description and evaluation of the community aerosol dynamics model MAFOR v2.0Modeling the high-mercury wet deposition in the southeastern US with WRF-GC-Hg v1.0Development of a deep neural network for predicting 6 h average PM2.5 concentrations up to 2 subsequent days using various training dataChemistry Across Multiple Phases (CAMP) version 1.0: an integrated multiphase chemistry modelAn aerosol vertical data assimilation system (NAQPMS-PDAF v1.0): development and applicationEarth system modeling of mercury using CESM2 – Part 1: Atmospheric model CAM6-Chem/Hg v1.0Conservation laws in a neural network architecture: enforcing the atom balance of a Julia-based photochemical model (v0.2.0)On the application and grid-size sensitivity of the urban dispersion model CAIRDIO v2.0 under real city weather conditionsDevelopment and evaluation of an advanced National Air Quality Forecasting Capability using the NOAA Global Forecast System version 16Estimating aerosol emission from SPEXone on the NASA PACE mission using an ensemble Kalman smoother: observing system simulation experiments (OSSEs)An ensemble-based statistical methodology to detect differences in weather and climate model executablesMultiphase processes in the EC-Earth model and their relevance to the atmospheric oxalate, sulfate, and iron cyclesSensitivity of precipitation in the highlands and lowlands of Peru to physics parameterization options in WRFV3.8.1Coupling a weather model directly to GNSS orbit determination – case studies with OpenIFSImplementation of an ensemble Kalman filter in the Community Multiscale Air Quality model (CMAQ model v5.1) for data assimilation of ground-level PM2.5Massive-Parallel Trajectory Calculations version 2.2 (MPTRAC-2.2): Lagrangian transport simulations on graphics processing units (GPUs)Bedymo: a combined quasi-geostrophic and primitive equation model in σ coordinatesSimulation of organics in the atmosphere: evaluation of EMACv2.54 with the Mainz Organic Mechanism (MOM) coupled to the ORACLE (v1.0) submodelAn update on the 4D-LETKF data assimilation system for the whole neutral atmosphereDetermining the sensitive parameters of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model for the simulation of tropical cyclones in the Bay of Bengal using global sensitivity analysis and machine learningA unified framework to estimate the origins of atmospheric moisture and heat using Lagrangian modelsImplementation of aerosol data assimilation in WRFDA (v4.0.3) for WRF-Chem (v3.9.1) using the RACM/MADE-VBS schemeRepresenting low-intensity fire sensible heat output in a mesoscale atmospheric model with a canopy submodel: a case study with ARPS-CANOPY (version 5.2.12)A machine-learning-guided adaptive algorithm to reduce the computational cost of integrating kinetics in global atmospheric chemistry models: application to GEOS-Chem versions 12.0.0 and 12.9.1Deep-learning spatial principles from deterministic chemical transport models for chemical reanalysis: an application in China for PM2.5Model development in practice: a comprehensive update to the boundary layer schemes in HARMONIE-AROME cycle 40A parameterization of long-continuing-current (LCC) lightning in the lightning submodel LNOX (version 3.0) of the Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy, version 2.54)Air Control Toolbox (ACT_v1.0): a flexible surrogate model to explore mitigation scenarios in air quality forecastsThe Aerosol Module in the Community Radiative Transfer Model (v2.2 and v2.3): accounting for aerosol transmittance effects on the radiance observation operatorRAP-Net: Region Attention Predictive Network for Precipitation NowcastingThe Flexible Modelling Framework for the Met Office Unified Model (Flex-UM, using UM 12.0 release)Integration-based extraction and visualization of jet stream coresParticle-filter-based volcanic ash emission inversion applied to a hypothetical sub-Plinian Eyjafjallajökull eruption using the Ensemble for Stochastic Integration of Atmospheric Simulations (ESIAS-chem) version 1.0Evaluating the assimilation of S5P/TROPOMI near real-time SO2 columns and layer height data into the CAMS integrated forecasting system (CY47R1), based on a case study of the 2019 Raikoke eruptionImprovement of stomatal resistance and photosynthesis mechanism of Noah-MP-WDDM (v1.42) in simulation of NO2 dry deposition velocity in forestsRepresentation of the autoconversion from cloud to rain using a weighted ensemble approach: a case study using WRF v4.1.3
Bok H. Baek, Rizzieri Pedruzzi, Minwoo Park, Chi-Tsan Wang, Younha Kim, Chul-Han Song, and Jung-Hun Woo
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 4757–4781,Short summary
The Comprehensive Automobile Research System (CARS) is an open-source Python-based automobile emissions inventory model designed to efficiently estimate high-quality emissions. The CARS is designed to utilize the local vehicle activity database, such as vehicle travel distance, road-link-level network information, and vehicle-specific average speed by road type, to generate a temporally and spatially enhanced inventory for policymakers, stakeholders, and the air quality modeling community.
Joonatan Ala-Könni, Kukka-Maaria Kohonen, Matti Leppäranta, and Ivan Mammarella
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 4739–4755,Short summary
Properties of seasonally ice-covered lakes are not currently sufficiently included in global climate models. To fill this gap, this study evaluates three models that could be used to quantify the amount of heat that moves from and into the lake by the air above it and through evaporation of the ice cover. The results show that the complex nature of the surrounding environment as well as difficulties in accurately measuring the surface temperature of ice introduce errors to these models.
Jason E. Williams, Vincent Huijnen, Idir Bouarar, Mehdi Meziane, Timo Schreurs, Sophie Pelletier, Virginie Marécal, Beatrice Josse, and Johannes Flemming
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 4657–4687,Short summary
The global CAMS air quality model is used for providing tropospheric ozone information to end users. This paper updates the chemical mechanism employed (CBA) and compares it against two other mechanisms (MOCAGE, MOZART) and a multi-decadal dataset based on a previous version of CBA. We perform extensive validation for the US using multiple surface and aircraft datasets, providing an assessment of biases and the extent of correlation across different seasons during 2014.
Sudhanshu Pandey, Sander Houweling, and Arjo Segers
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 4555–4567,Short summary
Inversions are used to calculate methane emissions using atmospheric mole-fraction measurements. Multidecadal inversions are needed to extract information from the long measurement records of methane. However, multidecadal inversion computations can take months to finish. Here, we demonstrate an order of magnitude improvement in wall clock time for an iterative multidecadal inversion by physical parallelization of chemical transport model.
Jeong-Su Ko, Kyo-Sun Sunny Lim, Kwonil Kim, Gyuwon Lee, Gregory Thompson, and Alexis Berne
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 4529–4553,Short summary
This study evaluates the performance of the four microphysics parameterizations, the WDM6, WDM7, Thompson, and Morrison schemes, in simulating snowfall events during the ICE-POP 2018 field campaign. Eight snowfall events are selected and classified into three categories (cold-low, warm-low, and air–sea interaction cases). The evaluation focuses on the simulated hydrometeors, microphysics budgets, wind fields, and precipitation using the measurement data.
Christoph Fischer, Andreas H. Fink, Elmar Schömer, Roderick van der Linden, Michael Maier-Gerber, Marc Rautenhaus, and Michael Riemer
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 4447–4468,Short summary
Potential vorticity (PV) analysis plays a central role in studying atmospheric dynamics. For example, anomalies in the PV field near the tropopause are linked to extreme weather events. In this study, an objective strategy to identify these anomalies is presented and evaluated. As a novel concept, it can be applied to three-dimensional (3-D) data sets. Supported by 3-D visualizations, we illustrate advantages of this new analysis over existing studies along a case study.
Joseph Mouallem, Lucas Harris, and Rusty Benson
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 4355–4371,Short summary
The single-nest capability in GFDL's dynamical core, FV3, is upgraded to support multiple same-level and telescoping nests. Grid nesting adds a refined grid over an area of interest to better resolve small-scale flow features necessary to accurately predict special weather events such as severe storms and hurricanes. This work allows concurrent execution of multiple same-level and telescoping multi-level nested grids in both global and regional setups.
Clara Betancourt, Timo T. Stomberg, Ann-Kathrin Edrich, Ankit Patnala, Martin G. Schultz, Ribana Roscher, Julia Kowalski, and Scarlet Stadtler
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 4331–4354,Short summary
Ozone is a toxic greenhouse gas with high spatial variability. We present a machine-learning-based ozone-mapping workflow generating a transparent and reliable product. Going beyond standard mapping methods, this work combines explainable machine learning with uncertainty assessment to increase the integrity of the produced map.
Huan Fang and Greg Michalski
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 4239–4258,Short summary
A new emission input dataset that incorporates nitrogen isotopes has been used in the CMAQ (Community Multiscale Air Quality) modeling system simulation to qualitatively analyze the changes in δ15N values, due to the dispersion, mixing, and transport of the atmospheric NOx emitted from different sources. The dispersion, mixing, and transport of the atmospheric NOx were based on the meteorology files generated from the WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting) model.
Juan Manuel Castillo, Huw W. Lewis, Akhilesh Mishra, Ashis Mitra, Jeff Polton, Ashley Brereton, Andrew Saulter, Alex Arnold, Segolene Berthou, Douglas Clark, Julia Crook, Ananda Das, John Edwards, Xiangbo Feng, Ankur Gupta, Sudheer Joseph, Nicholas Klingaman, Imranali Momin, Christine Pequignet, Claudio Sanchez, Jennifer Saxby, and Maria Valdivieso da Costa
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 4193–4223,Short summary
A new environmental modelling system has been developed to represent the effect of feedbacks between atmosphere, land, and ocean in the Indian region. Different approaches to simulating tropical cyclones Titli and Fani are demonstrated. It is shown that results are sensitive to the way in which the ocean response to cyclone evolution is captured in the system. Notably, we show how a more rigorous formulation for the near-surface energy budget can be included when air–sea coupling is included.
Weichao Han, Tai-Long He, Zhaojun Tang, Min Wang, Dylan Jones, and Zhe Jiang
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 4225–4237,Short summary
We present an application of a hybrid deep learning (DL) model on prediction of surface CO in China from 2015 to 2020, which utilizes both convolutional neural networks and long short-term memory neural networks. The DL model performance is better than a Kalman filter (KF) system in the training period (2005–2018). Furthermore, the DL model demonstrates good temporal extensibility: the mean bias and correlation coefficients are 95.7 ppb and 0.93 in the test period (2019–2020) over eastern China.
Shuaiqi Tang, Jerome D. Fast, Kai Zhang, Joseph C. Hardin, Adam C. Varble, John E. Shilling, Fan Mei, Maria A. Zawadowicz, and Po-Lun Ma
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 4055–4076,Short summary
We developed an Earth system model (ESM) diagnostics package to compare various types of aerosol properties simulated in ESMs with aircraft, ship, and surface measurements from six field campaigns across spatial scales. The diagnostics package is coded and organized to be flexible and modular for future extension to other field campaign datasets and adapted to higher-resolution model simulations. Future releases will include comprehensive cloud and aerosol–cloud interaction diagnostics.
Ronny Badeke, Volker Matthias, Matthias Karl, and David Grawe
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 4077–4103,Short summary
For air quality modeling studies, it is very important to distribute pollutants correctly into the model system. This has not yet been done for shipping pollution in great detail. We studied the effects of different vertical distributions of shipping pollutants on the urban air quality and derived advanced formulas for it. These formulas take weather conditions and ship-specific parameters like the exhaust gas temperature into account.
Jaakko Kukkonen, Juha Nikmo, Kari Riikonen, Ilmo Westerholm, Pekko Ilvessalo, Tuomo Bergman, and Klaus Haikarainen
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 4027–4054,Short summary
A mathematical model has been developed for the dispersion of plumes originating from major fires. We have refined the model for the early evolution of the fire plumes; such a module has not been previously presented. We have evaluated the model against experimental field-scale data. The predicted concentrations agreed well with the aircraft measurements. We have also compiled an operational version of the model, which can be used for emergency contingency planning in the case of major fires.
Matthias Karl, Liisa Pirjola, Tiia Grönholm, Mona Kurppa, Srinivasan Anand, Xiaole Zhang, Andreas Held, Rolf Sander, Miikka Dal Maso, David Topping, Shuai Jiang, Leena Kangas, and Jaakko Kukkonen
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 3969–4026,Short summary
The community aerosol dynamics model MAFOR includes several advanced features: coupling with an up-to-date chemistry mechanism for volatile organic compounds, a revised Brownian coagulation kernel that takes into account the fractal geometry of soot particles, a multitude of nucleation parameterizations, size-resolved partitioning of semi-volatile inorganics, and a hybrid method for the formation of secondary organic aerosols within the framework of condensation and evaporation.
Xiaotian Xu, Xu Feng, Haipeng Lin, Peng Zhang, Shaojian Huang, Zhengcheng Song, Yiming Peng, Tzung-May Fu, and Yanxu Zhang
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 3845–3859,Short summary
Mercury is one of the most toxic pollutants in the environment, and wet deposition is a major process for atmospheric mercury to enter, causing ecological and human health risks. High-mercury wet deposition in the southeastern US has been a problem for many years. Here we employed a newly developed high-resolution WRF-GC model with the capability to simulate mercury to study this problem. We conclude that deep convection caused enhanced mercury wet deposition in the southeastern US.
Jeong-Beom Lee, Jae-Bum Lee, Youn-Seo Koo, Hee-Yong Kwon, Min-Hyeok Choi, Hyun-Ju Park, and Dae-Gyun Lee
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 3797–3813,Short summary
The predication of PM2.5 has been carried out using a numerical air quality model in South Korea. Despite recent progress of numerical air quality models, accurate prediction of PM2.5 is still challenging. In this study, we developed a data-based model using a deep neural network (DNN) to overcome the limitations of numerical air quality models. The results showed that the DNN model outperformed the CMAQ when it was trained by using observation and forecasting data from the numerical models.
Matthew L. Dawson, Christian Guzman, Jeffrey H. Curtis, Mario Acosta, Shupeng Zhu, Donald Dabdub, Andrew Conley, Matthew West, Nicole Riemer, and Oriol Jorba
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 3663–3689,Short summary
Progress in identifying complex, mixed-phase physicochemical processes has resulted in an advanced understanding of the evolution of atmospheric systems but has also introduced a level of complexity that few atmospheric models were designed to handle. We present a flexible treatment for multiphase chemical processes for models of diverse scale, from box up to global models. This enables users to build a customized multiphase mechanism that is accessible to a much wider community.
Haibo Wang, Ting Yang, Zifa Wang, Jianjun Li, Wenxuan Chai, Guigang Tang, Lei Kong, and Xueshun Chen
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 3555–3585,Short summary
In this paper, we develop an online data coupled assimilation system (NAQPMS-PDAF) with the Eulerian atmospheric chemistry-transport model. NAQPMS-PDAF allows efficient use of large computational resources. The application and performance of the system are investigated by assimilating 1 month of vertical aerosol observations. The results show that NAQPMS-PDAF can significantly improve the performance of aerosol vertical structure simulation and reduce the uncertainty to a large extent.
Peng Zhang and Yanxu Zhang
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 3587–3601,Short summary
Mercury is a global pollutant that can be transported over long distance through the atmosphere. We develop a new online global model for atmospheric mercury. The model reproduces the observed global atmospheric mercury concentrations and deposition distributions by simulating the emissions, transport, and physicochemical processes of atmospheric mercury. And we find that the seasonal variations of atmospheric Hg are the result of multiple processes and have obvious regional characteristics.
Patrick Obin Sturm and Anthony S. Wexler
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 3417–3431,Short summary
Large air quality and climate models require vast amounts of computational power. Machine learning tools like neural networks can be used to make these models more efficient, with the downside that their results might not make physical sense or be easy to interpret. This work develops a physically interpretable neural network that obeys scientific laws like conservation of mass and models atmospheric composition more accurately than a traditional neural network.
Michael Weger, Holger Baars, Henriette Gebauer, Maik Merkel, Alfred Wiedensohler, and Bernd Heinold
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 3315–3345,Short summary
Numerical models are an important tool to assess the air quality in cities, as they can provide near-continouos data in time and space. In this paper, air pollution for an entire city is simulated at a high spatial resolution of 40 m. At this spatial scale, the effects of buildings on the atmosphere, like channeling or blocking of the air flow, are directly represented by diffuse obstacles in the used model CAIRDIO. For model validation, measurements from air-monitoring sites are used.
Patrick C. Campbell, Youhua Tang, Pius Lee, Barry Baker, Daniel Tong, Rick Saylor, Ariel Stein, Jianping Huang, Ho-Chun Huang, Edward Strobach, Jeff McQueen, Li Pan, Ivanka Stajner, Jamese Sims, Jose Tirado-Delgado, Youngsun Jung, Fanglin Yang, Tanya L. Spero, and Robert C. Gilliam
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 3281–3313,Short summary
NOAA's National Air Quality Forecast Capability (NAQFC) continues to protect Americans from the harmful effects of air pollution, while saving billions of dollars per year. Here we describe and evaluate the development of the most advanced version of the NAQFC to date, which became operational at NOAA on 20 July 2021. The new NAQFC is based on a coupling of NOAA's operational Global Forecast System (GFS) version 16 with the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model version 5.3.1.
Athanasios Tsikerdekis, Nick A. J. Schutgens, Guangliang Fu, and Otto P. Hasekamp
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 3253–3279,Short summary
In our study we quantify the ability of the future satellite sensor SPEXone, part of the NASA PACE mission, to estimate aerosol emissions. The sensor will be able to retrieve accurate information of aerosol light extinction and most importantly light absorption. We simulate SPEXone spatial coverage and combine it with an aerosol model. We found that SPEXone will be able to estimate species-specific (e.g. dust, sea salt, organic or black carbon, sulfates) aerosol emissions very accurately.
Christian Zeman and Christoph Schär
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 3183–3203,Short summary
Our atmosphere is a chaotic system, where even a tiny change can have a big impact. This makes it difficult to assess if small changes, such as the move to a new hardware architecture, will significantly affect a weather and climate model. We present a methodology that allows to objectively verify this. The methodology is applied to several test cases, showing a high sensitivity. Results also show that a major system update of the underlying supercomputer did not significantly affect our model.
Stelios Myriokefalitakis, Elisa Bergas-Massó, María Gonçalves-Ageitos, Carlos Pérez García-Pando, Twan van Noije, Philippe Le Sager, Akinori Ito, Eleni Athanasopoulou, Athanasios Nenes, Maria Kanakidou, Maarten C. Krol, and Evangelos Gerasopoulos
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 3079–3120,Short summary
We here describe the implementation of atmospheric multiphase processes in the EC-Earth Earth system model. We provide global budgets of oxalate, sulfate, and iron-containing aerosols, along with an analysis of the links among atmospheric composition, aqueous-phase processes, and aerosol dissolution, supported by comparison to observations. This work is a first step towards an interactive calculation of the deposition of bioavailable atmospheric iron coupled to the model’s ocean component.
Santos J. González-Rojí, Martina Messmer, Christoph C. Raible, and Thomas F. Stocker
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 2859–2879,Short summary
Different configurations of physics parameterizations of a regional climate model are tested over southern Peru at fine resolution. The most challenging regions compared to observational data are the slopes of the Andes. Model configurations for Europe and East Africa are not perfectly suitable for southern Peru. The experiment with the Stony Brook University microphysics scheme and the Grell–Freitas cumulus parameterization provides the most accurate results over Madre de Dios.
Angel Navarro Trastoy, Sebastian Strasser, Lauri Tuppi, Maksym Vasiuta, Markku Poutanen, Torsten Mayer-Gürr, and Heikki Järvinen
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 2763–2771,Short summary
Production of satellite products relies on information from different centers. By coupling a weather model and an orbit determination solver we eliminate the dependence on one of the centers. The coupling has proven to be possible in the first stage, where no formatting has been applied to any of the models involved. This opens a window for further development and improvement to a coupling that has proven to be as good as the predecessor model.
Soon-Young Park, Uzzal Kumar Dash, Jinhyeok Yu, Keiya Yumimoto, Itsushi Uno, and Chul Han Song
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 2773–2790,Short summary
An EnKF was applied to CMAQ for assimilating ground PM2.5 observations from China and South Korea. The EnKF performed better than that without assimilation and even superior to 3D-Var. The reduced MBs in 24 h predictions were 48 % and 27 % by improving ICs and BCs, respectively.
Lars Hoffmann, Paul F. Baumeister, Zhongyin Cai, Jan Clemens, Sabine Griessbach, Gebhard Günther, Yi Heng, Mingzhao Liu, Kaveh Haghighi Mood, Olaf Stein, Nicole Thomas, Bärbel Vogel, Xue Wu, and Ling Zou
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 2731–2762,Short summary
We describe the new version (2.2) of the Lagrangian transport model MPTRAC, which has been ported for application on GPUs. The model was verified by comparing kinematic trajectories and synthetic tracer simulations for the free troposphere and stratosphere from GPUs and CPUs. Benchmarking showed a speed-up of a factor of 16 of GPU-enabled simulations compared to CPU-only runs, indicating the great potential of applying GPUs for Lagrangian transport simulations on upcoming HPC systems.
Clemens Spensberger, Trond Thorsteinsson, and Thomas Spengler
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 2711–2729,Short summary
In order to understand the atmosphere, we rely on a hierarchy of models ranging from very simple to very complex. Comparing different steps in this hierarchy usually entails comparing different models. Here we combine two such steps that are commonly used in one modelling framework. This makes comparisons both much easier and much more direct.
Andrea Pozzer, Simon F. Reifenberg, Vinod Kumar, Bruno Franco, Matthias Kohl, Domenico Taraborrelli, Sergey Gromov, Sebastian Ehrhart, Patrick Jöckel, Rolf Sander, Veronica Fall, Simon Rosanka, Vlassis Karydis, Dimitris Akritidis, Tamara Emmerichs, Monica Crippa, Diego Guizzardi, Johannes W. Kaiser, Lieven Clarisse, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Holger Tost, and Alexandra Tsimpidi
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 2673–2710,Short summary
A newly developed setup of the chemistry general circulation model EMAC (ECHAM5/MESSy for Atmospheric Chemistry) is evaluated here. A comprehensive organic degradation mechanism is used and coupled with a volatility base model. The results show that the model reproduces most of the tracers and aerosols satisfactorily but shows discrepancies for oxygenated organic gases. It is also shown that this model configuration can be used for further research in atmospheric chemistry.
Dai Koshin, Kaoru Sato, Masashi Kohma, and Shingo Watanabe
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 2293–2307,Short summary
The 4D ensemble Kalman filter data assimilation system for the whole neutral atmosphere has been updated. The update includes the introduction of a filter to reduce the generation of spurious waves, change in the order of horizontal diffusion of the forecast model to reproduce more realistic tidal amplitudes, and use of additional satellite observations. As a result, the analysis performance has been greatly improved, even for disturbances with periods of less than 1 d.
Harish Baki, Sandeep Chinta, C Balaji, and Balaji Srinivasan
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 2133–2155,Short summary
WRF model accuracy relies on numerous aspects, and the model parameters are one of them. By calibrating the model parameters, we can improve the model forecast. However, there exist hundreds of parameters, and calibrating all of them is unimaginably expensive. Thus, there is a need to identify the sensitive parameters that influence the model output variables to reduce the parameter dimensionality. This study addresses the different methods and outcomes of parameter sensitivity analysis.
Jessica Keune, Dominik L. Schumacher, and Diego G. Miralles
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 1875–1898,Short summary
Air transports moisture and heat, shaping the weather we experience. When and where was this air moistened and warmed by the surface? To address this question, atmospheric models trace the history of air parcels in space and time. However, their uncertainties remain unexplored, which hinders their utility and application. Here, we present a framework that sheds light on these uncertainties. Our approach sets a new standard in the assessment of atmospheric moisture and heat trajectories.
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 1769–1788,Short summary
In an effort to improve air quality forecasting, the WRFDA 3D-Var system is newly extended for the assimilation of surface PM2.5 and PM10 using the RACM/MADE-VBS chemistry in the WRF-Chem model. Through a case study during the Korea–United States Air Quality (KORUS-AQ) period, it is demonstrated that the analysis can lead to improving the prediction of surface PM concentrations up to 26 % for 24 h, diminishing most bias errors.
Michael T. Kiefer, Warren E. Heilman, Shiyuan Zhong, Joseph J. Charney, Xindi Bian, Nicholas S. Skowronski, Kenneth L. Clark, Michael R. Gallagher, John L. Hom, and Matthew Patterson
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 1713–1734,Short summary
We examine methods used to represent wildland fire sensible heat release in atmospheric models. A set of simulations are evaluated using observations from a low-intensity prescribed fire in the New Jersey Pine Barrens. The comparison is motivated by the need for guidance regarding the representation of low-intensity fire sensible heating in atmospheric models. Such fires are prevalent during prescribed fire operations and can impact the health and safety of fire personnel and the public.
Lu Shen, Daniel J. Jacob, Mauricio Santillana, Kelvin Bates, Jiawei Zhuang, and Wei Chen
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 1677–1687,Short summary
The high computational cost of chemical integration is a long-standing limitation in global atmospheric chemistry models. Here we present an adaptive and efficient algorithm that can reduce the computational time of atmospheric chemistry by 50 % and maintain the error below 2 % for important species, inspired by machine learning clustering techniques and traditional asymptotic analysis ideas.
Baolei Lyu, Ran Huang, Xinlu Wang, Weiguo Wang, and Yongtao Hu
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 1583–1594,Short summary
Data fusion is used to estimate spatially completed and smooth reanalysis fields from multiple data sources of observations and model simulations. We developed a well-designed deep-learning model framework to embed spatial correlation principles of atmospheric physics and chemical models. The deep-learning model has very high accuracy to predict reanalysis data fields from isolated observation data points. It is also feasible for operational applications due to computational efficiency.
Wim C. de Rooy, Pier Siebesma, Peter Baas, Geert Lenderink, Stephan R. de Roode, Hylke de Vries, Erik van Meijgaard, Jan Fokke Meirink, Sander Tijm, and Bram van 't Veen
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 1513–1543,Short summary
This paper describes a comprehensive model update to the boundary layer schemes. Because the involved parameterisations are all built on widely applied frameworks, the here-described modifications are applicable to many NWP and climate models. The model update contains substantial modifications to the cloud, turbulence, and convection schemes and leads to a substantial improvement of several aspects of the model, especially low cloud forecasts.
Francisco J. Pérez-Invernón, Heidi Huntrieser, Patrick Jöckel, and Francisco J. Gordillo-Vázquez
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 1545–1565,Short summary
This study reports the first parameterization of long-continuing-current lightning in a climate model. Long-continuing-current lightning is proposed to be the main precursor of lightning-ignited wildfires and sprites, a type of transient luminous event taking place in the mesosphere. This parameterization can significantly contribute to improving the implementation of wildfires in climate models.
Augustin Colette, Laurence Rouïl, Frédérik Meleux, Vincent Lemaire, and Blandine Raux
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 1441–1465,Short summary
We introduce the first toolbox that allows exploration of the benefits of air pollution mitigation scenarios in the every-day air quality forecasts through a web interface. The toolbox relies on the joint use of chemistry-transport models (CTMs) and surrogate modelling techniques.
Cheng-Hsuan Lu, Quanhua Liu, Shih-Wei Wei, Benjamin T. Johnson, Cheng Dang, Patrick G. Stegmann, Dustin Grogan, Guoqing Ge, Ming Hu, and Michael Lueken
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 1317–1329,Short summary
This article is a technical note on the aerosol absorption and scattering calculations of the Community Radiative Transfer Model (CRTM) v2.2 and v2.3. It also provides guidance for prospective users of the CRTM aerosol option and Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) aerosol-aware radiance assimilation. Scientific aspects of aerosol-affected BT in atmospheric data assimilation are also briefly discussed.
Zheng Zhang, Chuyao Luo, Shanshan Feng, Rui Ye, Yunming Ye, and Xutao Li
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for GMDShort summary
In this paper, we develop a model to predict radar echo sequences and apply it in the precipitation nowcasting field. Different from existed models, we propose two new attention modules. By introducing them, the performance of RAP-Net outperforms other models especially in those regions with middle and high-intensity rainfall. Considering these regions would cause more threats to human activity, the research in our manuscript is significant to prevent natural disasters caused by heavy rainfall.
Penelope Maher and Paul Earnshaw
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 1177–1194,Short summary
Climate models do a pretty good job. But they are far from perfect. Fixing these imperfections is really hard because the models are complicated. One way to make progress is to create simpler models: think impressionism rather than realism in the art world. We changed the Met Office model to be intentionally simple and it still does a pretty good job. This will help to identify sources of model imperfections, develop new methods and improve our understanding of how the climate works.
Lukas Bösiger, Michael Sprenger, Maxi Boettcher, Hanna Joos, and Tobias Günther
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 1079–1096,Short summary
Jet streams are coherent air flows that interact with atmospheric structures such as warm conveyor belts (WCBs) and the tropopause. Individually, these structures have a significant impact on the weather evolution. A first step towards a deeper understanding of the meteorological processes is to extract jet stream core lines, for which we develop a novel feature extraction algorithm. Based on the line geometry, we automatically detect and visualize potential interactions between WCBs and jets.
Philipp Franke, Anne Caroline Lange, and Hendrik Elbern
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 1037–1060,Short summary
The paper proposes an ensemble-based analysis framework (ESIAS-chem) for time- and altitude-resolved volcanic ash emission fluxes and their uncertainty. The core of the algorithm is an ensemble Nelder–Mead optimization algorithm accompanied by a particle filter update. The performed notional experiments demonstrate the high accuracy of ESIAS-chem in analyzing the vertically resolved volcanic ash in the atmosphere. Further, the system is in general able to estimate the emission fluxes properly.
Antje Inness, Melanie Ades, Dimitris Balis, Dmitry Efremenko, Johannes Flemming, Pascal Hedelt, Maria-Elissavet Koukouli, Diego Loyola, and Roberto Ribas
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 971–994,Short summary
This paper describes the way that the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS) produces forecasts of volcanic SO2. These forecasts are provided routinely every day. They are created by blending SO2 data from satellite instruments (TROPOMI and GOME-2) with the CAMS model. We show that the quality of the CAMS SO2 forecasts can be improved if additional information about the height of volcanic plumes is provided in the satellite data.
Ming Chang, Jiachen Cao, Qi Zhang, Weihua Chen, Guotong Wu, Liping Wu, Weiwen Wang, and Xuemei Wang
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 787–801,Short summary
Despite the importance of nitrogen deposition, its simulation is still insufficiently represented in current atmospheric chemistry models. In this study, the improvement of the canopy stomatal resistance mechanism and the nitrogen-limiting schemes in Noah-MP-WDDM v1.42 give new options for simulating nitrogen dry deposition velocity. This study finds that the combined BN-23 mechanism agrees better with the observed NO2 dry deposition velocity, with the mean bias reduced by 50.1 %.
Jinfang Yin, Xudong Liang, Hong Wang, and Haile Xue
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 771–786,Short summary
An ensemble (EN) approach was designed to improve autoconversion (ATC) from cloud water to rainwater in cloud microphysics schemes. One unique feature of the EN approach is that the ATC rate is a mean value based on the calculations from several widely used ATC schemes. The ensemble approach proposed herein appears to help improve the representation of cloud and precipitation processes in weather and climate models.
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This work describes DATeS, a highly extensible data assimilation package. DATeS seeks to provide a unified testing suite for data assimilation applications that allows researchers to easily compare different methodologies in different settings with minimal coding effort. The core of DATeS is written in Python. The main functionalities, such as model propagation and assimilation, can however be written in low-level languages such as C or Fortran to attain high levels of computational efficiency.
This work describes DATeS, a highly extensible data assimilation package. DATeS seeks to provide...