Articles | Volume 16, issue 8
© Author(s) 2023. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
© Author(s) 2023. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Comparison of ozone formation attribution techniques in the northeastern United States
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711, USA
Sergey L. Napelenok
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711, USA
William T. Hutzell
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711, USA
Kirk R. Baker
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711, USA
Barron H. Henderson
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711, USA
Benjamin N. Murphy
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711, USA
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711, USA
No articles found.
Matthew James Rowlinson, Lucy Carpenter, Katie Read, Shalini Punjabi, Adedayo Adedeji, Luke Fakes, Ally Lewis, Ben Richmond, Neil Passant, Tim Murrells, Barron Henderson, Kelvin Bates, Deltev Helmig, and Mat Evans
This preprint is open for discussion and under review for Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP).Short summary
Ethane and propane are volatile organic compounds emitted during human activities which contribute to the formation of ozone, a greenhouse gas, and affect the chemistry of the lower atmosphere. Atmospheric models tend to do a poor job at reproducing the abundance of these compounds in the atmosphere. By using regional estimates of their emission, rather than globally consistent estimates, we can significantly improve the simulation of ethane in the model and make some improvement for propane.
Benjamin N. Murphy, Darrell Sonntag, Karl M. Seltzer, Havala O. T. Pye, Christine Allen, Evan Murray, Claudia Toro, Drew R. Gentner, Cheng Huang, Shantanu Jathar, Li Li, Andrew A. May, and Allen L. Robinson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 13469–13483,Short summary
We update methods for calculating organic particle and vapor emissions from mobile sources in the USA. Conventionally, particulate matter (PM) and volatile organic carbon (VOC) are speciated without consideration of primary semivolatile emissions. Our methods integrate state-of-the-science speciation profiles and correct for common artifacts when sampling emissions in a laboratory. We quantify impacts of the emission updates on ambient pollution with the Community Multiscale Air Quality model.
David de la Paz, Rafael Borge, Juan Manuel de Andrés, Luis Miguel Tovar, Golam Sarwar, and Sergey L. Napelenok
This modelling study shows that around 70 % of ground-level ozone (O3) in Madrid (Spain) is transported from other regions. Nonetheless, local sources, mainly road traffic, play a significant role, specially under stagnation conditions associated to regional air recirculation. Our results suggest that local measures may be effective to reduce O3 peaks (potentially, up to 30 %) and thus, reduce impacts from high-O3 episodes in the Madrid metropolitan area.
Olivia E. Clifton, Donna Schwede, Christian Hogrefe, Jesse O. Bash, Sam Bland, Philip Cheung, Mhairi Coyle, Lisa Emberson, Johannes Flemming, Erick Fredj, Stefano Galmarini, Laurens Ganzeveld, Orestis Gazetas, Ignacio Goded, Christopher D. Holmes, László Horváth, Vincent Huijnen, Qian Li, Paul A. Makar, Ivan Mammarella, Giovanni Manca, J. William Munger, Juan L. Pérez-Camanyo, Jonathan Pleim, Limei Ran, Roberto San Jose, Sam J. Silva, Ralf Staebler, Shihan Sun, Amos P. K. Tai, Eran Tas, Timo Vesala, Tamás Weidinger, Zhiyong Wu, and Leiming Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 9911–9961,Short summary
A primary sink of air pollutants is dry deposition. Dry deposition estimates differ across the models used to simulate atmospheric chemistry. Here, we introduce an effort to examine dry deposition schemes from atmospheric chemistry models. We provide our approach’s rationale, document the schemes, and describe datasets used to drive and evaluate the schemes. We also launch the analysis of results by evaluating against observations and identifying the processes leading to model–model differences.
Heather Simon, Christian Hogrefe, Andrew Whitehill, Kristen M. Foley, Jennifer Liljegren, Norm Possiel, Benjamin Wells, Barron H. Henderson, Lukas C. Valin, Gail Tonnesen, K. Wyat Appel, and Shannon Koplitz
We assess observed and modeled ozone weekend-weekday differences in the US from 2002–2019. A subset of urban areas that were NOX-saturated at the beginning of the period transitioned to NOX-limited conditions. Multiple rural areas of California were NOX-limited for the entire period but become less influenced by local day-of-week emission patterns in more recent years. The model produces more NOX-saturated conditions than the observations but captures trends in weekend-weekday ozone patterns.
Kelvin Bates, Mathew Evans, Barron Henderson, and Daniel Jacob
Accurate representation of rates and products of chemical reactions in atmospheric models is crucial for simulating concentrations of pollutants and climate forcers. We update the widely used GEOS-Chem atmospheric chemistry model with reaction parameters from recent compilations of experimental data and demonstrate the implications for key atmospheric chemical species. The updates decrease tropospheric CO mixing ratios and increase stratospheric nitrogen oxide mixing ratios, among other changes.
Bryan K. Place, William T. Hutzell, K. Wyat Appel, Sara Farrell, Lukas Valin, Benjamin N. Murphy, Karl M. Seltzer, Golam Sarwar, Christine Allen, Ivan R. Piletic, Emma L. D'Ambro, Emily Saunders, Heather Simon, Ana Torres-Vasquez, Jonathan Pleim, Rebecca H. Schwantes, Matthew M. Coggon, Lu Xu, William R. Stockwell, and Havala O. T. Pye
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 9173–9190,Short summary
Ground-level ozone is a pollutant with adverse human health and ecosystem effects. Air quality models allow scientists to understand the chemical production of ozone and demonstrate impacts of air quality management plans. In this work, the role of multiple systems in ozone production was investigated for the northeastern US in summer. Model updates to chemical reaction rates and monoterpene chemistry were most influential in decreasing predicted ozone and improving agreement with observations.
Christian Hogrefe, Jesse O. Bash, Jonathan E. Pleim, Donna B. Schwede, Robert C. Gilliam, Kristen M. Foley, K. Wyat Appel, and Rohit Mathur
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 8119–8147,Short summary
Under the umbrella of the fourth phase of the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII4), this study applies AQMEII4 diagnostic tools to better characterize how dry deposition removes pollutants from the atmosphere in the widely used CMAQ model. The results illustrate how these tools can provide insights into similarities and differences between the two CMAQ dry deposition options that affect simulated pollutant budgets and ecosystem impacts from atmospheric pollution.
Monica Crippa, Diego Guizzardi, Tim Butler, Terry Keating, Rosa Wu, Jacek Kaminski, Jeroen Kuenen, Junichi Kurokawa, Satoru Chatani, Tazuko Morikawa, George Pouliot, Jacinthe Racine, Michael D. Moran, Zbigniew Klimont, Patrick M. Manseau, Rabab Mashayekhi, Barron H. Henderson, Steven J. Smith, Harrison Suchyta, Marilena Muntean, Efisio Solazzo, Manjola Banja, Edwin Schaaf, Federico Pagani, Jung-Hun Woo, Jinseok Kim, Fabio Monforti-Ferrario, Enrico Pisoni, Junhua Zhang, David Niemi, Mourad Sassi, Tabish Ansari, and Kristen Foley
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 15, 2667–2694,Short summary
This study responds to the global and regional atmospheric modelling community's need for a mosaic of air pollutant emissions with global coverage, long time series, spatially distributed data at a high time resolution, and a high sectoral resolution in order to enhance the understanding of transboundary air pollution. The mosaic approach to integrating official regional emission inventories with a global inventory based on a consistent methodology ensures policy-relevant results.
Havala O. T. Pye, Bryan K. Place, Benjamin N. Murphy, Karl M. Seltzer, Emma L. D'Ambro, Christine Allen, Ivan R. Piletic, Sara Farrell, Rebecca H. Schwantes, Matthew M. Coggon, Emily Saunders, Lu Xu, Golam Sarwar, William T. Hutzell, Kristen M. Foley, George Pouliot, Jesse Bash, and William R. Stockwell
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 5043–5099,Short summary
Chemical mechanisms describe how emissions from vehicles, vegetation, and other sources are chemically transformed in the atmosphere to secondary products including criteria and hazardous air pollutants. The Community Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Multiphase Mechanism integrates gas-phase radical chemistry with pathways to fine-particle mass. New species were implemented, resulting in a bottom-up representation of organic aerosol, which is required for accurate source attribution of pollutants.
Elyse A. Pennington, Yuan Wang, Benjamin C. Schulze, Karl M. Seltzer, Jiani Yang, Bin Zhao, Zhe Jiang, Hongru Shi, Melissa Venecek, Daniel Chau, Benjamin N. Murphy, Christopher M. Kenseth, Ryan X. Ward, Havala O. T. Pye, and John H. Seinfeld
To assess the ozone and particulate matter pollution in LA, we improved the CMAQ model by employing dynamic traffic emissions and new secondary organic aerosol (SOA) schemes to represent volatile chemical products (VCP). Source apportionment demonstrates that the urban areas of the LA Basin and vicinity are NOx-saturated with the largest sensitivity of O3 to changes in VOC in the urban core. The improvement and remaining issues shed light on the future direction of the model development.
James D. East, Barron H. Henderson, Sergey L. Napelenok, Shannon N. Koplitz, Golam Sarwar, Robert Gilliam, Allen Lenzen, Daniel Q. Tong, R. Bradley Pierce, and Fernando Garcia-Menendez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 15981–16001,Short summary
We present a framework that uses a computer model of air quality, along with air pollution data from satellite instruments, to estimate emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) across the Northern Hemisphere. The framework, which advances current methods to infer emissions from satellite observations, provides observationally constrained NOx estimates, including in regions of the world where emissions are highly uncertain, and can improve simulations of air pollutants relevant for health and policy.
Sarah E. Benish, Jesse O. Bash, Kristen M. Foley, K. Wyat Appel, Christian Hogrefe, Robert Gilliam, and George Pouliot
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 12749–12767,Short summary
We assess Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model simulations of nitrogen and sulfur deposition over US climate regions to evaluate the model ability to reproduce long-term deposition trends and total deposition budgets. A measurement–model fusion technique is found to improve estimates of wet deposition. Emission controls set by the Clean Air Act successfully decreased oxidized nitrogen deposition across the US; we find increasing amounts of reduced nitrogen to the total nitrogen budget.
Mengying Li, Shaocai Yu, Xue Chen, Zhen Li, Yibo Zhang, Zhe Song, Weiping Liu, Pengfei Li, Xiaoye Zhang, Meigen Zhang, Yele Sun, Zirui Liu, Caiping Sun, Jingkun Jiang, Shuxiao Wang, Benjamin N. Murphy, Kiran Alapaty, Rohit Mathur, Daniel Rosenfeld, and John H. Seinfeld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11845–11866,Short summary
This study constructed an emission inventory of condensable particulate matter (CPM) in China with a focus on organic aerosols (OAs), based on collected CPM emission information. The results show that OA emissions are enhanced twofold for the years 2014 and 2017 after the inclusion of CPM in the new inventory. Sensitivity cases demonstrated the significant contributions of CPM emissions from stationary combustion and mobile sources to primary, secondary, and total OA concentrations.
Elyse A. Pennington, Karl M. Seltzer, Benjamin N. Murphy, Momei Qin, John H. Seinfeld, and Havala O. T. Pye
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 18247–18261,Short summary
Volatile chemical products (VCPs) are commonly used consumer and industrial items that contribute to the formation of atmospheric aerosol. We implemented the emissions and chemistry of VCPs in a regional-scale model and compared predictions with measurements made in Los Angeles. Our results reduced model bias and suggest that VCPs may contribute up to half of anthropogenic secondary organic aerosol in Los Angeles and are an important source of human-influenced particular matter in urban areas.
Stefano Galmarini, Paul Makar, Olivia E. Clifton, Christian Hogrefe, Jesse O. Bash, Roberto Bellasio, Roberto Bianconi, Johannes Bieser, Tim Butler, Jason Ducker, Johannes Flemming, Alma Hodzic, Christopher D. Holmes, Ioannis Kioutsioukis, Richard Kranenburg, Aurelia Lupascu, Juan Luis Perez-Camanyo, Jonathan Pleim, Young-Hee Ryu, Roberto San Jose, Donna Schwede, Sam Silva, and Ralf Wolke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15663–15697,Short summary
This technical note presents the research protocols for phase 4 of the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII4). This initiative has three goals: (i) to define the state of wet and dry deposition in regional models, (ii) to evaluate how dry deposition influences air concentration and flux predictions, and (iii) to identify the causes for prediction differences. The evaluation compares LULC-specific dry deposition and effective conductances and fluxes.
Syuichi Itahashi, Rohit Mathur, Christian Hogrefe, Sergey L. Napelenok, and Yang Zhang
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 5751–5768,Short summary
The Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system extended for hemispheric-scale applications (H-CMAQ) incorporated the satellite-constrained degassing SO2 emissions from 50 volcanos across the Northern Hemisphere. The impact on tropospheric sulfate aerosol (SO42−) is assessed for 2010. Although the considered volcanic emissions occurred at or below the middle of free troposphere (500 hPa), SO42− enhancements of more than 10 % were detected up to the top of free troposphere (250 hPa).
Xiaoyang Chen, Yang Zhang, Kai Wang, Daniel Tong, Pius Lee, Youhua Tang, Jianping Huang, Patrick C. Campbell, Jeff Mcqueen, Havala O. T. Pye, Benjamin N. Murphy, and Daiwen Kang
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 3969–3993,Short summary
The continuously updated National Air Quality Forecast Capability (NAQFC) provides air quality forecasts. To support the development of the next-generation NAQFC, we evaluate a prototype of GFSv15-CMAQv5.0.2. The performance and the potential improvements for the system are discussed. This study can provide a scientific basis for further development of NAQFC and help it to provide more accurate air quality forecasts to the public over the contiguous United States.
Benjamin N. Murphy, Christopher G. Nolte, Fahim Sidi, Jesse O. Bash, K. Wyat Appel, Carey Jang, Daiwen Kang, James Kelly, Rohit Mathur, Sergey Napelenok, George Pouliot, and Havala O. T. Pye
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 3407–3420,Short summary
The algorithms for applying air pollution emission rates in the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model have been improved to better support users and developers. The new features accommodate emissions perturbation studies that are typical in atmospheric research and output a wealth of metadata for each model run so assumptions can be verified and documented. The new approach dramatically enhances the transparency and functionality of this critical aspect of atmospheric modeling.
K. Wyat Appel, Jesse O. Bash, Kathleen M. Fahey, Kristen M. Foley, Robert C. Gilliam, Christian Hogrefe, William T. Hutzell, Daiwen Kang, Rohit Mathur, Benjamin N. Murphy, Sergey L. Napelenok, Christopher G. Nolte, Jonathan E. Pleim, George A. Pouliot, Havala O. T. Pye, Limei Ran, Shawn J. Roselle, Golam Sarwar, Donna B. Schwede, Fahim I. Sidi, Tanya L. Spero, and David C. Wong
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 2867–2897,Short summary
This paper details the scientific updates in the recently released CMAQ version 5.3 (and v5.3.1) and also includes operational and diagnostic evaluations of CMAQv5.3.1 against observations and the previous version of the CMAQ (v5.2.1). This work was done to improve the underlying science in CMAQ. This article is used to inform the CMAQ modeling community of the updates to the modeling system and the expected change in model performance from these updates (versus the previous model version).
Qian Shu, Benjamin Murphy, Jonathan E. Pleim, Donna Schwede, Barron H. Henderson, Havala O.T. Pye, Keith Wyat Appel, Tanvir R. Khan, and Judith A. Perlinger
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
We have bridged the gap between dry deposition measurement and modeling by rigorous use of box and regional transport models and field measurements, but more efforts are needed. This study highlights that deviation among deposition schemes is most pronounced for small and large particles. This study better links model predictions to available real-world observations and incrementally reduces uncertainties in the magnitude of loss processes important for the lifecycle of air pollutants.
Karl M. Seltzer, Elyse Pennington, Venkatesh Rao, Benjamin N. Murphy, Madeleine Strum, Kristin K. Isaacs, and Havala O. T. Pye
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5079–5100,Short summary
Volatile chemical products (VCPs) are an increasingly important source of anthropogenic reactive organic carbon emissions. Here, we develop VCPy, a new framework to model organic emissions from VCPs throughout the United States. At the national-level, VCPy emissions are broadly consistent with the US EPA’s 2017 National Emission Inventory, however county-level and categorical estimates can differ substantially. An observational evaluation indicates high fidelity in the methods employed here.
Yilin Chen, Huizhong Shen, Jennifer Kaiser, Yongtao Hu, Shannon L. Capps, Shunliu Zhao, Amir Hakami, Jhih-Shyang Shih, Gertrude K. Pavur, Matthew D. Turner, Daven K. Henze, Jaroslav Resler, Athanasios Nenes, Sergey L. Napelenok, Jesse O. Bash, Kathleen M. Fahey, Gregory R. Carmichael, Tianfeng Chai, Lieven Clarisse, Pierre-François Coheur, Martin Van Damme, and Armistead G. Russell
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2067–2082,Short summary
Ammonia (NH3) emissions can exert adverse impacts on air quality and ecosystem well-being. NH3 emission inventories are viewed as highly uncertain. Here we optimize the NH3 emission estimates in the US using an air quality model and NH3 measurements from the IASI satellite instruments. The optimized NH3 emissions are much higher than the National Emissions Inventory estimates in April. The optimized NH3 emissions improved model performance when evaluated against independent observation.
Huiying Luo, Marina Astitha, Christian Hogrefe, Rohit Mathur, and S. Trivikrama Rao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13801–13815,Short summary
A new method is introduced to evaluate nonlinear, nonstationary modeled PM2.5 time series by decomposing decadal PM2.5 concentrations and its species onto various timescales. It does not require preselection of temporal scales and assumptions of linearity and stationarity. It provides a unique opportunity to assess the influence of each species on total PM2.5. The results reveal a phase shift in modeled EC/OC concentrations, indicating the need for improved model treatment of organic aerosols.
Amy E. Christiansen, Annmarie G. Carlton, and Barron H. Henderson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11607–11624,Short summary
We quantify differences in surface-level fine particle mass (PM2.5) chemical composition in relation to satellite-derived cloud flags and find significant differences between clear-sky and cloud days. The work suggests that future analysis in this area is warranted.
Shunliu Zhao, Matthew G. Russell, Amir Hakami, Shannon L. Capps, Matthew D. Turner, Daven K. Henze, Peter B. Percell, Jaroslav Resler, Huizhong Shen, Armistead G. Russell, Athanasios Nenes, Amanda J. Pappin, Sergey L. Napelenok, Jesse O. Bash, Kathleen M. Fahey, Gregory R. Carmichael, Charles O. Stanier, and Tianfeng Chai
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 2925–2944,
Quanyang Lu, Benjamin N. Murphy, Momei Qin, Peter J. Adams, Yunliang Zhao, Havala O. T. Pye, Christos Efstathiou, Chris Allen, and Allen L. Robinson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4313–4332,Short summary
This research work investigates organic aerosol formation in California during the CalNex study. We update the chemical transport model with the most recent mobile-source emission data and introduce a simple parameterization for secondary organic aerosol formed from intermediate-volatility organic compounds. Our results highlight the important contribution of IVOCs to SOA production in the Los Angeles region but underscore that other uncertainties must be addressed to close the SOA mass balance.
Syuichi Itahashi, Rohit Mathur, Christian Hogrefe, and Yang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 3373–3396,Short summary
The state-of-the-science Community Multiscale Air Quality model extended for hemispheric applications (H-CMAQ) is used to model the trans-Pacific transport which has been recognized as a potential source of air pollutants over the US. In Part 1, modeled ozone is evaluated with observations at surface, by ozonesonde and airplane, and by satellite across the Northern Hemisphere. In addition, a newly developed air mass characterization method to estimate stratospheric intrusion is presented.
Syuichi Itahashi, Rohit Mathur, Christian Hogrefe, Sergey L. Napelenok, and Yang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 3397–3413,Short summary
The state-of-the-science Community Multiscale Air Quality model extended for hemispheric applications (H-CMAQ) is used to model the trans-Pacific transport which has been recognized as a potential source of air pollutants over the US. In Part 2, the higher-order decoupled direct method (HDDM) is applied to investigate the emission impacts from east Asia and the US during April 2010. Furthermore, changes in trans-Pacific transport caused by the recent emissions are examined.
S. Trivikrama Rao, Huiying Luo, Marina Astitha, Christian Hogrefe, Valerie Garcia, and Rohit Mathur
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1627–1639,Short summary
Since numerical air quality models do not explicitly simulate stochastic variations in the atmosphere, there will always be differences between modeled and measured pollutant levels even when the model's physics, chemistry, numerical analysis, and its input data are perfect. This paper quantifies the inherent uncertainty in regional models due to the stochastic nature of the atmosphere. A knowledge of the expected error helps model developers in evaluating the real progress in improving models.
María Teresa Pay, Gotzon Gangoiti, Marc Guevara, Sergey Napelenok, Xavier Querol, Oriol Jorba, and Carlos Pérez García-Pando
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 5467–5494,Short summary
The poor diagnostic of the O3 issue over southwestern Europe prevents authorities from implementing effective mitigation plans. This work is a pioneer in identifying that imported O3 is the largest input to the ground-level O3 concentration in the Iberian Peninsula, which is largely explained by vertical mixing. This study also proves that anthropogenic emissions control the severe O3 peaks during stagnant conditions. Ad hoc local actions should complement national/European strategies.
Gabriele Curci, Ummugulsum Alyuz, Rocio Barò, Roberto Bianconi, Johannes Bieser, Jesper H. Christensen, Augustin Colette, Aidan Farrow, Xavier Francis, Pedro Jiménez-Guerrero, Ulas Im, Peng Liu, Astrid Manders, Laura Palacios-Peña, Marje Prank, Luca Pozzoli, Ranjeet Sokhi, Efisio Solazzo, Paolo Tuccella, Alper Unal, Marta G. Vivanco, Christian Hogrefe, and Stefano Galmarini
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 181–204,Short summary
Atmospheric carbonaceous aerosols are able to absorb solar radiation and they continue to contribute some of the largest uncertainties in projected climate change. One important detail is how the chemical species are arranged inside each particle, i.e. the knowledge of their mixing state. We use an ensemble of regional model simulations to test different mixing state assumptions and found that a combination of internal and external mixing may better reproduce sunphotometer observations.
Peng Liu, Christian Hogrefe, Ulas Im, Jesper H. Christensen, Johannes Bieser, Uarporn Nopmongcol, Greg Yarwood, Rohit Mathur, Shawn Roselle, and Tanya Spero
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17157–17175,Short summary
This study represents an intercomparison of four regional-scale air quality simulations in order to understand the model similarities and differences in estimating the impact of ozone imported from outside of the US on the surface ozone within the US at process level. Vertical turbulent mixing stands out as a primary contributor to the model differences in inert tracers.
Yuqiang Zhang, J. Jason West, Rohit Mathur, Jia Xing, Christian Hogrefe, Shawn J. Roselle, Jesse O. Bash, Jonathan E. Pleim, Chuen-Meei Gan, and David C. Wong
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 15003–15016,Short summary
Here we use a fine-resolution (36 km) self-consistent 21-year air quality simulation from 1990 to 2010, a health impact function, and annual county-level population and baseline mortality rate estimates to estimate annual mortality burdens from PM2.5 and O3 in the US, and also the contributions to the trends. We found that the PM2.5-related mortality burden has steadily decreased by 53 %, while the O3-related mortality burden has increased by 13 %, with larger inter-annual variabilities.
Marina Astitha, Ioannis Kioutsioukis, Ghezae Araya Fisseha, Roberto Bianconi, Johannes Bieser, Jesper H. Christensen, Owen R. Cooper, Stefano Galmarini, Christian Hogrefe, Ulas Im, Bryan Johnson, Peng Liu, Uarporn Nopmongcol, Irina Petropavlovskikh, Efisio Solazzo, David W. Tarasick, and Greg Yarwood
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 13925–13945,Short summary
This work is unique in the detailed analyses of modeled ozone vertical profiles from sites in North America through the collaboration of four research groups from the US and EU. We assess the air quality models' performance and model inter-comparison for ozone vertical profiles and stratospheric ozone intrusions. Lastly, we designate the important role of lateral boundary conditions in the ozone vertical profiles using chemically inert tracers.
Lu Xu, Havala O. T. Pye, Jia He, Yunle Chen, Benjamin N. Murphy, and Nga Lee Ng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 12613–12637,Short summary
In this study, we integrate lab-in-the-field experiments, extensive ambient ground measurements, and state-of-the-art modeling to constrain the concentration of organic aerosol from biogenic monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. Further, we show that the organic aerosol from the investigated sources accounts for roughly 20 % of the World Health Organization PM2.5 standard in the southeastern US.
Marta G. Vivanco, Mark R. Theobald, Héctor García-Gómez, Juan Luis Garrido, Marje Prank, Wenche Aas, Mario Adani, Ummugulsum Alyuz, Camilla Andersson, Roberto Bellasio, Bertrand Bessagnet, Roberto Bianconi, Johannes Bieser, Jørgen Brandt, Gino Briganti, Andrea Cappelletti, Gabriele Curci, Jesper H. Christensen, Augustin Colette, Florian Couvidat, Cornelis Cuvelier, Massimo D'Isidoro, Johannes Flemming, Andrea Fraser, Camilla Geels, Kaj M. Hansen, Christian Hogrefe, Ulas Im, Oriol Jorba, Nutthida Kitwiroon, Astrid Manders, Mihaela Mircea, Noelia Otero, Maria-Teresa Pay, Luca Pozzoli, Efisio Solazzo, Svetlana Tsyro, Alper Unal, Peter Wind, and Stefano Galmarini
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10199–10218,Short summary
European wet and dry atmospheric deposition of N and S estimated by 14 air quality models was found to vary substantially. An ensemble of models meeting acceptability criteria was used to estimate the exceedances of the critical loads for N in habitats within the Natura 2000 network, as well as their lower and upper limits. Scenarios with 20 % emission reductions in different regions of the world showed that European emissions are responsible for most of the N and S deposition in Europe.
Ulas Im, Jesper Heile Christensen, Camilla Geels, Kaj Mantzius Hansen, Jørgen Brandt, Efisio Solazzo, Ummugulsum Alyuz, Alessandra Balzarini, Rocio Baro, Roberto Bellasio, Roberto Bianconi, Johannes Bieser, Augustin Colette, Gabriele Curci, Aidan Farrow, Johannes Flemming, Andrea Fraser, Pedro Jimenez-Guerrero, Nutthida Kitwiroon, Peng Liu, Uarporn Nopmongcol, Laura Palacios-Peña, Guido Pirovano, Luca Pozzoli, Marje Prank, Rebecca Rose, Ranjeet Sokhi, Paolo Tuccella, Alper Unal, Marta G. Vivanco, Greg Yarwood, Christian Hogrefe, and Stefano Galmarini
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 8929–8952,Short summary
We evaluate the impact of global and regional anthropogenic emission reductions on major air pollutant levels over Europe and North America, using a multi-model ensemble of regional chemistry and transport models. Results show that ozone levels are largely driven by long-range transport over both continents while other pollutants such as carbon monoxide or aerosols are mainly controlled by domestic sources. Use of multi-model ensembles can help to reduce the uncertainties in individual models.
Yuqiang Zhang, Rohit Mathur, Jesse O. Bash, Christian Hogrefe, Jia Xing, and Shawn J. Roselle
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 9091–9106,Short summary
For this study, we evaluated the WRF–CMAQ coupled model's ability to simulate the long-term trends of wet deposition of nitrogen and sulfur from 1990 to 2010 by comparing the model results with long-term observation datasets in the US. The model generally underestimates the wet deposition of both nitrogen and sulfur but captured well the decreasing trends for the deposition. Then we estimated the deposition budget in the US, including wet deposition and dry deposition from model simulations.
Ulas Im, Jørgen Brandt, Camilla Geels, Kaj Mantzius Hansen, Jesper Heile Christensen, Mikael Skou Andersen, Efisio Solazzo, Ioannis Kioutsioukis, Ummugulsum Alyuz, Alessandra Balzarini, Rocio Baro, Roberto Bellasio, Roberto Bianconi, Johannes Bieser, Augustin Colette, Gabriele Curci, Aidan Farrow, Johannes Flemming, Andrea Fraser, Pedro Jimenez-Guerrero, Nutthida Kitwiroon, Ciao-Kai Liang, Uarporn Nopmongcol, Guido Pirovano, Luca Pozzoli, Marje Prank, Rebecca Rose, Ranjeet Sokhi, Paolo Tuccella, Alper Unal, Marta Garcia Vivanco, Jason West, Greg Yarwood, Christian Hogrefe, and Stefano Galmarini
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 5967–5989,Short summary
The impacts of air pollution on human health and their costs in Europe and the United States for the year 2010 ared modeled by a multi-model ensemble. In Europe, the number of premature deaths is calculated to be 414 000, while in the US it is estimated to be 160 000. Health impacts estimated by individual models can vary up to a factor of 3. Results show that the domestic emissions have the largest impact on premature deaths, compared to foreign sources.
Christian Hogrefe, Peng Liu, George Pouliot, Rohit Mathur, Shawn Roselle, Johannes Flemming, Meiyun Lin, and Rokjin J. Park
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 3839–3864,Short summary
This study quantifies the impacts of different representations of background ozone in state-of-the-science large-scale models on surface and aloft ozone burdens simulated by the CMAQ regional model over the United States. It also compares both the CMAQ simulations and the driving large-scale models to surface and upper air observations.
Rohit Mathur, Jia Xing, Robert Gilliam, Golam Sarwar, Christian Hogrefe, Jonathan Pleim, George Pouliot, Shawn Roselle, Tanya L. Spero, David C. Wong, and Jeffrey Young
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 12449–12474,Short summary
We extend CMAQ's applicability to the entire Northern Hemisphere to enable consistent examination of interactions between atmospheric processes occurring on various spatial and temporal scales. Improvements were made in model process representation, structure, and input data sets that enable a range of model applications including episodic intercontinental pollutant transport, long-term trends in air pollution across the Northern Hemisphere, and air pollution–climate interactions.
Benjamin N. Murphy, Matthew C. Woody, Jose L. Jimenez, Ann Marie G. Carlton, Patrick L. Hayes, Shang Liu, Nga L. Ng, Lynn M. Russell, Ari Setyan, Lu Xu, Jeff Young, Rahul A. Zaveri, Qi Zhang, and Havala O. T. Pye
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 11107–11133,Short summary
We incorporate recent findings about the behavior of organic pollutants in urban airsheds into the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model to refine predictions of organic particulate pollution in the United States. The new techniques, which account for the volatility and ongoing chemistry of airborne organic compounds, substantially reduce biases, particularly in the winter time and near emission sources.
Efisio Solazzo, Christian Hogrefe, Augustin Colette, Marta Garcia-Vivanco, and Stefano Galmarini
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 10435–10465,Short summary
The work here is conducted within the frame of AQMEII3 and promotes the use of diagnostic methods for the evaluation of air quality models. We highlight the need to move away from aggregated error metrics and to focus on the quality of the information that can be extracted from the model and the observation. This aids the understanding of the causes of model error, providing more useful information to model developers and users than can be gained from common evaluations.
Jia Xing, Jiandong Wang, Rohit Mathur, Shuxiao Wang, Golam Sarwar, Jonathan Pleim, Christian Hogrefe, Yuqiang Zhang, Jingkun Jiang, David C. Wong, and Jiming Hao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 9869–9883,Short summary
The assessment of the impacts of aerosol direct effects (ADE) is important for understanding emission reduction strategies that seek co-benefits associated with reductions in both particulate matter and ozone. This study quantifies the ADE impacts on tropospheric ozone by using a two-way coupled meteorology and atmospheric chemistry model. Results suggest that reducing ADE may have the potential risk of increasing ozone in winter, but it will benefit the reduction of maxima ozone in summer.
K. Wyat Appel, Sergey L. Napelenok, Kristen M. Foley, Havala O. T. Pye, Christian Hogrefe, Deborah J. Luecken, Jesse O. Bash, Shawn J. Roselle, Jonathan E. Pleim, Hosein Foroutan, William T. Hutzell, George A. Pouliot, Golam Sarwar, Kathleen M. Fahey, Brett Gantt, Robert C. Gilliam, Nicholas K. Heath, Daiwen Kang, Rohit Mathur, Donna B. Schwede, Tanya L. Spero, David C. Wong, and Jeffrey O. Young
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 1703–1732,Short summary
The Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model is a comprehensive multipollutant air quality modeling system. The CMAQ model is used extensively throughout the world to simulate air pollutants for many purposes, including regulatory and air quality forecasting applications. This work describes the scientific updates made to the latest version of the CMAQ modeling system (CMAQv5.1) and presents an evaluation of the new model against observations and results from the previous model version.
Kathleen M. Fahey, Annmarie G. Carlton, Havala O. T. Pye, Jaemeen Baek, William T. Hutzell, Charles O. Stanier, Kirk R. Baker, K. Wyat Appel, Mohammed Jaoui, and John H. Offenberg
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 1587–1605,Short summary
Chemical transport models (CTMs) are a crucial tool in understanding links between emissions, air quality, and climate. Only a simple description of cloud chemistry has been implemented in many of these; however, clouds play a major role in the physicochemical processing of atmospheric species. In CMAQ, EPA’s widely used CTM, the cloud code is limited to the treatment of simple chemistry. We update CMAQ clouds to consider additional chemistry and then examine regional impacts of these updates.
Shantanu H. Jathar, Matthew Woody, Havala O. T. Pye, Kirk R. Baker, and Allen L. Robinson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 4305–4318,Short summary
Mobile sources such as cars and trucks are large sources of pollution in cities, but it is unclear what their relative contribution to organic particle pollution is. We used a numerical model along with recent data gathered from tests performed on cars and trucks to calculate organic particle levels in southern California. We found that model calculations agreed better with measurements and gasoline cars and trucks dominated the organic particle pollution.
Efisio Solazzo, Roberto Bianconi, Christian Hogrefe, Gabriele Curci, Paolo Tuccella, Ummugulsum Alyuz, Alessandra Balzarini, Rocío Baró, Roberto Bellasio, Johannes Bieser, Jørgen Brandt, Jesper H. Christensen, Augistin Colette, Xavier Francis, Andrea Fraser, Marta Garcia Vivanco, Pedro Jiménez-Guerrero, Ulas Im, Astrid Manders, Uarporn Nopmongcol, Nutthida Kitwiroon, Guido Pirovano, Luca Pozzoli, Marje Prank, Ranjeet S. Sokhi, Alper Unal, Greg Yarwood, and Stefano Galmarini
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 3001–3054,Short summary
As part of the third phase of AQMEII, this study uses timescale analysis to apportion error to the responsible processes, detect causes of model error, and identify the processes and scales that require dedicated investigations. The analysis tackles model performance gauging through measurement-to-model comparison, error decomposition, and time series analysis of model biases for ozone, CO, SO2, NO, NO2, PM10, PM2.5, wind speed, and temperature over Europe and North America.
Stefano Galmarini, Brigitte Koffi, Efisio Solazzo, Terry Keating, Christian Hogrefe, Michael Schulz, Anna Benedictow, Jan Jurgen Griesfeller, Greet Janssens-Maenhout, Greg Carmichael, Joshua Fu, and Frank Dentener
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 1543–1555,Short summary
We present an overview of the coordinated global numerical modelling experiments performed during 2012–2016 by the Task Force on Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution (TF HTAP), the regional experiments by the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII) over Europe and North America, and the Model Intercomparison Study for Asia (MICS-Asia). Given the organizational complexity of bringing together these three initiatives, the experiment organization is presented.
Havala O. T. Pye, Benjamin N. Murphy, Lu Xu, Nga L. Ng, Annmarie G. Carlton, Hongyu Guo, Rodney Weber, Petros Vasilakos, K. Wyat Appel, Sri Hapsari Budisulistiorini, Jason D. Surratt, Athanasios Nenes, Weiwei Hu, Jose L. Jimenez, Gabriel Isaacman-VanWertz, Pawel K. Misztal, and Allen H. Goldstein
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 343–369,Short summary
We use a chemical transport model to examine how organic compounds in the atmosphere interact with water present in particles. Organic compounds themselves lead to water uptake, and organic compounds interact with water associated with inorganic compounds in the rural southeast atmosphere. Including interactions of organic compounds with water requires a treatment of nonideality to more accurately represent aerosol observations during the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) 2013.
Ioannis Kioutsioukis, Ulas Im, Efisio Solazzo, Roberto Bianconi, Alba Badia, Alessandra Balzarini, Rocío Baró, Roberto Bellasio, Dominik Brunner, Charles Chemel, Gabriele Curci, Hugo Denier van der Gon, Johannes Flemming, Renate Forkel, Lea Giordano, Pedro Jiménez-Guerrero, Marcus Hirtl, Oriol Jorba, Astrid Manders-Groot, Lucy Neal, Juan L. Pérez, Guidio Pirovano, Roberto San Jose, Nicholas Savage, Wolfram Schroder, Ranjeet S. Sokhi, Dimiter Syrakov, Paolo Tuccella, Johannes Werhahn, Ralf Wolke, Christian Hogrefe, and Stefano Galmarini
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 15629–15652,Short summary
Four ensemble methods are applied to two annual AQMEII datasets and their performance is compared for O3, NO2 and PM10. The goal of the study is to quantify to what extent we can extract predictable signals from an ensemble with superior skill at each station over the single models and the ensemble mean. The promotion of the right amount of accuracy and diversity within the ensemble results in an average additional skill of up to 31 % compared to using the full ensemble in an unconditional way.
Jia Xing, Rohit Mathur, Jonathan Pleim, Christian Hogrefe, Jiandong Wang, Chuen-Meei Gan, Golam Sarwar, David C. Wong, and Stuart McKeen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 10865–10877,Short summary
Downward transport of ozone from the stratosphere has large impacts on surface concentration and needs to be properly represented in regional models. This study developed a seasonally and spatially varying PV-based function from an investigation of the relationship between PV and O3. The implementation of the new function significantly improves the model's performance in O3 simulation, which enables a more accurate simulation of the vertical distribution of O3 across the Northern Hemisphere.
Giulia Ruggeri, Fabian A. Bernhard, Barron H. Henderson, and Satoshi Takahama
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 8729–8747,Short summary
Functional groups provide an intermediate level of chemical resolution between full molecular speciation and elemental composition for describing complex mixtures and can be a useful metric in model–measurement comparison of reaction kinetics and secondary organic aerosol formation. We introduce tools to facilitate such comparisons and demonstrate its application in study of the photooxidation of two precursor volatile organic compounds and the gas–particle partitioning of their products.
Jesse O. Bash, Kirk R. Baker, and Melinda R. Beaver
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 2191–2207,Short summary
Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) participate in reactions that can lead to secondarily formed ozone and particulate matter impacting air quality and climate and are important inputs for atmospheric models. BVOC emissions are sensitive to the vegetation species and leaf temperature. Here, we have improved the vegetation data and modeled leaf temperature of the Biogenic Emission Inventory System model. Updated algorithms improved model evaluation against observations in California.
Matthew C. Woody, Kirk R. Baker, Patrick L. Hayes, Jose L. Jimenez, Bonyoung Koo, and Havala O. T. Pye
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 4081–4100,Short summary
In this work, organic aerosol (OA) predictions from the volatility basis set (VBS) module in the CMAQ photochemical transport model were evaluated against routine monitoring data and measurements collected during the 2010 CalNex field study. We found that the VBS module more accurately reproduced the observed primary/secondary OA split and secondary OA (SOA) mass at the CalNex Pasadena ground site compared to the traditional CMAQ OA module but still underpredicted observed SOA by ~ 5.2 ×.
C.-M. Gan, J. Pleim, R. Mathur, C. Hogrefe, C. N. Long, J. Xing, D. Wong, R. Gilliam, and C. Wei
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 12193–12209,Short summary
This study attempts to determine the consequences of the changes in tropospheric aerosol burden arising from substantial reductions in emissions of SO2 and NOx associated with control measures under the Clean Air Act especially on trends in solar radiation. Comparisons of model results with observations of aerosol optical depth, aerosol concentration, and radiation demonstrate that the coupled WRF-CMAQ model is capable of replicating the trends well even though it tends to underestimate the AOD.
Y. Zhou, H. Mao, K. Demerjian, C. Hogrefe, and J. Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
Baseline carbon monoxide (CO) and ozone (O3) were studied at seven rural sites in the Northeast U.S. during varying periods over 2001 – 2010. Baseline CO at all sites decreased significantly at a rate between -4.3 – -2.3 ppbv yr-1, while baseline O3 was relatively constant. Interannual and seasonal variations of baseline CO and O3 were related to increasing Asian emissions, NOx emissions reduction in urban areas, global biomass burning emissions, and meteorological conditions.
J. Xing, R. Mathur, J. Pleim, C. Hogrefe, C.-M. Gan, D. C. Wong, and C. Wei
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 9997–10018,Short summary
The ability of a coupled meteorology-chemistry model (WRF-CMAQ) to reproduce the historical trend in AOD and clear-sky SWR over the N. Hemisphere has been evaluated through a comparison of 21-year simulated results with observation-derived records from 1990 to 2010. Questions of how well the model represents the regional and temporal variability of aerosol burden and DRE, and whether the model is able to capture past trends in aerosol loading and associated radiation effects, will be addressed.
K. M. Seltzer, W. Vizuete, and B. H. Henderson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 5973–5986,
P. L. Hayes, A. G. Carlton, K. R. Baker, R. Ahmadov, R. A. Washenfelder, S. Alvarez, B. Rappenglück, J. B. Gilman, W. C. Kuster, J. A. de Gouw, P. Zotter, A. S. H. Prévôt, S. Szidat, T. E. Kleindienst, J. H. Offenberg, P. K. Ma, and J. L. Jimenez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 5773–5801,Short summary
(1) Four different parameterizations for the formation and chemical evolution of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) are evaluated using a box model representing the Los Angeles region during the CalNex campaign. (2) The SOA formed only from the oxidation of VOCs is insufficient to explain the observed SOA concentrations. (3) The amount of SOA mass formed from diesel vehicle emissions is estimated to be 16-27%. (4) Modeled SOA depends strongly on the P-S/IVOC volatility distribution.
K. R. Baker, A. G. Carlton, T. E. Kleindienst, J. H. Offenberg, M. R. Beaver, D. R. Gentner, A. H. Goldstein, P. L. Hayes, J. L. Jimenez, J. B. Gilman, J. A. de Gouw, M. C. Woody, H. O. T. Pye, J. T. Kelly, M. Lewandowski, M. Jaoui, P. S. Stevens, W. H. Brune, Y.-H. Lin, C. L. Rubitschun, and J. D. Surratt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 5243–5258,Short summary
This work details the evaluation of PM2.5 carbon, VOC precursors, and OH estimated by the CMAQ photochemical transport model using routine and special measurements from the 2010 CalNex field study. Here, CMAQ and most recent emissions inventory (2011 NEI) are used to generate model PM2.5 OC estimates that are examined in novel ways including primary vs. secondary formation, fossil vs. contemporary carbon, OH and HO2 evaluation, and the relationship between key VOC precursors and SOC tracers.
J. Xing, R. Mathur, J. Pleim, C. Hogrefe, C.-M. Gan, D. C. Wong, C. Wei, R. Gilliam, and G. Pouliot
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 2723–2747,Short summary
Model-simulated air quality trends over the past 2 decades largely agree with those derived from observations. In the relative amounts of VOC and NOx emission controls in different regions across the northern hemisphere have led to significantly different trends in tropospheric O3. Differences in the historical changes in the relative amounts of NH3, NOx and SO2 emissions also impact the trends in inorganic particulate matter amounts and composition in China, the U.S. and Europe.
W. Tang, D. S. Cohan, A. Pour-Biazar, L. N. Lamsal, A. T. White, X. Xiao, W. Zhou, B. H. Henderson, and B. F. Lash
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 1601–1619,Short summary
A joint application of multiple satellite-derived model inputs to improve Texas O3 SIP modeling is demonstrated in this study. The GOES-retrieved clouds are applied to correct the modeled photolysis rates, and the DKF inversion approach is incorporated into the CAMx-DDM model to adjust NOx emissions using OMI NO2. Using both GOES-derived photolysis rates and OMI-constrained NOx emissions together improves O3 simulations and makes O3 more sensitive to NOx emissions in the O3 non-attainment areas.
R. H. F. Kwok, K. R. Baker, S. L. Napelenok, and G. S. Tonnesen
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 99–114,Short summary
The implementation and application of the Integrated Source Apportionment Method (ISAM) for O3 and its precursors for the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model are described. CMAQ-ISAM is a hybrid of source apportionment and source sensitivity in that O3 production is attributed to precursor sources based on the O3 formation regime. CMAQ-ISAM offers a source attribution tool for the purposes of quantifying and understanding sources and impacts of regional air pollution.
K. Skyllakou, B. N. Murphy, A. G. Megaritis, C. Fountoukis, and S. N. Pandis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 2343–2352,
B. H. Henderson, F. Akhtar, H. O. T. Pye, S. L. Napelenok, and W. T. Hutzell
Geosci. Model Dev., 7, 339–360,
C.-M. Gan, J. Pleim, R. Mathur, C. Hogrefe, C. N. Long, J. Xing, S. Roselle, and C. Wei
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 1701–1715,
J. Xing, J. Pleim, R. Mathur, G. Pouliot, C. Hogrefe, C.-M. Gan, and C. Wei
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 7531–7549,
K. W. Appel, G. A. Pouliot, H. Simon, G. Sarwar, H. O. T. Pye, S. L. Napelenok, F. Akhtar, and S. J. Roselle
Geosci. Model Dev., 6, 883–899,
Related subject area
Atmospheric sciencesComprehensive evaluation of typical planetary boundary layer (PBL) parameterization schemes in China – Part 2: Influence of uncertainty factorsA mountain-induced moist baroclinic wave test case for the dynamical cores of atmospheric general circulation modelsThe effect of emission source chemical profiles on simulated PM2.5 components: sensitivity analysis with the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system version 5.0.2Comprehensive evaluation of typical planetary boundary layer (PBL) parameterization schemes in China – Part 1: Understanding expressiveness of schemes for different regions from the mechanism perspectiveEvaluating 3 decades of precipitation in the Upper Colorado River basin from a high-resolution regional climate modelImplementation of a satellite-based tool for the quantification of CH4 emissions over Europe (AUMIA v1.0) – Part 1: forward modelling evaluation against near-surface and satellite dataThe capabilities of the adjoint of GEOS-Chem model to support HEMCO emission inventories and MERRA-2 meteorological dataRapid O3 assimilations – Part 1: Background and local contributions to tropospheric O3 changes in China in 2015–2020Description and evaluation of the new UM–UKCA (vn11.0) Double Extended Stratospheric–Tropospheric (DEST vn1.0) scheme for comprehensive modelling of halogen chemistry in the stratosphereA robust error correction method for numerical weather prediction wind speed based on Bayesian optimization, variational mode decomposition, principal component analysis, and random forest: VMD-PCA-RF (version 1.0.0)Description and performance of a sectional aerosol microphysical model in the Community Earth System Model (CESM2)A simplified non-linear chemistry transport model for analyzing NO2 column observations: STILT–NOxThe Hydro-ABC model (Version 2.0): a simplified convective-scale model with moist dynamicsRapid Adaptive Optimization Model for Atmospheric Chemistry (ROMAC) v1.0A standardized methodology for the validation of air quality forecast applications (F-MQO): lessons learnt from its application across EuropeApplication of the Multi-Scale Infrastructure for Chemistry and Aerosols version 0 (MUSICAv0) for air quality research in AfricaA Regional multi-Air Pollutant Assimilation System (RAPAS v1.0) for emission estimates: system development and applicationEvaluation of vertically resolved longwave radiation in SPARTACUS-Urban 0.7.3 and the sensitivity to urban surface temperaturesKey factors for quantitative precipitation nowcasting using ground weather radar data based on deep learningQES-Plume v1.0: a Lagrangian dispersion modelA two-way coupled regional urban–street network air quality model system for Beijing, ChinaSimulations of idealised 3D atmospheric flows on terrestrial planets using LFRic-AtmosphereEmulating lateral gravity wave propagation in a global chemistry–climate model (EMAC v2.55.2) through horizontal flux redistributionEvaluating WRF-GC v2.0 predictions of boundary layer height and vertical ozone profile during the 2021 TRACER-AQ campaign in Houston, TexasAn optimisation method to improve modelling of wet deposition in atmospheric transport models: applied to FLEXPART v10.4Modelling concentration heterogeneities in streets using the street-network model MUNICHSimulation model of Reactive Nitrogen Species in an Urban Atmosphere using a Deep Neural Network: RNDv1.0J-GAIN v1.1: a flexible tool to incorporate aerosol formation rates obtained by molecular models into large-scale modelsMetrics for evaluating the quality in linear atmospheric inverse problems: a case study of a trace gas inversionImproved representation of volcanic sulfur dioxide depletion in Lagrangian transport simulations: a case study with MPTRAC v2.4Use of threshold parameter variation for tropical cyclone trackingPassive-tracer modelling at super-resolution with Weather Research and Forecasting – Advanced Research WRF (WRF-ARW) to assess mass-balance schemesThe High-resolution Intermediate Complexity Atmospheric Research (HICAR v1.1) model enables fast dynamic downscaling to the hectometer scaleA gridded air quality forecast through fusing site-available machine learning predictions from RFSML v1.0 and chemical transport model results from GEOS-Chem v13.1.0 using the ensemble Kalman filterImplementation and evaluation of updated photolysis rates in the EMEP MSC-W chemical transport model using Cloud-J v7.3ePlume detection and emission estimate for biomass burning plumes from TROPOMI carbon monoxide observations using APE v1.1CHEEREIO 1.0: a versatile and user-friendly ensemble-based chemical data assimilation and emissions inversion platform for the GEOS-Chem chemical transport modelA method to derive Fourier–wavelet spectra for the characterization of global-scale waves in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere and its MATLAB and Python software (fourierwavelet v1.1)Dynamic Meteorology-induced Emissions Coupler (MetEmis) development in the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ): CMAQ-MetEmisVisual analysis of model parameter sensitivities along warm conveyor belt trajectories using Met.3D (1.6.0-multivar1)A global grid model for the estimation of zenith tropospheric delay considering the variations at different altitudesSimulating heat and CO2 fluxes in Beijing using SUEWS V2020b: sensitivity to vegetation phenology and maximum conductanceEvaluation of surface shortwave downward radiation forecasts by the numerical weather prediction model AROMEA Python library for computing individual and merged non-CO2 algorithmic climate change functions: CLIMaCCF V1.0The three-dimensional structure of fronts in mid-latitude weather systems in numerical weather prediction modelsThe development and validation of the Inhomogeneous Wind Scheme for Urban Street (IWSUS-v1)GPU-HADVPPM V1.0: a high-efficiency parallel GPU design of the piecewise parabolic method (PPM) for horizontal advection in an air quality model (CAMx V6.10)Variability and combination as an ensemble of mineral dust forecasts during the 2021 CADDIWA experiment using the WRF 3.7.1 and CHIMERE v2020r3 modelsBreakups are complicated: an efficient representation of collisional breakup in the superdroplet methodAn optimized semi-empirical physical approach for satellite-based PM2.5 retrieval: embedding machine learning to simulate complex physical parameters
Wenxing Jia, Xiaoye Zhang, Hong Wang, Yaqiang Wang, Deying Wang, Junting Zhong, Wenjie Zhang, Lei Zhang, Lifeng Guo, Yadong Lei, Jizhi Wang, Yuanqin Yang, and Yi Lin
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 6833–6856,Short summary
In addition to the dominant role of the PBL scheme on the results of the meteorological field, many factors in the model are influenced by large uncertainties. This study focuses on the uncertainties that influence numerical simulation results (including horizontal resolution, vertical resolution, near-surface scheme, initial and boundary conditions, underlying surface update, and update of model version), hoping to provide a reference for scholars conducting research on the model.
Owen K. Hughes and Christiane Jablonowski
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 6805–6831,Short summary
Atmospheric models benefit from idealized tests that assess their accuracy in a simpler simulation. A new test with artificial mountains is developed for models on a spherical earth. The mountains trigger the development of both planetary-scale and small-scale waves. These can be analyzed in dry or moist environments, with a simple rainfall mechanism. Four atmospheric models are intercompared. This sheds light on the pros and cons of the model design and the impact of mountains on the flow.
Zhongwei Luo, Yan Han, Kun Hua, Yufen Zhang, Jianhui Wu, Xiaohui Bi, Qili Dai, Baoshuang Liu, Yang Chen, Xin Long, and Yinchang Feng
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 6757–6771,Short summary
This study explores how the variation in the source profiles adopted in chemical transport models (CTMs) impacts the simulated results of chemical components in PM2.5 based on sensitivity analysis. The impact on PM2.5 components cannot be ignored, and its influence can be transmitted and linked between components. The representativeness and timeliness of the source profile should be paid adequate attention in air quality simulation.
Wenxing Jia, Xiaoye Zhang, Hong Wang, Yaqiang Wang, Deying Wang, Junting Zhong, Wenjie Zhang, Lei Zhang, Lifeng Guo, Yadong Lei, Jizhi Wang, Yuanqin Yang, and Yi Lin
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 6635–6670,Short summary
Most current studies on planetary boundary layer (PBL) parameterization schemes are relatively fragmented and lack systematic in-depth analysis and discussion. In this study, we comprehensively evaluate the performance capability of the PBL scheme in five typical regions of China in different seasons from the mechanism of the scheme and the effects of PBL schemes on the near-surface meteorological parameters, vertical structures of the PBL, PBL height, and turbulent diffusion.
William Rudisill, Alejandro Flores, and Rosemary Carroll
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 6531–6552,Short summary
It is important to know how well atmospheric models do in mountains, but there are not very many weather stations. We evaluate rain and snow from a model from 1987–2020 in the Upper Colorado River basin against the available data. The model works rather well, but there are still some uncertainties in remote locations. We then use snow maps collected by aircraft, streamflow measurements, and some advanced statistics to help identify how well the model works in ways we could not do before.
Angel Liduvino Vara-Vela, Christoffer Karoff, Noelia Rojas Benavente, and Janaina P. Nascimento
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 6413–6431,Short summary
A 1-year simulation of atmospheric CH4 over Europe is performed and evaluated against observations based on the TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI). A good general model–observation agreement is found, with discrepancies reaching their minimum and maximum values during the summer peak season and winter months, respectively. A huge and under-explored potential for CH4 inverse modeling using improved TROPOMI XCH4 data sets in large-scale applications is identified.
Zhaojun Tang, Zhe Jiang, Jiaqi Chen, Panpan Yang, and Yanan Shen
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 6377–6392,Short summary
We designed a new framework to facilitate emission inventory updates in the adjoint of GEOS-Chem model. It allows us to support Harmonized Emissions Component (HEMCO) emission inventories conveniently and to easily add more emission inventories following future updates in GEOS-Chem forward simulations. Furthermore, we developed new modules to support MERRA-2 meteorological data; this allows us to perform long-term analysis with consistent meteorological data.
Rui Zhu, Zhaojun Tang, Xiaokang Chen, Xiong Liu, and Zhe Jiang
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 6337–6354,Short summary
A single ozone (O3) tracer mode was developed in this work to build the capability of the GEOS-Chem model for rapid O3 simulation. It is combined with OMI and surface O3 observations to investigate the changes in tropospheric O3 in China in 2015–2020. The assimilations indicate rapid surface O3 increases that are underestimated by the a priori simulations. We find stronger increases in tropospheric O3 columns over polluted areas and a large discrepancy by assimilating different observations.
Ewa M. Bednarz, Ryan Hossaini, N. Luke Abraham, and Martyn P. Chipperfield
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 6187–6209,Short summary
Development and performance of the new DEST chemistry scheme of UM–UKCA is described. The scheme extends the standard StratTrop scheme by including important updates to the halogen chemistry, thus allowing process-oriented studies of stratospheric ozone depletion and recovery, including impacts from both controlled long-lived ozone-depleting substances and emerging issues around uncontrolled, very short-lived substances. It will thus aid studies in support of future ozone assessment reports.
Shaohui Zhou, Chloe Yuchao Gao, Zexia Duan, Xingya Xi, and Yubin Li
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 6247–6266,Short summary
The proposed wind speed correction model (VMD-PCA-RF) demonstrates the highest prediction accuracy and stability in the five southern provinces in nearly a year and at different heights. VMD-PCA-RF evaluation indices for 13 months remain relatively stable: the forecasting accuracy rate FA is above 85 %. In future research, the proposed VMD-PCA-RF algorithm can be extrapolated to the 3 km grid points of the five southern provinces to generate a 3 km grid-corrected wind speed product.
Simone Tilmes, Michael J. Mills, Yunqian Zhu, Charles G. Bardeen, Francis Vitt, Pengfei Yu, David Fillmore, Xiaohong Liu, Brian Toon, and Terry Deshler
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 6087–6125,Short summary
We implemented an alternative aerosol scheme in the high- and low-top model versions of the Community Earth System Model Version 2 (CESM2) with a more detailed description of tropospheric and stratospheric aerosol size distributions than the existing aerosol model. This development enables the comparison of different aerosol schemes with different complexity in the same model framework. It identifies improvements compared to a range of observations in both the troposphere and stratosphere.
Dien Wu, Joshua L. Laughner, Junjie Liu, Paul I. Palmer, John C. Lin, and Paul O. Wennberg
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 6161–6185,Short summary
To balance computational expenses and chemical complexity in extracting emission signals from tropospheric NO2 columns, we propose a simplified non-linear Lagrangian chemistry transport model and assess its performance against TROPOMI v2 over power plants and cities. Using this model, we then discuss how NOx chemistry affects the relationship between NOx and CO2 emissions and how studying NO2 columns helps quantify modeled biases in wind directions and prior emissions.
Jiangshan Zhu and Ross Noel Bannister
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 6067–6085,Short summary
We describe how condensation and evaporation are included in the existing (otherwise dry) simplified ABC model. The new model (Hydro-ABC) includes transport of vapour and condensate within a dynamical core, and it transitions between these two phases via a micro-physics scheme. The model shows the development of an anvil cloud and excitation of atmospheric waves over many frequencies. The covariances that develop between variables are also studied together with indicators of convective motion.
Jiangyong Li, Chunlin Zhang, Wenlong Zhao, Shijie Han, Yu Wang, Hao Wang, and Boguang Wang
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 6049–6066,Short summary
Photochemical box models, crucial for understanding tropospheric chemistry, face challenges due to slow computational efficiency with large chemical equations. The model introduced in this study, ROMAC, boosts efficiency by up to 96 % using an advanced atmospheric solver and an adaptive optimization algorithm. Moreover, ROMAC exceeds traditional box models in evaluating the impact of physical processes on pollutant concentrations.
Lina Vitali, Kees Cuvelier, Antonio Piersanti, Alexandra Monteiro, Mario Adani, Roberta Amorati, Agnieszka Bartocha, Alessandro D'Ausilio, Paweł Durka, Carla Gama, Giulia Giovannini, Stijn Janssen, Tomasz Przybyła, Michele Stortini, Stijn Vranckx, and Philippe Thunis
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 6029–6047,Short summary
Air quality forecasting models play a key role in fostering short-term measures aimed at reducing human exposure to air pollution. Together with this role comes the need for a thorough assessment of the model performances to build confidence in models’ capabilities, in particular when model applications support policymaking. In this paper, we propose an evaluation methodology and test it on several domains across Europe, highlighting its strengths and room for improvement.
Wenfu Tang, Louisa K. Emmons, Helen M. Worden, Rajesh Kumar, Cenlin He, Benjamin Gaubert, Zhonghua Zheng, Simone Tilmes, Rebecca R. Buchholz, Sara-Eva Martinez-Alonso, Claire Granier, Antonin Soulie, Kathryn McKain, Bruce C. Daube, Jeff Peischl, Chelsea Thompson, and Pieternel Levelt
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 6001–6028,Short summary
The new MUSICAv0 model enables the study of atmospheric chemistry across all relevant scales. We develop a MUSICAv0 grid for Africa. We evaluate MUSICAv0 with observations and compare it with a previously used model – WRF-Chem. Overall, the performance of MUSICAv0 is comparable to WRF-Chem. Based on model–satellite discrepancies, we find that future field campaigns in an eastern African region (30°E–45°E, 5°S–5°N) could substantially improve the predictive skill of air quality models.
Shuzhuang Feng, Fei Jiang, Zheng Wu, Hengmao Wang, Wei He, Yang Shen, Lingyu Zhang, Yanhua Zheng, Chenxi Lou, Ziqiang Jiang, and Weimin Ju
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 5949–5977,Short summary
We document the system development and application of a Regional multi-Air Pollutant Assimilation System (RAPAS v1.0). This system is developed to optimize gridded source emissions of CO, SO2, NOx, primary PM2.5, and coarse PM10 on a regional scale via simultaneously assimilating surface measurements of CO, SO2, NO2, PM2.5, and PM10. A series of sensitivity experiments demonstrates the advantage of the “two-step” inversion strategy and the robustness of the system in estimating the emissions.
Megan A. Stretton, William Morrison, Robin J. Hogan, and Sue Grimmond
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 5931–5947,Short summary
Cities' materials and forms impact radiative fluxes. We evaluate the SPARTACUS-Urban multi-layer approach to modelling longwave radiation, describing realistic 3D geometry statistically using the explicit DART (Discrete Anisotropic Radiative Transfer) model. The temperature configurations used are derived from thermal camera observations. SPARTACUS-Urban accurately predicts longwave fluxes, with a low computational time (cf. DART), but has larger errors with sunlit/shaded surface temperatures.
Daehyeon Han, Jungho Im, Yeji Shin, and Juhyun Lee
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 5895–5914,Short summary
To identify the key factors affecting quantitative precipitation nowcasting (QPN) using deep learning (DL), we carried out a comprehensive evaluation and analysis. We compared four key factors: DL model, length of the input sequence, loss function, and ensemble approach. Generally, U-Net outperformed ConvLSTM. Loss function and ensemble showed potential for improving performance when they synergized well. The length of the input sequence did not significantly affect the results.
Fabien Margairaz, Balwinder Singh, Jeremy A. Gibbs, Loren Atwood, Eric R. Pardyjak, and Rob Stoll
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 5729–5754,Short summary
The Quick Environmental Simulation (QES) tool is a low-computational-cost fast-response framework. It provides high-resolution wind and concentration information to study complex problems, such as spore or smoke transport, urban pollution, and air quality. This paper presents the particle dispersion model and its validation against analytical solutions and wind-tunnel data for a mock-urban setting. In all cases, the model provides accurate results with competitive computational performance.
Tao Wang, Hang Liu, Jie Li, Shuai Wang, Youngseob Kim, Yele Sun, Wenyi Yang, Huiyun Du, Zhe Wang, and Zifa Wang
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 5585–5599,Short summary
This paper developed a two-way coupled module in a new version of a regional urban–street network model, IAQMS-street v2.0, in which the mass flux from streets to background is considered. Test cases are defined to evaluate the performance of IAQMS-street v2.0 in Beijing by comparing it with that simulated by IAQMS-street v1.0 and a regional model. The contribution of local emissions and the influence of on-road vehicle control measures on air quality are evaluated by using IAQMS-street v2.0.
Denis E. Sergeev, Nathan J. Mayne, Thomas Bendall, Ian A. Boutle, Alex Brown, Iva Kavčič, James Kent, Krisztian Kohary, James Manners, Thomas Melvin, Enrico Olivier, Lokesh K. Ragta, Ben Shipway, Jon Wakelin, Nigel Wood, and Mohamed Zerroukat
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 5601–5626,Short summary
Three-dimensional climate models are one of the best tools we have to study planetary atmospheres. Here, we apply LFRic-Atmosphere, a new model developed by the Met Office, to seven different scenarios for terrestrial planetary climates, including four for the exoplanet TRAPPIST-1e, a primary target for future observations. LFRic-Atmosphere reproduces these scenarios within the spread of the existing models across a range of key climatic variables, justifying its use in future exoplanet studies.
Roland Eichinger, Sebastian Rhode, Hella Garny, Peter Preusse, Petr Pisoft, Aleš Kuchař, Patrick Jöckel, Astrid Kerkweg, and Bastian Kern
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 5561–5583,Short summary
The columnar approach of gravity wave (GW) schemes results in dynamical model biases, but parallel decomposition makes horizontal GW propagation computationally unfeasible. In the global model EMAC, we approximate it by GW redistribution at one altitude using tailor-made redistribution maps generated with a ray tracer. More spread-out GW drag helps reconcile the model with observations and close the 60°S GW gap. Polar vortex dynamics are improved, enhancing climate model credibility.
Xueying Liu, Yuxuan Wang, Shailaja Wasti, Wei Li, Ehsan Soleimanian, James Flynn, Travis Griggs, Sergio Alvarez, John T. Sullivan, Maurice Roots, Laurence Twigg, Guillaume Gronoff, Timothy Berkoff, Paul Walter, Mark Estes, Johnathan W. Hair, Taylor Shingler, Amy Jo Scarino, Marta Fenn, and Laura Judd
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 5493–5514,Short summary
With a comprehensive suite of ground-based and airborne remote sensing measurements during the 2021 TRacking Aerosol Convection ExpeRiment – Air Quality (TRACER-AQ) campaign in Houston, this study evaluates the simulation of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) height and the ozone vertical profile by a high-resolution (1.33 km) 3-D photochemical model Weather Research and Forecasting-driven GEOS-Chem (WRF-GC).
Stijn Van Leuven, Pieter De Meutter, Johan Camps, Piet Termonia, and Andy Delcloo
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 5323–5338,Short summary
Precipitation collects airborne particles and deposits these on the ground. This process is called wet deposition and greatly determines how airborne radioactive particles (released routinely or accidentally) contaminate the surface. In this work we present a new method to improve the calculation of wet deposition in computer models. We apply this method to the existing model FLEXPART by simulating the Fukushima nuclear accident (2011) and show that it improves the simulation of wet deposition.
Thibaud Sarica, Alice Maison, Yelva Roustan, Matthias Ketzel, Steen Solvang Jensen, Youngseob Kim, Christophe Chaillou, and Karine Sartelet
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 5281–5303,Short summary
A new version of the Model of Urban Network of Intersecting Canyons and Highways (MUNICH) is developed to represent heterogeneities of concentrations in streets. The street volume is discretized vertically and horizontally to limit the artificial dilution of emissions and concentrations. This new version is applied to street networks in Copenhagen and Paris. The comparisons to observations are improved, with higher concentrations of pollutants emitted by traffic at the bottom of the street.
Junsu Gil, Meehye Lee, Jeonghwan Kim, Gangwoong Lee, Joonyoung Ahn, and Cheol-Hee Kim
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 5251–5263,Short summary
In this study, the framework for calculating reactive nitrogen species using a deep neural network (RND) was developed. It works through simple Python codes and provides high-accuracy reactive nitrogen oxide data. In the first version (RNDv1.0), the model calculates the nitrous acid (HONO) in urban areas, which has an important role in producing O3 and fine aerosol.
Daniel Yazgi and Tinja Olenius
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 5237–5249,Short summary
We present flexible tools to implement aerosol formation rate predictions in climate and chemical transport models. New-particle formation is a significant but uncertain factor affecting aerosol numbers and an active field within molecular modeling which provides data for assessing formation rates for different chemical species. We introduce tools to generate and interpolate formation rate lookup tables for user-defined data, thus enabling the easy inclusion and testing of formation schemes.
Vineet Yadav, Subhomoy Ghosh, and Charles E. Miller
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 5219–5236,Short summary
Measuring the performance of inversions in linear Bayesian problems is crucial in real-life applications. In this work, we provide analytical forms of the local and global sensitivities of the estimated fluxes with respect to various inputs. We provide methods to uniquely map the observational signal to spatiotemporal domains. Utilizing this, we also show techniques to assess correlations between the Jacobians that naturally translate to nonstationary covariance matrix components.
Mingzhao Liu, Lars Hoffmann, Sabine Griessbach, Zhongyin Cai, Yi Heng, and Xue Wu
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 5197–5217,Short summary
We introduce new and revised chemistry and physics modules in the Massive-Parallel Trajectory Calculations (MPTRAC) Lagrangian transport model aiming to improve the representation of volcanic SO2 transport and depletion. We test these modules in a case study of the Ambae eruption in July 2018 in which the SO2 plume underwent wet removal and convection. The lifetime of SO2 shows highly variable and complex dependencies on the atmospheric conditions at different release heights.
Bernhard M. Enz, Jan P. Engelmann, and Ulrike Lohmann
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 5093–5112,Short summary
An algorithm to track tropical cyclones in model simulation data has been developed. The algorithm uses many combinations of varying parameter thresholds to detect weaker phases of tropical cyclones while still being resilient to false positives. It is shown that the algorithm performs well and adequately represents the tropical cyclone activity of the underlying simulation data. The impact of false positives on overall tropical cyclone activity is shown to be insignificant.
Sepehr Fathi, Mark Gordon, and Yongsheng Chen
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 5069–5091,Short summary
We have combined various capabilities within a WRF model to generate simulations of atmospheric pollutant dispersion at 50 m resolution. The study objective was to resolve transport processes at the scale of measurements to assess and optimize aircraft-based emission rate retrievals. Model performance evaluation resulted in agreement within 5 % of observed meteorological and within 1–2 standard deviations of observed wind fields. Mass was conserved in the model within 5 % of input emissions.
Dylan Reynolds, Ethan Gutmann, Bert Kruyt, Michael Haugeneder, Tobias Jonas, Franziska Gerber, Michael Lehning, and Rebecca Mott
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 5049–5068,Short summary
The challenge of running geophysical models is often compounded by the question of where to obtain appropriate data to give as input to a model. Here we present the HICAR model, a simplified atmospheric model capable of running at spatial resolutions of hectometers for long time series or over large domains. This makes physically consistent atmospheric data available at the spatial and temporal scales needed for some terrestrial modeling applications, for example seasonal snow forecasting.
Li Fang, Jianbing Jin, Arjo Segers, Hong Liao, Ke Li, Bufan Xu, Wei Han, Mijie Pang, and Hai Xiang Lin
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 4867–4882,Short summary
Machine learning models have gained great popularity in air quality prediction. However, they are only available at air quality monitoring stations. In contrast, chemical transport models (CTM) provide predictions that are continuous in the 3D field. Owing to complex error sources, they are typically biased. In this study, we proposed a gridded prediction with high accuracy by fusing predictions from our regional feature selection machine learning prediction (RFSML v1.0) and a CTM prediction.
Willem Elias van Caspel, David Simpson, Jan Eiof Jonson, Anna Maria Katarina Benedictow, Yao Ge, Alcide di Sarra, Giandomenico Pace, Massimo Vieno, Hannah Walker, and Mathew Heal
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for GMDShort summary
Radiation coming from the sun is essential to atmospheric chemistry, driving the break-up, or photo-dissociation, of atmospheric molecules. This in turn affects the chemical composition and reactivity of the atmosphere. The representation of these photo-dissociation effects is therefore essential in atmospheric chemistry modeling. One such models is the EMEP MSC-W model, for which in this paper a new way of calculating the photo-dissociation rates is tested and evaluated.
Manu Goudar, Juliëtte C. S. Anema, Rajesh Kumar, Tobias Borsdorff, and Jochen Landgraf
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 4835–4852,Short summary
A framework was developed to automatically detect plumes and compute emission estimates with cross-sectional flux method (CFM) for biomass burning events in TROPOMI CO datasets using Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite active fire data. The emissions were more reliable when changing plume height in downwind direction was used instead of constant injection height. The CFM had uncertainty even when the meteorological conditions were accurate; thus there is a need for better inversion models.
Drew C. Pendergrass, Daniel J. Jacob, Hannah Nesser, Daniel J. Varon, Melissa Sulprizio, Kazuyuki Miyazaki, and Kevin W. Bowman
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 4793–4810,Short summary
We have built a tool called CHEEREIO that allows scientists to use observations of pollutants or gases in the atmosphere, such as from satellites or surface stations, to update supercomputer models that simulate the Earth. CHEEREIO uses the difference between the model simulations of the atmosphere and real-world observations to come up with a good guess for the actual composition of our atmosphere, the true emissions of various pollutants, and whatever else they may want to study.
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 4749–4766,Short summary
The Earth's atmosphere can support various types of global-scale waves. Some waves propagate eastward and others westward, and they can have different zonal wavenumbers. The Fourier–wavelet analysis is a useful technique for identifying different components of global-scale waves and their temporal variability. This paper introduces an easy-to-implement method to derive Fourier–wavelet spectra from 2-D space–time data. Application examples are presented using atmospheric models.
Bok H. Baek, Carlie Coats, Siqi Ma, Chi-Tsan Wang, Yunyao Li, Jia Xing, Daniel Tong, Soontae Kim, and Jung-Hun Woo
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 4659–4676,Short summary
To enable the direct feedback effects of aerosols and local meteorology in an air quality modeling system without any computational bottleneck, we have developed an inline meteorology-induced emissions coupler module within the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Community Multiscale Air Quality modeling system to dynamically model the complex MOtor Vehicle Emission Simulator (MOVES) on-road mobile emissions inline without a separate dedicated emissions processing model like SMOKE.
Christoph Neuhauser, Maicon Hieronymus, Michael Kern, Marc Rautenhaus, Annika Oertel, and Rüdiger Westermann
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 4617–4638,Short summary
Numerical weather prediction models rely on parameterizations for sub-grid-scale processes, which are a source of uncertainty. We present novel visual analytics solutions to analyze interactively the sensitivities of a selected prognostic variable to multiple model parameters along trajectories regarding similarities in temporal development and spatiotemporal relationships. The proposed workflow is applied to cloud microphysical sensitivities along coherent strongly ascending trajectories.
Liangke Huang, Shengwei Lan, Ge Zhu, Fade Chen, Junyu Li, and Lilong Liu
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for GMDShort summary
The existing ZTD models have limitations such as using a single fitting function, neglecting daily cycle variations, and relying on only one resolution grid data for modeling. This model considers the daily-cycle variation and latitude factor of ZTD, using the sliding window algorithm based on ERA5 atmospheric reanalysis data. The ZTD data from 545 radiosonde stations and MERRA-2 atmospheric reanalysis data are used to validate the accuracy of the GGZTD-P model.
Yingqi Zheng, Minttu Havu, Huizhi Liu, Xueling Cheng, Yifan Wen, Hei Shing Lee, Joyson Ahongshangbam, and Leena Järvi
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 4551–4579,Short summary
The performance of the Surface Urban Energy and Water Balance Scheme (SUEWS) is evaluated against the observed surface exchanges (fluxes) of heat and carbon dioxide in a densely built neighborhood in Beijing. The heat flux modeling is noticeably improved by using the observed maximum conductance and by optimizing the vegetation phenology modeling. SUEWS also performs well in simulating carbon dioxide flux.
Marie-Adèle Magnaldo, Quentin Libois, Sébastien Riette, and Christine Lac
With the worlwide development of the solar energy sector, the need for reliable solar radiation forecasts has significantly increased. However meteorological models that predict among others things solar radiation, have errors. Therefore, we so wanted to know in which situtaions these errors are most significant. We found that errors mostly occurs in cloudy situations, and different errors were highlighted depending of the cloud altitude. Several potential sources of errors were identified.
Simone Dietmüller, Sigrun Matthes, Katrin Dahlmann, Hiroshi Yamashita, Abolfazl Simorgh, Manuel Soler, Florian Linke, Benjamin Lührs, Maximilian M. Meuser, Christian Weder, Volker Grewe, Feijia Yin, and Federica Castino
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 4405–4425,Short summary
Climate-optimized aircraft trajectories avoid atmospheric regions with a large climate impact due to aviation emissions. This requires spatially and temporally resolved information on aviation's climate impact. We propose using algorithmic climate change functions (aCCFs) for CO2 and non-CO2 effects (ozone, methane, water vapor, contrail cirrus). Merged aCCFs combine individual aCCFs by assuming aircraft-specific parameters and climate metrics. Technically this is done with a Python library.
Andreas A. Beckert, Lea Eisenstein, Annika Oertel, Tim Hewson, George C. Craig, and Marc Rautenhaus
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 4427–4450,Short summary
We investigate the benefit of objective 3-D front detection with modern interactive visual analysis techniques for case studies of extra-tropical cyclones and comparisons of frontal structures between different numerical weather prediction models. The 3-D frontal structures show agreement with 2-D fronts from surface analysis charts and augment them in the vertical dimension. We see great potential for more complex studies of atmospheric dynamics and for operational weather forecasting.
Zhenxin Liu, Yuanhao Chen, Yuhang Wang, Cheng Liu, Shuhua Liu, and Hong Liao
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 4385–4403,Short summary
The heterogeneous layout of urban buildings leads to the complex wind field in and over the urban canopy. Large discrepancies between the observations and the current simulations result from misunderstanding the character of the wind field. The Inhomogeneous Wind Scheme in Urban Street (IWSUS) was developed to simulate the heterogeneity of the wind speed in a typical street and then improve the simulated energy budget in the lower atmospheric layer over the urban canopy.
Kai Cao, Qizhong Wu, Lingling Wang, Nan Wang, Huaqiong Cheng, Xiao Tang, Dongqing Li, and Lanning Wang
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 4367–4383,Short summary
Offline performance experiment results show that the GPU-HADVPPM on a V100 GPU can achieve up to 1113.6 × speedups to its original version on an E5-2682 v4 CPU. A series of optimization measures are taken, and the CAMx-CUDA model improves the computing efficiency by 128.4 × on a single V100 GPU card. A parallel architecture with an MPI plus CUDA hybrid paradigm is presented, and it can achieve up to 4.5 × speedup when launching eight CPU cores and eight GPU cards.
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 4265–4281,Short summary
This study analyzes forecasts that were made in 2021 to help trigger measurements during the CADDIWA experiment. The WRF and CHIMERE models were run each day, and the first goal is to quantify the variability of the forecast as a function of forecast leads and forecast location. The possibility of using the different leads as an ensemble is also tested. For some locations, the correlation scores are better with this approach. This could be tested on operational forecast chains in the future.
Emily de Jong, John Ben Mackay, Oleksii Bulenok, Anna Jaruga, and Sylwester Arabas
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 4193–4211,Short summary
In clouds, collisional breakup occurs when two colliding droplets splinter into new, smaller fragments. Particle-based modeling approaches often do not represent breakup because of the computational demands of creating new droplets. We present a particle-based breakup method that preserves the computational efficiency of these methods. In a series of simple demonstrations, we show that this representation alters cloud processes in reasonable and expected ways.
Caiyi Jin, Qiangqiang Yuan, Tongwen Li, Yuan Wang, and Liangpei Zhang
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 4137–4154,Short summary
The semi-empirical physical approach derives PM2.5 with strong physical significance. However, due to the complex optical characteristic, the physical parameters are difficult to express accurately. Thus, combining the atmospheric physical mechanism and machine learning, we propose an optimized model. It creatively embeds the random forest model into the physical PM2.5 remote sensing approach to simulate a physical parameter. Our method shows great optimized performance in the validations.
Atkinson, R.: Atmospheric Chemistry of VOCS and NOx, Atmos. Environ., 34, 2063–2101, https://doi.org/10.1016/s1352-2310(99)00460-4, 2000.
Baker, K. R., Woody, M. C., Tonnesen, G. S., Hutzell, W., Pye, H. O. T., Beaver, M. R., Pouliot, G., and Pierce, T.: Contribution of regional-scale fire events to ozone and PM2.5 Air Quality estimated by photochemical modeling approaches, Atmos. Environ., 140, 539–554, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2016.06.032, 2016.
Bash, J. O., Baker, K. R., and Beaver, M. R.: Evaluation of improved land use and canopy representation in BEIS v3.61 with biogenic VOC measurements in California, Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 2191–2207, https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-9-2191-2016, 2016.
Booker, F., Muntifering, R., McGrath, M., Burkey, K., Decoteau, D., Fiscus, E., Manning, W., Krupa, S., Chappelka, A., and Grantz, D.: The ozone component of Global Change: Potential Effects on agricultural and horticultural plant yield, product quality and interactions with invasive species, J. Integr. Plant Biol., 51, 337–351, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-7909.2008.00805.x, 2009.
Burr, M. J. and Zhang, Y.: Source apportionment of fine particulate matter over the Eastern U. S. Part I: Source sensitivity simulations using CMAQ with the brute force method, Atmos. Pollut. Res., 2, 300–317, https://doi.org/10.5094/apr.2011.036, 2011.
Butler, T., Lupascu, A., Coates, J., and Zhu, S.: TOAST 1.0: Tropospheric Ozone Attribution of Sources with Tagging for CESM 1.2.2, Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 2825–2840, https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-11-2825-2018, 2018.
Cohan, D. S. and Napelenok, S. L.: Air Quality Response Modeling for Decision Support, Atmosphere, 2, 407–425, https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos2030407, 2011.
Cooper, O. R., Langford, A. O., Parrish, D. D., and Fahey, D. W.: Challenges of a lowered U. S. Ozone Standard, Science, 348, 1096–1097, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aaa5748, 2015.
Duncan, B. N., Yoshida, Y., de Foy, B., Lamsal, L. N., Streets, D. G., Lu, Z., Pickering, K. E., and Krotkov, N. A.: The observed response of Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) no2 columns to nox emission controls on power plants in the United States: 2005–2011, Atmos. Environ., 81, 102–111, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2013.08.068, 2013.
Dunker, A. M., Yarwood, G., Ortmann, J. P., and Wilson, G. M.: Comparison of source apportionment and source sensitivity of ozone in a three-dimensional air quality model, Environ. Sci. Technol., 36, 2953–2964, https://doi.org/10.1021/es011418f, 2002.
Emery, C., Tai, E., Yarwood, G., and Morris, R.: Investigation into approaches to reduce excessive vertical transport over complex terrain in a regional photochemical grid model, Atmos. Environ., 45, 7341–7351, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2011.07.052, 2011.
Emery, C., Jung, J., Koo, B., and Yarwood, G.: Improvements to CAMx Snow Cover Treatments and Carbon Bond Chemical Mechanism for Winter Ozone, Final report for Utah Department of Environmental Quality, Division of Air Quality, Salt Lake City, UT, Ramboll US Corporation, http://www.camx.com/files/udaq_snowchem_final_6aug15.pdf (last access: 13 December 2019), 2015.
Emery, C., Koo, B., Hsieh, W. C., Wetland, A., Wilson, G., and Yarwood, G.: Technical Memorandum for Updated Carbon Bond Chemical Mechanism, EPA Contract EPD12044, https://www.camx.com/files/emaq4-07_task7_techmemo_r1_1aug16.pdf (last access: 1 February 2023), 2016a.
Emery, C., Liu, Z., Koo, B., and Yarwood, G.: Improved Halogen Chemistry for CAMx Modeling, Final report for Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, Ramboll US Corporation, https://wayback.archive-it.org/414/20210529060701/https://www.tceq.texas.gov/assets/public/implementation/air/am/contracts/reports/pm/5821661842FY1613-20160526-environ-CAMx_Halogens.pdf (last access: 13 December 2019), 2016b.
Gillani, N. V. and Pleim, J. E.: Sub-grid-scale features of anthropogenic emissions of NOx and VOC in the context of regional Eulerian models, Atmos. Environ., 30, 2043–2059, https://doi.org/10.1016/1352-2310(95)00201-4, 1996.
Grewe, V., Tsati, E., and Hoor, P.: On the attribution of contributions of atmospheric trace gases to emissions in atmospheric model applications, Geosci. Model Dev., 3, 487–499, https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-3-487-2010, 2010.
Henderson, B. H., Akhtar, F., Pye, H. O. T., Napelenok, S. L., and Hutzell, W. T.: A database and tool for boundary conditions for regional air quality modeling: description and evaluation, Geosci. Model Dev., 7, 339–360, https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-7-339-2014, 2014.
Hidy, G. M. and Friedlander, S. K.: The nature of the Los Angeles aerosol, Proceedings of the Second International Clean Air Congress, Washington, D.C., 6–11 December 1970, 391–404, https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-12-239450-8.50081-2, 1971.
Hong, S.-Y., Noh, Y., and Dudhia, J.: A new vertical diffusion package with an explicit treatment of entrainment processes, Mon. Weather Rev., 134, 2318–2341, https://doi.org/10.1175/mwr3199.1, 2006.
Jacob, D. J. and Winner, D. A.: Effect of climate change on air quality, Atmos. Environ., 43, 51–63, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2008.09.051, 2009.
Jacquemin, B. and Noilhan, J.: Sensitivity study and validation of a land surface parameterization using the HAPEX-MOBILHY data set, Bound.-Lay. Meteorol., 52, 93–134, https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00123180, 1990.
Jiménez, P.: Ozone response to precursor controls in very complex terrains: Use of photochemical indicators to assess O3-nox-voc sensitivity in the northeastern Iberian Peninsula, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 109, D20309, https://doi.org/10.1029/2004jd004985, 2004.
Karamchandani, P., Long, Y., Pirovano, G., Balzarini, A., and Yarwood, G.: Source-sector contributions to European ozone and fine PM in 2010 using AQMEII modeling data, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 5643–5664, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-17-5643-2017, 2017.
Koo, B., Wilson, G. M., Morris, R. E., Dunker, A. M., and Yarwood, G.: Comparison of source apportionment and sensitivity analysis in a particulate matter air quality model, Environ. Sci. Technol., 43, 6669–6675, https://doi.org/10.1021/es9008129, 2009.
Kwok, R. H. F., Napelenok, S. L., and Baker, K. R.: Implementation and evaluation of PM2.5 Source Contribution Analysis in a photochemical model, Atmos. Environ., 80, 398–407, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2013.08.017, 2013.
Kwok, R. H. F., Baker, K. R., Napelenok, S. L., and Tonnesen, G. S.: Photochemical grid model implementation and application of VOC, NOx, and O3 source apportionment, Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 99–114, https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-8-99-2015, 2015.
Lamsal, L. N., Duncan, B. N., Yoshida, Y., Krotkov, N. A., Pickering, K. E., Streets, D. G., and Lu, Z.: U.S. NO2 trends (2005–2013): EPA Air Quality System (AQS) data versus improved observations from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), Atmos. Environ., 110, 130–143, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2015.03.055, 2015.
Lefohn, A. S., Shadwick, D. S., and Ziman, S. D.: Peer reviewed: The Difficult Challenge of attaining EPA's new Ozone Standard, Environ. Sci. Technol., 32, 276A–282A, https://doi.org/10.1021/es983569x, 1998.
Li, Y., Lau, A. K.-H., Fung, J. C.-H., Zheng, J. Y., Zhong, L. J., and Louie, P. K.: Ozone Source Apportionment (osat) to differentiate local regional and super-regional source contributions in the Pearl River Delta region, China, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 117, D15305, https://doi.org/10.1029/2011jd017340, 2012.
Marmur, A., Unal, A., Mulholland, J. A., and Russell, A. G.: Optimization-based source apportionment of PM2.5 incorporating gas-to-particle ratios, Environ. Sci. Technol., 39, 3245–3254, https://doi.org/10.1021/es0490121, 2005.
Paatero, P. and Tapper, U.: Positive matrix factorization: A non-negative factor model with optimal utilization of error estimates of data values, Environmetrics, 5, 111–126, https://doi.org/10.1002/env.3170050203, 1994.
Pay, M. T., Gangoiti, G., Guevara, M., Napelenok, S., Querol, X., Jorba, O., and Pérez García-Pando, C.: Ozone source apportionment during peak summer events over southwestern Europe, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 5467–5494, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-19-5467-2019, 2019.
Pleim, J. and Ran, L.: Surface flux modeling for air quality applications, Atmosphere, 2, 271–302, https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos2030271, 2011.
Ramboll Environ: Improved OSAT, APCA and PSAT Algorithms for CAMx, Final report for Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, Ramboll US Corporation, https://wayback.archive-it.org/414/20210529064528/https://www.tceq.texas.gov/assets/public/implementation/air/am/contracts/reports/pm/5825543880FY1511-20150817-improved_OSAT_APCA_PSAT_for_CAMx.pdf (last access: 18 December 2021), 2015.
Ramboll Environ: Implementation of the Piecewise Parabolic Method for Vertical Advection in Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions (CAMx), Final report for Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, Ramboll US Corporation, https://www.tceq.texas.gov/downloads/air-quality/research/reports/photochemical/5822231153028-20220616-ramboll-camx_ppm_implementation.pdf (last access: 10 January 2023), 2022.
Reitze Jr., A. W.: Air Quality Protection Using State Implementation Plans-Thirty-Seven Years of Increasing Complexity, Vill. Envtl. L. J., 15, 209, https://digitalcommons.law.villanova.edu/elj/vol15/iss2/1 (last access: 10 January 2023), 2004.
Sarwar, G., Gantt, B., Schwede, D., Foley, K., Mathur, R., and Saiz-Lopez, A.: Impact of enhanced ozone deposition and halogen chemistry on tropospheric ozone over the Northern Hemisphere, Environ. Sci. Technol., 49, 9203–9211, https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.5b01657, 2015.
Sarwar, G., Gantt, B., Foley, K., Fahey, K., Spero, T. L., Kang, D., Mathur, R., Foroutan, H., Xing, J., Sherwen, T., and Saiz-Lopez, A.: Influence of bromine and iodine chemistry on annual, seasonal, diurnal, and background ozone: CMAQ simulations over the Northern Hemisphere, Atmos. Environ., 213, 395–404, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2019.06.020, 2019.
Shu, L., Wang, T., Han, H., Xie, M., Chen, P., Li, M., and Wu, H.: Summertime ozone pollution in the Yangtze River Delta of eastern China during 2013–2017: Synoptic impacts and source apportionment, Environ. Pollut., 257, 113631, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2019.113631, 2020.
Shu, Q., Koo, B., Yarwood, G., and Henderson, B. H.: Strong influence of deposition and vertical mixing on secondary organic aerosol concentrations in CMAQ and CAMx, Atmos. Environ., 171, 317–329, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2017.10.035, 2017.
Shu, Q., Murphy, B., Schwede, D., Henderson, B. H., Pye, H. O. T., Appel, K. W., Khan, T. R., and Perlinger, J. A.: Improving the particle dry deposition scheme in the CMAQ photochemical modeling system, Atmos. Environ., 289, 119343, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2022.119343, 2022.
Sillman, S.: The use of NOy, H2O2, and HNO3 as indicators for ozone-nox-hydrocarbon sensitivity in urban locations, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 100, 14175, https://doi.org/10.1029/94jd02953, 1995.
Simon, H., Reff, A., Wells, B., Xing, J., and Frank, N.: Ozone trends across the United States over a period of decreasing NOx and VOC emissions, Environ. Sci. Technol., 49, 186–195, https://doi.org/10.1021/es504514z, 2014.
Skamarock, W. C., Klemp, J. B., Dudhia, J., Gill, D. O., Barker, D., Duda, M. G., and Powers, J. G.: A Description of the Advanced Research WRF Version 3 (No. NCAR/TN-475+STR), UCAR/NCAR, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research, https://doi.org/10.5065/D68S4MVH, 2008.
Smagorinsky, J.: General circulation experiments with the primitive equations, Mon. Weather Rev., 91, 99–164, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1963)091<0099:gcewtp>2.3.co;2, 1963.
Stein, U. and Alpert, P.: Factor Separation in Numerical Simulations, J. Atmos. Sci., 50, 2107–2115, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(1993)050<2107:FSINS>2.0.CO;2, 1993.
U.S. EPA: CMAQ, Zenodo [code], https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3585898, 2019.
U.S. EPA: 2016 Version 1 Technical Support Document, U.S. EPA, https://www.epa.gov/air-emissions-modeling/2016-version-1-technical-support-document (last access: 13 December 2022), 2021.
U.S. EPA: CMAQ, Zenodo [code], https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.7218076, 2022a.
U.S. EPA: CMAQ ISAM, Zenodo [code], https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6266674, 2022b.
U.S. EPA: Air Quality System (AQS), U.S. EPA [data set], https://www.epa.gov/aqs, last access: 1 March 2022c.
Valverde, V., Pay, M. T., and Baldasano, J. M.: Ozone attributed to Madrid and Barcelona on-road transport emissions: Characterization of plume dynamics over the Iberian Peninsula, Sci. Total Environ., 543, 670–682, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.11.070, 2016.
Watson, J. G., Cooper, J. A., and Huntzicker, J. J.: The effective variance weighting for least squares calculations applied to the mass balance receptor model, Atmos. Environ. (1967), 18, 1347–1355, https://doi.org/10.1016/0004-6981(84)90043-x, 1984.
WHO: Global tuberculosis report 2013, World Health Organization, https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/91355 (last access: 7 December 2022), 2013.
Yarwood, G., Morris, R. E., and Wilson, G. M.: Particulate Matter Source Apportionment Technology (PSAT) in the CAMx Photochemical Grid Model, in: Air Pollution Modeling and Its Application XVII, edited by: Borrego, C. and Norman, A.-L., Springer, Boston, MA, 478–492, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-68854-1_52, 2007.
Yienger, J. J. and Levy, H.: Empirical model of global soil-biogenic NOx emissions J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 100, 11447, https://doi.org/10.1029/95jd00370, 1995.
Zhang, L.: A size-segregated particle dry deposition scheme for an atmospheric aerosol module, Atmos. Environ., 35, 549–560, https://doi.org/10.1016/s1352-2310(00)00326-5, 2001.
Zhang, L., Brook, J. R., and Vet, R.: A revised parameterization for gaseous dry deposition in air-quality models, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 3, 2067–2082, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-3-2067-2003, 2003.
Zhang, L., Jacob, D. J., Kopacz, M., Henze, D. K., Singh, K., and Jaffe, D. A.: Intercontinental source attribution of ozone pollution at Western U. S. sites using an adjoint method, Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, https://doi.org/10.1029/2009gl037950, 2009.
Zhang, R., Cohan, A., Pour Biazar, A., and Cohan, D. S.: Source apportionment of biogenic contributions to Ozone Formation over the United States, Atmos. Environ., 164, 8–19, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2017.05.044, 2017.
Source attribution methods are generally used to determine culpability of precursor emission sources to ambient pollutant concentrations. However, source attribution of secondarily formed pollutants such as ozone and its precursors cannot be explicitly measured, making evaluation of source apportionment methods challenging. In this study, multiple apportionment approach comparisons show common features but still reveal wide variations in predicted sector contribution and species dependency.
Source attribution methods are generally used to determine culpability of precursor emission...