Articles | Volume 14, issue 11
Model evaluation paper
18 Nov 2021
Model evaluation paper | 18 Nov 2021
Evaluation of global EMEP MSC-W (rv4.34) WRF (v126.96.36.199) model surface concentrations and wet deposition of reactive N and S with measurements
Yao Ge et al.
Yao Ge, Massimo Vieno, David Stevenson, Peter Wind, and Mathew Heal
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Reactive N and S gases and particle are critical determinants of air quality. We reports a comprehensive analysis of the concentrations, wet and dry deposition, fluxes and lifetimes of these species globally, and for 10 world regions. We used the EMEP MSC-W model coupled with WRF meteorology and 2015 global emissions. Our work demonstrates the substantial regional variation in these quantities and the need for modelling to simulate atmospheric responses to precursor emissions.
Svetlana Tsyro, Wenche Aas, Augustin Colette, Camilla Andersson, Bertrand Bessagnet, Giancarlo Ciarelli, Florian Couvidat, Kees Cuvelier, Astrid Manders, Kathleen Mar, Mihaela Mircea, Noelia Otero, Maria-Teresa Pay, Valentin Raffort, Yelva Roustan, Mark R. Theobald, Marta G. Vivanco, Hilde Fagerli, Peter Wind, Gino Briganti, Andrea Cappelletti, Massimo D'Isidoro, and Mario Adani
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7207–7257,Short summary
Particulate matter (PM) air pollution causes adverse health effects. In Europe, the emissions caused by anthropogenic activities have been reduced in the last decades. To assess the efficiency of emission reductions in improving air quality, we have studied the evolution of PM pollution in Europe. Simulations with six air quality models and observational data indicate a decrease in PM concentrations by 10 % to 30 % across Europe from 2000 to 2010, which is mainly a result of emission reductions.
Fanlei Meng, Yibo Zhang, Jiahui Kang, Mathew R. Heal, Stefan Reis, Mengru Wang, Lei Liu, Kai Wang, Shaocai Yu, Pengfei Li, Jing Wei, Yong Hou, Ying Zhang, Xuejun Liu, Zhenling Cui, Wen Xu, and Fusuo Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6291–6308,Short summary
PM2.5 pollution is a pressing environmental issue threatening human health and food security globally. We combined a meta-analysis of nationwide measurements and air quality modeling to identify efficiency gains by striking a balance between controlling NH3 and acid gas emissions. Persistent secondary inorganic aerosol pollution in China is limited by acid gas emissions, while an additional control on NH3 emissions would become more important as reductions in SO2 and NOx emissions progress.
Yao Ge, Massimo Vieno, David Stevenson, Peter Wind, and Mathew Heal
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Reactive N and S gases and particle are critical determinants of air quality. We reports a comprehensive analysis of the concentrations, wet and dry deposition, fluxes and lifetimes of these species globally, and for 10 world regions. We used the EMEP MSC-W model coupled with WRF meteorology and 2015 global emissions. Our work demonstrates the substantial regional variation in these quantities and the need for modelling to simulate atmospheric responses to precursor emissions.
Ernesto Reyes-Villegas, Upasana Panda, Eoghan Darbyshire, James M. Cash, Rutambhara Joshi, Ben Langford, Chiara F. Di Marco, Neil J. Mullinger, Mohammed S. Alam, Leigh R. Crilley, Daniel J. Rooney, W. Joe F. Acton, Will Drysdale, Eiko Nemitz, Michael Flynn, Aristeidis Voliotis, Gordon McFiggans, Hugh Coe, James Lee, C. Nicholas Hewitt, Mathew R. Heal, Sachin S. Gunthe, Tuhin K. Mandal, Bhola R. Gurjar, Shivani, Ranu Gadi, Siddhartha Singh, Vijay Soni, and James D. Allan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11655–11667,Short summary
This paper shows the first multisite online measurements of PM1 in Delhi, India, with measurements over different seasons in Old Delhi and New Delhi in 2018. Organic aerosol (OA) source apportionment was performed using positive matrix factorisation (PMF). Traffic was the main primary aerosol source for both OAs and black carbon, seen with PMF and Aethalometer model analysis, indicating that control of primary traffic exhaust emissions would make a significant reduction to Delhi air pollution.
David Stevenson, Richard Derwent, Oliver Wild, and William Collins
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
Atmospheric methane’s growth rate rose by 50 % in 2020 relative to 2019. Lower nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions tend to increase methane’s atmospheric residence time. We find that COVID-19 lockdown reductions in NOx emissions can explain the observed changes in methane. Changes in atmospheric composition measured during lockdown provide unprecedented constraints on the sensitivity of the atmospheric chemical system to emissions changes, and are of great use in evaluating policy-relevant models.
James M. Cash, Ben Langford, Chiara Di Marco, Neil J. Mullinger, James Allan, Ernesto Reyes-Villegas, Ruthambara Joshi, Mathew R. Heal, W. Joe F. Acton, C. Nicholas Hewitt, Pawel K. Misztal, Will Drysdale, Tuhin K. Mandal, Shivani, Ranu Gadi, Bhola Ram Gurjar, and Eiko Nemitz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10133–10158,Short summary
We present the first real-time composition of submicron particulate matter (PM1) in Old Delhi using high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometry. Seasonal analysis shows peak concentrations occur during the post-monsoon, and novel-tracers reveal the largest sources are a combination of local open and regional crop residue burning. Strong links between increased chloride aerosol concentrations and burning sources of PM1 suggest burning sources are responsible for the post-monsoon chloride peak.
Robbie Ramsay, Chiara F. Di Marco, Mathew R. Heal, Matthias Sörgel, Paulo Artaxo, Meinrat O. Andreae, and Eiko Nemitz
Biogeosciences, 18, 2809–2825,Short summary
The exchange of the gas ammonia between the atmosphere and the surface is an important biogeochemical process, but little is known of this exchange for certain ecosystems, such as the Amazon rainforest. This study took measurements of ammonia exchange over an Amazon rainforest site and subsequently modelled the observed deposition and emission patterns. We observed emissions of ammonia from the rainforest, which can be simulated accurately by using a canopy resistance modelling approach.
Gemma Purser, Julia Drewer, Mathew R. Heal, Robert A. S. Sircus, Lara K. Dunn, and James I. L. Morison
Biogeosciences, 18, 2487–2510,Short summary
Short-rotation forest plantations could help reduce greenhouse gases but can emit biogenic volatile organic compounds. Emissions were measured at a plantation trial in Scotland. Standardised emissions of isoprene from foliage were higher from hybrid aspen than from Sitka spruce and low from Italian alder. Emissions of total monoterpene were lower. The forest floor was only a small source. Model estimates suggest an SRF expansion of 0.7 Mha could increase total UK emissions between < 1 %–35 %.
Y. Sim Tang, Chris R. Flechard, Ulrich Dämmgen, Sonja Vidic, Vesna Djuricic, Marta Mitosinkova, Hilde T. Uggerud, Maria J. Sanz, Ivan Simmons, Ulrike Dragosits, Eiko Nemitz, Marsailidh Twigg, Netty van Dijk, Yannick Fauvel, Francisco Sanz, Martin Ferm, Cinzia Perrino, Maria Catrambone, David Leaver, Christine F. Braban, J. Neil Cape, Mathew R. Heal, and Mark A. Sutton
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 875–914,Short summary
The DELTA® approach provided speciated, monthly data on reactive gases (NH3, HNO3, SO2, HCl) and aerosols (NH4+, NO3−, SO42−, Cl−, Na+) across Europe (2006–2010). Differences in spatial and temporal concentrations and patterns between geographic regions and four ecosystem types were captured. NH3 and NH4NO3 were dominant components, highlighting their growing relative importance in ecosystem impacts (acidification, eutrophication) and human health effects (NH3 as a precursor to PM2.5) in Europe.
Jize Jiang, David S. Stevenson, Aimable Uwizeye, Giuseppe Tempio, and Mark A. Sutton
Biogeosciences, 18, 135–158,Short summary
Ammonia is a key water and air pollutant and impacts human health and climate change. Ammonia emissions mainly originate from agriculture. We find that chicken agriculture contributes to large ammonia emissions, especially in hot and wet regions. These emissions can be greatly affected by the local environment, i.e. temperature and humidity, and also by human management. We develop a model that suggests ammonia emissions from chicken farming are likely to increase under a warming climate.
Robbie Ramsay, Chiara F. Di Marco, Matthias Sörgel, Mathew R. Heal, Samara Carbone, Paulo Artaxo, Alessandro C. de Araùjo, Marta Sá, Christopher Pöhlker, Jost Lavric, Meinrat O. Andreae, and Eiko Nemitz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15551–15584,Short summary
The Amazon rainforest is a unique
laboratoryto study the processes which govern the exchange of gases and aerosols to and from the atmosphere. This study investigated these processes by measuring the atmospheric concentrations of trace gases and particles at the Amazon Tall Tower Observatory. We found that the long-range transport of pollutants can affect the atmospheric composition above the Amazon rainforest and that the gases ammonia and nitrous acid can be emitted from the rainforest.
Bruce Rolstad Denby, Michael Gauss, Peter Wind, Qing Mu, Eivind Grøtting Wærsted, Hilde Fagerli, Alvaro Valdebenito, and Heiko Klein
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 6303–6323,Short summary
Air pollution is both a local and a global problem. Since measurements cannot be made everywhere, mathematical models are used to calculate air quality over cities or countries. Modelling over countries limits the level of detail of the models. For countries, the level of detail is only a few kilometres, so air quality at kerb sides is not properly represented. The uEMEP model is used together with the regional air quality model EMEP MSC-W to model details down to kerb side for all of Norway.
David S. Stevenson, Alcide Zhao, Vaishali Naik, Fiona M. O'Connor, Simone Tilmes, Guang Zeng, Lee T. Murray, William J. Collins, Paul T. Griffiths, Sungbo Shim, Larry W. Horowitz, Lori T. Sentman, and Louisa Emmons
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12905–12920,Short summary
We present historical trends in atmospheric oxidizing capacity (OC) since 1850 from the latest generation of global climate models and compare these with estimates from measurements. OC controls levels of many key reactive gases, including methane (CH4). We find small model trends up to 1980, then increases of about 9 % up to 2014, disagreeing with (uncertain) measurement-based trends. Major drivers of OC trends are emissions of CH4, NOx, and CO; these will be important for future CH4 trends.
Hannah L. Walker, Mathew R. Heal, Christine F. Braban, Mhairi Coyle, Sarah R. Leeson, Ivan Simmons, Matthew R. Jones, Richard Kift, and Marsailidh M. Twigg
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
Quantifying local photolysis rates are critical to understanding local air quality. We present the first year of a long-term filter radiometer measurement dataset in the UK (Auchencorth Moss, SE Scotland), and demonstrate the potential application of this data to account for variations in local meteorology (e.g. clouds and aerosols) in atmospheric models, which otherwise increase computational cost. The scientific and policy value of these measurements are also emphasised.
Christopher P. O. Reyer, Ramiro Silveyra Gonzalez, Klara Dolos, Florian Hartig, Ylva Hauf, Matthias Noack, Petra Lasch-Born, Thomas Rötzer, Hans Pretzsch, Henning Meesenburg, Stefan Fleck, Markus Wagner, Andreas Bolte, Tanja G. M. Sanders, Pasi Kolari, Annikki Mäkelä, Timo Vesala, Ivan Mammarella, Jukka Pumpanen, Alessio Collalti, Carlo Trotta, Giorgio Matteucci, Ettore D'Andrea, Lenka Foltýnová, Jan Krejza, Andreas Ibrom, Kim Pilegaard, Denis Loustau, Jean-Marc Bonnefond, Paul Berbigier, Delphine Picart, Sébastien Lafont, Michael Dietze, David Cameron, Massimo Vieno, Hanqin Tian, Alicia Palacios-Orueta, Victor Cicuendez, Laura Recuero, Klaus Wiese, Matthias Büchner, Stefan Lange, Jan Volkholz, Hyungjun Kim, Joanna A. Horemans, Friedrich Bohn, Jörg Steinkamp, Alexander Chikalanov, Graham P. Weedon, Justin Sheffield, Flurin Babst, Iliusi Vega del Valle, Felicitas Suckow, Simon Martel, Mats Mahnken, Martin Gutsch, and Katja Frieler
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1295–1320,Short summary
Process-based vegetation models are widely used to predict local and global ecosystem dynamics and climate change impacts. Due to their complexity, they require careful parameterization and evaluation to ensure that projections are accurate and reliable. The PROFOUND Database provides a wide range of empirical data to calibrate and evaluate vegetation models that simulate climate impacts at the forest stand scale to support systematic model intercomparisons and model development in Europe.
Peter Wind, Bruce Rolstad Denby, and Michael Gauss
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 1623–1634,Short summary
We present a new method for individually quantifying the contributions from different sources to local air pollution. The method can be used to distinguish the sources of local air pollution for any position in one single model simulation and thus to provide detailed maps of the origin of the pollutants. Hence, it can be used for time-critical operational services by providing scientific information as input for local policy decisions on air pollution abatement.
Giancarlo Ciarelli, Mark R. Theobald, Marta G. Vivanco, Matthias Beekmann, Wenche Aas, Camilla Andersson, Robert Bergström, Astrid Manders-Groot, Florian Couvidat, Mihaela Mircea, Svetlana Tsyro, Hilde Fagerli, Kathleen Mar, Valentin Raffort, Yelva Roustan, Maria-Teresa Pay, Martijn Schaap, Richard Kranenburg, Mario Adani, Gino Briganti, Andrea Cappelletti, Massimo D'Isidoro, Cornelis Cuvelier, Arineh Cholakian, Bertrand Bessagnet, Peter Wind, and Augustin Colette
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 4923–4954,Short summary
The novel multi-model EURODELTA-Trends exercise provided 21 years of continuous PM components and their gas-phase precursor concentrations over Europe from the year 1990. The models’ capabilities to reproduce PM components and gas-phase PM precursor trends over the 1990–2010 period is the key focus of this study. The models were able to reproduce the observed trends relatively well, indicating a possible shift in the thermodynamic equilibrium between gas and particle phases.
Alcide Zhao, Massimo A. Bollasina, Monica Crippa, and David S. Stevenson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 14517–14533,Short summary
Emissions of aerosols over the recent past have been regulated largely by two policy-relevant drivers: energy-use growth and technology advances. These generate large and competing impacts on global radiation balance and climate, particularly over Asia, Europe, and the Arctic. This may help better assess and interpret future climate projections, and hence inform future climate change impact reduction strategies. Yet, it is pressing to better constrain various uncertainties related to aerosols.
Zongbo Shi, Tuan Vu, Simone Kotthaus, Roy M. Harrison, Sue Grimmond, Siyao Yue, Tong Zhu, James Lee, Yiqun Han, Matthias Demuzere, Rachel E. Dunmore, Lujie Ren, Di Liu, Yuanlin Wang, Oliver Wild, James Allan, W. Joe Acton, Janet Barlow, Benjamin Barratt, David Beddows, William J. Bloss, Giulia Calzolai, David Carruthers, David C. Carslaw, Queenie Chan, Lia Chatzidiakou, Yang Chen, Leigh Crilley, Hugh Coe, Tie Dai, Ruth Doherty, Fengkui Duan, Pingqing Fu, Baozhu Ge, Maofa Ge, Daobo Guan, Jacqueline F. Hamilton, Kebin He, Mathew Heal, Dwayne Heard, C. Nicholas Hewitt, Michael Hollaway, Min Hu, Dongsheng Ji, Xujiang Jiang, Rod Jones, Markus Kalberer, Frank J. Kelly, Louisa Kramer, Ben Langford, Chun Lin, Alastair C. Lewis, Jie Li, Weijun Li, Huan Liu, Junfeng Liu, Miranda Loh, Keding Lu, Franco Lucarelli, Graham Mann, Gordon McFiggans, Mark R. Miller, Graham Mills, Paul Monk, Eiko Nemitz, Fionna O'Connor, Bin Ouyang, Paul I. Palmer, Carl Percival, Olalekan Popoola, Claire Reeves, Andrew R. Rickard, Longyi Shao, Guangyu Shi, Dominick Spracklen, David Stevenson, Yele Sun, Zhiwei Sun, Shu Tao, Shengrui Tong, Qingqing Wang, Wenhua Wang, Xinming Wang, Xuejun Wang, Zifang Wang, Lianfang Wei, Lisa Whalley, Xuefang Wu, Zhijun Wu, Pinhua Xie, Fumo Yang, Qiang Zhang, Yanli Zhang, Yuanhang Zhang, and Mei Zheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 7519–7546,Short summary
APHH-Beijing is a collaborative international research programme to study the sources, processes and health effects of air pollution in Beijing. This introduction to the special issue provides an overview of (i) the APHH-Beijing programme, (ii) the measurement and modelling activities performed as part of it and (iii) the air quality and meteorological conditions during joint intensive field campaigns as a core activity within APHH-Beijing.
Carole Helfter, Neil Mullinger, Massimo Vieno, Simon O'Doherty, Michel Ramonet, Paul I. Palmer, and Eiko Nemitz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 3043–3063,Short summary
We present a novel approach to estimate the annual budgets of carbon dioxide (881.0 ± 128.5 Tg) and methane (2.55 ± 0.48 Tg) of the British Isles from shipborne measurements taken over a 3-year period (2015–2017). This study brings independent verification of the emission budgets estimated using alternative products and investigates the seasonality of these emissions, which is usually not possible.
Ksenia Aleksankina, Stefan Reis, Massimo Vieno, and Mathew R. Heal
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2881–2898,Short summary
Atmospheric chemistry transport models are widely used to underpin policies to mitigate the detrimental effects of air pollution on human health and ecosystems. Understanding the level of confidence in model predictions is thus vital. We present a comprehensive approach for uncertainty assessment and global variance-based sensitivity analysis to propagate uncertainty from model input data and identify the extent to which uncertainty in different emissions drives the model output uncertainty.
Mark R. Theobald, Marta G. Vivanco, Wenche Aas, Camilla Andersson, Giancarlo Ciarelli, Florian Couvidat, Kees Cuvelier, Astrid Manders, Mihaela Mircea, Maria-Teresa Pay, Svetlana Tsyro, Mario Adani, Robert Bergström, Bertrand Bessagnet, Gino Briganti, Andrea Cappelletti, Massimo D'Isidoro, Hilde Fagerli, Kathleen Mar, Noelia Otero, Valentin Raffort, Yelva Roustan, Martijn Schaap, Peter Wind, and Augustin Colette
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 379–405,Short summary
Model estimates of the mean European wet deposition of nitrogen and sulfur for 1990 to 2010 were within 40 % of the observed values. As a result of systematic biases, the models were better at estimating relative trends for the periods 1990–2000 and 2000–2010 than the absolute trends. Although the predominantly decreasing trends were mostly due to emission reductions, they were partially offset by other factors (e.g. changes in precipitation) during the first period, but not the second.
Robbie Ramsay, Chiara F. Di Marco, Mathew R. Heal, Marsailidh M. Twigg, Nicholas Cowan, Matthew R. Jones, Sarah R. Leeson, William J. Bloss, Louisa J. Kramer, Leigh Crilley, Matthias Sörgel, Meinrat Andreae, and Eiko Nemitz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 16953–16978,Short summary
Understanding the impact of agricultural activities on the atmosphere requires more measurements of inorganic trace gases and associated aerosol counterparts. This research presents 1 month of measurements above agricultural grassland during a period of fertiliser application. It was found that emissions of the important trace gases ammonia and nitrous acid peaked after fertiliser use and that the velocity at which the measured aerosols were deposited was dependent upon their size.
Y. Sim Tang, Christine F. Braban, Ulrike Dragosits, Ivan Simmons, David Leaver, Netty van Dijk, Janet Poskitt, Sarah Thacker, Manisha Patel, Heather Carter, M. Glória Pereira, Patrick O. Keenan, Alan Lawlor, Christopher Conolly, Keith Vincent, Mathew R. Heal, and Mark A. Sutton
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 16293–16324,Short summary
A unique long-term dataset (1999–2015) of atmospheric gases (HNO3, SO2, HCl, NH3) and aerosol (NO3-, SO42-, Cl-, NH4+, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+) from two integrated UK networks (>12 sites) was analysed to assess spatial, temporal, and long-term trends. A change in particulate phase from (NH4)2SO4 to NH4NO3 is seen, with indications that a larger fraction of the reduced and oxidized N is remaining in the gas phase. Key pollutant events captured highlight influence of trans-boundary transport into the UK.
Arlene M. Fiore, Emily V. Fischer, George P. Milly, Shubha Pandey Deolal, Oliver Wild, Daniel A. Jaffe, Johannes Staehelin, Olivia E. Clifton, Dan Bergmann, William Collins, Frank Dentener, Ruth M. Doherty, Bryan N. Duncan, Bernd Fischer, Stefan Gilge, Peter G. Hess, Larry W. Horowitz, Alexandru Lupu, Ian A. MacKenzie, Rokjin Park, Ludwig Ries, Michael G. Sanderson, Martin G. Schultz, Drew T. Shindell, Martin Steinbacher, David S. Stevenson, Sophie Szopa, Christoph Zellweger, and Guang Zeng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 15345–15361,Short summary
We demonstrate a proof-of-concept approach for applying northern midlatitude mountaintop peroxy acetyl nitrate (PAN) measurements and a multi-model ensemble during April to constrain the influence of continental-scale anthropogenic precursor emissions on PAN. Our findings imply a role for carefully coordinated multi-model ensembles in helping identify observations for discriminating among widely varying (and poorly constrained) model responses of atmospheric constituents to changes in emissions.
Noelia Otero, Jana Sillmann, Kathleen A. Mar, Henning W. Rust, Sverre Solberg, Camilla Andersson, Magnuz Engardt, Robert Bergström, Bertrand Bessagnet, Augustin Colette, Florian Couvidat, Cournelius Cuvelier, Svetlana Tsyro, Hilde Fagerli, Martijn Schaap, Astrid Manders, Mihaela Mircea, Gino Briganti, Andrea Cappelletti, Mario Adani, Massimo D'Isidoro, María-Teresa Pay, Mark Theobald, Marta G. Vivanco, Peter Wind, Narendra Ojha, Valentin Raffort, and Tim Butler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 12269–12288,Short summary
This paper evaluates the capability of air-quality models to capture the observed relationship between surface ozone concentrations and meteorology over Europe. The air-quality models tended to overestimate the influence of maximum temperature and surface solar radiation. None of the air-quality models captured the strength of the observed relationship between ozone and relative humidity appropriately, underestimating the effect of relative humidity, a key factor in the ozone removal processes.
Christina Hood, Ian MacKenzie, Jenny Stocker, Kate Johnson, David Carruthers, Massimo Vieno, and Ruth Doherty
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11221–11245,Short summary
A coupled atmospheric dispersion modelling system has been developed, comprising a regional chemical transport model and a street-scale urban dispersion model. It was applied in London for 2012 and for all common regulated air quality pollutants, with evaluation against measurements. The modelling demonstrates the interaction between local and regional scales, which differs between pollutants. Real-world estimates of emissions have been used to adjust standard factors and improve model results.
Marta G. Vivanco, Mark R. Theobald, Héctor García-Gómez, Juan Luis Garrido, Marje Prank, Wenche Aas, Mario Adani, Ummugulsum Alyuz, Camilla Andersson, Roberto Bellasio, Bertrand Bessagnet, Roberto Bianconi, Johannes Bieser, Jørgen Brandt, Gino Briganti, Andrea Cappelletti, Gabriele Curci, Jesper H. Christensen, Augustin Colette, Florian Couvidat, Cornelis Cuvelier, Massimo D'Isidoro, Johannes Flemming, Andrea Fraser, Camilla Geels, Kaj M. Hansen, Christian Hogrefe, Ulas Im, Oriol Jorba, Nutthida Kitwiroon, Astrid Manders, Mihaela Mircea, Noelia Otero, Maria-Teresa Pay, Luca Pozzoli, Efisio Solazzo, Svetlana Tsyro, Alper Unal, Peter Wind, and Stefano Galmarini
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10199–10218,Short summary
European wet and dry atmospheric deposition of N and S estimated by 14 air quality models was found to vary substantially. An ensemble of models meeting acceptability criteria was used to estimate the exceedances of the critical loads for N in habitats within the Natura 2000 network, as well as their lower and upper limits. Scenarios with 20 % emission reductions in different regions of the world showed that European emissions are responsible for most of the N and S deposition in Europe.
Ksenia Aleksankina, Mathew R. Heal, Anthony J. Dore, Marcel Van Oijen, and Stefan Reis
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 1653–1664,Short summary
Atmospheric chemistry transport models are widely used to underpin policy decisions. We present a global sensitivity and uncertainty analysis approach to understand how uncertainty in input emissions of SO2, NOx, and NH3 drives uncertainties in model outputs, using the FRAME model as an example. We interpret results for input emissions uncertainty ranges reported by the national emissions inventory. Variance-based measures of sensitivity were used to apportion model output uncertainty.
Riinu Ots, Mathew R. Heal, Dominique E. Young, Leah R. Williams, James D. Allan, Eiko Nemitz, Chiara Di Marco, Anais Detournay, Lu Xu, Nga L. Ng, Hugh Coe, Scott C. Herndon, Ian A. Mackenzie, David C. Green, Jeroen J. P. Kuenen, Stefan Reis, and Massimo Vieno
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4497–4518,Short summary
The main hypothesis of this paper is that people who live in large cities in the UK disobey the
smoke control lawas it has not been actively enforced for decades now. However, the use of wood in residential heating has increased, partly due to renewable energy targets, but also for discretionary (i.e. pleasant fireplaces) reasons. Our study is based mainly in London, but similar struggles with urban air quality due to residential wood and coal burning are seen in other major European cities.
Christopher S. Malley, Erika von Schneidemesser, Sarah Moller, Christine F. Braban, W. Kevin Hicks, and Mathew R. Heal
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 3563–3587,Short summary
This study quantifies the contribution of hourly nitrogen dioxide (NO2) variation to annual NO2 concentrations at > 2500 sites across Europe. Sites with distinct monthly, hour of day, and hourly NO2 contributions to annual NO2 were not grouped into specific European regions. Within relatively small areas there were sites with similar annual NO2 but with differences in these contributions. Therefore, measures implemented to reduce annual NO2 in one location may not be as effective in others.
Yuk S. Tang, Christine F. Braban, Ulrike Dragosits, Anthony J. Dore, Ivan Simmons, Netty van Dijk, Janet Poskitt, Gloria Dos Santos Pereira, Patrick O. Keenan, Christopher Conolly, Keith Vincent, Rognvald I. Smith, Mathew R. Heal, and Mark A. Sutton
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 705–733,Short summary
A unique long-term dataset of NH3 and NH4+ data from the NAMN is used to assess spatial, seasonal and long-term variability across the UK. NH3 is spatially variable, with distinct temporal profiles according to source types. NH4+ is spatially smoother, with peak concentrations in spring from long-range transport. Decrease in NH3 is smaller than emissions, but NH4+ decreased faster than NH3, due to a shift from stable (NH4)2SO4 to semi-volatile NH4NO3, increasing the atmospheric lifetime of NH3.
Matthieu Pommier, Hilde Fagerli, Michael Gauss, David Simpson, Sumit Sharma, Vinay Sinha, Sachin D. Ghude, Oskar Landgren, Agnes Nyiri, and Peter Wind
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 103–127,Short summary
India has to cope with a poor air quality, and this work shows a predicted increase in pollution (O3 & PM2.5) if no further policy efforts are made in the future. Climate change will modify the soil moisture leading to changes in O3. Changes in PM2.5 are related to changes in precipitation, biogenic emissions and wind speed. It is also shown that in the 2050s, the secondary inorganic aerosols will become the main component of PM2.5 over India related to the increase in anthropogenic emissions.
Andrea Móring, Massimo Vieno, Ruth M. Doherty, Celia Milford, Eiko Nemitz, Marsailidh M. Twigg, László Horváth, and Mark A. Sutton
Biogeosciences, 14, 4161–4193,Short summary
This study describes and evaluates a new ammonia (NH3) exchange model for grazed fields (GAG_field). GAG_field is able to simulate the main features of the observed NH3 fluxes. A sensitivity analysis for the non-meteorological model parameters showed that the sensitivity of the NH3 fluxes to a parameter varies among urine patches. Moreover, the fluxes modelled with a dynamic soil pH are similar if a constant pH 7.5 is used, suggesting a useful simplification for regional-scale model application.
Augustin Colette, Camilla Andersson, Astrid Manders, Kathleen Mar, Mihaela Mircea, Maria-Teresa Pay, Valentin Raffort, Svetlana Tsyro, Cornelius Cuvelier, Mario Adani, Bertrand Bessagnet, Robert Bergström, Gino Briganti, Tim Butler, Andrea Cappelletti, Florian Couvidat, Massimo D'Isidoro, Thierno Doumbia, Hilde Fagerli, Claire Granier, Chris Heyes, Zig Klimont, Narendra Ojha, Noelia Otero, Martijn Schaap, Katarina Sindelarova, Annemiek I. Stegehuis, Yelva Roustan, Robert Vautard, Erik van Meijgaard, Marta Garcia Vivanco, and Peter Wind
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 3255–3276,Short summary
The EURODELTA-Trends numerical experiment has been designed to assess the capability of chemistry-transport models to capture the evolution of surface air quality over the 1990–2010 period in Europe. It also includes sensitivity experiments in order to analyse the relative contribution of (i) emission changes, (ii) meteorological variability, and (iii) boundary conditions to air quality trends. The article is a detailed presentation of the experiment design and participating models.
Birthe M. Steensen, Michael Schulz, Peter Wind, Álvaro M. Valdebenito, and Hilde Fagerli
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 1927–1943,Short summary
The operational emergency version of the EMEP MSC-W model for dispersion calculations of volcanic SO2 and ash is described. Additions and changes to the standard EMEP MSC-W are presented. Grid resolution dependencies for meteorological data and numerical diffusion are studied by investigating model results driven by ensemble meteorological data for volcanic SO2 emissions. The vertical ash layer sensitivity on gravitational settling is evaluated by comparing model results to lidar observations.
Chun Lin, Mathew R. Heal, Massimo Vieno, Ian A. MacKenzie, Ben G. Armstrong, Barbara K. Butland, Ai Milojevic, Zaid Chalabi, Richard W. Atkinson, David S. Stevenson, Ruth M. Doherty, and Paul Wilkinson
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 1767–1787,Short summary
We evaluated EMEP4UK-WRF v4.3 atmospheric chemistry transport simulations at 5 km horizontal resolution over the UK for use in air pollution epidemiology and health burden assessment. Model-measurement comparison focused on daily and annual means for NO2, O3, PM10, and PM2.5. Important statistics for evaluation of air-quality model output against policy (and hence health)-relevant standards – correlation, bias, and root mean square error – were evaluated by site type, year, month and day-of-week.
Mark R. Theobald, David Simpson, and Massimo Vieno
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 4475–4489,Short summary
Impacts of air pollution at a continental scale, estimated using air quality models, can potentially be greatly under- or overestimated due to the low spatial resolution used (grid cells of 10–50 km). We present a method to estimate the spatial variations in air quality within a model grid cell by combining high-resolution emission data with estimates of short range dispersion. This simple but robust technique has the potential to improve estimates of air quality impacts at a continental scale.
Riinu Ots, Massimo Vieno, James D. Allan, Stefan Reis, Eiko Nemitz, Dominique E. Young, Hugh Coe, Chiara Di Marco, Anais Detournay, Ian A. Mackenzie, David C. Green, and Mathew R. Heal
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 13773–13789,Short summary
Emissions of cooking organic aerosol (COA; from charbroiling, frying, etc.) are currently absent in European emissions inventories yet measurements have pointed to significant COA concentrations. In this study, emissions of COA were developed for the UK by model iteration against year-long measurements at two sites in London. Modelled COA dropped rapidly outside of major urban areas, suggesting that although a notable component in UK urban air, COA does not have a significant effect on rural PM.
Marsailidh M. Twigg, Evgenia Ilyinskaya, Sonya Beccaceci, David C. Green, Matthew R. Jones, Ben Langford, Sarah R. Leeson, Justin J. N. Lingard, Gloria M. Pereira, Heather Carter, Jan Poskitt, Andreas Richter, Stuart Ritchie, Ivan Simmons, Ron I. Smith, Y. Sim Tang, Netty Van Dijk, Keith Vincent, Eiko Nemitz, Massimo Vieno, and Christine F. Braban
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11415–11431,Short summary
This study integrates high and low resolution temporal measurements to assess the impact of the Holuhraun effusive eruption in 2014 across the UK. Measurements, modelling and satellite analysis provides details on the transport and chemistry of both gases and particulates during this unique event. The results of the study can be used verify existing atmospheric chemistry models of volcano plumes in order to carry improved risk assessments for future volcanic eruptions.
Raquel A. Silva, J. Jason West, Jean-François Lamarque, Drew T. Shindell, William J. Collins, Stig Dalsoren, Greg Faluvegi, Gerd Folberth, Larry W. Horowitz, Tatsuya Nagashima, Vaishali Naik, Steven T. Rumbold, Kengo Sudo, Toshihiko Takemura, Daniel Bergmann, Philip Cameron-Smith, Irene Cionni, Ruth M. Doherty, Veronika Eyring, Beatrice Josse, Ian A. MacKenzie, David Plummer, Mattia Righi, David S. Stevenson, Sarah Strode, Sophie Szopa, and Guang Zengast
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 9847–9862,Short summary
Using ozone and PM2.5 concentrations from the ACCMIP ensemble of chemistry-climate models for the four Representative Concentration Pathway scenarios (RCPs), together with projections of future population and baseline mortality rates, we quantify the human premature mortality impacts of future ambient air pollution in 2030, 2050 and 2100, relative to 2000 concentrations. We also estimate the global mortality burden of ozone and PM2.5 in 2000 and each future period.
Riinu Ots, Dominique E. Young, Massimo Vieno, Lu Xu, Rachel E. Dunmore, James D. Allan, Hugh Coe, Leah R. Williams, Scott C. Herndon, Nga L. Ng, Jacqueline F. Hamilton, Robert Bergström, Chiara Di Marco, Eiko Nemitz, Ian A. Mackenzie, Jeroen J. P. Kuenen, David C. Green, Stefan Reis, and Mathew R. Heal
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 6453–6473,Short summary
This study investigates the contribution of diesel vehicle emissions to organic aerosol formation and particulate matter concentrations in London. Comparisons of simulated pollutant concentrations with observations show good agreement and give confidence in the skill of the model applied. The contribution of diesel vehicle emissions, which are currently not included in official emissions inventories, is demonstrated to be substantial, indicating that more research on this topic is required.
Andrea Móring, Massimo Vieno, Ruth M. Doherty, Johannes Laubach, Arezoo Taghizadeh-Toosi, and Mark A. Sutton
Biogeosciences, 13, 1837–1861,Short summary
A process-based, weather-driven model for ammonia emission from a urine patch has been developed and its sensitivity to various factors assessed. The model can simulate the ammoniacal nitrogen content, pH and the water content of the soil under a urine patch. The simulated variables were in a good agreement with the measurements. The sensitivity analysis highlighted the vital role of temperature in ammonia exchange. The model is potentially suitable for larger scale application.
M. Vieno, M. R. Heal, M. L. Williams, E. J. Carnell, E. Nemitz, J. R. Stedman, and S. Reis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 265–276,
D. Fowler, C. E. Steadman, D. Stevenson, M. Coyle, R. M. Rees, U. M. Skiba, M. A. Sutton, J. N. Cape, A. J. Dore, M. Vieno, D. Simpson, S. Zaehle, B. D. Stocker, M. Rinaldi, M. C. Facchini, C. R. Flechard, E. Nemitz, M. Twigg, J. W. Erisman, K. Butterbach-Bahl, and J. N. Galloway
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 13849–13893,
P. S. Monks, A. T. Archibald, A. Colette, O. Cooper, M. Coyle, R. Derwent, D. Fowler, C. Granier, K. S. Law, G. E. Mills, D. S. Stevenson, O. Tarasova, V. Thouret, E. von Schneidemesser, R. Sommariva, O. Wild, and M. L. Williams
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 8889–8973,Short summary
Ozone holds a certain fascination in atmospheric science. It is ubiquitous in the atmosphere, central to tropospheric oxidation chemistry, and yet harmful to human and ecosystem health as well as being an important greenhouse gas. It is not emitted into the atmosphere but is a byproduct of the very oxidation chemistry it largely initiates. This review examines current understanding of the processes regulating tropospheric ozone at global to local scales from both measurements and models.
C. S. Malley, C. F. Braban, P. Dumitrean, J. N. Cape, and M. R. Heal
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 8361–8380,Short summary
In this study the regional component of ground level ozone is linked to the chemical loss of 27 measured VOCs at two UK monitoring sites and integrated with gridded European VOC emissions. The relative VOC chemical loss indicates that emission controls of a large number of VOCs and targeting VOCs with highest chemical loss are both required to reduce regional ozone. The benefit resulting from the disaggregation of VOC source sectors to the identification of high VOC-emitting sources is shown.
C. S. Malley, M. R. Heal, G. Mills, and C. F. Braban
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 4025–4042,Short summary
Health- and vegetation-relevant ozone exposure metrics (SOMO10/SOMO35 and PODY/AOT40 respectively) are analysed between 1990 and 2013 using data from the UK EMEP supersites: Auchencorth Moss, southern Scotland and Harwell, south-east England. Analysis shows that for health-relevant ozone exposure, improvement has been achieved for SOMO35 but not for SOMO10 despite European mitigation strategies reducing precursor emissions. Vegetation impacts based on PODY have also not decreased.
L. R. Crilley, W. J. Bloss, J. Yin, D. C. S. Beddows, R. M. Harrison, J. D. Allan, D. E. Young, M. Flynn, P. Williams, P. Zotter, A. S. H. Prevot, M. R. Heal, J. F. Barlow, C. H. Halios, J. D. Lee, S. Szidat, and C. Mohr
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3149–3171,Short summary
Wood is a renewable fuel but its combustion for residential heating releases a number of locally acting air pollutants, most notably particulate matter known to have adverse effects on human health. This paper used chemical tracers for wood smoke to estimate the contribution that burning wood makes to concentrations of airborne particles in the atmosphere of southern England and most particularly in London.
D. Simpson, C. Andersson, J.H. Christensen, M. Engardt, C. Geels, A. Nyiri, M. Posch, J. Soares, M. Sofiev, P. Wind, and J. Langner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 6995–7017,
E. von Schneidemesser, M. Vieno, and P. S. Monks
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
K. W. Bowman, D. T. Shindell, H. M. Worden, J.F. Lamarque, P. J. Young, D. S. Stevenson, Z. Qu, M. de la Torre, D. Bergmann, P. J. Cameron-Smith, W. J. Collins, R. Doherty, S. B. Dalsøren, G. Faluvegi, G. Folberth, L. W. Horowitz, B. M. Josse, Y. H. Lee, I. A. MacKenzie, G. Myhre, T. Nagashima, V. Naik, D. A. Plummer, S. T. Rumbold, R. B. Skeie, S. A. Strode, K. Sudo, S. Szopa, A. Voulgarakis, G. Zeng, S. S. Kulawik, A. M. Aghedo, and J. R. Worden
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 4057–4072,
Related subject area
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plumes originating from major fires (BUOYANT v4.20)Description and evaluation of the community aerosol dynamics model MAFOR v2.0Modeling the high-mercury wet deposition in the southeastern US with WRF-GC-Hg v1.0Development of a deep neural network for predicting 6 h average PM2.5 concentrations up to 2 subsequent days using various training dataChemistry Across Multiple Phases (CAMP) version 1.0: an integrated multiphase chemistry modelAn aerosol vertical data assimilation system (NAQPMS-PDAF v1.0): development and applicationEarth system modeling of mercury using CESM2 – Part 1: Atmospheric model CAM6-Chem/Hg v1.0Conservation laws in a neural network architecture: enforcing the atom balance of a Julia-based photochemical model (v0.2.0)On the application and grid-size sensitivity of the urban dispersion model CAIRDIO v2.0 under real city weather conditionsDevelopment and evaluation of an advanced National Air Quality Forecasting Capability using the NOAA Global Forecast System version 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for Stochastic Integration of Atmospheric Simulations (ESIAS-chem) version 1.0Evaluating the assimilation of S5P/TROPOMI near real-time SO2 columns and layer height data into the CAMS integrated forecasting system (CY47R1), based on a case study of the 2019 Raikoke eruptionImprovement of stomatal resistance and photosynthesis mechanism of Noah-MP-WDDM (v1.42) in simulation of NO2 dry deposition velocity in forestsRepresentation of the autoconversion from cloud to rain using a weighted ensemble approach: a case study using WRF v4.1.3EuLerian Identification of ascending AirStreams (ELIAS 2.0) in numerical weather prediction and climate models – Part 1: Development of deep learning modelEuLerian Identification of ascending AirStreams (ELIAS 2.0) in numerical weather prediction and climate models – Part 2: Model application to different datasetsA new exponentially decaying error correlation model for assimilating OCO-2 column-average CO2 data using a length scale computed from airborne 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Joseph Mouallem, Lucas Harris, and Rusty Benson
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 4355–4371,Short summary
The single-nest capability in GFDL's dynamical core, FV3, is upgraded to support multiple same-level and telescoping nests. Grid nesting adds a refined grid over an area of interest to better resolve small-scale flow features necessary to accurately predict special weather events such as severe storms and hurricanes. This work allows concurrent execution of multiple same-level and telescoping multi-level nested grids in both global and regional setups.
Clara Betancourt, Timo T. Stomberg, Ann-Kathrin Edrich, Ankit Patnala, Martin G. Schultz, Ribana Roscher, Julia Kowalski, and Scarlet Stadtler
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 4331–4354,Short summary
Ozone is a toxic greenhouse gas with high spatial variability. We present a machine-learning-based ozone-mapping workflow generating a transparent and reliable product. Going beyond standard mapping methods, this work combines explainable machine learning with uncertainty assessment to increase the integrity of the produced map.
Huan Fang and Greg Michalski
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 4239–4258,Short summary
A new emission input dataset that incorporates nitrogen isotopes has been used in the CMAQ (Community Multiscale Air Quality) modeling system simulation to qualitatively analyze the changes in δ15N values, due to the dispersion, mixing, and transport of the atmospheric NOx emitted from different sources. The dispersion, mixing, and transport of the atmospheric NOx were based on the meteorology files generated from the WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting) model.
Juan Manuel Castillo, Huw W. Lewis, Akhilesh Mishra, Ashis Mitra, Jeff Polton, Ashley Brereton, Andrew Saulter, Alex Arnold, Segolene Berthou, Douglas Clark, Julia Crook, Ananda Das, John Edwards, Xiangbo Feng, Ankur Gupta, Sudheer Joseph, Nicholas Klingaman, Imranali Momin, Christine Pequignet, Claudio Sanchez, Jennifer Saxby, and Maria Valdivieso da Costa
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 4193–4223,Short summary
A new environmental modelling system has been developed to represent the effect of feedbacks between atmosphere, land, and ocean in the Indian region. Different approaches to simulating tropical cyclones Titli and Fani are demonstrated. It is shown that results are sensitive to the way in which the ocean response to cyclone evolution is captured in the system. Notably, we show how a more rigorous formulation for the near-surface energy budget can be included when air–sea coupling is included.
Weichao Han, Tai-Long He, Zhaojun Tang, Min Wang, Dylan Jones, and Zhe Jiang
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 4225–4237,Short summary
We present an application of a hybrid deep learning (DL) model on prediction of surface CO in China from 2015 to 2020, which utilizes both convolutional neural networks and long short-term memory neural networks. The DL model performance is better than a Kalman filter (KF) system in the training period (2005–2018). Furthermore, the DL model demonstrates good temporal extensibility: the mean bias and correlation coefficients are 95.7 ppb and 0.93 in the test period (2019–2020) over eastern China.
Shuaiqi Tang, Jerome D. Fast, Kai Zhang, Joseph C. Hardin, Adam C. Varble, John E. Shilling, Fan Mei, Maria A. Zawadowicz, and Po-Lun Ma
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 4055–4076,Short summary
We developed an Earth system model (ESM) diagnostics package to compare various types of aerosol properties simulated in ESMs with aircraft, ship, and surface measurements from six field campaigns across spatial scales. The diagnostics package is coded and organized to be flexible and modular for future extension to other field campaign datasets and adapted to higher-resolution model simulations. Future releases will include comprehensive cloud and aerosol–cloud interaction diagnostics.
Ronny Badeke, Volker Matthias, Matthias Karl, and David Grawe
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 4077–4103,Short summary
For air quality modeling studies, it is very important to distribute pollutants correctly into the model system. This has not yet been done for shipping pollution in great detail. We studied the effects of different vertical distributions of shipping pollutants on the urban air quality and derived advanced formulas for it. These formulas take weather conditions and ship-specific parameters like the exhaust gas temperature into account.
Jaakko Kukkonen, Juha Nikmo, Kari Riikonen, Ilmo Westerholm, Pekko Ilvessalo, Tuomo Bergman, and Klaus Haikarainen
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 4027–4054,Short summary
A mathematical model has been developed for the dispersion of plumes originating from major fires. We have refined the model for the early evolution of the fire plumes; such a module has not been previously presented. We have evaluated the model against experimental field-scale data. The predicted concentrations agreed well with the aircraft measurements. We have also compiled an operational version of the model, which can be used for emergency contingency planning in the case of major fires.
Matthias Karl, Liisa Pirjola, Tiia Grönholm, Mona Kurppa, Srinivasan Anand, Xiaole Zhang, Andreas Held, Rolf Sander, Miikka Dal Maso, David Topping, Shuai Jiang, Leena Kangas, and Jaakko Kukkonen
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 3969–4026,Short summary
The community aerosol dynamics model MAFOR includes several advanced features: coupling with an up-to-date chemistry mechanism for volatile organic compounds, a revised Brownian coagulation kernel that takes into account the fractal geometry of soot particles, a multitude of nucleation parameterizations, size-resolved partitioning of semi-volatile inorganics, and a hybrid method for the formation of secondary organic aerosols within the framework of condensation and evaporation.
Xiaotian Xu, Xu Feng, Haipeng Lin, Peng Zhang, Shaojian Huang, Zhengcheng Song, Yiming Peng, Tzung-May Fu, and Yanxu Zhang
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 3845–3859,Short summary
Mercury is one of the most toxic pollutants in the environment, and wet deposition is a major process for atmospheric mercury to enter, causing ecological and human health risks. High-mercury wet deposition in the southeastern US has been a problem for many years. Here we employed a newly developed high-resolution WRF-GC model with the capability to simulate mercury to study this problem. We conclude that deep convection caused enhanced mercury wet deposition in the southeastern US.
Jeong-Beom Lee, Jae-Bum Lee, Youn-Seo Koo, Hee-Yong Kwon, Min-Hyeok Choi, Hyun-Ju Park, and Dae-Gyun Lee
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 3797–3813,Short summary
The predication of PM2.5 has been carried out using a numerical air quality model in South Korea. Despite recent progress of numerical air quality models, accurate prediction of PM2.5 is still challenging. In this study, we developed a data-based model using a deep neural network (DNN) to overcome the limitations of numerical air quality models. The results showed that the DNN model outperformed the CMAQ when it was trained by using observation and forecasting data from the numerical models.
Matthew L. Dawson, Christian Guzman, Jeffrey H. Curtis, Mario Acosta, Shupeng Zhu, Donald Dabdub, Andrew Conley, Matthew West, Nicole Riemer, and Oriol Jorba
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 3663–3689,Short summary
Progress in identifying complex, mixed-phase physicochemical processes has resulted in an advanced understanding of the evolution of atmospheric systems but has also introduced a level of complexity that few atmospheric models were designed to handle. We present a flexible treatment for multiphase chemical processes for models of diverse scale, from box up to global models. This enables users to build a customized multiphase mechanism that is accessible to a much wider community.
Haibo Wang, Ting Yang, Zifa Wang, Jianjun Li, Wenxuan Chai, Guigang Tang, Lei Kong, and Xueshun Chen
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 3555–3585,Short summary
In this paper, we develop an online data coupled assimilation system (NAQPMS-PDAF) with the Eulerian atmospheric chemistry-transport model. NAQPMS-PDAF allows efficient use of large computational resources. The application and performance of the system are investigated by assimilating 1 month of vertical aerosol observations. The results show that NAQPMS-PDAF can significantly improve the performance of aerosol vertical structure simulation and reduce the uncertainty to a large extent.
Peng Zhang and Yanxu Zhang
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 3587–3601,Short summary
Mercury is a global pollutant that can be transported over long distance through the atmosphere. We develop a new online global model for atmospheric mercury. The model reproduces the observed global atmospheric mercury concentrations and deposition distributions by simulating the emissions, transport, and physicochemical processes of atmospheric mercury. And we find that the seasonal variations of atmospheric Hg are the result of multiple processes and have obvious regional characteristics.
Patrick Obin Sturm and Anthony S. Wexler
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 3417–3431,Short summary
Large air quality and climate models require vast amounts of computational power. Machine learning tools like neural networks can be used to make these models more efficient, with the downside that their results might not make physical sense or be easy to interpret. This work develops a physically interpretable neural network that obeys scientific laws like conservation of mass and models atmospheric composition more accurately than a traditional neural network.
Michael Weger, Holger Baars, Henriette Gebauer, Maik Merkel, Alfred Wiedensohler, and Bernd Heinold
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 3315–3345,Short summary
Numerical models are an important tool to assess the air quality in cities, as they can provide near-continouos data in time and space. In this paper, air pollution for an entire city is simulated at a high spatial resolution of 40 m. At this spatial scale, the effects of buildings on the atmosphere, like channeling or blocking of the air flow, are directly represented by diffuse obstacles in the used model CAIRDIO. For model validation, measurements from air-monitoring sites are used.
Patrick C. Campbell, Youhua Tang, Pius Lee, Barry Baker, Daniel Tong, Rick Saylor, Ariel Stein, Jianping Huang, Ho-Chun Huang, Edward Strobach, Jeff McQueen, Li Pan, Ivanka Stajner, Jamese Sims, Jose Tirado-Delgado, Youngsun Jung, Fanglin Yang, Tanya L. Spero, and Robert C. Gilliam
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 3281–3313,Short summary
NOAA's National Air Quality Forecast Capability (NAQFC) continues to protect Americans from the harmful effects of air pollution, while saving billions of dollars per year. Here we describe and evaluate the development of the most advanced version of the NAQFC to date, which became operational at NOAA on 20 July 2021. The new NAQFC is based on a coupling of NOAA's operational Global Forecast System (GFS) version 16 with the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model version 5.3.1.
Athanasios Tsikerdekis, Nick A. J. Schutgens, Guangliang Fu, and Otto P. Hasekamp
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 3253–3279,Short summary
In our study we quantify the ability of the future satellite sensor SPEXone, part of the NASA PACE mission, to estimate aerosol emissions. The sensor will be able to retrieve accurate information of aerosol light extinction and most importantly light absorption. We simulate SPEXone spatial coverage and combine it with an aerosol model. We found that SPEXone will be able to estimate species-specific (e.g. dust, sea salt, organic or black carbon, sulfates) aerosol emissions very accurately.
Christian Zeman and Christoph Schär
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 3183–3203,Short summary
Our atmosphere is a chaotic system, where even a tiny change can have a big impact. This makes it difficult to assess if small changes, such as the move to a new hardware architecture, will significantly affect a weather and climate model. We present a methodology that allows to objectively verify this. The methodology is applied to several test cases, showing a high sensitivity. Results also show that a major system update of the underlying supercomputer did not significantly affect our model.
Stelios Myriokefalitakis, Elisa Bergas-Massó, María Gonçalves-Ageitos, Carlos Pérez García-Pando, Twan van Noije, Philippe Le Sager, Akinori Ito, Eleni Athanasopoulou, Athanasios Nenes, Maria Kanakidou, Maarten C. Krol, and Evangelos Gerasopoulos
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 3079–3120,Short summary
We here describe the implementation of atmospheric multiphase processes in the EC-Earth Earth system model. We provide global budgets of oxalate, sulfate, and iron-containing aerosols, along with an analysis of the links among atmospheric composition, aqueous-phase processes, and aerosol dissolution, supported by comparison to observations. This work is a first step towards an interactive calculation of the deposition of bioavailable atmospheric iron coupled to the model’s ocean component.
Santos J. González-Rojí, Martina Messmer, Christoph C. Raible, and Thomas F. Stocker
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 2859–2879,Short summary
Different configurations of physics parameterizations of a regional climate model are tested over southern Peru at fine resolution. The most challenging regions compared to observational data are the slopes of the Andes. Model configurations for Europe and East Africa are not perfectly suitable for southern Peru. The experiment with the Stony Brook University microphysics scheme and the Grell–Freitas cumulus parameterization provides the most accurate results over Madre de Dios.
Angel Navarro Trastoy, Sebastian Strasser, Lauri Tuppi, Maksym Vasiuta, Markku Poutanen, Torsten Mayer-Gürr, and Heikki Järvinen
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 2763–2771,Short summary
Production of satellite products relies on information from different centers. By coupling a weather model and an orbit determination solver we eliminate the dependence on one of the centers. The coupling has proven to be possible in the first stage, where no formatting has been applied to any of the models involved. This opens a window for further development and improvement to a coupling that has proven to be as good as the predecessor model.
Soon-Young Park, Uzzal Kumar Dash, Jinhyeok Yu, Keiya Yumimoto, Itsushi Uno, and Chul Han Song
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 2773–2790,Short summary
An EnKF was applied to CMAQ for assimilating ground PM2.5 observations from China and South Korea. The EnKF performed better than that without assimilation and even superior to 3D-Var. The reduced MBs in 24 h predictions were 48 % and 27 % by improving ICs and BCs, respectively.
Lars Hoffmann, Paul F. Baumeister, Zhongyin Cai, Jan Clemens, Sabine Griessbach, Gebhard Günther, Yi Heng, Mingzhao Liu, Kaveh Haghighi Mood, Olaf Stein, Nicole Thomas, Bärbel Vogel, Xue Wu, and Ling Zou
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 2731–2762,Short summary
We describe the new version (2.2) of the Lagrangian transport model MPTRAC, which has been ported for application on GPUs. The model was verified by comparing kinematic trajectories and synthetic tracer simulations for the free troposphere and stratosphere from GPUs and CPUs. Benchmarking showed a speed-up of a factor of 16 of GPU-enabled simulations compared to CPU-only runs, indicating the great potential of applying GPUs for Lagrangian transport simulations on upcoming HPC systems.
Clemens Spensberger, Trond Thorsteinsson, and Thomas Spengler
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 2711–2729,Short summary
In order to understand the atmosphere, we rely on a hierarchy of models ranging from very simple to very complex. Comparing different steps in this hierarchy usually entails comparing different models. Here we combine two such steps that are commonly used in one modelling framework. This makes comparisons both much easier and much more direct.
Andrea Pozzer, Simon F. Reifenberg, Vinod Kumar, Bruno Franco, Matthias Kohl, Domenico Taraborrelli, Sergey Gromov, Sebastian Ehrhart, Patrick Jöckel, Rolf Sander, Veronica Fall, Simon Rosanka, Vlassis Karydis, Dimitris Akritidis, Tamara Emmerichs, Monica Crippa, Diego Guizzardi, Johannes W. Kaiser, Lieven Clarisse, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Holger Tost, and Alexandra Tsimpidi
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 2673–2710,Short summary
A newly developed setup of the chemistry general circulation model EMAC (ECHAM5/MESSy for Atmospheric Chemistry) is evaluated here. A comprehensive organic degradation mechanism is used and coupled with a volatility base model. The results show that the model reproduces most of the tracers and aerosols satisfactorily but shows discrepancies for oxygenated organic gases. It is also shown that this model configuration can be used for further research in atmospheric chemistry.
Dai Koshin, Kaoru Sato, Masashi Kohma, and Shingo Watanabe
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 2293–2307,Short summary
The 4D ensemble Kalman filter data assimilation system for the whole neutral atmosphere has been updated. The update includes the introduction of a filter to reduce the generation of spurious waves, change in the order of horizontal diffusion of the forecast model to reproduce more realistic tidal amplitudes, and use of additional satellite observations. As a result, the analysis performance has been greatly improved, even for disturbances with periods of less than 1 d.
Harish Baki, Sandeep Chinta, C Balaji, and Balaji Srinivasan
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 2133–2155,Short summary
WRF model accuracy relies on numerous aspects, and the model parameters are one of them. By calibrating the model parameters, we can improve the model forecast. However, there exist hundreds of parameters, and calibrating all of them is unimaginably expensive. Thus, there is a need to identify the sensitive parameters that influence the model output variables to reduce the parameter dimensionality. This study addresses the different methods and outcomes of parameter sensitivity analysis.
Jessica Keune, Dominik L. Schumacher, and Diego G. Miralles
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 1875–1898,Short summary
Air transports moisture and heat, shaping the weather we experience. When and where was this air moistened and warmed by the surface? To address this question, atmospheric models trace the history of air parcels in space and time. However, their uncertainties remain unexplored, which hinders their utility and application. Here, we present a framework that sheds light on these uncertainties. Our approach sets a new standard in the assessment of atmospheric moisture and heat trajectories.
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 1769–1788,Short summary
In an effort to improve air quality forecasting, the WRFDA 3D-Var system is newly extended for the assimilation of surface PM2.5 and PM10 using the RACM/MADE-VBS chemistry in the WRF-Chem model. Through a case study during the Korea–United States Air Quality (KORUS-AQ) period, it is demonstrated that the analysis can lead to improving the prediction of surface PM concentrations up to 26 % for 24 h, diminishing most bias errors.
Michael T. Kiefer, Warren E. Heilman, Shiyuan Zhong, Joseph J. Charney, Xindi Bian, Nicholas S. Skowronski, Kenneth L. Clark, Michael R. Gallagher, John L. Hom, and Matthew Patterson
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 1713–1734,Short summary
We examine methods used to represent wildland fire sensible heat release in atmospheric models. A set of simulations are evaluated using observations from a low-intensity prescribed fire in the New Jersey Pine Barrens. The comparison is motivated by the need for guidance regarding the representation of low-intensity fire sensible heating in atmospheric models. Such fires are prevalent during prescribed fire operations and can impact the health and safety of fire personnel and the public.
Lu Shen, Daniel J. Jacob, Mauricio Santillana, Kelvin Bates, Jiawei Zhuang, and Wei Chen
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 1677–1687,Short summary
The high computational cost of chemical integration is a long-standing limitation in global atmospheric chemistry models. Here we present an adaptive and efficient algorithm that can reduce the computational time of atmospheric chemistry by 50 % and maintain the error below 2 % for important species, inspired by machine learning clustering techniques and traditional asymptotic analysis ideas.
Baolei Lyu, Ran Huang, Xinlu Wang, Weiguo Wang, and Yongtao Hu
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 1583–1594,Short summary
Data fusion is used to estimate spatially completed and smooth reanalysis fields from multiple data sources of observations and model simulations. We developed a well-designed deep-learning model framework to embed spatial correlation principles of atmospheric physics and chemical models. The deep-learning model has very high accuracy to predict reanalysis data fields from isolated observation data points. It is also feasible for operational applications due to computational efficiency.
Wim C. de Rooy, Pier Siebesma, Peter Baas, Geert Lenderink, Stephan R. de Roode, Hylke de Vries, Erik van Meijgaard, Jan Fokke Meirink, Sander Tijm, and Bram van 't Veen
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 1513–1543,Short summary
This paper describes a comprehensive model update to the boundary layer schemes. Because the involved parameterisations are all built on widely applied frameworks, the here-described modifications are applicable to many NWP and climate models. The model update contains substantial modifications to the cloud, turbulence, and convection schemes and leads to a substantial improvement of several aspects of the model, especially low cloud forecasts.
Francisco J. Pérez-Invernón, Heidi Huntrieser, Patrick Jöckel, and Francisco J. Gordillo-Vázquez
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 1545–1565,Short summary
This study reports the first parameterization of long-continuing-current lightning in a climate model. Long-continuing-current lightning is proposed to be the main precursor of lightning-ignited wildfires and sprites, a type of transient luminous event taking place in the mesosphere. This parameterization can significantly contribute to improving the implementation of wildfires in climate models.
Augustin Colette, Laurence Rouïl, Frédérik Meleux, Vincent Lemaire, and Blandine Raux
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 1441–1465,Short summary
We introduce the first toolbox that allows exploration of the benefits of air pollution mitigation scenarios in the every-day air quality forecasts through a web interface. The toolbox relies on the joint use of chemistry-transport models (CTMs) and surrogate modelling techniques.
Cheng-Hsuan Lu, Quanhua Liu, Shih-Wei Wei, Benjamin T. Johnson, Cheng Dang, Patrick G. Stegmann, Dustin Grogan, Guoqing Ge, Ming Hu, and Michael Lueken
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 1317–1329,Short summary
This article is a technical note on the aerosol absorption and scattering calculations of the Community Radiative Transfer Model (CRTM) v2.2 and v2.3. It also provides guidance for prospective users of the CRTM aerosol option and Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) aerosol-aware radiance assimilation. Scientific aspects of aerosol-affected BT in atmospheric data assimilation are also briefly discussed.
Zheng Zhang, Chuyao Luo, Shanshan Feng, Rui Ye, Yunming Ye, and Xutao Li
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for GMDShort summary
In this paper, we develop a model to predict radar echo sequences and apply it in the precipitation nowcasting field. Different from existed models, we propose two new attention modules. By introducing them, the performance of RAP-Net outperforms other models especially in those regions with middle and high-intensity rainfall. Considering these regions would cause more threats to human activity, the research in our manuscript is significant to prevent natural disasters caused by heavy rainfall.
Penelope Maher and Paul Earnshaw
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 1177–1194,Short summary
Climate models do a pretty good job. But they are far from perfect. Fixing these imperfections is really hard because the models are complicated. One way to make progress is to create simpler models: think impressionism rather than realism in the art world. We changed the Met Office model to be intentionally simple and it still does a pretty good job. This will help to identify sources of model imperfections, develop new methods and improve our understanding of how the climate works.
Lukas Bösiger, Michael Sprenger, Maxi Boettcher, Hanna Joos, and Tobias Günther
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 1079–1096,Short summary
Jet streams are coherent air flows that interact with atmospheric structures such as warm conveyor belts (WCBs) and the tropopause. Individually, these structures have a significant impact on the weather evolution. A first step towards a deeper understanding of the meteorological processes is to extract jet stream core lines, for which we develop a novel feature extraction algorithm. Based on the line geometry, we automatically detect and visualize potential interactions between WCBs and jets.
Philipp Franke, Anne Caroline Lange, and Hendrik Elbern
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 1037–1060,Short summary
The paper proposes an ensemble-based analysis framework (ESIAS-chem) for time- and altitude-resolved volcanic ash emission fluxes and their uncertainty. The core of the algorithm is an ensemble Nelder–Mead optimization algorithm accompanied by a particle filter update. The performed notional experiments demonstrate the high accuracy of ESIAS-chem in analyzing the vertically resolved volcanic ash in the atmosphere. Further, the system is in general able to estimate the emission fluxes properly.
Antje Inness, Melanie Ades, Dimitris Balis, Dmitry Efremenko, Johannes Flemming, Pascal Hedelt, Maria-Elissavet Koukouli, Diego Loyola, and Roberto Ribas
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 971–994,Short summary
This paper describes the way that the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS) produces forecasts of volcanic SO2. These forecasts are provided routinely every day. They are created by blending SO2 data from satellite instruments (TROPOMI and GOME-2) with the CAMS model. We show that the quality of the CAMS SO2 forecasts can be improved if additional information about the height of volcanic plumes is provided in the satellite data.
Ming Chang, Jiachen Cao, Qi Zhang, Weihua Chen, Guotong Wu, Liping Wu, Weiwen Wang, and Xuemei Wang
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 787–801,Short summary
Despite the importance of nitrogen deposition, its simulation is still insufficiently represented in current atmospheric chemistry models. In this study, the improvement of the canopy stomatal resistance mechanism and the nitrogen-limiting schemes in Noah-MP-WDDM v1.42 give new options for simulating nitrogen dry deposition velocity. This study finds that the combined BN-23 mechanism agrees better with the observed NO2 dry deposition velocity, with the mean bias reduced by 50.1 %.
Jinfang Yin, Xudong Liang, Hong Wang, and Haile Xue
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 771–786,Short summary
An ensemble (EN) approach was designed to improve autoconversion (ATC) from cloud water to rainwater in cloud microphysics schemes. One unique feature of the EN approach is that the ATC rate is a mean value based on the calculations from several widely used ATC schemes. The ensemble approach proposed herein appears to help improve the representation of cloud and precipitation processes in weather and climate models.
Julian F. Quinting and Christian M. Grams
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 715–730,Short summary
Physical processes in weather systems importantly affect the midlatitude large-scale circulation. This study introduces an artificial-intelligence-based framework which allows the identification of an important weather system – the so-called warm conveyor belt (WCB) – at comparably low computational costs and from data at low spatial and temporal resolution. The framework thus newly enables the systematic investigation of WCBs in large data sets such as climate model projections.
Julian F. Quinting, Christian M. Grams, Annika Oertel, and Moritz Pickl
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 731–744,Short summary
This study applies novel artificial-intelligence-based models that allow the identification of one specific weather system which affects the midlatitude circulation. We show that the models yield similar results as their trajectory-based counterpart, which requires data at higher spatiotemporal resolution and is computationally more expensive. Overall, we aim to show how deep learning methods can be used efficiently to support process understanding of biases in weather prediction models.
David F. Baker, Emily Bell, Kenneth J. Davis, Joel F. Campbell, Bing Lin, and Jeremy Dobler
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 649–668,Short summary
The OCO-2 satellite measures many closely spaced column-averaged CO2 values around its orbit. To give these data proper weight in flux inversions, their error correlations must be accounted for. Here we lay out a 1-D error model with correlations that die out exponentially along-track to do so. A correlation length scale of ∼20 km is derived from column CO2 measurements from an airborne lidar flown underneath OCO-2 for use in this model. The model's performance is compared to previous ones.
Matthias Göbel, Stefano Serafin, and Mathias W. Rotach
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 669–681,Short summary
We present WRFlux, an open-source software that allows numerically consistent, time-averaged budget evaluation of prognostic variables for the numerical weather prediction model WRF as well as the transformation of the budget equations from the terrain-following grid of the model to the Cartesian coordinate system. We demonstrate the performance and a possible application of WRFlux and illustrate the detrimental effects of approximations that are inconsistent with the model numerics.
Jingmin Li, Johannes Hendricks, Mattia Righi, and Christof G. Beer
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 509–533,Short summary
The growing complexity of global aerosol models results in a large number of parameters that describe the aerosol number, size, and composition. This makes the analysis, evaluation, and interpretation of the model results a challenge. To overcome this difficulty, we apply a machine learning classification method to identify clusters of specific aerosol types in global aerosol simulations. Our results demonstrate the spatial distributions and characteristics of these identified aerosol clusters.
Jeong-Su Ko, Kyo-Sun Sunny Lim, Kwonil Kim, Gyuwon Lee, Gregory Thompson, and Alexis Berne
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for GMDShort summary
This study evaluates the performance of the four microphysics parameterizations, WDM6, WDM7, Thompson, and Morrison, in simulating snowfall events during the ICE-POP 2018 field campaign. Eight snowfall events, classified into three categories (cold-low, warm-low, and air-sea interaction), depending on the synoptic characteristics, are selected. The evaluation is conducted focusing on the simulated hydrometeors, microphysics budgets, wind fields, and precipitation using the measurement data.
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This study reports the first evaluation of the global EMEP MSC-W ACTM driven by WRF meteorology, with a focus on surface concentrations and wet deposition of reactive N and S species. The model–measurement comparison is conducted both spatially and temporally, covering 10 monitoring networks worldwide. The statistics from the comprehensive evaluations presented in this study support the application of this model framework for global analysis of the budgets and fluxes of reactive N and SIA.
This study reports the first evaluation of the global EMEP MSC-W ACTM driven by WRF meteorology,...