Articles | Volume 7, issue 4
© Author(s) 2014. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
© Author(s) 2014. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Decoupling the effects of clear atmosphere and clouds to simplify calculations of the broadband solar irradiance at ground level
MINES ParisTech, PSL Research University, O.I.E. – Centre Observation, Impacts, Energy – Sophia Antipolis, France
now at: Total New Energies, R&D – Solar, Paris la Défense, France
MINES ParisTech, PSL Research University, O.I.E. – Centre Observation, Impacts, Energy – Sophia Antipolis, France
MINES ParisTech, PSL Research University, O.I.E. – Centre Observation, Impacts, Energy – Sophia Antipolis, France
Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique, IPSL/CNRS, UMR 8539, Ecole Polytechnique, France
now at: Reuniwatt, Sainte-Clotilde, Réunion, France
No articles found.
Hadrien Verbois, Yves-Marie Saint-Drenan, Vadim Becquet, Benoit Gschwind, and Philippe Blanc
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 4165–4181,Short summary
Solar surface irradiance (SSI) estimations inferred from satellite images are essential to gain a comprehensive understanding of the solar resource, which is crucial in many fields. This study examines the recent data-driven methods for inferring SSI from satellite images and explores their strengths and weaknesses. The results suggest that while these methods show great promise, they sometimes dramatically underperform and should probably be used in conjunction with physical approaches.
William Wandji Nyamsi, Yves-Marie Saint-Drenan, Antti Arola, and Lucien Wald
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 2001–2036,Short summary
The McClear service provides estimates of surface solar irradiances in cloud-free conditions. By comparing McClear estimates to 1 min measurements performed in Sub-Saharan Africa and the Maldives Archipelago in the Indian Ocean, McClear accurately estimates global irradiance and tends to overestimate direct irrradiance. This work establishes a general overview of the performance of the McClear service.
Benoît Tournadre, Benoît Gschwind, Yves-Marie Saint-Drenan, Xuemei Chen, Rodrigo Amaro E Silva, and Philippe Blanc
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 3683–3704,Short summary
Solar radiation received by the Earth's surface is valuable information for various fields like the photovoltaic industry or climate research. Pictures taken from satellites can be used to estimate the solar radiation from cloud reflectivity. Two issues for a good estimation are different instrumentations and orbits. We modify a widely used method that is today only used on geostationary satellites, so it can be applied on instruments on different orbits and with different sensitivities.
Mathilde Marchand, Yves-Marie Saint-Drenan, Laurent Saboret, Etienne Wey, and Lucien Wald
Adv. Sci. Res., 17, 143–152,Short summary
The present work deals with the spatial consistency of two well-known databases of solar radiation received at ground level: the CAMS Radiation Service database version 3.2, abbreviated as CAMS-Rad and the HelioClim-3 database version 5, abbreviated as HC3v5. Both databases are derived from satellite images. For both databases, there is no noticeable spatial trend in the standard deviation.
Claire Thomas, Stephen Dorling, William Wandji Nyamsi, Lucien Wald, Stéphane Rubino, Laurent Saboret, Mélodie Trolliet, and Etienne Wey
Adv. Sci. Res., 16, 229–240,Short summary
Solar radiation is the second main important factors for plant growth after temperature. More precisely, PAR, which stands for Photosynthetically Active Radiation, is the portion of the solar spectrum that is efficient for photosynthesis. Due to the scarcity of ground measurements, researchers have developed methods to estimate this variable from satellite imagery. This paper compares several methods to assess satellite-derived PAR against measurements in the UK and in France.
Frederik Kurzrock, Hannah Nguyen, Jerome Sauer, Fabrice Chane Ming, Sylvain Cros, William L. Smith Jr., Patrick Minnis, Rabindra Palikonda, Thomas A. Jones, Caroline Lallemand, Laurent Linguet, and Gilles Lajoie
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 3939–3954,Short summary
This study assesses the assimilation of cloud water path retrievals in three phases (ice, supercooled, and liquid), derived from Meteosat-8, into a limited-area model using an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF). The ability of the method to improve cloud analyses in the southwest Indian Ocean and short-term forecasts of global horizontal irradiance on Réunion Island is demonstrated using the Data Assimilation Research Testbed (DART) and the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model.
Mathilde Marchand, Mireille Lefèvre, Laurent Saboret, Etienne Wey, and Lucien Wald
Adv. Sci. Res., 16, 103–111,Short summary
The present work deals with two well-known databases of hourly mean of solar irradiance that are derived from satellite imagery. The spatial consistency of the uncertainties of these databases is verified against measurements performed within a dense network of ground stations in The Netherlands from the Royal Meteorological Institute KNMI for the period 2014–2017. The obtained results are presented for both databases. And a discussion is proposed.
Maxence Descheemaecker, Matthieu Plu, Virginie Marécal, Marine Claeyman, Francis Olivier, Youva Aoun, Philippe Blanc, Lucien Wald, Jonathan Guth, Bojan Sič, Jérôme Vidot, Andrea Piacentini, and Béatrice Josse
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 1251–1275,Short summary
The future Flexible Combined Imager (FCI) on board MeteoSat Third Generation is expected to improve the detection and the quantification of aerosols. The study assesses the potential of FCI/VIS04 channel for monitoring air pollution in Europe. An observing system simulation experiment in MOCAGE is developed, and they show a large positive impact of the assimilation over a 4-month period and particularly during a severe pollution episode. The added value of geostationary data is also assessed.
Mélodie Trolliet, Jakub P. Walawender, Bernard Bourlès, Alexandre Boilley, Jörg Trentmann, Philippe Blanc, Mireille Lefèvre, and Lucien Wald
Ocean Sci., 14, 1021–1056,
Alberto Troccoli, Clare Goodess, Phil Jones, Lesley Penny, Steve Dorling, Colin Harpham, Laurent Dubus, Sylvie Parey, Sandra Claudel, Duc-Huy Khong, Philip E. Bett, Hazel Thornton, Thierry Ranchin, Lucien Wald, Yves-Marie Saint-Drenan, Matteo De Felice, David Brayshaw, Emma Suckling, Barbara Percy, and Jon Blower
Adv. Sci. Res., 15, 191–205,Short summary
The European Climatic Energy Mixes, an EU Copernicus Climate Change Service project, has produced, in close collaboration with prospective users, a proof-of-concept climate service, or Demonstrator, designed to enable the energy industry assess how well different energy supply mixes in Europe will meet demand, over different time horizons (from seasonal to long-term decadal planning), focusing on the role climate has on the mixes. Its concept, methodology and some results are presented here.
Mélodie Trolliet and Lucien Wald
Adv. Sci. Res., 15, 127–136,
Yves-Marie Saint-Drenan, Lucien Wald, Thierry Ranchin, Laurent Dubus, and Alberto Troccoli
Adv. Sci. Res., 15, 51–62,Short summary
Our approach allows estimating the total photovoltaic (PV) power generation in different European countries from meteorological data. It is aimed at being easy to implement since it does not require any plant information or prior knowledge on the installed PV plants.
Marie Opálková, Martin Navrátil, Vladimír Špunda, Philippe Blanc, and Lucien Wald
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 837–846,Short summary
Files with irradiances of a few spectral regions of incident solar radiation and some meteorological variables including concentrations of some air pollutants measured for 2.5 years at 3 stations in Ostrava (CZ) were prepared. Special attention was given to the data quality and the process of quality check was described. This database offers an ensemble of data with high temporal resolution and creates a source on radiation in relation with environment and vegetation in polluted areas of cities.
Mathilde Marchand, Abdellatif Ghennioui, Etienne Wey, and Lucien Wald
Adv. Sci. Res., 15, 21–29,
Pascal Kuhn, Stefan Wilbert, Christoph Prahl, Dominik Garsche, David Schüler, Thomas Haase, Lourdes Ramirez, Luis Zarzalejo, Angela Meyer, Philippe Blanc, and Robert Pitz-Paal
Adv. Sci. Res., 15, 11–14,Short summary
Downward-facing shadow cameras might play a major role in future energy meteorology. Shadow cameras image shadows directly on the ground from an elevated position. They are used to validate other systems (e.g. all-sky imager based nowcasting systems, cloud speed sensors or satellite forecasts) and can potentially provide short term forecasts for solar power plants. Such forecasts are needed for electricity grids with high penetrations of renewable energy and solar power plants.
Marc Bengulescu, Philippe Blanc, and Lucien Wald
Nonlin. Processes Geophys., 25, 19–37,Short summary
We employ the Hilbert–Huang transform to study the temporal variability in time series of daily means of the surface solar irradiance (SSI) at different locations around the world. The data have a significant spectral peak corresponding to the yearly variability cycle and feature quasi-stochastic high-frequency "weather noise", irrespective of the geographical location or of the local climate. Our findings can improve models for estimating SSI from satellite images or forecasts of the SSI.
Philippe Blanc, Benoit Gschwind, Lionel Ménard, and Lucien Wald
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
The construction of worldwide maps of surface bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) parameters is presented. The original data stems from the NASA which is making available maps of BRDF parameters from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer instrument. The original data has been averaged for each month for the period 2004–2011 and a spatial completion of data was performed. The dataset in NetCDF is referenced by doi:10.23646/85d2cd5f-ccaa-482e-a4c9-b6e0c59d966c.
William Wandji Nyamsi, Phillipe Blanc, John A. Augustine, Antti Arola, and Lucien Wald
Manuscript not accepted for further reviewShort summary
This paper proposes a new, fast and accurate method for estimating photosynthetically active radiation at ground level in cloud-free conditions at any place and time. The method performs very well with the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service products as inputs describing the state of the atmosphere. An accuracy that is close to the uncertainty of the measurements themselves is reached. We believe that our research will be widely used in the near future.
William Wandji Nyamsi, Mikko R. A. Pitkänen, Youva Aoun, Philippe Blanc, Anu Heikkilä, Kaisa Lakkala, Germar Bernhard, Tapani Koskela, Anders V. Lindfors, Antti Arola, and Lucien Wald
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 4965–4978,Short summary
This paper proposes a new, fast and accurate method for estimating UV fluxes at ground level in cloud-free conditions at any place and time. The method performs very well with the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service products as inputs describing the state of the atmosphere. An accuracy that is close to the uncertainty of the measurements themselves is reached. We believe that our research will be widely used in the near future.
Philip D. Jones, Colin Harpham, Alberto Troccoli, Benoit Gschwind, Thierry Ranchin, Lucien Wald, Clare M. Goodess, and Stephen Dorling
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 9, 471–495,Short summary
The construction of a bias-adjusted dataset of climate variables at the near surface using ERA-Interim reanalysis is presented. The variables are air temperature, dewpoint temperature, precipitation (daily only), solar radiation, wind speed, and relative humidity.The resulting bias-adjusted dataset is available through the Climate Data Store (CDS) of the Copernicus Climate Change Data Store (C3S), and can be accessed at present from ftp://ecem.climate.copernicus.eu.
Marc Bengulescu, Philippe Blanc, Alexandre Boilley, and Lucien Wald
Adv. Sci. Res., 14, 35–48,Short summary
This study investigates the characteristic time-scales of variability found in long-term time-series of daily means of surface solar irradiance (SSI). Estimates of SSI from satellite-derived HelioClim-3 and radiation products from ERA-Interim and MERRA-2 re-analyses are compared to WRDC measurements. It is found that HelioClim-3 renders a more accurate picture of the variability found in ground measurements, not only globally, but also with respect to individual characteristic time-scales.
Mathilde Marchand, Nasser Al-Azri, Armel Ombe-Ndeffotsing, Etienne Wey, and Lucien Wald
Adv. Sci. Res., 14, 7–15,Short summary
The solar hourly irradiation received at ground level estimated by the databases HelioClim-3v4, HelioClim-3v5 and Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS) Radiation Service are compared to measurements made in stations in Oman and Abu Dhabi. The correlation coefficients are greater than 0.97. The relative bias is less than 5%. Each database captures accurately the temporal and spatial variability of the irradiance field. The three databases are reliable sources to assess solar radiation.
Claire Thomas, Laurent Saboret, Etienne Wey, Philippe Blanc, and Lucien Wald
Adv. Sci. Res., 13, 129–136,Short summary
HelioClim-3 (version 4) is a satellite-derived solar surface irradiance database available at d-1 until 2015. To fulfill the requirements of numerous users, a new service based on the principle of persistence has been developed; it provides solar data in real time and forecasts until the end of the current day. The service exhibits good performances for 15 min and 1 h ahead forecasts, and degrades as the temporal horizon increases. Several customers have so far purchased this service.
Marc Bengulescu, Philippe Blanc, and Lucien Wald
Adv. Sci. Res., 13, 121–127,Short summary
The continuous wavelet (CWT) and the Hilbert–Huang transforms (HHT) are compared for the analysis of the temporal variability on ten years of daily means of the surface solar irradiance. In both cases, the variability exhibits a plateau between scales of two days and three months that has decreasing power with increasing scale, a spectral peak corresponding to the annual cycle, and a low power regime in-between. The HHT is shown to be suitable for inspecting the variability of the measurements.
Claire Thomas, Etienne Wey, Philippe Blanc, and Lucien Wald
Adv. Sci. Res., 13, 81–86,Short summary
Several satellite-derived solar surface irradiance databases provide long-term and homogeneously distributed information on the solar potential at ground level. This paper presents the validation results of three of these databases: HelioClim-3 (versions 4 and 5) and the CAMS radiation service, versus the measurements of 42 stations in Brazil. Despite a slight overestimation of the CAMS radiation service, the three databases are suitable for studies of the solar resources in Brazil.
Mireille Lefèvre and Lucien Wald
Adv. Sci. Res., 13, 21–26,Short summary
The new CAMS (Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service) McClear service is a practical easy-to-use tool to estimate the solar direct and global irradiances received at ground level in cloud-free conditions at any place any time. This article presents validation against 1 min measurements made at three very close stations in Israel in desert conditions. The good results demonstrate the accuracy of McClear and its ability to capture the temporal and spatial variability of the irradiance field.
Mohamed Korany, Mohamed Boraiy, Yehia Eissa, Youva Aoun, Magdy M. Abdel Wahab, Stéphane C. Alfaro, Philippe Blanc, Mossad El-Metwally, Hosni Ghedira, Katja Hungershoefer, and Lucien Wald
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 8, 105–113,Short summary
A database of global and diffuse components of the surface solar hourly irradiation measured from 2004 to 2010 at eight Egyptian meteorological stations is presented. At three sites, the direct component is also available. In addition, a series of meteorological variables is provided at the same hourly resolution. The measurements and quality checks applied to the data are detailed. Finally, 13500 to 29000 measurements of global and diffuse hourly irradiation are available at each site.
P. Blanc and L. Wald
Adv. Sci. Res., 13, 1–6,Short summary
Time series of hourly measurements or modelled values of surface solar irradiation are increasingly available. Currently, no solar zenith and azimuth angles are associated to each measurement whereas such angles are necessary for handling the measured or modelled irradiations. A method is proposed to assess such angles with a great accuracy. It makes use of two modelled time-series that can be computed using the web site www.soda-pro.com for any site in the world.
Y. Eissa, P. Blanc, L. Wald, and H. Ghedira
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 5099–5112,Short summary
This study investigates whether the spectral aerosol optical properties of the AERONET stations are sufficient for an accurate modelling of the monochromatic beam and circumsolar irradiances under cloud-free conditions in a desert environment. By comparing the modelled irradiances against reference ground measurements, the monochromatic beam and circumsolar irradiances may very well be modelled using a set of inputs extracted from the AERONET data.
W. Wandji Nyamsi, A. Arola, P. Blanc, A. V. Lindfors, V. Cesnulyte, M. R. A. Pitkänen, and L. Wald
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 7449–7456,Short summary
A novel model of the absorption of radiation by ozone in the UV bands [283, 307]nm and [307, 328]nm yields improvements in the modeling of the transmissivity in these bands. This model is faster than detailed spectral calculations and is as accurate with maximum errors of respectively 0.0006 and 0.0143. How to practically implement this new parameterization in a radiative transfer model is discussed for the case of libRadtran.
W. Wandji Nyamsi, B. Espinar, P. Blanc, and L. Wald
Adv. Sci. Res., 12, 5–10,Short summary
We propose an innovative method to estimate the Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) under clear sky conditions derived from the fast approach of Kato et al. (1999). It provides very good results better than the two state-of-the-art empirical methods computing the daily mean of PAR from the daily mean of total irradiance. In addition, this technique may be extended to be able to accurately estimate other spectral quantities taking into account absorption of plants photosynthetic pigments.
P. Blanc, C. Coulaud, and L. Wald
Adv. Sci. Res., 12, 1–4,Short summary
New Caledonia experiences a decrease in surface solar irradiation since 2004, of order of 4% of the mean yearly irradiation, and amounts to 9 W m 2. The preeminent roles of the changes in cloud cover and to a lesser extent, those in aerosol optical depth on the decrease in yearly irradiation are evidenced. The study highlights the role of data sets offering a worldwide coverage in understanding changes in solar radiation and planning large solar energy plants.
J. Badosa, J. Wood, P. Blanc, C. N. Long, L. Vuilleumier, D. Demengel, and M. Haeffelin
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 4267–4283,
Z. Qu, B. Gschwind, M. Lefevre, and L. Wald
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 3927–3933,Short summary
The HelioClim-3 database (HC3v3) provides records of surface solar irradiation every 15 min estimated by processing images from the geostationary meteorological Meteosat satellites using climatological data sets of atmospheric properties. A method is proposed to improve a posteriori HC3v3 by combining it with data records of advanced global aerosol property forecasts and physically consistent total column content in water vapour and ozone produced by the MACC projects.
M. Lefèvre, A. Oumbe, P. Blanc, B. Espinar, B. Gschwind, Z. Qu, L. Wald, M. Schroedter-Homscheidt, C. Hoyer-Klick, A. Arola, A. Benedetti, J. W. Kaiser, and J.-J. Morcrette
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 2403–2418,
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Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 5585–5599,Short summary
This paper developed a two-way coupled module in a new version of a regional urban–street network model, IAQMS-street v2.0, in which the mass flux from streets to background is considered. Test cases are defined to evaluate the performance of IAQMS-street v2.0 in Beijing by comparing it with that simulated by IAQMS-street v1.0 and a regional model. The contribution of local emissions and the influence of on-road vehicle control measures on air quality are evaluated by using IAQMS-street v2.0.
Denis E. Sergeev, Nathan J. Mayne, Thomas Bendall, Ian A. Boutle, Alex Brown, Iva Kavčič, James Kent, Krisztian Kohary, James Manners, Thomas Melvin, Enrico Olivier, Lokesh K. Ragta, Ben Shipway, Jon Wakelin, Nigel Wood, and Mohamed Zerroukat
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 5601–5626,Short summary
Three-dimensional climate models are one of the best tools we have to study planetary atmospheres. Here, we apply LFRic-Atmosphere, a new model developed by the Met Office, to seven different scenarios for terrestrial planetary climates, including four for the exoplanet TRAPPIST-1e, a primary target for future observations. LFRic-Atmosphere reproduces these scenarios within the spread of the existing models across a range of key climatic variables, justifying its use in future exoplanet studies.
Roland Eichinger, Sebastian Rhode, Hella Garny, Peter Preusse, Petr Pisoft, Aleš Kuchař, Patrick Jöckel, Astrid Kerkweg, and Bastian Kern
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The columnar approach of gravity wave (GW) schemes results in dynamical model biases, but parallel decomposition makes horizontal GW propagation computationally unfeasible. In the global model EMAC, we approximate it by GW redistribution at one altitude using tailor-made redistribution maps generated with a ray tracer. More spread-out GW drag helps reconcile the model with observations and close the 60°S GW gap. Polar vortex dynamics are improved, enhancing climate model credibility.
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Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 5493–5514,Short summary
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Stijn Van Leuven, Pieter De Meutter, Johan Camps, Piet Termonia, and Andy Delcloo
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 5323–5338,Short summary
Precipitation collects airborne particles and deposits these on the ground. This process is called wet deposition and greatly determines how airborne radioactive particles (released routinely or accidentally) contaminate the surface. In this work we present a new method to improve the calculation of wet deposition in computer models. We apply this method to the existing model FLEXPART by simulating the Fukushima nuclear accident (2011) and show that it improves the simulation of wet deposition.
Thibaud Sarica, Alice Maison, Yelva Roustan, Matthias Ketzel, Steen Solvang Jensen, Youngseob Kim, Christophe Chaillou, and Karine Sartelet
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 5281–5303,Short summary
A new version of the Model of Urban Network of Intersecting Canyons and Highways (MUNICH) is developed to represent heterogeneities of concentrations in streets. The street volume is discretized vertically and horizontally to limit the artificial dilution of emissions and concentrations. This new version is applied to street networks in Copenhagen and Paris. The comparisons to observations are improved, with higher concentrations of pollutants emitted by traffic at the bottom of the street.
Junsu Gil, Meehye Lee, Jeonghwan Kim, Gangwoong Lee, Joonyoung Ahn, and Cheol-Hee Kim
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 5251–5263,Short summary
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Daniel Yazgi and Tinja Olenius
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 5237–5249,Short summary
We present flexible tools to implement aerosol formation rate predictions in climate and chemical transport models. New-particle formation is a significant but uncertain factor affecting aerosol numbers and an active field within molecular modeling which provides data for assessing formation rates for different chemical species. We introduce tools to generate and interpolate formation rate lookup tables for user-defined data, thus enabling the easy inclusion and testing of formation schemes.
Vineet Yadav, Subhomoy Ghosh, and Charles E. Miller
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 5219–5236,Short summary
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Mingzhao Liu, Lars Hoffmann, Sabine Griessbach, Zhongyin Cai, Yi Heng, and Xue Wu
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 5197–5217,Short summary
We introduce new and revised chemistry and physics modules in the Massive-Parallel Trajectory Calculations (MPTRAC) Lagrangian transport model aiming to improve the representation of volcanic SO2 transport and depletion. We test these modules in a case study of the Ambae eruption in July 2018 in which the SO2 plume underwent wet removal and convection. The lifetime of SO2 shows highly variable and complex dependencies on the atmospheric conditions at different release heights.
Bernhard M. Enz, Jan P. Engelmann, and Ulrike Lohmann
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 5093–5112,Short summary
An algorithm to track tropical cyclones in model simulation data has been developed. The algorithm uses many combinations of varying parameter thresholds to detect weaker phases of tropical cyclones while still being resilient to false positives. It is shown that the algorithm performs well and adequately represents the tropical cyclone activity of the underlying simulation data. The impact of false positives on overall tropical cyclone activity is shown to be insignificant.
Sepehr Fathi, Mark Gordon, and Yongsheng Chen
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 5069–5091,Short summary
We have combined various capabilities within a WRF model to generate simulations of atmospheric pollutant dispersion at 50 m resolution. The study objective was to resolve transport processes at the scale of measurements to assess and optimize aircraft-based emission rate retrievals. Model performance evaluation resulted in agreement within 5 % of observed meteorological and within 1–2 standard deviations of observed wind fields. Mass was conserved in the model within 5 % of input emissions.
Dylan Reynolds, Ethan Gutmann, Bert Kruyt, Michael Haugeneder, Tobias Jonas, Franziska Gerber, Michael Lehning, and Rebecca Mott
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 5049–5068,Short summary
The challenge of running geophysical models is often compounded by the question of where to obtain appropriate data to give as input to a model. Here we present the HICAR model, a simplified atmospheric model capable of running at spatial resolutions of hectometers for long time series or over large domains. This makes physically consistent atmospheric data available at the spatial and temporal scales needed for some terrestrial modeling applications, for example seasonal snow forecasting.
Li Fang, Jianbing Jin, Arjo Segers, Hong Liao, Ke Li, Bufan Xu, Wei Han, Mijie Pang, and Hai Xiang Lin
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 4867–4882,Short summary
Machine learning models have gained great popularity in air quality prediction. However, they are only available at air quality monitoring stations. In contrast, chemical transport models (CTM) provide predictions that are continuous in the 3D field. Owing to complex error sources, they are typically biased. In this study, we proposed a gridded prediction with high accuracy by fusing predictions from our regional feature selection machine learning prediction (RFSML v1.0) and a CTM prediction.
Manu Goudar, Juliëtte C. S. Anema, Rajesh Kumar, Tobias Borsdorff, and Jochen Landgraf
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 4835–4852,Short summary
A framework was developed to automatically detect plumes and compute emission estimates with cross-sectional flux method (CFM) for biomass burning events in TROPOMI CO datasets using Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite active fire data. The emissions were more reliable when changing plume height in downwind direction was used instead of constant injection height. The CFM had uncertainty even when the meteorological conditions were accurate; thus there is a need for better inversion models.
Drew C. Pendergrass, Daniel J. Jacob, Hannah Nesser, Daniel J. Varon, Melissa Sulprizio, Kazuyuki Miyazaki, and Kevin W. Bowman
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 4793–4810,Short summary
We have built a tool called CHEEREIO that allows scientists to use observations of pollutants or gases in the atmosphere, such as from satellites or surface stations, to update supercomputer models that simulate the Earth. CHEEREIO uses the difference between the model simulations of the atmosphere and real-world observations to come up with a good guess for the actual composition of our atmosphere, the true emissions of various pollutants, and whatever else they may want to study.
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 4749–4766,Short summary
The Earth's atmosphere can support various types of global-scale waves. Some waves propagate eastward and others westward, and they can have different zonal wavenumbers. The Fourier–wavelet analysis is a useful technique for identifying different components of global-scale waves and their temporal variability. This paper introduces an easy-to-implement method to derive Fourier–wavelet spectra from 2-D space–time data. Application examples are presented using atmospheric models.
Bok H. Baek, Carlie Coats, Siqi Ma, Chi-Tsan Wang, Yunyao Li, Jia Xing, Daniel Tong, Soontae Kim, and Jung-Hun Woo
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 4659–4676,Short summary
To enable the direct feedback effects of aerosols and local meteorology in an air quality modeling system without any computational bottleneck, we have developed an inline meteorology-induced emissions coupler module within the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Community Multiscale Air Quality modeling system to dynamically model the complex MOtor Vehicle Emission Simulator (MOVES) on-road mobile emissions inline without a separate dedicated emissions processing model like SMOKE.
Christoph Neuhauser, Maicon Hieronymus, Michael Kern, Marc Rautenhaus, Annika Oertel, and Rüdiger Westermann
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 4617–4638,Short summary
Numerical weather prediction models rely on parameterizations for sub-grid-scale processes, which are a source of uncertainty. We present novel visual analytics solutions to analyze interactively the sensitivities of a selected prognostic variable to multiple model parameters along trajectories regarding similarities in temporal development and spatiotemporal relationships. The proposed workflow is applied to cloud microphysical sensitivities along coherent strongly ascending trajectories.
Yingqi Zheng, Minttu Havu, Huizhi Liu, Xueling Cheng, Yifan Wen, Hei Shing Lee, Joyson Ahongshangbam, and Leena Järvi
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 4551–4579,Short summary
The performance of the Surface Urban Energy and Water Balance Scheme (SUEWS) is evaluated against the observed surface exchanges (fluxes) of heat and carbon dioxide in a densely built neighborhood in Beijing. The heat flux modeling is noticeably improved by using the observed maximum conductance and by optimizing the vegetation phenology modeling. SUEWS also performs well in simulating carbon dioxide flux.
Simone Dietmüller, Sigrun Matthes, Katrin Dahlmann, Hiroshi Yamashita, Abolfazl Simorgh, Manuel Soler, Florian Linke, Benjamin Lührs, Maximilian M. Meuser, Christian Weder, Volker Grewe, Feijia Yin, and Federica Castino
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 4405–4425,Short summary
Climate-optimized aircraft trajectories avoid atmospheric regions with a large climate impact due to aviation emissions. This requires spatially and temporally resolved information on aviation's climate impact. We propose using algorithmic climate change functions (aCCFs) for CO2 and non-CO2 effects (ozone, methane, water vapor, contrail cirrus). Merged aCCFs combine individual aCCFs by assuming aircraft-specific parameters and climate metrics. Technically this is done with a Python library.
Andreas A. Beckert, Lea Eisenstein, Annika Oertel, Tim Hewson, George C. Craig, and Marc Rautenhaus
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 4427–4450,Short summary
We investigate the benefit of objective 3-D front detection with modern interactive visual analysis techniques for case studies of extra-tropical cyclones and comparisons of frontal structures between different numerical weather prediction models. The 3-D frontal structures show agreement with 2-D fronts from surface analysis charts and augment them in the vertical dimension. We see great potential for more complex studies of atmospheric dynamics and for operational weather forecasting.
Zhenxin Liu, Yuanhao Chen, Yuhang Wang, Cheng Liu, Shuhua Liu, and Hong Liao
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 4385–4403,Short summary
The heterogeneous layout of urban buildings leads to the complex wind field in and over the urban canopy. Large discrepancies between the observations and the current simulations result from misunderstanding the character of the wind field. The Inhomogeneous Wind Scheme in Urban Street (IWSUS) was developed to simulate the heterogeneity of the wind speed in a typical street and then improve the simulated energy budget in the lower atmospheric layer over the urban canopy.
Kai Cao, Qizhong Wu, Lingling Wang, Nan Wang, Huaqiong Cheng, Xiao Tang, Dongqing Li, and Lanning Wang
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 4367–4383,Short summary
Offline performance experiment results show that the GPU-HADVPPM on a V100 GPU can achieve up to 1113.6 × speedups to its original version on an E5-2682 v4 CPU. A series of optimization measures are taken, and the CAMx-CUDA model improves the computing efficiency by 128.4 × on a single V100 GPU card. A parallel architecture with an MPI plus CUDA hybrid paradigm is presented, and it can achieve up to 4.5 × speedup when launching eight CPU cores and eight GPU cards.
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 4265–4281,Short summary
This study analyzes forecasts that were made in 2021 to help trigger measurements during the CADDIWA experiment. The WRF and CHIMERE models were run each day, and the first goal is to quantify the variability of the forecast as a function of forecast leads and forecast location. The possibility of using the different leads as an ensemble is also tested. For some locations, the correlation scores are better with this approach. This could be tested on operational forecast chains in the future.
Emily de Jong, John Ben Mackay, Oleksii Bulenok, Anna Jaruga, and Sylwester Arabas
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 4193–4211,Short summary
In clouds, collisional breakup occurs when two colliding droplets splinter into new, smaller fragments. Particle-based modeling approaches often do not represent breakup because of the computational demands of creating new droplets. We present a particle-based breakup method that preserves the computational efficiency of these methods. In a series of simple demonstrations, we show that this representation alters cloud processes in reasonable and expected ways.
Caiyi Jin, Qiangqiang Yuan, Tongwen Li, Yuan Wang, and Liangpei Zhang
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 4137–4154,Short summary
The semi-empirical physical approach derives PM2.5 with strong physical significance. However, due to the complex optical characteristic, the physical parameters are difficult to express accurately. Thus, combining the atmospheric physical mechanism and machine learning, we propose an optimized model. It creatively embeds the random forest model into the physical PM2.5 remote sensing approach to simulate a physical parameter. Our method shows great optimized performance in the validations.
Cyril Caram, Sophie Szopa, Anne Cozic, Slimane Bekki, Carlos A. Cuevas, and Alfonso Saiz-Lopez
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 4041–4062,Short summary
We studied the role of halogenated compounds (containing chlorine, bromine and iodine), emitted by natural processes (mainly above the oceans), in the chemistry of the lower layers of the atmosphere. We introduced this relatively new chemistry in a three-dimensional climate–chemistry model and looked at how this chemistry will disrupt the ozone. We showed that the concentration of ozone decreases by 22 % worldwide and that of the atmospheric detergent, OH, by 8 %.
Joffrey Dumont Le Brazidec, Pierre Vanderbecken, Alban Farchi, Marc Bocquet, Jinghui Lian, Grégoire Broquet, Gerrit Kuhlmann, Alexandre Danjou, and Thomas Lauvaux
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 3997–4016,Short summary
Monitoring of CO2 emissions is key to the development of reduction policies. Local emissions, from cities or power plants, may be estimated from CO2 plumes detected in satellite images. CO2 plumes generally have a weak signal and are partially concealed by highly variable background concentrations and instrument errors, which hampers their detection. To address this problem, we propose and apply deep learning methods to detect the contour of a plume in simulated CO2 satellite images.
Min-Seop Ahn, Paul A. Ullrich, Peter J. Gleckler, Jiwoo Lee, Ana C. Ordonez, and Angeline G. Pendergrass
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 3927–3951,Short summary
We introduce a framework for regional-scale evaluation of simulated precipitation distributions with 62 climate reference regions and 10 metrics and apply it to evaluate CMIP5 and CMIP6 models against multiple satellite-based precipitation products. The common model biases identified in this study are mainly associated with the overestimated light precipitation and underestimated heavy precipitation. These biases persist from earlier-generation models and have been slightly improved in CMIP6.
Christine Wiedinmyer, Yosuke Kimura, Elena C. McDonald-Buller, Louisa K. Emmons, Rebecca R. Buchholz, Wenfu Tang, Keenan Seto, Maxwell B. Joseph, Kelley C. Barsanti, Annmarie G. Carlton, and Robert Yokelson
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 3873–3891,Short summary
The Fire INventory from NCAR (FINN) provides daily global estimates of emissions from open fires based on satellite detections of hot spots. This version has been updated to apply MODIS and VIIRS satellite fire detection and better represents both large and small fires. FINNv2.5 generates more emissions than FINNv1 and is in general agreement with other fire emissions inventories. The new estimates are consistent with satellite observations, but uncertainties remain regionally and by pollutant.
Lichao Yang, Wansuo Duan, and Zifa Wang
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 3827–3848,Short summary
An approach is proposed to refine a ground meteorological observation network to improve the PM2.5 forecasts in the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei region. A cost-effective observation network is obtained and makes the relevant PM2.5 forecasts assimilate fewer observations but achieve the forecasting skill comparable to or higher than that obtained by assimilating all ground station observations, suggesting that many of the current ground stations can be greatly scattered to avoid much unnecessary work.
Abhishekh Kumar Srivastava, Paul Aaron Ullrich, Deeksha Rastogi, Pouya Vahmani, Andrew Jones, and Richard Grotjahn
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 3699–3722,Short summary
Stakeholders need high-resolution regional climate data for applications such as assessing water availability and mountain snowpack. This study examines 3 h and 24 h historical precipitation over the contiguous United States in the 12 km WRF version 4.2.1-based dynamical downscaling of the ERA5 reanalysis. WRF improves precipitation characteristics such as the annual cycle and distribution of the precipitation maxima, but it also displays regionally and seasonally varying precipitation biases.
Jiangyong Li, Chunlin Zhang, Wenlong Zhao, Shijie Han, Yu Wang, Hao Wang, and Boguang Wang
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for GMDShort summary
Photochemical box model is a critical tool to understand the chemistry in troposphere, but its application is hampered by the slow computation efficiency in solving the massive chemical equations. The ROMAC model developed in this study integrated a more efficient atmospheric chemistry solver and an adaptive optimization algorithm, which can improve the computational efficiency up to 96 % and also overcome the shortcomings of physical modules being oversimplified in the traditional box models.
Haixia Xiao, Yaqiang Wang, Yu Zheng, Yuanyuan Zheng, Xiaoran Zhuang, Hongyan Wang, and Mei Gao
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 3611–3628,Short summary
Due to the small-scale and nonstationary nature of convective wind gusts (CGs), reliable CG nowcasting has remained unattainable. Here, we developed a deep learning model — namely CGsNet — for 0—2 h of quantitative CG nowcasting, first achieving minute—kilometer-level forecasts. Based on the CGsNet model, the average surface wind speed (ASWS) and peak wind gust speed (PWGS) predictions are obtained. Experiments indicate that CGsNet exhibits higher accuracy than the traditional method.
Maria Krutova, Mostafa Bakhoday-Paskyabi, Joachim Reuder, and Finn Gunnar Nielsen
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 3553–3564,Short summary
Local refinement of the grid is a powerful method allowing us to reduce the computational time while preserving the accuracy in the area of interest. Depending on the implementation, the local refinement may introduce unwanted numerical effects into the results. We study the wind speed common to the wind turbine operational speeds and confirm strong alteration of the result when the heat fluxes are present, except for the specific refinement scheme used.
Sylvia Sullivan, Behrooz Keshtgar, Nicole Albern, Elzina Bala, Christoph Braun, Anubhav Choudhary, Johannes Hörner, Hilke Lentink, Georgios Papavasileiou, and Aiko Voigt
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 3535–3551,Short summary
Clouds absorb and re-emit infrared radiation from Earth's surface and absorb and reflect incoming solar radiation. As a result, they change atmospheric temperature gradients that drive large-scale circulation. To better simulate this circulation, we study how the radiative heating and cooling from clouds depends on model settings like grid spacing; whether we describe convection approximately or exactly; and the level of detail used to describe small-scale processes, or microphysics, in clouds.
Minjie Zheng, Hongyu Liu, Florian Adolphi, Raimund Muscheler, Zhengyao Lu, Mousong Wu, and Nønne L. Prisle
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for GMDShort summary
The radionuclides 7Be and 10Be are useful aerosol tracers for atmospheric studies. Here we use the GEOS-Chem model to simulate 7Be and 10Be with different production rates: the default production rate in GEOS-Chem based on an empirical approach, and two from the latest production model. We demonstrate that reduced uncertainties in the production rates can improve the utility of 7Be and 10Be as aerosol tracers for evaluating and testing transport and scavenging processes in global models.
James Weber, James A. King, Katerina Sindelarova, and Maria Val Martin
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 3083–3101,Short summary
The emissions of volatile organic compounds from vegetation (BVOCs) influence atmospheric composition and contribute to certain gases and aerosols (tiny airborne particles) which play a role in climate change. BVOC emissions are likely to change in the future due to changes in climate and land use. Therefore, accurate simulation of BVOC emission is important, and this study describes an update to the simulation of BVOC emissions in the United Kingdom Earth System Model (UKESM).
Koichi Sakaguchi, L. Ruby Leung, Colin M. Zarzycki, Jihyeon Jang, Seth McGinnis, Bryce E. Harrop, William C. Skamarock, Andrew Gettelman, Chun Zhao, William J. Gutowski, Stephen Leak, and Linda Mearns
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 3029–3081,Short summary
We document details of the regional climate downscaling dataset produced by a global variable-resolution model. The experiment is unique in that it follows a standard protocol designed for coordinated experiments of regional models. We found negligible influence of post-processing on statistical analysis, importance of simulation quality outside of the target region, and computational challenges that our model code faced due to rapidly changing super computer systems.
Xiaohan Li, Yi Zhang, Xindong Peng, Baiquan Zhou, Jian Li, and Yiming Wang
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 2975–2993,Short summary
The weather and climate physics suites used in GRIST-A22.7.28 are compared using single-column modeling. The source of their discrepancies in terms of modeling cloud and precipitation is explored. Convective parameterization is found to be a key factor responsible for the differences. The two suites also have intrinsic differences in the interaction between microphysics and other processes, resulting in different cloud features and time step sensitivities.
Owen Kenneth Hughes and Christiane Jablonowski
Atmospheric models benefit from idealized tests that assess their accuracy in a simpler simulation. A new test with artificial mountains is developed for models on a spherical earth. The mountains trigger the development of both planetary-scale and small-scale waves. These can be analyzed in dry or moist environments with a simple rainfall mechanism. Four atmospheric models are intercompared. This sheds light on the pros and cons of the model designs and the impact of mountains on the flow.
Shaohui Zhou, Yuchao Gao, Zexia Duan, Xingya Xi, and Yubin Li
The proposed wind speed correction model (VMD-PCA-RF) demonstrates the highest prediction accuracy and stability in the five southern provinces in nearly a year and at different heights. VMD-PCA-RF evaluation indexes for 10 months remain relatively stable: accuracy rate FA is above 85 %. In future research, the proposed VMD-PCA-RF algorithm can be extrapolated to the 3 km grid points of the five southern provinces to generate a 3 km grid-corrected wind speed product.
Virginie Marécal, Ronan Voisin-Plessis, Tjarda Jane Roberts, Alessandro Aiuppa, Herizo Narivelo, Paul David Hamer, Béatrice Josse, Jonathan Guth, Luke Surl, and Lisa Grellier
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 2873–2898,Short summary
We implemented a halogen volcanic chemistry scheme in a one-dimensional modelling framework preparing for further use in a three-dimensional global chemistry-transport model. The results of the simulations for an eruption of Mt Etna in 2008, including various sensitivity tests, show a good consistency with previous modelling studies.
Zhe Feng, Joseph Hardin, Hannah C. Barnes, Jianfeng Li, L. Ruby Leung, Adam Varble, and Zhixiao Zhang
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 2753–2776,Short summary
PyFLEXTRKR is a flexible atmospheric feature tracking framework with specific capabilities to track convective clouds from a variety of observations and model simulations. The package has a collection of multi-object identification algorithms and has been optimized for large datasets. This paper describes the algorithms and demonstrates applications for tracking deep convective cells and mesoscale convective systems from observations and model simulations at a wide range of scales.
Yan Ji, Bing Gong, Michael Langguth, Amirpasha Mozaffari, and Xiefei Zhi
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 2737–2752,Short summary
Formulating short-term precipitation forecasting as a video prediction task, a novel deep learning architecture (convolutional long short-term memory generative adversarial network, CLGAN) is proposed. A benchmark dataset is built on minute-level precipitation measurements. Results show that with the GAN component the model generates predictions sharing statistical properties with observations, resulting in it outperforming the baseline in dichotomous and spatial scores for heavy precipitation.
Aleksander Lacima, Hervé Petetin, Albert Soret, Dene Bowdalo, Oriol Jorba, Zhaoyue Chen, Raúl F. Méndez Turrubiates, Hicham Achebak, Joan Ballester, and Carlos Pérez García-Pando
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 2689–2718,Short summary
Understanding how air pollution varies across space and time is of key importance for the safeguarding of human health. This work arose in the context of the project EARLY-ADAPT, for which the Barcelona Supercomputing Center developed an air pollution database covering all of Europe. Through different statistical methods, we compared two global pollution models against measurements from ground stations and found significant discrepancies between the observed and the modeled surface pollution.
Dien Wu, Joshua L. Laughner, Junjie Liu, Paul I. Palmer, John C. Lin, and Paul O. Wennberg
To balance computational expenses and chemical complexity in extracting emission signals from tropospheric NO2 columns, we propose a simplified non-linear Lagrangian chemistry transport model and evaluate modeled results against TROPOMI v2 over multiple power plants and cities. Using this model, we then discuss how NOx chemistry affects the relationship between NOx and CO2 emissions and how studying NO2 columns helps quantify modeled biases in wind direction and prior emissions.
William Rudisill, Alejandro Flores, and Rosemary Carroll
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for GMDShort summary
It's important to know how well atmospheric models do in the mountains, but there aren't very many weather stations. We evaluate rain and snow from a model from 1987–2020 in the Upper Colorado river basin against the data that's available. The model works pretty well but, there are still some uncertainties in remote locations. We then use snow maps collected by aircraft, streamflow measurements, and some advanced statistics to help identify how well the model works in ways we couldn't before.
Andrew Geiss, Po-Lun Ma, Balwinder Singh, and Joseph C. Hardin
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 2355–2370,Short summary
Atmospheric aerosols play a critical role in Earth's climate, but it is too computationally expensive to directly model their interaction with radiation in climate simulations. This work develops a new neural-network-based parameterization of aerosol optical properties for use in the Energy Exascale Earth System Model that is much more accurate than the current one; it also introduces a unique model optimization method that involves randomly generating neural network architectures.
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