Articles | Volume 16, issue 15
https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-16-4427-2023
https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-16-4427-2023
Methods for assessment of models
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02 Aug 2023
Methods for assessment of models | Highlight paper |  | 02 Aug 2023

The three-dimensional structure of fronts in mid-latitude weather systems in numerical weather prediction models

Andreas A. Beckert, Lea Eisenstein, Annika Oertel, Tim Hewson, George C. Craig, and Marc Rautenhaus

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The three-dimensional structure of fronts in mid-latitude weather systems as represented by numerical weather prediction models
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Cited articles

Aemisegger, F., Spiegel, J. K., Pfahl, S., Sodemann, H., Eugster, W., and Wernli, H.: Isotope meteorology of cold front passages: A case study combining observations and modeling, Geophys. Res. Lett., 42, 5652–5660, https://doi.org/10.1002/2015GL063988, 2015. 
Bader, M. J., Forbes, G. S., Grant, J. R., Lilley, R. B. E., and Waters, A. J.: Images in Weather Forecasting: A Practical Guide for Interpreting Satellite and Radar Imagery, 523 pp., ISBN-13 978-0521451116, 1996. 
Bader, R., Sprenger, M., Ban, N., Radisuhli, S., Schar, C., and Ganther, T.: Extraction and Visual Analysis of Potential Vorticity Banners around the Alps, IEEE Trans. Vis. Comput. Graph., 26, 1–1, https://doi.org/10.1109/TVCG.2019.2934310, 2020. 
Baldauf, M., Seifert, A., Förstner, J., Majewski, D., Raschendorfer, M., and Reinhardt, T.: Operational convective-scale numerical weather prediction with the COSMO model: Description and sensitivities, Mon. Weather Rev., 139, 3887–3905, https://doi.org/10.1175/MWR-D-10-05013.1, 2011. 
Beckert, A.: Datasets associated with the publication: “The three-dimensional structure of fronts in mid-latitude weather systems in numerical weather prediction models”, Zenodo [data set], https://doi.org/10.5281/ZENODO.7875629, 2023. 
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Executive editor
This paper investigates an impactful topic, is easily digestible to non-scientists, is well written, has nice visuals, uses novel objective identification methods and has well documented and accessible code.
Short summary
We investigate the benefit of objective 3-D front detection with modern interactive visual analysis techniques for case studies of extra-tropical cyclones and comparisons of frontal structures between different numerical weather prediction models. The 3-D frontal structures show agreement with 2-D fronts from surface analysis charts and augment them in the vertical dimension. We see great potential for more complex studies of atmospheric dynamics and for operational weather forecasting.