Articles | Volume 7, issue 4
Geosci. Model Dev., 7, 1661–1669, 2014
© Author(s) 2014. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Model description paper 14 Aug 2014
Model description paper | 14 Aug 2014
Decoupling the effects of clear atmosphere and clouds to simplify calculations of the broadband solar irradiance at ground level
A. Oumbe et al.
No articles found.
Benoît Tournadre, Benoît Gschwind, Yves-Marie Saint-Drenan, and Philippe Blanc
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for AMTShort summary
Solar radiation received by the Earth's surface is a valuable information for various fields like photovoltaic industry or else climate research. Pictures taken from satellites can be used to estimate the solar radiation by identifying cloud properties of reflection. Several issues exist though: satellite sensors are all different. Even two identical instruments looking over the same place see different things. We aim at estimating solar radiation from a wide variety of such satellite sensors.
Mathilde Marchand, Yves-Marie Saint-Drenan, Laurent Saboret, Etienne Wey, and Lucien Wald
Adv. Sci. Res., 17, 143–152,Short summary
The present work deals with the spatial consistency of two well-known databases of solar radiation received at ground level: the CAMS Radiation Service database version 3.2, abbreviated as CAMS-Rad and the HelioClim-3 database version 5, abbreviated as HC3v5. Both databases are derived from satellite images. For both databases, there is no noticeable spatial trend in the standard deviation.
Claire Thomas, Stephen Dorling, William Wandji Nyamsi, Lucien Wald, Stéphane Rubino, Laurent Saboret, Mélodie Trolliet, and Etienne Wey
Adv. Sci. Res., 16, 229–240,Short summary
Solar radiation is the second main important factors for plant growth after temperature. More precisely, PAR, which stands for Photosynthetically Active Radiation, is the portion of the solar spectrum that is efficient for photosynthesis. Due to the scarcity of ground measurements, researchers have developed methods to estimate this variable from satellite imagery. This paper compares several methods to assess satellite-derived PAR against measurements in the UK and in France.
Frederik Kurzrock, Hannah Nguyen, Jerome Sauer, Fabrice Chane Ming, Sylvain Cros, William L. Smith Jr., Patrick Minnis, Rabindra Palikonda, Thomas A. Jones, Caroline Lallemand, Laurent Linguet, and Gilles Lajoie
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 3939–3954,Short summary
This study assesses the assimilation of cloud water path retrievals in three phases (ice, supercooled, and liquid), derived from Meteosat-8, into a limited-area model using an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF). The ability of the method to improve cloud analyses in the southwest Indian Ocean and short-term forecasts of global horizontal irradiance on Réunion Island is demonstrated using the Data Assimilation Research Testbed (DART) and the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model.
Mathilde Marchand, Mireille Lefèvre, Laurent Saboret, Etienne Wey, and Lucien Wald
Adv. Sci. Res., 16, 103–111,Short summary
The present work deals with two well-known databases of hourly mean of solar irradiance that are derived from satellite imagery. The spatial consistency of the uncertainties of these databases is verified against measurements performed within a dense network of ground stations in The Netherlands from the Royal Meteorological Institute KNMI for the period 2014–2017. The obtained results are presented for both databases. And a discussion is proposed.
Maxence Descheemaecker, Matthieu Plu, Virginie Marécal, Marine Claeyman, Francis Olivier, Youva Aoun, Philippe Blanc, Lucien Wald, Jonathan Guth, Bojan Sič, Jérôme Vidot, Andrea Piacentini, and Béatrice Josse
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 1251–1275,Short summary
The future Flexible Combined Imager (FCI) on board MeteoSat Third Generation is expected to improve the detection and the quantification of aerosols. The study assesses the potential of FCI/VIS04 channel for monitoring air pollution in Europe. An observing system simulation experiment in MOCAGE is developed, and they show a large positive impact of the assimilation over a 4-month period and particularly during a severe pollution episode. The added value of geostationary data is also assessed.
Mélodie Trolliet, Jakub P. Walawender, Bernard Bourlès, Alexandre Boilley, Jörg Trentmann, Philippe Blanc, Mireille Lefèvre, and Lucien Wald
Ocean Sci., 14, 1021–1056,
Alberto Troccoli, Clare Goodess, Phil Jones, Lesley Penny, Steve Dorling, Colin Harpham, Laurent Dubus, Sylvie Parey, Sandra Claudel, Duc-Huy Khong, Philip E. Bett, Hazel Thornton, Thierry Ranchin, Lucien Wald, Yves-Marie Saint-Drenan, Matteo De Felice, David Brayshaw, Emma Suckling, Barbara Percy, and Jon Blower
Adv. Sci. Res., 15, 191–205,Short summary
The European Climatic Energy Mixes, an EU Copernicus Climate Change Service project, has produced, in close collaboration with prospective users, a proof-of-concept climate service, or Demonstrator, designed to enable the energy industry assess how well different energy supply mixes in Europe will meet demand, over different time horizons (from seasonal to long-term decadal planning), focusing on the role climate has on the mixes. Its concept, methodology and some results are presented here.
Mélodie Trolliet and Lucien Wald
Adv. Sci. Res., 15, 127–136,
Yves-Marie Saint-Drenan, Lucien Wald, Thierry Ranchin, Laurent Dubus, and Alberto Troccoli
Adv. Sci. Res., 15, 51–62,Short summary
Our approach allows estimating the total photovoltaic (PV) power generation in different European countries from meteorological data. It is aimed at being easy to implement since it does not require any plant information or prior knowledge on the installed PV plants.
Marie Opálková, Martin Navrátil, Vladimír Špunda, Philippe Blanc, and Lucien Wald
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 837–846,Short summary
Files with irradiances of a few spectral regions of incident solar radiation and some meteorological variables including concentrations of some air pollutants measured for 2.5 years at 3 stations in Ostrava (CZ) were prepared. Special attention was given to the data quality and the process of quality check was described. This database offers an ensemble of data with high temporal resolution and creates a source on radiation in relation with environment and vegetation in polluted areas of cities.
Mathilde Marchand, Abdellatif Ghennioui, Etienne Wey, and Lucien Wald
Adv. Sci. Res., 15, 21–29,
Pascal Kuhn, Stefan Wilbert, Christoph Prahl, Dominik Garsche, David Schüler, Thomas Haase, Lourdes Ramirez, Luis Zarzalejo, Angela Meyer, Philippe Blanc, and Robert Pitz-Paal
Adv. Sci. Res., 15, 11–14,Short summary
Downward-facing shadow cameras might play a major role in future energy meteorology. Shadow cameras image shadows directly on the ground from an elevated position. They are used to validate other systems (e.g. all-sky imager based nowcasting systems, cloud speed sensors or satellite forecasts) and can potentially provide short term forecasts for solar power plants. Such forecasts are needed for electricity grids with high penetrations of renewable energy and solar power plants.
Marc Bengulescu, Philippe Blanc, and Lucien Wald
Nonlin. Processes Geophys., 25, 19–37,Short summary
We employ the Hilbert–Huang transform to study the temporal variability in time series of daily means of the surface solar irradiance (SSI) at different locations around the world. The data have a significant spectral peak corresponding to the yearly variability cycle and feature quasi-stochastic high-frequency "weather noise", irrespective of the geographical location or of the local climate. Our findings can improve models for estimating SSI from satellite images or forecasts of the SSI.
Philippe Blanc, Benoit Gschwind, Lionel Ménard, and Lucien Wald
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
The construction of worldwide maps of surface bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) parameters is presented. The original data stems from the NASA which is making available maps of BRDF parameters from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer instrument. The original data has been averaged for each month for the period 2004–2011 and a spatial completion of data was performed. The dataset in NetCDF is referenced by doi:10.23646/85d2cd5f-ccaa-482e-a4c9-b6e0c59d966c.
William Wandji Nyamsi, Phillipe Blanc, John A. Augustine, Antti Arola, and Lucien Wald
Manuscript not accepted for further reviewShort summary
This paper proposes a new, fast and accurate method for estimating photosynthetically active radiation at ground level in cloud-free conditions at any place and time. The method performs very well with the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service products as inputs describing the state of the atmosphere. An accuracy that is close to the uncertainty of the measurements themselves is reached. We believe that our research will be widely used in the near future.
William Wandji Nyamsi, Mikko R. A. Pitkänen, Youva Aoun, Philippe Blanc, Anu Heikkilä, Kaisa Lakkala, Germar Bernhard, Tapani Koskela, Anders V. Lindfors, Antti Arola, and Lucien Wald
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 4965–4978,Short summary
This paper proposes a new, fast and accurate method for estimating UV fluxes at ground level in cloud-free conditions at any place and time. The method performs very well with the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service products as inputs describing the state of the atmosphere. An accuracy that is close to the uncertainty of the measurements themselves is reached. We believe that our research will be widely used in the near future.
Philip D. Jones, Colin Harpham, Alberto Troccoli, Benoit Gschwind, Thierry Ranchin, Lucien Wald, Clare M. Goodess, and Stephen Dorling
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 9, 471–495,Short summary
The construction of a bias-adjusted dataset of climate variables at the near surface using ERA-Interim reanalysis is presented. The variables are air temperature, dewpoint temperature, precipitation (daily only), solar radiation, wind speed, and relative humidity.The resulting bias-adjusted dataset is available through the Climate Data Store (CDS) of the Copernicus Climate Change Data Store (C3S), and can be accessed at present from ftp://ecem.climate.copernicus.eu.
Marc Bengulescu, Philippe Blanc, Alexandre Boilley, and Lucien Wald
Adv. Sci. Res., 14, 35–48,Short summary
This study investigates the characteristic time-scales of variability found in long-term time-series of daily means of surface solar irradiance (SSI). Estimates of SSI from satellite-derived HelioClim-3 and radiation products from ERA-Interim and MERRA-2 re-analyses are compared to WRDC measurements. It is found that HelioClim-3 renders a more accurate picture of the variability found in ground measurements, not only globally, but also with respect to individual characteristic time-scales.
Mathilde Marchand, Nasser Al-Azri, Armel Ombe-Ndeffotsing, Etienne Wey, and Lucien Wald
Adv. Sci. Res., 14, 7–15,Short summary
The solar hourly irradiation received at ground level estimated by the databases HelioClim-3v4, HelioClim-3v5 and Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS) Radiation Service are compared to measurements made in stations in Oman and Abu Dhabi. The correlation coefficients are greater than 0.97. The relative bias is less than 5%. Each database captures accurately the temporal and spatial variability of the irradiance field. The three databases are reliable sources to assess solar radiation.
Claire Thomas, Laurent Saboret, Etienne Wey, Philippe Blanc, and Lucien Wald
Adv. Sci. Res., 13, 129–136,Short summary
HelioClim-3 (version 4) is a satellite-derived solar surface irradiance database available at d-1 until 2015. To fulfill the requirements of numerous users, a new service based on the principle of persistence has been developed; it provides solar data in real time and forecasts until the end of the current day. The service exhibits good performances for 15 min and 1 h ahead forecasts, and degrades as the temporal horizon increases. Several customers have so far purchased this service.
Marc Bengulescu, Philippe Blanc, and Lucien Wald
Adv. Sci. Res., 13, 121–127,Short summary
The continuous wavelet (CWT) and the Hilbert–Huang transforms (HHT) are compared for the analysis of the temporal variability on ten years of daily means of the surface solar irradiance. In both cases, the variability exhibits a plateau between scales of two days and three months that has decreasing power with increasing scale, a spectral peak corresponding to the annual cycle, and a low power regime in-between. The HHT is shown to be suitable for inspecting the variability of the measurements.
Claire Thomas, Etienne Wey, Philippe Blanc, and Lucien Wald
Adv. Sci. Res., 13, 81–86,Short summary
Several satellite-derived solar surface irradiance databases provide long-term and homogeneously distributed information on the solar potential at ground level. This paper presents the validation results of three of these databases: HelioClim-3 (versions 4 and 5) and the CAMS radiation service, versus the measurements of 42 stations in Brazil. Despite a slight overestimation of the CAMS radiation service, the three databases are suitable for studies of the solar resources in Brazil.
Mireille Lefèvre and Lucien Wald
Adv. Sci. Res., 13, 21–26,Short summary
The new CAMS (Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service) McClear service is a practical easy-to-use tool to estimate the solar direct and global irradiances received at ground level in cloud-free conditions at any place any time. This article presents validation against 1 min measurements made at three very close stations in Israel in desert conditions. The good results demonstrate the accuracy of McClear and its ability to capture the temporal and spatial variability of the irradiance field.
Mohamed Korany, Mohamed Boraiy, Yehia Eissa, Youva Aoun, Magdy M. Abdel Wahab, Stéphane C. Alfaro, Philippe Blanc, Mossad El-Metwally, Hosni Ghedira, Katja Hungershoefer, and Lucien Wald
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 8, 105–113,Short summary
A database of global and diffuse components of the surface solar hourly irradiation measured from 2004 to 2010 at eight Egyptian meteorological stations is presented. At three sites, the direct component is also available. In addition, a series of meteorological variables is provided at the same hourly resolution. The measurements and quality checks applied to the data are detailed. Finally, 13500 to 29000 measurements of global and diffuse hourly irradiation are available at each site.
P. Blanc and L. Wald
Adv. Sci. Res., 13, 1–6,Short summary
Time series of hourly measurements or modelled values of surface solar irradiation are increasingly available. Currently, no solar zenith and azimuth angles are associated to each measurement whereas such angles are necessary for handling the measured or modelled irradiations. A method is proposed to assess such angles with a great accuracy. It makes use of two modelled time-series that can be computed using the web site www.soda-pro.com for any site in the world.
Y. Eissa, P. Blanc, L. Wald, and H. Ghedira
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 5099–5112,Short summary
This study investigates whether the spectral aerosol optical properties of the AERONET stations are sufficient for an accurate modelling of the monochromatic beam and circumsolar irradiances under cloud-free conditions in a desert environment. By comparing the modelled irradiances against reference ground measurements, the monochromatic beam and circumsolar irradiances may very well be modelled using a set of inputs extracted from the AERONET data.
W. Wandji Nyamsi, A. Arola, P. Blanc, A. V. Lindfors, V. Cesnulyte, M. R. A. Pitkänen, and L. Wald
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 7449–7456,Short summary
A novel model of the absorption of radiation by ozone in the UV bands [283, 307]nm and [307, 328]nm yields improvements in the modeling of the transmissivity in these bands. This model is faster than detailed spectral calculations and is as accurate with maximum errors of respectively 0.0006 and 0.0143. How to practically implement this new parameterization in a radiative transfer model is discussed for the case of libRadtran.
W. Wandji Nyamsi, B. Espinar, P. Blanc, and L. Wald
Adv. Sci. Res., 12, 5–10,Short summary
We propose an innovative method to estimate the Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) under clear sky conditions derived from the fast approach of Kato et al. (1999). It provides very good results better than the two state-of-the-art empirical methods computing the daily mean of PAR from the daily mean of total irradiance. In addition, this technique may be extended to be able to accurately estimate other spectral quantities taking into account absorption of plants photosynthetic pigments.
P. Blanc, C. Coulaud, and L. Wald
Adv. Sci. Res., 12, 1–4,Short summary
New Caledonia experiences a decrease in surface solar irradiation since 2004, of order of 4% of the mean yearly irradiation, and amounts to 9 W m 2. The preeminent roles of the changes in cloud cover and to a lesser extent, those in aerosol optical depth on the decrease in yearly irradiation are evidenced. The study highlights the role of data sets offering a worldwide coverage in understanding changes in solar radiation and planning large solar energy plants.
J. Badosa, J. Wood, P. Blanc, C. N. Long, L. Vuilleumier, D. Demengel, and M. Haeffelin
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 4267–4283,
Z. Qu, B. Gschwind, M. Lefevre, and L. Wald
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 3927–3933,Short summary
The HelioClim-3 database (HC3v3) provides records of surface solar irradiation every 15 min estimated by processing images from the geostationary meteorological Meteosat satellites using climatological data sets of atmospheric properties. A method is proposed to improve a posteriori HC3v3 by combining it with data records of advanced global aerosol property forecasts and physically consistent total column content in water vapour and ozone produced by the MACC projects.
M. Lefèvre, A. Oumbe, P. Blanc, B. Espinar, B. Gschwind, Z. Qu, L. Wald, M. Schroedter-Homscheidt, C. Hoyer-Klick, A. Arola, A. Benedetti, J. W. Kaiser, and J.-J. Morcrette
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 2403–2418,
Related subject area
Atmospheric sciencesNovel estimation of aerosol processes with particle size distribution measurements: a case study with the TOMAS algorithm v1.0.0Evaluation of ECMWF IFS-AER (CAMS) operational forecasts during cycle 41r1–46r1 with calibrated ceilometer profiles over GermanyInfluence of biomass burning vapor wall loss correction on modeling organic aerosols in Europe by CAMx v6.50Seasonal and diurnal performance of daily forecasts with WRF V3.8.1 over the United Arab EmiratesMLAir (v1.0) – a tool to enable fast and flexible machine learning on air data time seriessnowScatt 1.0: consistent model of microphysical and scattering properties of rimed and unrimed snowflakes based on the self-similar Rayleigh–Gans approximationEffects of spatial resolution on WRF v3.8.1 simulated meteorology over the central HimalayaOn the suitability of second-order accurate finite-volume solvers for the simulation of atmospheric boundary layer flowAn urban large-eddy-simulation-based dispersion model for marginal grid resolutions: CAIRDIO v1.0Applying a new integrated mass-flux adjustment filter in rapid update cycling of convective-scale data assimilation for the COSMO model (v5.07)On the model uncertainties in Bayesian source reconstruction using an ensemble of weather predictions, the emission inverse modelling system FREAR v1.0, and the Lagrangian transport and dispersion model Flexpart v9.0.2Evaluation of the interactive stratospheric ozone (O3v2) module in the E3SM version 1 Earth system modelDevelopment of an atmospheric chemistry model coupled to the PALM model system 6.0: implementation and first applicationsThe Vertical City Weather Generator (VCWG v1.3.2)A zero-dimensional view of atmospheric degradation of levoglucosan (LEVCHEM_v1) using numerical chamber simulationsThe Nonhydrostatic ICosahedral Atmospheric Model for CMIP6 HighResMIP simulations (NICAM16-S): experimental design, model description, and impacts of model updatesUsing radar observations to evaluate 3-D radar echo structure simulated by the Energy Exascale Earth System Model (E3SM) version 1Development of WRF/CUACE v1.0 model and its preliminary application in simulating air quality in ChinaPyCHAM (v2.1.1): a Python box model for simulating aerosol chambersA revised dry deposition scheme for land–atmosphere exchange of trace gases in ECHAM/MESSy v2.54Improving dust simulations in WRF-Chem v4.1.3 coupled with the GOCART aerosol moduleFALL3D-8.0: a computational model for atmospheric transport and deposition of particles, aerosols and radionuclides – Part 2: Model validationImplementation of a synthetic inflow turbulence generator in idealised WRF v3.6.1 large eddy simulations under neutral atmospheric conditionsNumerical study of the effects of initial conditions and emissions on PM2.5 concentration simulations with CAMx v6.1: a Xi'an case studyA multi-year short-range hindcast experiment with CESM1 for evaluating climate model moist processes from diurnal to interannual timescalesGround-based lidar processing and simulator framework for comparing models and observations (ALCF 1.0)Development of an Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) aerosol index (AI) data assimilation scheme for aerosol modeling over bright surfaces – a step toward direct radiance assimilation in the UV spectrumIntelliO3-ts v1.0: a neural network approach to predict near-surface ozone concentrations in GermanyDevelopment and evaluation of spectral nudging strategy for the simulation of summer precipitation over the Tibetan PlateauISBA-MEB (SURFEX v8.1): model snow evaluation for local-scale forest sitesEvaluating and improving the treatment of gases in radiation schemes: the Correlated K-Distribution Model Intercomparison Project (CKDMIP)GenChem v1.0 – a chemical pre-processing and testing system for atmospheric modellingThe Detailed Emissions Scaling, Isolation, and Diagnostic (DESID) module in the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) Modeling System version 5.3Incoming data quality control in high-resolution urban climate simulations: a Hong Kong–Shenzhen area urban climate simulation as a case study using the WRF/Noah LSM/SLUCM model (Version 3.7.1)Configuration and evaluation of a global unstructured mesh atmospheric model (GRIST-A20.9) based on the variable-resolution approachDescription of the uEMEP_v5 downscaling approach for the EMEP MSC-W chemistry transport modelDevelopment of a three-dimensional variational assimilation system for lidar profile data based on a size-resolved aerosol model in WRF–Chem model v3.9.1 and its application in PM2.5 forecasts across ChinaUsing wavelet transform and dynamic time warping to identify the limitations of the CNN model as an air quality forecasting systemIn-cloud scavenging scheme for sectional aerosol modules – implementation in the framework of the Sectional Aerosol module for Large Scale Applications version 2.0 (SALSA2.0) global aerosol moduleDetection of atmospheric rivers with inline uncertainty quantification: TECA-BARD v1.0.1TITAM (v1.0): the Time-Independent Tracking Algorithm for MedicanesEffects of horizontal resolution and air–sea coupling on simulated moisture source for East Asian precipitation in MetUM GA6/GC2On the tuning of atmospheric inverse methods: comparisons with the European Tracer Experiment (ETEX) and Chernobyl datasets using the atmospheric transport model FLEXPARTWRF4PALM v1.0: A Mesoscale Dynamical Driver for the Microscale PALM Model System 6.0Sensitivity of aerosol optical properties to the aerosol size distribution over central Europe and the Mediterranean Basin using the WRF-Chem v.184.108.40.206 coupled modelPMIF v1.0: assessing the potential of satellite observations to constrain CO2 emissions from large cities and point sources over the globe using synthetic dataMultilayer cloud conditions in trade wind shallow cumulus – confronting two ICON model derivatives with airborne observationsA new parameterization of ice heterogeneous nucleation coupled to aerosol chemistry in WRF-Chem model version 3.5.1: evaluation through ISDAC measurementsPrioritising the sources of pollution in European cities: do air quality modelling applications provide consistent responses?New strategies for vertical transport in chemistry transport models: application to the case of the Mount Etna eruption on 18 March 2012 with CHIMERE v2017r4
Dana L. McGuffin, Yuanlong Huang, Richard C. Flagan, Tuukka Petäjä, B. Erik Ydstie, and Peter J. Adams
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1821–1839,Short summary
Atmospheric particle formation, emissions, and growth process rates are significant sources of uncertainty in predicting climate change. We aim to reduce that uncertainty by using measurements from several ground-based sites across Europe. We developed an estimation technique to adapt the governing process rates so model–measurement bias decays. The estimation framework developed has potential to improve model predictions while providing insight into the underlying atmospheric particle physics.
Harald Flentje, Ina Mattis, Zak Kipling, Samuel Rémy, and Werner Thomas
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1721–1751,Short summary
Atmospheric aerosols crucially impact air quality, climate and weather. Thus, global model forecasts of atmospheric constituents are published daily on the ECMWF website and are regularly verified by the CAMS service team. The IFS-AER model is largely able to reproduce observed 3-D distributions of the important particle types over Germany. The particle concentration is mostly captured within several tens of percent, but quantification of some specific processes still remains a challenge.
Jianhui Jiang, Imad El Haddad, Sebnem Aksoyoglu, Giulia Stefenelli, Amelie Bertrand, Nicolas Marchand, Francesco Canonaco, Jean-Eudes Petit, Olivier Favez, Stefania Gilardoni, Urs Baltensperger, and André S. H. Prévôt
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1681–1697,Short summary
We developed a box model with a volatility basis set to simulate organic aerosol (OA) from biomass burning and optimized the vapor-wall-loss-corrected OA yields with a genetic algorithm. The optimized parameterizations were then implemented in the air quality model CAMx v6.5. Comparisons with ambient measurements indicate that the vapor-wall-loss-corrected parameterization effectively improves the model performance in predicting OA, which reduced the mean fractional bias from −72.9 % to −1.6 %.
Oliver Branch, Thomas Schwitalla, Marouane Temimi, Ricardo Fonseca, Narendra Nelli, Michael Weston, Josipa Milovac, and Volker Wulfmeyer
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1615–1637,Short summary
Effective numerical weather forecasting is vital in arid regions like the United Arab Emirates where extreme events like heat waves, flash floods, and dust storms are becoming more severe. This study employs a high-resolution simulation with the WRF-NOAHMP model, and the output is compared with seasonal observation data from 50 weather stations. This type of verification is vital to identify model deficiencies and improve forecasting systems for arid regions.
Lukas Hubert Leufen, Felix Kleinert, and Martin G. Schultz
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1553–1574,Short summary
MLAir provides a coherent end-to-end structure for a typical time series analysis workflow using machine learning (ML). MLAir is adaptable to a wide range of ML use cases, focusing in particular on deep learning. The user has a free hand with the ML model itself and can select from different methods during preprocessing, training, and postprocessing. MLAir offers tools to track the experiment conduction, documents necessary ML parameters, and creates a variety of publication-ready plots.
Davide Ori, Leonie von Terzi, Markus Karrer, and Stefan Kneifel
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1511–1531,Short summary
Snowflakes have very complex shapes, and modeling their properties requires vast computing power. We produced a large number of realistic snowflakes and modeled their average properties by leveraging their fractal structure. Our approach allows modeling the properties of big ensembles of snowflakes, taking into account their natural variability, at a much lower cost. This enables the usage of remote sensing instruments, such as radars, to monitor the evolution of clouds and precipitation.
Jaydeep Singh, Narendra Singh, Narendra Ojha, Amit Sharma, Andrea Pozzer, Nadimpally Kiran Kumar, Kunjukrishnapillai Rajeev, Sachin S. Gunthe, and V. Rao Kotamarthi
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1427–1443,Short summary
Atmospheric models often have limitations in simulating the geographically complex and climatically important central Himalayan region. In this direction, we have performed regional modeling at high resolutions to improve the simulation of meteorology and dynamics through a better representation of the topography. The study has implications for further model applications to investigate the effects of anthropogenic pressure over the Himalaya.
Beatrice Giacomini and Marco G. Giometto
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1409–1426,Short summary
The present work evaluates the suitability of an important class of second-order finite-volume solvers for the large-eddy simulation of atmospheric boundary- layer flows. Results show that these solvers do not capture the dominant mechanisms responsible for momentum transport in boundary layers, leading to a misprediction of relevant flow statistics and to an enhanced sensitivity of the solution to variations in grid resolution.
Michael Weger, Oswald Knoth, and Bernd Heinold
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1469–1492,Short summary
A new numerical air-quality transport model for cities is presented, in which buildings are described diffusively. The used diffusive-obstacles approach helps to reduce the computational costs for high-resolution simulations as the grid spacing can be more coarse than in traditional approaches. The research which led to this model development was primarily motivated by the need for a computationally feasible downscaling tool for urban wind and pollution fields from meteorological model output.
Yuefei Zeng, Alberto de Lozar, Tijana Janjic, and Axel Seifert
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1295–1307,Short summary
A new integrated mass-flux adjustment filter is introduced and examined with an idealized setup for convective-scale radar data assimilation. It is found that the new filter slightly reduces the accuracy of background and analysis states; however, it preserves the main structure of cold pools and primary mesocyclone properties of supercells. More importantly, it successfully diminishes the imbalance in the analysis considerably and improves the forecasts.
Pieter De Meutter, Ian Hoffman, and Kurt Ungar
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1237–1252,Short summary
Inverse atmospheric transport modelling is an important tool in several disciplines. However, the specification of atmospheric transport model error remains challenging. In this paper, we employ a state-of-the-art ensemble technique combined with a state-of-the-art Bayesian inference algorithm to infer point sources. Our research helps to fill the gap in our understanding of model error in the context of inverse atmospheric transport modelling.
Qi Tang, Michael J. Prather, Juno Hsu, Daniel J. Ruiz, Philip J. Cameron-Smith, Shaocheng Xie, and Jean-Christophe Golaz
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1219–1236,
Basit Khan, Sabine Banzhaf, Edward C. Chan, Renate Forkel, Farah Kanani-Sühring, Klaus Ketelsen, Mona Kurppa, Björn Maronga, Matthias Mauder, Siegfried Raasch, Emmanuele Russo, Martijn Schaap, and Matthias Sühring
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1171–1193,Short summary
An atmospheric chemistry model has been implemented in the microscale PALM model system 6.0. This article provides a detailed description of the model, its structure, input requirements, various features and limitations. Several pre-compiled ready-to-use chemical mechanisms are included in the chemistry model code; however, users can also easily implement other mechanisms. A case study is presented to demonstrate the application of the new chemistry model in the urban environment.
Mohsen Moradi, Benjamin Dyer, Amir Nazem, Manoj K. Nambiar, M. Rafsan Nahian, Bruno Bueno, Chris Mackey, Saeran Vasanthakumar, Negin Nazarian, E. Scott Krayenhoff, Leslie K. Norford, and Amir A. Aliabadi
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 961–984,Short summary
The Vertical City Weather Generator (VCWG) is an urban microclimate model developed to predict temporal and vertical variation of potential temperature, wind speed, and specific humidity. VCWG is forced by climate variables at a nearby rural site and coupled to radiation and building energy models. VCWG is evaluated against field observations of the BUBBLE campaign. It is run under exploration mode to assess its performance given urban characteristics, seasonal variations, and climate zones.
Loredana G. Suciu, Robert J. Griffin, and Caroline A. Masiello
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 907–921,Short summary
Understanding the atmospheric degradation of biomass burning tracers such as levoglucosan is essential to decreasing uncertainties in the role of biomass burning in air quality, carbon cycling and paleoclimate. Using a 0-D modeling approach and numerical chamber simulations, we found that the multiphase atmospheric degradation of levoglucosan occurs over timescales of hours to days, can form secondary organic aerosols and affects other key tropospheric gases, such as ozone.
Chihiro Kodama, Tomoki Ohno, Tatsuya Seiki, Hisashi Yashiro, Akira T. Noda, Masuo Nakano, Yohei Yamada, Woosub Roh, Masaki Satoh, Tomoko Nitta, Daisuke Goto, Hiroaki Miura, Tomoe Nasuno, Tomoki Miyakawa, Ying-Wen Chen, and Masato Sugi
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 795–820,Short summary
This paper describes the latest stable version of NICAM, a global atmospheric model, developed for high-resolution climate simulations toward the IPCC Assessment Report. Our model explicitly treats convection, clouds, and precipitation and could reduce the uncertainty of climate change projection. A series of test simulations demonstrated improvements (e.g., high cloud) and issues (e.g., low cloud, precipitation pattern), suggesting further necessity for model improvement and higher resolutions.
Jingyu Wang, Jiwen Fan, Robert A. Houze Jr., Stella R. Brodzik, Kai Zhang, Guang J. Zhang, and Po-Lun Ma
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 719–734,Short summary
This paper presents an evaluation of the E3SM model against NEXRAD radar observations for the warm seasons during 2014–2016. The COSP forward simulator package is implemented in the model to generate radar reflectivity, and the NEXRAD observations are coarsened to the model resolution for comparison. The model severely underestimates the reflectivity above 4 km. Sensitivity tests on the parameters from cumulus parameterization and cloud microphysics do not improve this model bias.
Lei Zhang, Sunling Gong, Tianliang Zhao, Chunhong Zhou, Yuesi Wang, Jiawei Li, Dongsheng Ji, Jianjun He, Hongli Liu, Ke Gui, Xiaomei Guo, Jinhui Gao, Yunpeng Shan, Hong Wang, Yaqiang Wang, Huizheng Che, and Xiaoye Zhang
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 703–718,Short summary
Development of chemical transport models with advanced physics and chemical schemes is important for improving air-quality forecasts. This study develops the chemical module CUACE by updating with a new particle dry deposition scheme and adding heterogenous chemical reactions and couples it with the WRF model. The coupled model (WRF/CUACE) was able to capture well the variations of PM2.5, O3, NO2, and secondary inorganic aerosols in eastern China.
Simon Patrick O'Meara, Shuxuan Xu, David Topping, M. Rami Alfarra, Gerard Capes, Douglas Lowe, Yunqi Shao, and Gordon McFiggans
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 675–702,Short summary
User-friendly and open-source software for simulating aerosol chambers is a valuable tool for research scientists in designing and analysing their experiments. This paper describes a new version of such software and will therefore provide a useful reference for those applying it. Central to the paper is an assessment of the software's accuracy through comparison against previously published simulations.
Tamara Emmerichs, Astrid Kerkweg, Huug Ouwersloot, Silvano Fares, Ivan Mammarella, and Domenico Taraborrelli
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 495–519,Short summary
Dry deposition to vegetation is a major sink of ground-level ozone. Its parameterization in atmospheric chemistry models represents a significant source of uncertainty for global tropospheric ozone. We extended the current model parameterization with a relevant pathway and important meteorological adjustment factors. The comparison with measurements shows that this enables a more realistic model representation of ozone dry deposition velocity. Globally, annual dry deposition loss increases.
Alexander Ukhov, Ravan Ahmadov, Georg Grell, and Georgiy Stenchikov
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 473–493,Short summary
We discuss and evaluate the effects of inconsistencies found in the WRF-Chem code when using the GOCART module. First, PM surface concentrations were miscalculated. Second, dust optical depth was underestimated by 25 %–30 %. Third, an inconsistency in the process of gravitational settling led to the overestimation of dust column loadings by 4 %–6 %, PM10 by 2 %–4 %, and the rate of gravitational dust settling by 5 %–10 %. We also presented diagnostics that can be used to estimate these effects.
Andrew T. Prata, Leonardo Mingari, Arnau Folch, Giovanni Macedonio, and Antonio Costa
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 409–436,Short summary
This paper presents FALL3D-8.0, the latest version release of an open-source code with a track record of 15+ years and a growing number of users in the volcanological and atmospheric communities. The code, originally conceived for atmospheric dispersal and deposition of tephra particles, has been extended to model other types of particles, aerosols and radionuclides. This paper details new model applications and validation of FALL3D-8.0 using satellite, ground-deposit load and radionuclide data.
Jian Zhong, Xiaoming Cai, and Zheng-Tong Xie
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 323–336,Short summary
A synthetic inflow turbulence generator was implemented in the idealised Weather Research and Forecasting large eddy simulation. The inflow case yielded a mean velocity profile and second-moment profiles that agreed well with those generated using periodic boundary conditions, after a short adjustment distance. This implementation can be extended to a multi-scale seamless nesting simulation from a meso-scale domain with a kilometre-scale resolution to LES domains with metre-scale resolutions.
Han Xiao, Qizhong Wu, Xiaochun Yang, Lanning Wang, and Huaqiong Cheng
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 223–238,Short summary
Few studies have investigated the effects of initial conditions on the simulation or prediction of PM2.5 concentrations. Here, sensitivity experiments are used to explore the effects of three initial mechanisms (clean, restart, and continuous) and emissions in Xi’an in December 2016. According to this work, if the restart mechanism cannot be used due to computing resource and storage space limitations when forecasting PM2.5 concentrations, a spin-up time of at least 27 h is needed.
Hsi-Yen Ma, Chen Zhou, Yunyan Zhang, Stephen A. Klein, Mark D. Zelinka, Xue Zheng, Shaocheng Xie, Wei-Ting Chen, and Chien-Ming Wu
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 73–90,Short summary
We propose an experimental design of a suite of multi-year, short-term hindcasts and compare them with corresponding observations or measurements for periods based on different weather and climate phenomena. This atypical way of evaluating model performance is particularly useful and beneficial, as these hindcasts can give scientists a robust picture of modeled precipitation, and cloud and radiation processes from their diurnal variation to year-to-year variability.
Peter Kuma, Adrian J. McDonald, Olaf Morgenstern, Richard Querel, Israel Silber, and Connor J. Flynn
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 43–72,
Jianglong Zhang, Robert J. D. Spurr, Jeffrey S. Reid, Peng Xian, Peter R. Colarco, James R. Campbell, Edward J. Hyer, and Nancy L. Baker
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 27–42,Short summary
A first-of-its-kind scheme has been developed for assimilating Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) aerosol index (AI) measurements into the Naval Aerosol Analysis and Predictive System. Improvements in model simulations demonstrate the utility of OMI AI data assimilation for improving the accuracy of aerosol model analysis over cloudy regions and bright surfaces. This study can be considered one of the first attempts at direct radiance assimilation in the UV spectrum for aerosol analyses.
Felix Kleinert, Lukas H. Leufen, and Martin G. Schultz
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1–25,Short summary
With IntelliO3-ts v1.0, we present an artificial neural network as a new forecasting model for daily aggregated near-surface ozone concentrations with a lead time of up to 4 d. We used measurement and reanalysis data from more than 300 German monitoring stations to train, fine tune, and test the model. We show that the model outperforms standard reference models like persistence models and demonstrate that IntelliO3-ts outperforms climatological reference models for the first 2 d.
Ziyu Huang, Lei Zhong, Yaoming Ma, and Yunfei Fu
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for GMDShort summary
Spectral nudging is an effective dynamical downscaling method used to improve precipitation simulations of regional climate models (RCMs). However, the biases of the reference fields over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) would possibly introduce extra biases when spectral nudging is applied. Results show that the precipitation simulations were significantly improved when limiting the application of spectral nudging towards the potential temperature and water vapor mixing ratio over the TP.
Adrien Napoly, Aaron Boone, and Théo Welfringer
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 6523–6545,Short summary
Accurate modeling of snow impact on surface energy and mass fluxes is required from land surface models. This new version of the SURFEX model improves the representation of the snowpack. In particular, it prevents its ablation from occurring too early in the season, which also leads to better soil temperatures and energy fluxes toward the atmosphere. This was made possible with a more explicit and distinct representation of each layer that constitutes the surface (soil, snow, and vegetation).
Robin J. Hogan and Marco Matricardi
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 6501–6521,Short summary
A key component of computer models used to predict weather and climate is the radiation scheme, which calculates how solar and infrared radiation heats and cools the atmosphere and surface, including the important role of greenhouse gases. This paper describes the experimental protocol and large datasets for a new project, CKDMIP, to evaluate and improve the accuracy of the treatment of atmospheric gases in the radiation schemes used worldwide, as well as their computational speed.
David Simpson, Robert Bergström, Alan Briolat, Hannah Imhof, John Johansson, Michael Priestley, and Alvaro Valdebenito
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 6447–6465,Short summary
This paper outlines the structure and usage of the GenChem system, which includes a chemical pre-processor (GenChem.py) and a simple box model (boxChem). GenChem provides scripts and input files for converting chemical equations into differential form for use in atmospheric chemical transport models (CTMs) and/or the boxChem system. Although GenChem is primarily intended for users of the EMEP MSC-W CTM and related systems, boxChem can be run as a stand-alone chemical solver.
Benjamin N. Murphy, Christopher G. Nolte, Fahim Sidi, Jesse O. Bash, K. Wyat Appel, Carey Jang, Daiwen Kang, James Kelly, Rohit Mathur, Sergey Napelenok, George Pouliot, and Havala O. T. Pye
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for GMDShort summary
The algorithms for applying air pollution emission rates in the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model have been improved to better support users and developers. The new features accommodate emissions perturbation studies that are typical in atmospheric research and output a wealth of metadata for each model run so assumptions can be verified and documented. The new approach dramatically enhances the transparency and functionality of this critical of atmospheric modeling.
Zhiqiang Li, Bingcheng Wan, Yulun Zhou, and Hokit Wong
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 6349–6360,Short summary
Our results provide evidence of the effects of incoming land surface data quality on the accuracy of high-resolution urban climate simulations and emphasize the importance of the incoming data quality control.
Yihui Zhou, Yi Zhang, Jian Li, Rucong Yu, and Zhuang Liu
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 6325–6348,Short summary
This paper explores the configuration of a global atmospheric model (global-to-regional integrated forecast system-atmosphere; GRIST-A) with various multiresolution grids. The model performance is evaluated from dry dynamics to simple physics and full physics. The model is able to resolve the fine-scale structures in the grid-refinement region, and the adverse impact due to the mesh transition and the coarse-resolution area can be controlled well.
Bruce Rolstad Denby, Michael Gauss, Peter Wind, Qing Mu, Eivind Grøtting Wærsted, Hilde Fagerli, Alvaro Valdebenito, and Heiko Klein
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 6303–6323,Short summary
Air pollution is both a local and a global problem. Since measurements cannot be made everywhere, mathematical models are used to calculate air quality over cities or countries. Modelling over countries limits the level of detail of the models. For countries, the level of detail is only a few kilometres, so air quality at kerb sides is not properly represented. The uEMEP model is used together with the regional air quality model EMEP MSC-W to model details down to kerb side for all of Norway.
Yanfei Liang, Zengliang Zang, Dong Liu, Peng Yan, Yiwen Hu, Yan Zhou, and Wei You
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 6285–6301,
Ebrahim Eslami, Yunsoo Choi, Yannic Lops, Alqamah Sayeed, and Ahmed Khan Salman
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 6237–6251,Short summary
As using deep learning algorithms has become a popular data analytic technique, atmospheric scientists should have a balanced perception of their strengths and limitations so that they can provide a powerful analysis of complex data with well-established procedures. This study addresses significant limitations of an advanced deep learning algorithm, the convolutional neural network.
Eemeli Holopainen, Harri Kokkola, Anton Laakso, and Thomas Kühn
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 6215–6235,Short summary
This paper introduces an in-cloud wet deposition scheme for liquid and ice phase clouds for global aerosol–climate models. With the default setup, our wet deposition scheme behaves spuriously and better representation can be achieved with this scheme when black carbon is mixed with soluble compounds at emission time. This work is done as many of the global models fail to reproduce the transport of black carbon to the Arctic, which may be due to the poor representation of wet removal in models.
Travis A. O'Brien, Mark D. Risser, Burlen Loring, Abdelrahman A. Elbashandy, Harinarayan Krishnan, Jeffrey Johnson, Christina M. Patricola, John P. O'Brien, Ankur Mahesh, Prabhat, Sarahí Arriaga Ramirez, Alan M. Rhoades, Alexander Charn, Héctor Inda Díaz, and William D. Collins
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 6131–6148,Short summary
Researchers utilize various algorithms to identify extreme weather features in climate data, and we seek to answer this question: given a
plausibleweather event detector, how does uncertainty in the detector impact scientific results? We generate a suite of statistical models that emulate expert identification of weather features. We find that the connection between El Niño and atmospheric rivers – a specific extreme weather type – depends systematically on the design of the detector.
Enrique Pravia-Sarabia, Juan José Gómez-Navarro, Pedro Jiménez-Guerrero, and Juan Pedro Montávez
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 6051–6075,Short summary
This work shows TITAM, a time-independent tracking algorithm specifically suited for Mediterranean tropical-like cyclones, often referred to as medicanes. The methodology developed has the capacity to track multiple simultaneous cyclones, the ability to track a medicane in the presence of intense extratropical lows, and the potential to separate the medicane from other similar structures by handling the intermittent loss of structure and managing the tilting of the axis.
Liang Guo, Ruud J. van der Ent, Nicholas P. Klingaman, Marie-Estelle Demory, Pier Luigi Vidale, Andrew G. Turner, Claudia C. Stephan, and Amulya Chevuturi
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 6011–6028,Short summary
Precipitation over East Asia simulated in the Met Office Unified Model is compared with observations. Moisture sources of EA precipitation are traced using a moisture tracking model. Biases in moisture sources are linked to biases in precipitation. Using the tracking model, changes in moisture sources can be attributed to changes in SST, circulation and associated evaporation. This proves that the method used in this study is useful to identify the causes of biases in regional precipitation.
Ondřej Tichý, Lukáš Ulrych, Václav Šmídl, Nikolaos Evangeliou, and Andreas Stohl
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 5917–5934,Short summary
We study the estimation of the temporal profile of an atmospheric release using formalization as a linear inverse problem. The problem is typically ill-posed, so all state-of-the-art methods need some form of regularization using additional information. We provide a sensitivity study on the prior source term and regularization parameters for the shape of the source term with a demonstration on the ETEX experimental release and the Cs-134 and Cs-137 dataset from the Chernobyl accident.
Dongqi Lin, Basit Khan, Marwan Katurji, Leroy Bird, Ricardo Faria, and Laura E. Revell
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for GMDShort summary
We present an open-source toolbox WRF4PALM which enables simulating weather dynamics within the urban landscapes. WRF4PALM passes meteorological information from the popular Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to the turbulence-resolving PALM model system 6.0. WRF4PALM can potentially extend the use of WRF and PALM with realistic boundary conditions to any part of the world. WRF4PALM will help study air pollution dispersion, wind energy prospecting, and high impact wind forecasting.
Laura Palacios-Peña, Jerome D. Fast, Enrique Pravia-Sarabia, and Pedro Jiménez-Guerrero
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 5897–5915,Short summary
The main objective of this work is to study the impact of the representation of aerosol size distribution on aerosol optical properties over central Europe and the Mediterranean Basin during a summertime aerosol episode using the WRF-Chem online model. Results reveal that the reduction in the standard deviation of the accumulation mode leads to the largest impacts on aerosol optical depth (AOD) representation due to a transfer of particles from the accumulation mode to the coarse mode.
Yilong Wang, Grégoire Broquet, François-Marie Bréon, Franck Lespinas, Michael Buchwitz, Maximilian Reuter, Yasjka Meijer, Armin Loescher, Greet Janssens-Maenhout, Bo Zheng, and Philippe Ciais
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 5813–5831,
Marek Jacob, Pavlos Kollias, Felix Ament, Vera Schemann, and Susanne Crewell
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 5757–5777,Short summary
We compare clouds in different cloud-resolving atmosphere simulations with airborne remote sensing observations. The focus is on warm shallow clouds in the Atlantic trade wind region. Those clouds are climatologically important but challenging for climate models. We use forward operators to apply instrument-specific thresholds for cloud detection to model outputs. In this comparison, the higher-resolution model better reproduces the layered cloud structure.
Setigui Aboubacar Keita, Eric Girard, Jean-Christophe Raut, Maud Leriche, Jean-Pierre Blanchet, Jacques Pelon, Tatsuo Onishi, and Ana Cirisan
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 5737–5755,
Bart Degraeuwe, Enrico Pisoni, and Philippe Thunis
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 5725–5736,Short summary
To make decisions on how to improve air quality, it is useful to identify the main sources of pollution for an area of interest. Often these sources of pollution are identified with complex models that, even if accurate, are time consuming and complex. In this work we use another approach, simplified models, to accomplish the same task. The results, computed with two different set of simplified models, show the main sources of pollution for selected cities, and the associated uncertainties.
Mathieu Lachatre, Sylvain Mailler, Laurent Menut, Solène Turquety, Pasquale Sellitto, Henda Guermazi, Giuseppe Salerno, Tommaso Caltabiano, and Elisa Carboni
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 5707–5723,Short summary
Excessive numerical diffusion is a major limitation in the representation of long-range transport in atmospheric models. In the present study, we focus on excessive diffusion in the vertical direction. We explore three possible ways of addressing this problem: increased vertical resolution, an advection scheme with anti-diffusive properties and more accurate representation of vertical wind. This study focused on a particular volcanic eruption event to improve atmospheric transport modeling.
Beyer, H. G., Costanzo, C., and Heinemann, D.: Modifications of the Heliosat procedure for irradiance estimates from satellite images, Solar Energy, 56, 207–212, https://doi.org/10.1016/0038-092X(95)00092-6, 1996.
Blanc, P., Gschwind, B., Lefevre, M., and Wald, L.: The HelioClim project: Surface solar irradiance data for climate applications, Remote Sens., 3, 343–361, https://doi.org/10.3390/rs3020343, 2011.
Calbo, J., Pages, D., and Gonzalez, J.-A.: Empirical studies of cloud effects on UV radiation: A review, Rev. Geophys., 43, RG2002, https://doi.org/10.1029/2004RG000155, 2005.
Deneke, H. M., Feijt, A. J., and Roebeling, R. A.: Estimating surface solar irradiance from Meteosat SEVIRI-derived cloud properties, Remote Sens. Environ., 12, 3131–3141, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2008.03.012, 2008.
den Outer, P. N., Slaper, H., Kaurola, J., Lindfors, A., Kazantzidis, A., Bais, A. F. , Feister, U., Junk, J., Janouch, M., and Josefsson, W.: Reconstructing of erythemal ultraviolet radiation levels in Europe for the past 4 decades, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 115, D10102, https://doi.org/10.1029/2009JD012827, 2010.
Granier, C., Engelen, R., Simmons, A., and the MACC Management Team: An overview of the MACC European project, Geophys. Res. Abstr., 12, EGU2010-3112, EGU General Assembly 2010, 2–7 May 2010, Vienna, Austria, 2010.
Greuell, W., Meirink, J. F., and Wang, P.: Retrieval and validation of global, direct, and diffuse irradiance derived from SEVIRI satellite observations, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 118, 2340–2361, https://doi.org/10.1002/jgrd.50194, 2013.
Gueymard, C. A.: SMARTS, A simple model of the atmospheric radiative transfer of sunshine: Algorithms and performance assessment, Technical Report No. FSEC-PF-270-95, Cocoa, FL: Florida Solar Energy Center, 1995.
Huang, G. H., Ma, M. G., Liang, S. L., Liu, S. M., and Li, X.: A LUT-based approach to estimate surface solar irradiance by combining MODIS and MTSAT data, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 116, D22201, https://doi.org/10.1029/2011JD016120, 2011.
Kaiser, J. W., Peuch, V.-H., Benedetti, A., Boucher, O., Engelen, R. J., Holzer-Popp, T., Morcrette, J.-J., Wooster, M. J., and the MACC-II Management Board: The pre-operational GMES Atmospheric Service in MACC-II and its potential usage of Sentinel-3 observations, ESA Special Publication SP-708, Proceedings of the 3rd MERIS/(A)ATSR and OCLI-SLSTR (Sentinel-3) Preparatory Workshop, held in ESA-ESRIN, Frascati, Italy, 15–19 October 2012, 2012.
Key, J. and Schweiger, A. J.: Tools for atmospheric radiative transfer: Streamer and Flux Net, Comput. Geosci., 24, 443–451, 1998.
Lefèvre, M., Oumbe, A., Blanc, P., Espinar, B., Gschwind, B., Qu, Z., Wald, L., Schroedter-Homscheidt, M., Hoyer-Klick, C., Arola, A., Benedetti, A., Kaiser, J. W., and Morcrette, J.-J.: McClear: a new model estimating downwelling solar radiation at ground level in clear-sky conditions, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 2403–2418, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-6-2403-2013, 2013.
Liou, K.: On the absorption and reflection and transmission of solar radiation in cloudy atmospheres, J. Atmos. Sci., 33, 798–805, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(1976)033<0798:OTARAT>2.0.CO;2, 1976.
Mayer, B. and Kylling, A.: Technical note: The libRadtran software package for radiative transfer calculations – description and examples of use, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 5, 1855–1877, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-5-1855-2005, 2005.
Mueller, R., Dagestad, K. F., Ineichen, P., Schroedter, M., Cros, S., Dumortier, D., Kuhlemann, R., Olseth, J. A., Piernavieja, G., Reise, C., Wald, L., and Heinnemann, D.: Rethinking satellite based solar irradiance modelling – The SOLIS clear-sky module, Remote Sens. Environ., 91, 160–174, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2004.02.009, 2004.
Mueller, R., Matsoukas, C., Gratzki, A., Behr, H., and Hollmann, R.: The CM-SAF operational scheme for the satellite based retrieval of solar surface irradiance – a LUT based eigenvector hybrid approach, Remote Sens. Environ., 113, 1012–1024, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2009.01.012, 2009.
Oumbe, A.: Exploitation des nouvelles capacités d'observation de la terre pour évaluer le rayonnement solaire incident au sol (Assessment of solar surface radiation using new earth observation capabilities), PhD thesis, MINES ParisTech, 128 pp., 9 November 2009.
Oumbe, A., Blanc, Ph., Gschwind, B., Lefevre, M., Qu, Z., Schroedter-Homscheidt, M., and Wald, L.: Solar irradiance in clear atmosphere: study of parameterisations of change with altitude, Adv. Sci. Res., 6, 199–203, https://doi.org/10.5194/asr-6-199-2011, 2011.
Oumbe, A., Qu, Z., Blanc, P., Bru, H., Lefevre, M., and Wald, L.: Modeling circumsolar irradiance to adjust beam irradiances from radiative transfer models to measurements, EMS Annual Meeting 2012, 10–14 September 2012, Lodz, Poland, 2012.
Peuch, V.-H., Rouil, L., Tarrason, L., and Elbern, H.: Towards European-scale Air Quality operational services for GMES Atmosphere, 9th EMS Annual Meeting, EMS2009-511, 9th European Conference on Applications of Meteorology (ECAM) Abstracts, held 28 Sept.–2 Oct. 2009, Toulouse, France, 2009.
Qu, Z.: Modélisation du transfert radiatif en atmosphère nuageuse en vue de l'estimation du rayonnement solaire au sol (Modeling radiative transfer in cloudy atmosphere to assess surface solar irradiance), PhD Thesis, MINES ParisTech, Paris, France, 2013.
Qu, Z., Oumbe, A., Blanc, P., Espinar, B., Gschwind, B., Lefevre, M., Wald, L., Gesell, G., and Schroedter-Homscheidt, M.: Fast radiative transfer parameterisation for assessing the surface solar irradiance – the Heliosat-4 method, Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss., in preparation, 2014.
Rigollier, C., Bauer, O., and Wald, L.: On the clear sky model of the 4th European Solar Radiation Atlas with respect to the Heliosat method, Solar Energy, 68, 33-48, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0038-092X(99)00055-9, 2000.
Rossow, W. and Schiffer, R.: Advances in understanding clouds from ISCCP, B. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 80, 2261–2287, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0477(1999)080<2261:AIUCFI>2.0.CO;2, 1999.
Schulz, J., Albert, P., Behr, H.-D., Caprion, D., Deneke, H., Dewitte, S., Dürr, B., Fuchs, P., Gratzki, A., Hechler, P., Hollmann, R., Johnston, S., Karlsson, K.-G., Manninen, T., Müller, R., Reuter, M., Riihelä, A., Roebeling, R., Selbach, N., Tetzlaff, A., Thomas, W., Werscheck, M., Wolters, E., and Zelenka, A.: Operational climate monitoring from space: the EUMETSAT Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring (CM-SAF), Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 1687–1709, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-9-1687-2009, 2009.
Stamnes, K., Tsay, S.-C., Wiscombe, W., and Jayaweera, K.: Numerically stable algorithm for discrete–ordinate–method radiative transfer in multiple scattering and emitting layered media, Appl. Opt., 27, 2502–2509, https://doi.org/10.1364/AO.27.002502, 1988.
Tselioudis, G., Rossow, W. B., and Rind, D.: Global patterns of cloud optical thickness variation with temperature, J. Climate, 5, 1484–1495, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(1992)005<1484:GPOCOT>2.0.CO;2, 1992.
Tsvetsinskaya, E. A., Schaaf, C. B., Gao, F., Strahler, A. H., Dickinson, R. E., Zeng, X., and Lucht, W.: Relating MODIS-derived surface albedo to soils and rock types over Northern Africa and the Arabian peninsula, Geophys. Res. Lett., 29, 1353, https://doi.org/10.1029/2001GL014096, 2002.
Wendler, G. and Eaton, F.: On the desertification of the Sahel zone, Climatic Change, 5, 365–380, 1983.
WMO: Guide to meteorological instruments and methods of observation, World Meteorological Organization, WMO no 8, 7th Edn., Geneva, Switzerland, 2008.