Articles | Volume 7, issue 5
Development and technical paper
29 Oct 2014
Development and technical paper | 29 Oct 2014
Implementation and scaling of the fully coupled Terrestrial Systems Modeling Platform (TerrSysMP v1.0) in a massively parallel supercomputing environment – a case study on JUQUEEN (IBM Blue Gene/Q)
F. Gasper et al.
No articles found.
Tobias Tesch, Stefan Kollet, and Jochen Garcke
A recent statistical approach for studying relations in the Earth system is to train deep learning (DL) models to predict Earth system variables given one or several others, and use interpretable DL to analyze the relations learned by the models. Here, we propose to combine the approach with a theorem from causality research to ensure that the deep learning model learns causal rather than spurious relations. As an example, we apply the method to study soil moisture-precipitation coupling.
Prabhakar Shrestha, Jana Mendrok, and Dominik Brunner
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
The study extends the TSMP with gas-phase chemistry, aerosol dynamics and radar forward operator to enable detailed studies of aerosol-cloud-precipitation interactions. This new capability is demonstrated using a case study of deep convective storm, which showed that the strong updraft in the convective core of the storm produced "aerosol tower" like features, which effected the size of the hydrometeors and the simulated polarimetric features (e.g. ZDR and KDP columns).
Mohamed Saadi, Carina Furusho-Percot, Alexandre Belleflamme, Ju-Yu Chen, Silke Trömel, and Stefan Kollet
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for NHESSShort summary
In the 14 July 2021, heavy rainfall fell over western Germany, causing considerable damage and human fatalities. We analyzed how accurate were our estimates of rainfall and peakflow for these flooding events. We found that the rainfall estimates from radar were improved by including polarimetric variables. Our estimates of peakflow were highly uncertain due to uncertainties in model parameters and rainfall measurements.
César Dionisio Jiménez-Rodríguez, Mauro Sulis, and Stanislaus Schymanski
Preprint under review for BGShort summary
The vegetation often uses more water than the stored in the soil, forcing them to access the rocks beneath to fulfill their water needs. However, the numerical representation of this process is usually overlooked by Land Surface Models. In this work, we mimicked the effect of fractured rocks beneath four forested sites in Europe. We observed the positive impact of these rocks on the modeled plant transpiration when compared with the measured water use of the selected forests during summertime.
Prabhakar Shrestha, Jana Mendrok, Velibor Pejcic, Silke Trömel, Ulrich Blahak, and Jacob T. Carlin
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 291–313,Short summary
The article focuses on the exploitation of radar polarimetry for model evaluation of stratiform precipitation. The model exhibited a low bias in simulated polarimetric moments at lower levels above the melting layer where snow was found to dominate. This necessitates further research into the missing microphysical processes in these lower levels (e.g. fragmentation due to ice–ice collisions) and use of more reliable snow-scattering models in the forward operator to draw valid conclusions.
Silke Trömel, Clemens Simmer, Ulrich Blahak, Armin Blanke, Sabine Doktorowski, Florian Ewald, Michael Frech, Mathias Gergely, Martin Hagen, Tijana Janjic, Heike Kalesse-Los, Stefan Kneifel, Christoph Knote, Jana Mendrok, Manuel Moser, Gregor Köcher, Kai Mühlbauer, Alexander Myagkov, Velibor Pejcic, Patric Seifert, Prabhakar Shrestha, Audrey Teisseire, Leonie von Terzi, Eleni Tetoni, Teresa Vogl, Christiane Voigt, Yuefei Zeng, Tobias Zinner, and Johannes Quaas
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 17291–17314,Short summary
The article introduces the ACP readership to ongoing research in Germany on cloud- and precipitation-related process information inherent in polarimetric radar measurements, outlines pathways to inform atmospheric models with radar-based information, and points to remaining challenges towards an improved fusion of radar polarimetry and atmospheric modelling.
Bernd Schalge, Gabriele Baroni, Barbara Haese, Daniel Erdal, Gernot Geppert, Pablo Saavedra, Vincent Haefliger, Harry Vereecken, Sabine Attinger, Harald Kunstmann, Olaf A. Cirpka, Felix Ament, Stefan Kollet, Insa Neuweiler, Harrie-Jan Hendricks Franssen, and Clemens Simmer
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 4437–4464,Short summary
In this study, a 9-year simulation of complete model output of a coupled atmosphere–land-surface–subsurface model on the catchment scale is discussed. We used the Neckar catchment in SW Germany as the basis of this simulation. Since the dataset includes the full model output, it is not only possible to investigate model behavior and interactions between the component models but also use it as a virtual truth for comparison of, for example, data assimilation experiments.
Yueling Ma, Carsten Montzka, Bagher Bayat, and Stefan Kollet
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 3555–3575,Short summary
This study utilized spatiotemporally continuous precipitation anomaly (pra) and water table depth anomaly (wtda) data from integrated hydrologic simulation results over Europe in combination with Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) networks to capture the time-varying and time-lagged relationship between pra and wtda in order to obtain reliable models to estimate wtda at the individual pixel level.
Prabhakar Shrestha, Silke Trömel, Raquel Evaristo, and Clemens Simmer
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
The study makes use of ensemble numerical simulations with forward operator to evaluate the simulated cloud and precipitation processes with radar observations. While, comparing model data with radar has its own challenges due to errors in the forward operator and processed radar measurements, the model was generally found to underestimate the high reflectivity, width/magnitude (value) of ZDR columns and high precipitation.
Susannah Rennie, Klaus Goergen, Christoph Wohner, Sander Apweiler, Johannes Peterseil, and John Watkins
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 631–644,Short summary
This paper describes a pan-European climate service data product intended for ecological researchers. Access to regional climate scenario data will save ecologists time, and, for many, it will allow them to work with data resources that they will not previously have used due to a lack of knowledge and skills to access them. Providing easy access to climate scenario data in this way enhances long-term ecological research, for example in general regional climate change or impact assessments.
Benjamin N. O. Kuffour, Nicholas B. Engdahl, Carol S. Woodward, Laura E. Condon, Stefan Kollet, and Reed M. Maxwell
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 1373–1397,Short summary
Integrated hydrologic models (IHMs) were developed in order to allow for more accurate simulations of real-world ecohydrologic conditions. Many IHMs exist, and the literature can be dense, so it is often difficult to understand what a specific model can and cannot do. We provide a review of the current core capabilities, solution techniques, communication structure with other models, some limitations, and potential future improvements of one such open-source integrated model called ParFlow.
Bibi S. Naz, Wolfgang Kurtz, Carsten Montzka, Wendy Sharples, Klaus Goergen, Jessica Keune, Huilin Gao, Anne Springer, Harrie-Jan Hendricks Franssen, and Stefan Kollet
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 277–301,Short summary
This study investigates the value of assimilating coarse-resolution remotely sensed soil moisture data into high-resolution land surface models for improving soil moisture and runoff modeling. The soil moisture estimates in this study, with complete spatio-temporal coverage and improved spatial resolution from the assimilation, offer a new reanalysis product for the monitoring of surface soil water content and other hydrological fluxes at 3 km resolution over Europe.
Wendy Sharples, Ilya Zhukov, Markus Geimer, Klaus Goergen, Sebastian Luehrs, Thomas Breuer, Bibi Naz, Ketan Kulkarni, Slavko Brdar, and Stefan Kollet
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 2875–2895,Short summary
Next-generation geoscientific models are based on complex model implementations and workflows. Next-generation HPC systems require new programming paradigms and code optimization. In order to meet the challenge of running complex simulations on new massively parallel HPC systems, we developed a run control framework that facilitates code portability, code profiling, and provenance tracking to reduce both the duration and the cost of code migration and development, while ensuring reproducibility.
Bernd Schalge, Jehan Rihani, Gabriele Baroni, Daniel Erdal, Gernot Geppert, Vincent Haefliger, Barbara Haese, Pablo Saavedra, Insa Neuweiler, Harrie-Jan Hendricks Franssen, Felix Ament, Sabine Attinger, Olaf A. Cirpka, Stefan Kollet, Harald Kunstmann, Harry Vereecken, and Clemens Simmer
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Manuscript not accepted for further reviewShort summary
In this work we show how we used a coupled atmosphere-land surface-subsurface model at highest possible resolution to create a testbed for data assimilation. The model was able to capture all important processes and interactions between the compartments as well as showing realistic statistical behavior. This proves that using a model as a virtual truth is possible and it will enable us to develop data assimilation methods where states and parameters are updated across compartment.
Stefan J. Kollet
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 2801–2809,
Wolfgang Kurtz, Guowei He, Stefan J. Kollet, Reed M. Maxwell, Harry Vereecken, and Harrie-Jan Hendricks Franssen
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 1341–1360,Short summary
This paper describes the development of a modular data assimilation (DA) system for the integrated Earth system model TerrSysMP with the help of the PDAF data assimilation library. Currently, pressure and soil moisture data can be used to update model states and parameters in the subsurface compartment of TerrSysMP. Results from an idealized twin experiment show that the developed DA system provides a good parallel performance and is also applicable for high-resolution modelling problems.
P. Shrestha, M. Sulis, C. Simmer, and S. Kollet
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 4317–4326,Short summary
This study highlights the grid resolution dependence of energy and water balance of the 3-D physically based integrated surface-groundwater model. The non-local controls of soil moisture were found to be highly grid resolution dependent, but the local vegetation control strongly modulates the scaling behavior of surface energy fluxes. For coupled runs, variability in patterns of surface fluxes due to this scale dependence can affect the simulated atmospheric boundary layer and local circulation.
X. Han, X. Li, G. He, P. Kumbhar, C. Montzka, S. Kollet, T. Miyoshi, R. Rosolem, Y. Zhang, H. Vereecken, and H.-J. H. Franssen
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
DasPy is a ready to use open source parallel multivariate land data assimilation framework with joint state and parameter estimation using Local Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter. The Community Land Model (4.5) was integrated as model operator. The Community Microwave Emission Modelling platform, COsmic-ray Soil Moisture Interaction Code and the Two-Source Formulation were integrated as observation operators for the multivariate assimilation of soil moisture and soil temperature, respectively.
R. M. Maxwell, L. E. Condon, and S. J. Kollet
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 923–937,Short summary
A model that simulates groundwater and surface water flow has been developed for the major river basins of the continental United States. Fundamental data sets provide input to the model resulting in a natural organization of stream networks and groundwater flow that is compared to observations of surface water and groundwater. Model results show relationships between flow and area that are moderated by aridity and represent an important step toward integrated hydrological prediction.
E. Katragkou, M. García-Díez, R. Vautard, S. Sobolowski, P. Zanis, G. Alexandri, R. M. Cardoso, A. Colette, J. Fernandez, A. Gobiet, K. Goergen, T. Karacostas, S. Knist, S. Mayer, P. M. M. Soares, I. Pytharoulis, I. Tegoulias, A. Tsikerdekis, and D. Jacob
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 603–618,
S. Kotlarski, K. Keuler, O. B. Christensen, A. Colette, M. Déqué, A. Gobiet, K. Goergen, D. Jacob, D. Lüthi, E. van Meijgaard, G. Nikulin, C. Schär, C. Teichmann, R. Vautard, K. Warrach-Sagi, and V. Wulfmeyer
Geosci. Model Dev., 7, 1297–1333,
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Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 3941–3967,Short summary
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Francine Schevenhoven and Alberto Carrassi
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 3831–3844,Short summary
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Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 3691–3719,Short summary
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Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 3753–3771,Short summary
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Sophy Oliver, Coralia Cartis, Iris Kriest, Simon F. B Tett, and Samar Khatiwala
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 3537–3554,Short summary
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Anahí Villalba-Pradas and Francisco J. Tapiador
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 3447–3518,Short summary
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Maria Chara Karypidou, Eleni Katragkou, and Stefan Pieter Sobolowski
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 3387–3404,Short summary
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Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 3371–3385,Short summary
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Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 3347–3370,Short summary
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Hui Wan, Kai Zhang, Philip J. Rasch, Vincent E. Larson, Xubin Zeng, Shixuan Zhang, and Ross Dixon
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 3205–3231,Short summary
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Milena Veneziani, Wieslaw Maslowski, Younjoo J. Lee, Gennaro D'Angelo, Robert Osinski, Mark R. Petersen, Wilbert Weijer, Anthony P. Craig, John D. Wolfe, Darin Comeau, and Adrian K. Turner
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 3133–3160,Short summary
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Hamidreza Omidvar, Ting Sun, Sue Grimmond, Dave Bilesbach, Andrew Black, Jiquan Chen, Zexia Duan, Zhiqiu Gao, Hiroki Iwata, and Joseph P. McFadden
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 3041–3078,Short summary
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Ralf Döscher, Mario Acosta, Andrea Alessandri, Peter Anthoni, Thomas Arsouze, Tommi Bergman, Raffaele Bernardello, Souhail Boussetta, Louis-Philippe Caron, Glenn Carver, Miguel Castrillo, Franco Catalano, Ivana Cvijanovic, Paolo Davini, Evelien Dekker, Francisco J. Doblas-Reyes, David Docquier, Pablo Echevarria, Uwe Fladrich, Ramon Fuentes-Franco, Matthias Gröger, Jost v. Hardenberg, Jenny Hieronymus, M. Pasha Karami, Jukka-Pekka Keskinen, Torben Koenigk, Risto Makkonen, François Massonnet, Martin Ménégoz, Paul A. Miller, Eduardo Moreno-Chamarro, Lars Nieradzik, Twan van Noije, Paul Nolan, Declan O'Donnell, Pirkka Ollinaho, Gijs van den Oord, Pablo Ortega, Oriol Tintó Prims, Arthur Ramos, Thomas Reerink, Clement Rousset, Yohan Ruprich-Robert, Philippe Le Sager, Torben Schmith, Roland Schrödner, Federico Serva, Valentina Sicardi, Marianne Sloth Madsen, Benjamin Smith, Tian Tian, Etienne Tourigny, Petteri Uotila, Martin Vancoppenolle, Shiyu Wang, David Wårlind, Ulrika Willén, Klaus Wyser, Shuting Yang, Xavier Yepes-Arbós, and Qiong Zhang
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 2973–3020,Short summary
The Earth system model EC-Earth3 is documented here. Key performance metrics show physical behavior and biases well within the frame known from recent models. With improved physical and dynamic features, new ESM components, community tools, and largely improved physical performance compared to the CMIP5 version, EC-Earth3 represents a clear step forward for the only European community ESM. We demonstrate here that EC-Earth3 is suited for a range of tasks in CMIP6 and beyond.
Hengqi Wang, Yiran Peng, Knut von Salzen, Yan Yang, Wei Zhou, and Delong Zhao
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 2949–2971,Short summary
The aerosol activation scheme is an important part of the general circulation model, but evaluations using observed data are mostly regional. This research introduced a numerically efficient aerosol activation scheme and evaluated it by using stratus and stratocumulus cloud data sampled during multiple aircraft campaigns in Canada, Chile, Brazil, and China. The decent performance indicates that the scheme is suitable for simulations of cloud droplet number concentrations over wide conditions.
Po-Lun Ma, Bryce E. Harrop, Vincent E. Larson, Richard B. Neale, Andrew Gettelman, Hugh Morrison, Hailong Wang, Kai Zhang, Stephen A. Klein, Mark D. Zelinka, Yuying Zhang, Yun Qian, Jin-Ho Yoon, Christopher R. Jones, Meng Huang, Sheng-Lun Tai, Balwinder Singh, Peter A. Bogenschutz, Xue Zheng, Wuyin Lin, Johannes Quaas, Hélène Chepfer, Michael A. Brunke, Xubin Zeng, Johannes Mülmenstädt, Samson Hagos, Zhibo Zhang, Hua Song, Xiaohong Liu, Michael S. Pritchard, Hui Wan, Jingyu Wang, Qi Tang, Peter M. Caldwell, Jiwen Fan, Larry K. Berg, Jerome D. Fast, Mark A. Taylor, Jean-Christophe Golaz, Shaocheng Xie, Philip J. Rasch, and L. Ruby Leung
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 2881–2916,Short summary
An alternative set of parameters for E3SM Atmospheric Model version 1 has been developed based on a tuning strategy that focuses on clouds. When clouds in every regime are improved, other aspects of the model are also improved, even though they are not the direct targets for calibration. The recalibrated model shows a lower sensitivity to anthropogenic aerosols and surface warming, suggesting potential improvements to the simulated climate in the past and future.
Jewgenij Torizin, Nick Schüßler, and Michael Fuchs
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 2791–2812,Short summary
With LSAT PM we introduce an open-source, stand-alone, easy-to-use application that supports scientific principles of openness, knowledge integrity, and replicability. Doing so, we want to share our experience in the implementation of heuristic and data-driven landslide susceptibility assessment methods such as analytic hierarchy process, weights of evidence, logistic regression, and artificial neural networks. A test dataset is available.
João António Martins Careto, Pedro Miguel Matos Soares, Rita Margarida Cardoso, Sixto Herrera, and José Manuel Gutiérrez
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 2635–2652,Short summary
This work focuses on the added value of high-resolution models relative to their forcing simulations, with a recent observational gridded dataset as a reference, covering the entire Iberian Peninsula. The availability of such datasets with a spatial resolution close to that of regional climate models encouraged this study. For precipitation, most models reveal added value. The gains are even more evident for precipitation extremes, particularly at a more local scale.
João António Martins Careto, Pedro Miguel Matos Soares, Rita Margarida Cardoso, Sixto Herrera, and José Manuel Gutiérrez
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 2653–2671,Short summary
This work focuses on the added value of high-resolution models relative to their forcing simulations, with an observational gridded dataset as a reference covering the Iberian Peninsula. The availability of such datasets with a spatial resolution close to that of regional models encouraged this study. For the max and min temperature, although most models reveal added value, some display losses. At more local scales, coastal sites display important gains, contrasting with the interior.
Guillaume Marie, B. Sebastiaan Luyssaert, Cecile Dardel, Thuy Le Toan, Alexandre Bouvet, Stéphane Mermoz, Ludovic Villard, Vladislav Bastrikov, and Philippe Peylin
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 2599–2617,Short summary
Most Earth system models make use of vegetation maps to initialize a simulation at global scale. Satellite-based biomass map estimates for Africa were used to estimate cover fractions for the 15 land cover classes. This study successfully demonstrates that satellite-based biomass maps can be used to better constrain vegetation maps. Applying this approach at the global scale would increase confidence in assessments of present-day biomass stocks.
Anni Zhao, Chris M. Brierley, Zhiyi Jiang, Rachel Eyles, Damián Oyarzún, and Jose Gomez-Dans
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 2475–2488,Short summary
We describe the way that our group have chosen to perform our recent analyses of the Palaeoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project ensemble simulations. We document the approach used to obtain and curate the simulations, process those outputs via the Climate Variability Diagnostics Package, and then continue through to compute ensemble-wide statistics and create figures. We also provide interim data from all steps, the codes used and the ability for users to perform their own analyses.
Ronny Meier, Edouard L. Davin, Gordon B. Bonan, David M. Lawrence, Xiaolong Hu, Gregory Duveiller, Catherine Prigent, and Sonia I. Seneviratne
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 2365–2393,Short summary
We revise the roughness of the land surface in the CESM climate model. Guided by observational data, we increase the surface roughness of forests and decrease that of bare soil, snow, ice, and crops. These modifications alter simulated temperatures and wind speeds at and above the land surface considerably, in particular over desert regions. The revised model represents the diurnal variability of the land surface temperature better compared to satellite observations over most regions.
Stefan Kruse, Simone M. Stuenzi, Julia Boike, Moritz Langer, Josias Gloy, and Ulrike Herzschuh
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 2395–2422,Short summary
We coupled established models for boreal forest (LAVESI) and permafrost dynamics (CryoGrid) in Siberia to investigate interactions of the diverse vegetation layer with permafrost soils. Our tests showed improved active layer depth estimations and newly included species growth according to their species-specific limits. We conclude that the new model system can be applied to simulate boreal forest dynamics and transitions under global warming and disturbances, expanding our knowledge.
Ruizi Shi, Fanghua Xu, Li Liu, Zheng Fan, Hao Yu, Hong Li, Xiang Li, and Yunfei Zhang
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 2345–2363,Short summary
To better understand the effects of surface waves on global intraseasonal prediction, we incorporated the WW3 model into CFSv2.0. Processes of Langmuir mixing, Stokes–Coriolis force with entrainment, air–sea fluxes modified by Stokes drift, and momentum roughness length were considered. Results from two groups of 56 d experiments show that overestimated sea surface temperature, 2 m air temperature, 10 m wind, wave height, and underestimated mixed layer from the original CFSv2.0 are improved.
Ehud Strobach, Andrea Molod, Donifan Barahona, Atanas Trayanov, Dimitris Menemenlis, and Gael Forget
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 2309–2324,Short summary
The Green's functions methodology offers a systematic, easy-to-implement, computationally cheap, scalable, and extendable method to tune uncertain parameters in models accounting for the dependent response of the model to a change in various parameters. Herein, we successfully show for the first time that long-term errors in earth system models can be considerably reduced using Green's functions methodology. The method can be easily applied to any model containing uncertain parameters.
Davide Zanchettin, Claudia Timmreck, Myriam Khodri, Anja Schmidt, Matthew Toohey, Manabu Abe, Slimane Bekki, Jason Cole, Shih-Wei Fang, Wuhu Feng, Gabriele Hegerl, Ben Johnson, Nicolas Lebas, Allegra N. LeGrande, Graham W. Mann, Lauren Marshall, Landon Rieger, Alan Robock, Sara Rubinetti, Kostas Tsigaridis, and Helen Weierbach
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 2265–2292,Short summary
This paper provides metadata and first analyses of the volc-pinatubo-full experiment of CMIP6-VolMIP. Results from six Earth system models reveal significant differences in radiative flux anomalies that trace back to different implementations of volcanic forcing. Surface responses are in contrast overall consistent across models, reflecting the large spread due to internal variability. A second phase of VolMIP shall consider both aspects toward improved protocol for volc-pinatubo-full.
Lea Beusch, Zebedee Nicholls, Lukas Gudmundsson, Mathias Hauser, Malte Meinshausen, and Sonia I. Seneviratne
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 2085–2103,Short summary
We introduce the first chain of computationally efficient Earth system model (ESM) emulators to translate user-defined greenhouse gas emission pathways into regional temperature change time series accounting for all major sources of climate change projection uncertainty. By combining the global mean emulator MAGICC with the spatially resolved emulator MESMER, we can derive ESM-specific and constrained probabilistic emulations to rapidly provide targeted climate information at the local scale.
Yusuke Sasaki, Hidetaka Kobayashi, and Akira Oka
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 2013–2033,Short summary
For realistically simulating the recently observed distributions of dissolved 230Th and 231Pa in the ocean, we highlight the importance of the removal process of 231Pa and 230Th at the seafloor (bottom scavenging) and the dependence of scavenging efficiency on particle concentration. We show that consideration of these two processes can well reproduce not only the oceanic distribution of 231Pa and 230Th but also the sedimentary 231Pa/230Th ratios.
Stefan Hergarten and Jörg Robl
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 2063–2084,Short summary
The influence of climate on landform evolution has attracted great interest over the past decades. This paper presents a simple model for simulating the influence of topography on precipitation and the decrease in precipitation over large continental areas. The approach can be included in numerical models of large-scale landform evolution and causes only a moderate increase in the numerical complexity. It opens a door to investigating feedbacks between climate and landform evolution.
Qing Zhu, Fa Li, William J. Riley, Li Xu, Lei Zhao, Kunxiaojia Yuan, Huayi Wu, Jianya Gong, and James Randerson
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 1899–1911,Short summary
Wildfire is a devastating Earth system process that burns about 500 million hectares of land each year. It wipes out vegetation including trees, shrubs, and grasses and causes large losses of economic assets. However, modeling the spatial distribution and temporal changes of wildfire activities at a global scale is challenging. This study built a machine-learning-based wildfire surrogate model within an existing Earth system model and achieved high accuracy.
Justus Contzen, Thorsten Dickhaus, and Gerrit Lohmann
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 1803–1820,Short summary
Climate models are of paramount importance to predict future climate changes. Since many severe consequences of climate change are due to extreme events, the accurate behaviour of models in terms of extremes needs to be validated thoroughly. We present a method for model validation in terms of climate extremes and an algorithm to detect regions in which extremes tend to occur at the same time. These methods are applied to data from different climate models and to observational data.
Enrico Scoccimarro, Daniele Peano, Silvio Gualdi, Alessio Bellucci, Tomas Lovato, Pier Giuseppe Fogli, and Antonio Navarra
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 1841–1854,Short summary
This study evaluated the ability of the CMCC-CM2 climate model participating to the last CMIP6 effort, in representing extreme events of precipitation and temperature at the daily and 6-hourly frequencies. The 1/4° resolution version of the atmospheric model provides better results than the version at 1° resolution for temperature extremes, at both time frequencies. For precipitation extremes, especially at the daily time frequency, the higher resolution does not improve model results.
Joel Fiddes, Kristoffer Aalstad, and Michael Lehning
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 1753–1768,Short summary
This study describes and evaluates a new downscaling scheme that addresses the need for hillslope-scale atmospheric forcing time series for modelling the local impact of regional climate change on the land surface in mountain areas. The method has a global scope and is able to generate all model forcing variables required for hydrological and land surface modelling. This is important, as impact models require high-resolution forcings such as those generated here to produce meaningful results.
Yan Yang, A. Anthony Bloom, Shuang Ma, Paul Levine, Alexander Norton, Nicholas C. Parazoo, John T. Reager, John Worden, Gregory R. Quetin, T. Luke Smallman, Mathew Williams, Liang Xu, and Sassan Saatchi
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 1789–1802,Short summary
Global carbon and water have large uncertainties that are hard to quantify in current regional and global models. Field observations provide opportunities for better calibration and validation of current modeling of carbon and water. With the unique structure of CARDAMOM, we have utilized the data assimilation capability and designed the benchmarking framework by using field observations in modeling. Results show that data assimilation improves model performance in different aspects.
Jinyun Tang, William J. Riley, and Qing Zhu
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 1619–1632,Short summary
We here describe version 2 of BeTR, a reactive transport model created to help ease the development of biogeochemical capability in Earth system models that are used for quantifying ecosystem–climate feedbacks. We then coupled BeTR-v2 to the Energy Exascale Earth System Model to quantify how different numerical couplings of plants and soils affect simulated ecosystem biogeochemistry. We found that different couplings lead to significant uncertainty that is not correctable by tuning parameters.
Christopher Holder, Anand Gnanadesikan, and Marie Aude-Pradal
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 1595–1617,Short summary
It can be challenging to understand why Earth system models (ESMs) produce specific results because one can arrive at the same result simply by changing the values of the parameters. In our paper, we demonstrate that it is possible to use machine learning to figure out how and why particular components of an ESM (such as biology or ocean circulations) affect the output. This work could be applied to observations to improve the accuracy of the formulations used in ESMs.
Kun Zheng, Yan Liu, Jinbiao Zhang, Cong Luo, Siyu Tang, Huihua Ruan, Qiya Tan, Yunlei Yi, and Xiutao Ran
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 1467–1475,Short summary
In extrapolation methods, there is a phenomenon that causes the extrapolated image to be blurred and unrealistic. The paper proposes the GAN–argcPredNet v1.0 network model, which aims to solve this problem through GAN's ability to strengthen the characteristics of multi-modal data modeling. GAN–argcPredNet v1.0 has achieved excellent results. Our model can reduce the prediction loss in a small-scale space so that the prediction results have more detailed features.
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 1375–1411,Short summary
The present study evaluates the last two global climate model generations in terms of their capability to reproduce recurrent regional atmospheric circulation patterns in the Northern Hemisphere mid-to-high latitudes under present climate conditions. These patterns are linked with many environmental variables on the local scale and thus provide an overarching concept for model verification. The results are expected to be of interest for model developers and regional climate scientists.
Shuqi Lin, Leon Boegman, Shiliang Shan, and Ryan Mulligan
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 1331–1353,Short summary
An operational hydrodynamics forecast system, COASTLINES, using the Windows Task Scheduler, Python, and MATLAB scripts, to automate application of a 3-D model (AEM3D) in Lake Erie was developed. The system predicted storm-surge and up-/downwelling events that are important for flood water and drinking water/fishery management. This example of the successful development of an operational forecast system can be adapted to simulate aquatic systems as required for management and public safety.
Niels J. de Winter
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 1247–1267,Short summary
ShellChron is a tool for determining the relative age of samples in carbonate (climate) archives based on the seasonal variability in temperature and salinity or precipitation recorded in stable oxygen isotope measurements. The model allows dating of fossil archives within a year, which is important for climate reconstructions on the sub-seasonal to decadal scale. In this paper, I introduce ShellChron and test it on a range of real and virtual datasets to demonstrate its use.
Fanglou Liao, Xiao Hua Wang, and Zhiqiang Liu
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 1129–1153,Short summary
The ocean heat content (OHC) estimated using two eddying hindcast simulations, OFES1 and OFES2, was compared from 1960 to 2016, with observation-based results as a reference. Marked differences were found, especially in the Atlantic Ocean. These were related to the differences in the net surface heating, heat advection, and vertical heat diffusion. These documented differences may help the community better understand and use these quasi-global high-resolution datasets for their own purposes.
Kai-Yuan Cheng, Lucas M. Harris, and Yong Qiang Sun
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 1097–1105,Short summary
This paper presents the implementation of container technology for the System for High‐resolution prediction on Earth‐to‐Local Domains (SHiELD), a unified atmospheric model that can be used as a global, a global–nest, and a regional model for weather-to-seasonal prediction. Container technology makes SHiELD cross-platform and easy to use, which opens opportunities for collaborative research and development. The performance and scalability of the containerized SHiELD are evaluated and discussed.
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 951–970,Short summary
A new simple climate model, MCE, was developed. It can emulate the basic behavior of comprehensive climate models in a minimal way with sufficient accuracy, providing a reasonable way to assess climate change mitigation scenarios in terms of consistency with long-term temperature goals. The model's simple structure is suitable for building probability distributions of key model parameters such that they reflect uncertainty ranges of multiple climate projections and observed warming trends.
Remko C. Nijzink, Jason Beringer, Lindsay B. Hutley, and Stanislaus J. Schymanski
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 883–900,Short summary
The Vegetation Optimality Model (VOM) is a coupled water–vegetation model that predicts vegetation properties rather than determines them based on observations. A range of updates to previous applications of the VOM has been made for increased generality and improved comparability with conventional models. This showed that there is a large effect on the simulated water and carbon fluxes caused by the assumption of deep groundwater tables and updated soil profiles in the model.
Thomas S. Ball, Naomi E. Vaughan, Thomas W. Powell, Andrew Lovett, and Timothy M. Lenton
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 929–949,Short summary
C-LLAMA is a simple model of the global food system operating at a country level from 2013 to 2050. The model begins with projections of diet composition and populations for each country, producing a demand for each food commodity and finally an agricultural land use in each country. The model can be used to explore the sensitivity of agricultural land use to various drivers within the food system at country, regional, and continental spatial aggregations.
Israel Silber, Robert C. Jackson, Ann M. Fridlind, Andrew S. Ackerman, Scott Collis, Johannes Verlinde, and Jiachen Ding
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 901–927,Short summary
The Earth Model Column Collaboratory (EMC2) is an open-source ground-based (and air- or space-borne) lidar and radar simulator and subcolumn generator designed for large-scale models, in particular climate models, applicable also for high-resolution models. EMC2 emulates measurements while remaining faithful to large-scale models' physical assumptions implemented in their cloud or radiation schemes. We demonstrate the use of EMC2 to compare AWARE measurements with the NASA GISS ModelE3 and LES.
Robert Schweppe, Stephan Thober, Sebastian Müller, Matthias Kelbling, Rohini Kumar, Sabine Attinger, and Luis Samaniego
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 859–882,Short summary
The recently released multiscale parameter regionalization (MPR) tool enables environmental modelers to efficiently use extensive datasets for model setups. It flexibly ingests the datasets using user-defined data–parameter relationships and rescales parameter fields to given model resolutions. Modern land surface models especially benefit from MPR through increased transparency and flexibility in modeling decisions. Thus, MPR empowers more sound and robust simulations of the Earth system.
Tommi Bergman, Risto Makkonen, Roland Schrödner, Erik Swietlicki, Vaughan T. J. Phillips, Philippe Le Sager, and Twan van Noije
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 683–713,Short summary
We describe in this paper the implementation of a process-based secondary organic aerosol and new particle formation scheme within the chemistry transport model TM5-MP version 1.2. The performance of the model simulations for the year 2010 is evaluated against in situ observations, ground-based remote sensing and satellite retrievals. Overall, the simulated aerosol fields are improved, although in some areas the model shows a decline in performance.
Charles Pelletier, Thierry Fichefet, Hugues Goosse, Konstanze Haubner, Samuel Helsen, Pierre-Vincent Huot, Christoph Kittel, François Klein, Sébastien Le clec'h, Nicole P. M. van Lipzig, Sylvain Marchi, François Massonnet, Pierre Mathiot, Ehsan Moravveji, Eduardo Moreno-Chamarro, Pablo Ortega, Frank Pattyn, Niels Souverijns, Guillian Van Achter, Sam Vanden Broucke, Alexander Vanhulle, Deborah Verfaillie, and Lars Zipf
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 553–594,Short summary
We present PARASO, a circumpolar model for simulating the Antarctic climate. PARASO features five distinct models, each covering different Earth system subcomponents (ice sheet, atmosphere, land, sea ice, ocean). In this technical article, we describe how this tool has been developed, with a focus on the
coupling interfacesrepresenting the feedbacks between the distinct models used for contribution. PARASO is stable and ready to use but is still characterized by significant biases.
George K. Georgiou, Theodoros Christoudias, Yiannis Proestos, Jonilda Kushta, Michael Pikridas, Jean Sciare, Chrysanthos Savvides, and Jos Lelieveld
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for GMDShort summary
We evaluate the skill of the WRF/Chem model to perform high resolution air quality forecasts (including ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and fine particulate matter) over the Eastern Mediterranean, during winter and summer. We compare the forecast output to observational data from background and urban locations and the forecast output from CAMS. WRF/Chem was found to forecast with higher accuracy the concentrations and diurnal profiles of gas-phase pollutants at the urban areas.
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