Articles | Volume 17, issue 2
Model evaluation paper
30 Jan 2024
Model evaluation paper |  | 30 Jan 2024

Modeling collision–coalescence in particle microphysics: numerical convergence of mean and variance of precipitation in cloud simulations using the University of Warsaw Lagrangian Cloud Model (UWLCM) 2.1

Piotr Zmijewski, Piotr Dziekan, and Hanna Pawlowska

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Cited articles

Andrejczuk, M., Grabowski, W. W., Reisner, J., and Gadian, A.: Cloud-aerosol interactions for boundary layer stratocumulus in the Lagrangian Cloud Model, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 115, D22214,, 2010. a
Arabas, S. and Shima, S. I.: Large-eddy simulations of trade wind cumuli using particle-based microphysics with monte Carlo coalescence, J. Atmos. Sci., 70, 2768–2777,, 2013. a
Arabas, S., Jaruga, A., Pawlowska, H., and Grabowski, W. W.: libcloudph++ 1.0: a single-moment bulk, double-moment bulk, and particle-based warm-rain microphysics library in C++, Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 1677–1707,, 2015. a, b
Arabas, S., Jaruga, A., Dziekan, P., Waruszewski, M., and Jarecka, D.: libcloudph++ v3.1 source code, Zenodo [code],, 2023a. a
Arabas, S., Waruszewski, M., Dziekan, P., Jaruga, A., Jarecka, D., Badger, C., and Singer, C.: libmpdata++ v2.1 source code, Zenodo [code],, 2023b. a
Short summary
In computer simulations of clouds it is necessary to model the myriad of droplets that constitute a cloud. A popular method for this is to use so-called super-droplets (SDs), each representing many real droplets. It has remained a challenge to model collisions of SDs. We study how precipitation in a cumulus cloud depends on the number of SDs. Surprisingly, we do not find convergence in mean precipitation even for numbers of SDs much larger than typically used in simulations.