Evaluation of near-surface ozone over Europe from the MACC reanalysis
- 1Department of Meteorology and Climatology, School of Geology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece
- 2Research Centre for Atmospheric Physics and Climatology, Academy of Athens, Athens, Greece
- 3Laboratory of Atmospheric Physics, School of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece
- 4KNMI, De Bilt, the Netherlands
- 5ECMWF, Reading, UK
- 6Forschungszentrum Jülich, Jülich, Germany
Abstract. This work is an extended evaluation of near-surface ozone as part of the global reanalysis of atmospheric composition, produced within the European-funded project MACC (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate). It includes an evaluation over the period 2003–2012 and provides an overall assessment of the modeling system performance with respect to near-surface ozone for specific European subregions. Measurements at rural locations from the European Monitoring and Evaluation Program (EMEP) and the European Air Quality Database (AirBase) were used for the evaluation assessment. The fractional gross error of near-surface ozone reanalysis is on average 24 % over Europe, the highest found over Scandinavia (27 %) and the lowest over the Mediterranean marine stations (21 %). Near-surface ozone shows mostly a negative bias in winter and a positive bias during warm months. Assimilation reduces the bias in near-surface ozone in most of the European subregions – with the exception of Britain and Ireland and the Iberian Peninsula and its impact is mostly notable in winter. With respect to the seasonal cycle, the MACC reanalysis reproduces the photochemically driven broad spring-summer maximum of surface ozone of central and south Europe. However, it does not capture adequately the early spring peak and the shape of the seasonality at northern and north-eastern Europe. The diurnal range of surface ozone, which is as an indication of the local photochemical production processes, is reproduced fairly well, with a tendency for a small overestimation during the warm months for most subregions (especially in central and southern Europe). Possible reasons leading to discrepancies between the MACC reanalysis and observations are discussed.