Articles | Volume 14, issue 8
Model description paper
12 Aug 2021
Model description paper | 12 Aug 2021
Latent Linear Adjustment Autoencoder v1.0: a novel method for estimating and emulating dynamic precipitation at high resolution
Christina Heinze-Deml et al.
No articles found.
Iris Elisabeth de Vries, Sebastian Sippel, Angeline Greene Pendergrass, and Reto Knutti
Earth Syst. Dynam., 14, 81–100,Short summary
Precipitation change is an important consequence of climate change, but it is hard to detect and quantify. Our intuitive method yields robust and interpretable detection of forced precipitation change in three observational datasets for global mean and extreme precipitation, but the different observational datasets show different magnitudes of forced change. Assessment and reduction of uncertainties surrounding forced precipitation change are important for future projections and adaptation.
Sjoukje Y. Philip, Sarah F. Kew, Geert Jan van Oldenborgh, Faron S. Anslow, Sonia I. Seneviratne, Robert Vautard, Dim Coumou, Kristie L. Ebi, Julie Arrighi, Roop Singh, Maarten van Aalst, Carolina Pereira Marghidan, Michael Wehner, Wenchang Yang, Sihan Li, Dominik L. Schumacher, Mathias Hauser, Rémy Bonnet, Linh N. Luu, Flavio Lehner, Nathan Gillett, Jordis S. Tradowsky, Gabriel A. Vecchi, Chris Rodell, Roland B. Stull, Rosie Howard, and Friederike E. L. Otto
Earth Syst. Dynam., 13, 1689–1713,Short summary
In June 2021, the Pacific Northwest of the US and Canada saw record temperatures far exceeding those previously observed. This attribution study found such a severe heat wave would have been virtually impossible without human-induced climate change. Assuming no nonlinear interactions, such events have become at least 150 times more common, are about 2 °C hotter and will become even more common as warming continues. Therefore, adaptation and mitigation are urgently needed to prepare society.
Min-Seop Ahn, Paul A. Ullrich, Peter J. Gleckler, Jiwoo Lee, Ana C. Ordonez, and Angeline G. Pendergrass
We introduce a framework for regional scale evaluation of simulated precipitation distributions with 62 climate reference regions and 10 metrics, and we apply it to evaluate CMIP5 and CMIP6 models against multiple satellite-based precipitation products. The common model biases identified in this study are mainly associated with the overestimated light precipitation and underestimated heavy precipitation. These biases persist from earlier generation models and have been little improved in CMIP6.
Na Li, Sebastian Sippel, Alexander J. Winkler, Miguel D. Mahecha, Markus Reichstein, and Ana Bastos
Earth Syst. Dynam., 13, 1505–1533,Short summary
Quantifying the imprint of large-scale atmospheric circulation dynamics and associated carbon cycle responses is key to improving our understanding of carbon cycle dynamics. Using a statistical model that relies on spatiotemporal sea level pressure as a proxy for large-scale atmospheric circulation, we quantify the fraction of interannual variability in atmospheric CO2 growth rate and the land CO2 sink that are driven by atmospheric circulation variability.
Benjamin M. Sanderson, Angeline G. Pendergrass, Charles D. Koven, Florent Brient, Ben B. B. Booth, Rosie A. Fisher, and Reto Knutti
Earth Syst. Dynam., 12, 899–918,Short summary
Emergent constraints promise a pathway to the reduction in climate projection uncertainties by exploiting ensemble relationships between observable quantities and unknown climate response parameters. This study considers the robustness of these relationships in light of biases and common simplifications that may be present in the original ensemble of climate simulations. We propose a classification scheme for constraints and a number of practical case studies.
Folmer Krikken, Flavio Lehner, Karsten Haustein, Igor Drobyshev, and Geert Jan van Oldenborgh
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 2169–2179,Short summary
In this study, we analyse the role of climate change in the forest fires that raged through large parts of Sweden in the summer of 2018 from a meteorological perspective. This is done by studying observationally constrained data and multiple climate models. We find a small reduced probability of such events, based on reanalyses, but a small increased probability due to global warming up to now and a more robust increase in the risk for such events in the future, based on climate models.
Geert Jan van Oldenborgh, Folmer Krikken, Sophie Lewis, Nicholas J. Leach, Flavio Lehner, Kate R. Saunders, Michiel van Weele, Karsten Haustein, Sihan Li, David Wallom, Sarah Sparrow, Julie Arrighi, Roop K. Singh, Maarten K. van Aalst, Sjoukje Y. Philip, Robert Vautard, and Friederike E. L. Otto
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 941–960,Short summary
Southeastern Australia suffered from disastrous bushfires during the 2019/20 fire season, raising the question whether these have become more likely due to climate change. We found no attributable trend in extreme annual or monthly low precipitation but a clear shift towards more extreme heat. However, this shift is underestimated by the models. Analysing fire weather directly, we found that the chance has increased by at least 30 %, but due to the underestimation it could well be higher.
Milan Flach, Alexander Brenning, Fabian Gans, Markus Reichstein, Sebastian Sippel, and Miguel D. Mahecha
Biogeosciences, 18, 39–53,Short summary
Drought and heat events affect the uptake and sequestration of carbon in terrestrial ecosystems. We study the impact of droughts and heatwaves on the uptake of CO2 of different vegetation types at the global scale. We find that agricultural areas are generally strongly affected. Forests instead are not particularly sensitive to the events under scrutiny. This implies different water management strategies of forests but also a lack of sensitivity to remote-sensing-derived vegetation activity.
Lukas Brunner, Angeline G. Pendergrass, Flavio Lehner, Anna L. Merrifield, Ruth Lorenz, and Reto Knutti
Earth Syst. Dynam., 11, 995–1012,Short summary
In this study, we weight climate models by their performance with respect to simulating aspects of historical climate and their degree of interdependence. Our method is found to increase projection skill and to correct for structurally similar models. The weighted end-of-century mean warming (2081–2100 relative to 1995–2014) is 3.7 °C with a likely (66 %) range of 3.1 to 4.6 °C for the strong climate change scenario SSP5-8.5; this is a reduction of 0.4 °C compared with the unweighted mean.
Flavio Lehner, Clara Deser, Nicola Maher, Jochem Marotzke, Erich M. Fischer, Lukas Brunner, Reto Knutti, and Ed Hawkins
Earth Syst. Dynam., 11, 491–508,Short summary
Projections of climate change are uncertain because climate models are imperfect, future greenhouse gases emissions are unknown and climate is to some extent chaotic. To partition and understand these sources of uncertainty and make the best use of climate projections, large ensembles with multiple climate models are needed. Such ensembles now exist in a public data archive. We provide several novel applications focused on global and regional temperature and precipitation projections.
Hendrik Andersen, Jan Cermak, Julia Fuchs, Peter Knippertz, Marco Gaetani, Julian Quinting, Sebastian Sippel, and Roland Vogt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 3415–3438,Short summary
Fog and low clouds (FLCs) are an essential but poorly understood element of Namib regional climate. Here, a satellite-based data set of FLCs in central Namib, reanalysis data, and back trajectories are used to systematically analyze conditions when FLCs occur. Synoptic-scale mechanisms are identified that influence the formation of FLCs and the onshore advection of marine boundary-layer air masses. The findings lead to a new conceptual model of mechanisms that drive FLC variability in the Namib.
Christoph C. Raible, Martina Messmer, Flavio Lehner, Thomas F. Stocker, and Richard Blender
Clim. Past, 14, 1499–1514,Short summary
Extratropical cyclones in winter and their characteristics are investigated in depth for the Atlantic European region from 850 to 2100 CE. During the Common Era, cyclone characteristics show pronounced variations mainly caused by internal variability of the coupled climate system. When anthropogenic forcing becomes dominant, a strong increase of extreme cyclone-related precipitation is found due to thermodynamics, though dynamical processes can play an important role during the last millennium.
Donghai Wu, Philippe Ciais, Nicolas Viovy, Alan K. Knapp, Kevin Wilcox, Michael Bahn, Melinda D. Smith, Sara Vicca, Simone Fatichi, Jakob Zscheischler, Yue He, Xiangyi Li, Akihiko Ito, Almut Arneth, Anna Harper, Anna Ukkola, Athanasios Paschalis, Benjamin Poulter, Changhui Peng, Daniel Ricciuto, David Reinthaler, Guangsheng Chen, Hanqin Tian, Hélène Genet, Jiafu Mao, Johannes Ingrisch, Julia E. S. M. Nabel, Julia Pongratz, Lena R. Boysen, Markus Kautz, Michael Schmitt, Patrick Meir, Qiuan Zhu, Roland Hasibeder, Sebastian Sippel, Shree R. S. Dangal, Stephen Sitch, Xiaoying Shi, Yingping Wang, Yiqi Luo, Yongwen Liu, and Shilong Piao
Biogeosciences, 15, 3421–3437,Short summary
Our results indicate that most ecosystem models do not capture the observed asymmetric responses under normal precipitation conditions, suggesting an overestimate of the drought effects and/or underestimate of the watering impacts on primary productivity, which may be the result of inadequate representation of key eco-hydrological processes. Collaboration between modelers and site investigators needs to be strengthened to improve the specific processes in ecosystem models in following studies.
Jannis von Buttlar, Jakob Zscheischler, Anja Rammig, Sebastian Sippel, Markus Reichstein, Alexander Knohl, Martin Jung, Olaf Menzer, M. Altaf Arain, Nina Buchmann, Alessandro Cescatti, Damiano Gianelle, Gerard Kiely, Beverly E. Law, Vincenzo Magliulo, Hank Margolis, Harry McCaughey, Lutz Merbold, Mirco Migliavacca, Leonardo Montagnani, Walter Oechel, Marian Pavelka, Matthias Peichl, Serge Rambal, Antonio Raschi, Russell L. Scott, Francesco P. Vaccari, Eva van Gorsel, Andrej Varlagin, Georg Wohlfahrt, and Miguel D. Mahecha
Biogeosciences, 15, 1293–1318,Short summary
Our work systematically quantifies extreme heat and drought event impacts on gross primary productivity (GPP) and ecosystem respiration globally across a wide range of ecosystems. We show that heat extremes typically increased mainly respiration whereas drought decreased both fluxes. Combined heat and drought extremes had opposing effects offsetting each other for respiration, but there were also strong reductions in GPP and hence the strongest reductions in the ecosystems carbon sink capacity.
Angeline G. Pendergrass, Andrew Conley, and Francis M. Vitt
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 317–324,Short summary
We document and validate radiative kernels for the surface and top-of-atmosphere calculated with NCAR's CESM1 climate model. A radiative kernel is the change in radiation in response to a small change in a property of the atmosphere or surface, essentially a partial derivative. They are used to quantify temperature, water vapor, surface albedo, and cloud feedbacks. We made these kernels because few are available for the surface. We also validate the kernels against the expected model responses.
PAGES Hydro2k Consortium
Clim. Past, 13, 1851–1900,Short summary
Water availability is fundamental to societies and ecosystems, but our understanding of variations in hydroclimate (including extreme events, flooding, and decadal periods of drought) is limited due to a paucity of modern instrumental observations. We review how proxy records of past climate and climate model simulations can be used in tandem to understand hydroclimate variability over the last 2000 years and how these tools can also inform risk assessments of future hydroclimatic extremes.
Iulia Ilie, Peter Dittrich, Nuno Carvalhais, Martin Jung, Andreas Heinemeyer, Mirco Migliavacca, James I. L. Morison, Sebastian Sippel, Jens-Arne Subke, Matthew Wilkinson, and Miguel D. Mahecha
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 3519–3545,Short summary
Accurate representation of land-atmosphere carbon fluxes is essential for future climate projections, although some of the responses of CO2 fluxes to climate often remain uncertain. The increase in available data allows for new approaches in their modelling. We automatically developed models for ecosystem and soil carbon respiration using a machine learning approach. When compared with established respiration models, we found that they are better in prediction as well as offering new insights.
Miguel D. Mahecha, Fabian Gans, Sebastian Sippel, Jonathan F. Donges, Thomas Kaminski, Stefan Metzger, Mirco Migliavacca, Dario Papale, Anja Rammig, and Jakob Zscheischler
Biogeosciences, 14, 4255–4277,Short summary
We investigate the likelihood of ecological in situ networks to detect and monitor the impact of extreme events in the terrestrial biosphere.
Benjamin M. Sanderson, Yangyang Xu, Claudia Tebaldi, Michael Wehner, Brian O'Neill, Alexandra Jahn, Angeline G. Pendergrass, Flavio Lehner, Warren G. Strand, Lei Lin, Reto Knutti, and Jean Francois Lamarque
Earth Syst. Dynam., 8, 827–847,Short summary
We present the results of a set of climate simulations designed to simulate futures in which the Earth's temperature is stabilized at the levels referred to in the 2015 Paris Agreement. We consider the necessary future emissions reductions and the aspects of extreme weather which differ significantly between the 2 and 1.5 °C climate in the simulations.
Milan Flach, Fabian Gans, Alexander Brenning, Joachim Denzler, Markus Reichstein, Erik Rodner, Sebastian Bathiany, Paul Bodesheim, Yanira Guanche, Sebastian Sippel, and Miguel D. Mahecha
Earth Syst. Dynam., 8, 677–696,Short summary
Anomalies and extremes are often detected using univariate peak-over-threshold approaches in the geoscience community. The Earth system is highly multivariate. We compare eight multivariate anomaly detection algorithms and combinations of data preprocessing. We identify three anomaly detection algorithms that outperform univariate extreme event detection approaches. The workflows have the potential to reveal novelties in data. Remarks on their application to real Earth observations are provided.
Sebastian Sippel, Jakob Zscheischler, Miguel D. Mahecha, Rene Orth, Markus Reichstein, Martha Vogel, and Sonia I. Seneviratne
Earth Syst. Dynam., 8, 387–403,Short summary
The present study (1) evaluates land–atmosphere coupling in the CMIP5 multi-model ensemble against an ensemble of benchmarking datasets and (2) refines the model ensemble using a land–atmosphere coupling diagnostic as constraint. Our study demonstrates that a considerable fraction of coupled climate models overemphasize warm-season
moisture-limitedclimate regimes in midlatitude regions. This leads to biases in daily-scale temperature extremes, which are alleviated in a constrained ensemble.
Sebastian Sippel, Jakob Zscheischler, Martin Heimann, Holger Lange, Miguel D. Mahecha, Geert Jan van Oldenborgh, Friederike E. L. Otto, and Markus Reichstein
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 441–458,Short summary
The paper re-investigates the question whether observed precipitation extremes and annual totals have been increasing in the world's dry regions over the last 60 years. Despite recently postulated increasing trends, we demonstrate that large uncertainties prevail due to (1) the choice of dryness definition and (2) statistical data processing. In fact, we find only minor (and only some significant) increases if (1) dryness is based on aridity and (2) statistical artefacts are accounted for.
Chantal Camenisch, Kathrin M. Keller, Melanie Salvisberg, Benjamin Amann, Martin Bauch, Sandro Blumer, Rudolf Brázdil, Stefan Brönnimann, Ulf Büntgen, Bruce M. S. Campbell, Laura Fernández-Donado, Dominik Fleitmann, Rüdiger Glaser, Fidel González-Rouco, Martin Grosjean, Richard C. Hoffmann, Heli Huhtamaa, Fortunat Joos, Andrea Kiss, Oldřich Kotyza, Flavio Lehner, Jürg Luterbacher, Nicolas Maughan, Raphael Neukom, Theresa Novy, Kathleen Pribyl, Christoph C. Raible, Dirk Riemann, Maximilian Schuh, Philip Slavin, Johannes P. Werner, and Oliver Wetter
Clim. Past, 12, 2107–2126,Short summary
Throughout the last millennium, several cold periods occurred which affected humanity. Here, we investigate an exceptionally cold decade during the 15th century. The cold conditions challenged the food production and led to increasing food prices and a famine in parts of Europe. In contrast to periods such as the “Year Without Summer” after the eruption of Tambora, these extreme climatic conditions seem to have occurred by chance and in relation to the internal variability of the climate system.
S. Sippel, F. E. L. Otto, M. Forkel, M. R. Allen, B. P. Guillod, M. Heimann, M. Reichstein, S. I. Seneviratne, K. Thonicke, and M. D. Mahecha
Earth Syst. Dynam., 7, 71–88,Short summary
We introduce a novel technique to bias correct climate model output for impact simulations that preserves its physical consistency and multivariate structure. The methodology considerably improves the representation of extremes in climatic variables relative to conventional bias correction strategies. Illustrative simulations of biosphere–atmosphere carbon and water fluxes with a biosphere model (LPJmL) show that the novel technique can be usefully applied to drive climate impact models.
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John Douros, Henk Eskes, Jos van Geffen, K. Folkert Boersma, Steven Compernolle, Gaia Pinardi, Anne-Marlene Blechschmidt, Vincent-Henri Peuch, Augustin Colette, and Pepijn Veefkind
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 509–534,Short summary
We focus on the challenges associated with comparing atmospheric composition models with satellite products such as tropospheric NO2 columns. The aim is to highlight the methodological difficulties and propose sound ways of doing such comparisons. Building on the comparisons, a new satellite product is proposed and made available, which takes advantage of higher-resolution, regional atmospheric modelling to improve estimates of troposheric NO2 columns over Europe.
Catalina Poraicu, Jean-François Müller, Trissevgeni Stavrakou, Dominique Fonteyn, Frederik Tack, Felix Deutsch, Quentin Laffineur, Roeland Van Malderen, and Nele Veldeman
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 479–508,Short summary
High-resolution WRF-Chem simulations are conducted over Antwerp, Belgium, in June 2019 and evaluated using meteorological data and in situ, airborne, and spaceborne NO2 measurements. An intercomparison of model, aircraft, and TROPOMI NO2 columns is conducted to characterize biases in versions 1.3.1 and 2.3.1 of the satellite product. A mass balance method is implemented to provide improved emissions for simulating NO2 distribution over the study area.
Daan R. Scheepens, Irene Schicker, Kateřina Hlaváčková-Schindler, and Claudia Plant
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 251–270,Short summary
The production of wind energy is increasing rapidly and relies heavily on atmospheric conditions. To ensure power grid stability, accurate predictions of wind speed are needed, especially in the short range and for extreme wind speed ranges. In this work, we demonstrate the forecasting skills of a data-driven deep learning model with model adaptations to suit higher wind speed ranges. The resulting model can be applied to other data and parameters, too, to improve nowcasting predictions.
Peter J. M. Bosman and Maarten C. Krol
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 47–74,Short summary
We describe an inverse modelling framework constructed around a simple model for the atmospheric boundary layer. This framework can be fed with various observation types to study the boundary layer and land–atmosphere exchange. With this framework, it is possible to estimate model parameters and the associated uncertainties. Some of these parameters are difficult to obtain directly by observations. An example application for a grassland in the Netherlands is included.
Sudipta Ghosh, Sagnik Dey, Sushant Das, Nicole Riemer, Graziano Giuliani, Dilip Ganguly, Chandra Venkataraman, Filippo Giorgi, Sachchida Nand Tripathi, Srikanthan Ramachandran, Thazhathakal Ayyappen Rajesh, Harish Gadhavi, and Atul Kumar Srivastava
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 1–15,Short summary
Accurate representation of aerosols in climate models is critical for minimizing the uncertainty in climate projections. Here, we implement region-specific emission fluxes and a more accurate scheme for carbonaceous aerosol ageing processes in a regional climate model (RegCM4) and show that it improves model performance significantly against in situ, reanalysis, and satellite data over the Indian subcontinent. We recommend improving the model performance before using them for climate studies.
Chengzhu Zhang, Jean-Christophe Golaz, Ryan Forsyth, Tom Vo, Shaocheng Xie, Zeshawn Shaheen, Gerald L. Potter, Xylar S. Asay-Davis, Charles S. Zender, Wuyin Lin, Chih-Chieh Chen, Chris R. Terai, Salil Mahajan, Tian Zhou, Karthik Balaguru, Qi Tang, Cheng Tao, Yuying Zhang, Todd Emmenegger, Susannah Burrows, and Paul A. Ullrich
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 9031–9056,Short summary
Earth system model (ESM) developers run automated analysis tools on data from candidate models to inform model development. This paper introduces a new Python package, E3SM Diags, that has been developed to support ESM development and use routinely in the development of DOE's Energy Exascale Earth System Model. This tool covers a set of essential diagnostics to evaluate the mean physical climate from simulations, as well as several process-oriented and phenomenon-based evaluation diagnostics.
Walter Hannah and Kyle Pressel
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 8999–9013,Short summary
A multiscale modeling framework couples two models of the atmosphere that each cover different scale ranges. Traditionally, fluctuations in the small-scale model are not transported by the flow on the large-scale model grid, but this is hypothesized to be responsible for a persistent, unphysical checkerboard pattern. A method is presented to facilitate the transport of these small-scale fluctuations, analogous to how small-scale clouds and turbulence are transported in the real atmosphere.
Reimar Bauer, Jens-Uwe Grooß, Jörn Ungermann, May Bär, Markus Geldenhuys, and Lars Hoffmann
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 8983–8997,Short summary
The Mission Support System (MSS) is an open source software package that has been used for planning flight tracks of scientific aircraft in multiple measurement campaigns during the last decade. Here, we describe the MSS software and its use during the SouthTRAC measurement campaign in 2019. As an example for how the MSS software is used in conjunction with many datasets, we describe the planning of a single flight probing orographic gravity waves propagating up into the lower mesosphere.
Zhizhao Wang, Florian Couvidat, and Karine Sartelet
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 8957–8982,Short summary
Air quality models need to reliably predict secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) at a reasonable computational cost. Thus, we developed GENOA v1.0, a mechanism reduction algorithm that preserves the accuracy of detailed gas-phase chemical mechanisms for SOA formation, thereby improving the practical use of actual chemistry in SOA models. With GENOA, a near-explicit chemical scheme was reduced to 2 % of its original size and computational time, with an average error of less than 3 %.
Felix Kleinert, Lukas H. Leufen, Aurelia Lupascu, Tim Butler, and Martin G. Schultz
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 8913–8930,Short summary
We examine the effects of spatially aggregated upstream information as input for a deep learning model forecasting near-surface ozone levels. Using aggregated data from one upstream sector (45°) improves the forecast by ~ 10 % for 4 prediction days. Three upstream sectors improve the forecasts by ~ 14 % on the first 2 d only. Our results serve as an orientation for other researchers or environmental agencies focusing on pointwise time-series predictions, for example, due to regulatory purposes.
Brian T. Dinkelacker, Pablo Garcia Rivera, Ioannis Kioutsioukis, Peter J. Adams, and Spyros N. Pandis
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 8899–8912,Short summary
The performance of a chemical transport model in reproducing PM2.5 concentrations and composition was evaluated at the finest scale using measurements from regulatory sites as well as a network of low-cost monitors. Total PM2.5 mass is reproduced well by the model during the winter when compared to regulatory measurements, but in the summer PM2.5 is underpredicted, mainly due to difficulties in reproducing regional secondary organic aerosol levels.
Shizhang Wang and Xiaoshi Qiao
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 8869–8897,Short summary
A local data assimilation scheme (Local DA v1.0) was proposed to leverage the advantage of hybrid covariance, multiscale localization, and parallel computation. The Local DA can perform covariance localization in model space, observation space, or both spaces. The Local DA that used the hybrid covariance and double-space localization produced the lowest analysis and forecast errors among all observing system simulation experiments.
Randall V. Martin, Sebastian D. Eastham, Liam Bindle, Elizabeth W. Lundgren, Thomas L. Clune, Christoph A. Keller, William Downs, Dandan Zhang, Robert A. Lucchesi, Melissa P. Sulprizio, Robert M. Yantosca, Yanshun Li, Lucas Estrada, William M. Putman, Benjamin M. Auer, Atanas L. Trayanov, Steven Pawson, and Daniel J. Jacob
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 8731–8748,Short summary
Atmospheric chemistry models must be able to operate both online as components of Earth system models and offline as standalone models. The widely used GEOS-Chem model operates both online and offline, but the classic offline version is not suitable for massively parallel simulations. We describe a new generation of the offline high-performance GEOS-Chem (GCHP) that enables high-resolution simulations on thousands of cores, including on the cloud, with improved access, performance, and accuracy.
Daiwen Kang, Nicholas K. Heath, Robert C. Gilliam, Tanya L. Spero, and Jonathan E. Pleim
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 8561–8579,Short summary
A lightning assimilation (LTA) technique implemented in the WRF model's Kain–Fritsch (KF) convective scheme is updated and applied to simulations from regional to hemispheric scales using observed lightning flashes from ground-based lightning detection networks. Different user-toggled options associated with the KF scheme on simulations with and without LTA are assessed. The model's performance is improved significantly by LTA, but it is sensitive to various factors.
Sujeong Lim, Hyeon-Ju Gim, Ebony Lee, Seungyeon Lee, Won Young Lee, Yong Hee Lee, Claudio Cassardo, and Seon Ki Park
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 8541–8559,Short summary
The land surface model (LSM) contains various uncertain parameters, which are obtained by the empirical relations reflecting the specific local region and can be a source of uncertainty. To seek the optimal parameter values in the snow-related processes of the Noah LSM over South Korea, we have implemented an optimization algorithm, a micro-genetic algorithm using the observations. As a result, the optimized snow parameters improve snowfall prediction.
Haochen Sun, Jimmy C. H. Fung, Yiang Chen, Zhenning Li, Dehao Yuan, Wanying Chen, and Xingcheng Lu
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 8439–8452,Short summary
This study developed a novel deep-learning layer, the broadcasting layer, to build an end-to-end LSTM-based deep-learning model for regional air pollution forecast. By combining the ground observation, WRF-CMAQ simulation, and the broadcasting LSTM deep-learning model, forecast accuracy has been significantly improved when compared to other methods. The broadcasting layer and its variants can also be applied in other research areas to supersede the traditional numerical interpolation methods.
Shunji Kotsuki, Takemasa Miyoshi, Keiichi Kondo, and Roland Potthast
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 8325–8348,Short summary
Data assimilation plays an important part in numerical weather prediction (NWP) in terms of combining forecasted states and observations. While data assimilation methods in NWP usually assume the Gaussian error distribution, some variables in the atmosphere, such as precipitation, are known to have non-Gaussian error statistics. This study extended a widely used ensemble data assimilation algorithm to enable the assimilation of more non-Gaussian observations.
Martin Vojta, Andreas Plach, Rona L. Thompson, and Andreas Stohl
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 8295–8323,Short summary
In light of recent global warming, we aim to improve methods for modeling greenhouse gas emissions in order to support the successful implementation of the Paris Agreement. In this study, we investigate certain aspects of a Bayesian inversion method that uses computer simulations and atmospheric observations to improve estimates of greenhouse gas emissions. We explore method limitations, discuss problems, and suggest improvements.
Longlei Li, Natalie M. Mahowald, Jasper F. Kok, Xiaohong Liu, Mingxuan Wu, Danny M. Leung, Douglas S. Hamilton, Louisa K. Emmons, Yue Huang, Neil Sexton, Jun Meng, and Jessica Wan
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 8181–8219,Short summary
This study advances mineral dust parameterizations in the Community Atmospheric Model (CAM; version 6.1). Efforts include 1) incorporating a more physically based dust emission scheme; 2) updating the dry deposition scheme; and 3) revising the gravitational settling velocity to account for dust asphericity. Substantial improvements achieved with these updates can help accurately quantify dust–climate interactions using CAM, such as the dust-radiation and dust–cloud interactions.
Youhua Tang, Patrick C. Campbell, Pius Lee, Rick Saylor, Fanglin Yang, Barry Baker, Daniel Tong, Ariel Stein, Jianping Huang, Ho-Chun Huang, Li Pan, Jeff McQueen, Ivanka Stajner, Jose Tirado-Delgado, Youngsun Jung, Melissa Yang, Ilann Bourgeois, Jeff Peischl, Tom Ryerson, Donald Blake, Joshua Schwarz, Jose-Luis Jimenez, James Crawford, Glenn Diskin, Richard Moore, Johnathan Hair, Greg Huey, Andrew Rollins, Jack Dibb, and Xiaoyang Zhang
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 7977–7999,Short summary
This paper compares two meteorological datasets for driving a regional air quality model: a regional meteorological model using WRF (WRF-CMAQ) and direct interpolation from an operational global model (GFS-CMAQ). In the comparison with surface measurements and aircraft data in summer 2019, these two methods show mixed performance depending on the corresponding meteorological settings. Direct interpolation is found to be a viable method to drive air quality models.
Zhiquan Liu, Chris Snyder, Jonathan J. Guerrette, Byoung-Joo Jung, Junmei Ban, Steven Vahl, Yali Wu, Yannick Trémolet, Thomas Auligné, Benjamin Ménétrier, Anna Shlyaeva, Stephen Herbener, Emily Liu, Daniel Holdaway, and Benjamin T. Johnson
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 7859–7878,Short summary
JEDI-MPAS 1.0.0, a new data assimilation (DA) system for the MPAS model, was publicly released for community use. This article describes JEDI-MPAS's implementation of the ensemble–variational DA technique and demonstrates its robustness and credible performance by incrementally adding three types of microwave radiances (clear-sky AMSU-A, all-sky AMSU-A, clear-sky MHS) to a non-radiance DA experiment. We intend to periodically release new and improved versions of JEDI-MPAS in upcoming years.
Li Fang, Jianbing Jin, Arjo Segers, Hai Xiang Lin, Mijie Pang, Cong Xiao, Tuo Deng, and Hong Liao
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 7791–7807,Short summary
This study proposes a regional feature selection-based machine learning system to predict short-term air quality in China. The system has a tool that can figure out the importance of input data for better prediction. It provides large-scale air quality prediction that exhibits improved interpretability, fewer training costs, and higher accuracy compared with a standard machine learning system. It can act as an early warning for citizens and reduce exposure to PM2.5 and other air pollutants.
Stella E. I. Manavi and Spyros N. Pandis
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 7731–7749,Short summary
The paper describes the first step towards the development of a simulation framework for the chemistry and secondary organic aerosol production of intermediate-volatility organic compounds (IVOCs). These compounds can be a significant source of organic particulate matter. Our approach treats IVOCs as lumped compounds that retain their chemical characteristics. Estimated IVOC emissions from road transport were a factor of 8 higher than emissions used in previous applications.
Peter Bräuer and Matthias Tesche
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 7557–7572,Short summary
This paper presents a tool for (i) finding temporally and spatially resolved intersections between two- or three-dimensional geographical tracks (trajectories) and (ii) extracting of data in the vicinity of intersections to achieve the optimal combination of various data sets.
Benjamin Zanger, Jia Chen, Man Sun, and Florian Dietrich
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 7533–7556,Short summary
Gaussian priors (GPs) used in least squares inversion do not reflect the true distributions of greenhouse gas emissions well. A method that does not rely on GPs is sparse reconstruction (SR). We show that necessary conditions for SR are satisfied for cities and that the application of a wavelet transform can further enhance sparsity. We apply the theory of compressed sensing to SR. Our results show that SR needs fewer measurements and is superior for assessing unknown emitters compared to GPs.
Paul Konopka, Mengchu Tao, Marc von Hobe, Lars Hoffmann, Corinna Kloss, Fabrizio Ravegnani, C. Michael Volk, Valentin Lauther, Andreas Zahn, Peter Hoor, and Felix Ploeger
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 7471–7487,Short summary
Pure trajectory-based transport models driven by meteorology derived from reanalysis products (ERA5) take into account only the resolved, advective part of transport. That means neither mixing processes nor unresolved subgrid-scale advective processes like convection are included. The Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere (CLaMS) includes these processes. We show that isentropic mixing dominates unresolved transport. The second most important transport process is unresolved convection.
Youngseob Kim, Lya Lugon, Alice Maison, Thibaud Sarica, Yelva Roustan, Myrto Valari, Yang Zhang, Michel André, and Karine Sartelet
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 7371–7396,Short summary
This paper presents the latest version of the street-network model MUNICH, v2.0. The description of MUNICH v1.0, which models gas-phase pollutants in a street network, was published in GMD in 2018. Since then, major modifications have been made to MUNICH. The comprehensive aerosol model SSH-aerosol is now coupled to MUNICH to simulate primary and secondary aerosol concentrations. New parameterisations have also been introduced. Test cases are defined to illustrate the new model functionalities.
Yongbo Zhou, Yubao Liu, Zhaoyang Huo, and Yang Li
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 7397–7420,Short summary
The study evaluates the performance of the Data Assimilation Research Testbed (DART), equipped with the recently added forward operator Radiative Transfer for TOVS (RTTOV), in assimilating FY-4A visible images into the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The ability of the WRF-DART/RTTOV system to improve the forecasting skills for a tropical storm over East Asia and the Western Pacific is demonstrated in an Observing System Simulation Experiment framework.
Dánnell Quesada-Chacón, Klemens Barfus, and Christian Bernhofer
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 7353–7370,Short summary
We improved the performance of past perfect prognosis statistical downscaling methods while achieving full model repeatability with GPU-calculated deep learning models using the TensorFlow, climate4R, and VALUE frameworks. We employed the ERA5 reanalysis as predictors and ReKIS (eastern Ore Mountains, Germany, 1 km resolution) as precipitation predictand, while incorporating modern deep learning architectures. The achieved repeatability is key to accomplish further milestones with deep learning.
Mike Bush, Ian Boutle, John Edwards, Anke Finnenkoetter, Charmaine Franklin, Kirsty Hanley, Aravindakshan Jayakumar, Huw Lewis, Adrian Lock, Marion Mittermaier, Saji Mohandas, Rachel North, Aurore Porson, Belinda Roux, Stuart Webster, and Mark Weeks
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for GMDShort summary
Building on the baseline of RAL1, the RAL2 science configuration is used for regional modelling around the UM Partnership and in operations at the Met Office. RAL2 has been tested in different parts of the world including Australia, India and the U.K. RAL2 increases medium and low cloud amounts in the mid-latitudes compared to RAL1, leading to improved cloud forecasts and a reduced diurnal cycle of screen temperature. There is also a reduction in the frequency of heavier precipitation rates.
Petri Clusius, Carlton Xavier, Lukas Pichelstorfer, Putian Zhou, Tinja Olenius, Pontus Roldin, and Michael Boy
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 7257–7286,Short summary
Atmospheric chemistry and aerosol processes form a dynamic and sensitively balanced system, and solving problems regarding air quality or climate requires detailed modelling and coupling of the processes. The models involved are often very complex to use. We have addressed this problem with the new ARCA box model. It puts much of the current knowledge of the nano- and microscale aerosol dynamics and chemistry into usable software and has the potential to become a valuable tool in the community.
Adam Milsom, Amy Lees, Adam M. Squires, and Christian Pfrang
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 7139–7151,Short summary
MultilayerPy is a Python-based framework facilitating the creation, running and optimisation of state-of-the-art kinetic multi-layer models of aerosol and film processes. Models can be fit to data with local and global optimisation algorithms along with a statistical sampling algorithm, which quantifies the uncertainty in optimised model parameters. This “modelling study in a box” enables more reproducible and reliable results, with model code and outputs produced in a human-readable way.
Johan F. de Haan, Ping Wang, Maarten Sneep, J. Pepijn Veefkind, and Piet Stammes
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 7031–7050,Short summary
We present an overview of the DISAMAR radiative transfer code, highlighting the novel semi-analytical derivatives for the doubling–adding formulae and the new DISMAS technique for weak absorbers. DISAMAR includes forward simulations and retrievals for satellite spectral measurements from 270 to 2400 nm to determine instrument specifications for passive remote sensing. It has been used in various Sentinel-4/5P/5 projects and in the TROPOMI aerosol layer height and ozone profile products.
Ivette H. Banos, Will D. Mayfield, Guoqing Ge, Luiz F. Sapucci, Jacob R. Carley, and Louisa Nance
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 6891–6917,Short summary
A prototype data assimilation system for NOAA’s next-generation rapidly updated, convection-allowing forecast system, or Rapid Refresh Forecast System (RRFS) v0.1, is tested and evaluated. The impact of using data assimilation with a convective storm case study is examined. Although the convection in RRFS tends to be overestimated in intensity and underestimated in extent, the use of data assimilation proves to be crucial to improve short-term forecasts of storms and precipitation.
Andrew Geiss, Sam J. Silva, and Joseph C. Hardin
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 6677–6694,Short summary
This work demonstrates the use of modern machine learning techniques to enhance the resolution of atmospheric chemistry simulations. We evaluate the schemes for an 8 x 10 increase in resolution and find that they perform substantially better than conventional methods. Methods are introduced to target machine learning methods towards this type of problem, most notably by ensuring they do not break known physical constraints.
Joffrey Dumont Le Brazidec, Marc Bocquet, Olivier Saunier, and Yelva Roustan
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for GMDShort summary
When radionuclides are released into the atmosphere, the assessment of the consequences depends on the evaluation of the magnitude and temporal evolution of the release, which can be highly variable as in the case of Fukushima-Daiichi. In this paper, we propose Bayesian inverse modelling methods and the Reversible-Jump Markov Chain Monte Carlo technique, which allows to evaluate the temporal variability of the release and to integrate different types of information in the source reconstruction.
Marine Bonazzola, Hélène Chepfer, Po-Lun Ma, Johannes Quaas, David M. Winker, Artem Feofilov, and Nick Schutgens
Aerosols have a large impact on climate. Using a lidar aerosol simulator ensures consistent comparisons between modeled and observed aerosols. In the current study, we present a lidar aerosol simulator that applies a cloud masking and an aerosol detection threshold. We estimate the lidar signals that would be observed at 532 nm by the lidar CALIOP overflying the atmosphere predicted by a climate model. Our comparison at the seasonal timescale shows a discrepancy in the Southern Hemisphere.
Daniel C. Anderson, Melanie B. Follette-Cook, Sarah A. Strode, Julie M. Nicely, Junhua Liu, Peter D. Ivatt, and Bryan N. Duncan
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 6341–6358,Short summary
The hydroxyl radical (OH) is the most important chemical in the atmosphere for removing certain pollutants, including methane, the second-most-important greenhouse gas. We present a methodology to create an easily modifiable parameterization that can calculate OH concentrations in a computationally efficient way. The parameterization, which predicts OH within 5 %, can be integrated into larger climate models to allow for calculation of the interactions between OH, methane, and other chemicals.
Akshay Sridhar, Yassine Tissaoui, Simone Marras, Zhaoyi Shen, Charles Kawczynski, Simon Byrne, Kiran Pamnany, Maciej Waruszewski, Thomas H. Gibson, Jeremy E. Kozdon, Valentin Churavy, Lucas C. Wilcox, Francis X. Giraldo, and Tapio Schneider
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 6259–6284,Short summary
ClimateMachine is a new open-source Julia-language atmospheric modeling code. We describe its limited-area configuration and the model equations, and we demonstrate applicability through benchmark problems, including atmospheric flow in the shallow cumulus regime. We show that the discontinuous Galerkin numerics and model equations allow global conservation of key variables (up to sources and sinks). We assess CPU strong scaling and GPU weak scaling to show its suitability for large simulations.
Joshua Chun Kwang Lee, Javier Amezcua, and Ross Noel Bannister
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 6197–6219,Short summary
In this article, we implement a novel data assimilation method for the ABC–DA system which combines traditional data assimilation approaches in a hybrid approach. We document the technical development and test the hybrid approach in idealised experiments within a tropical framework of the ABC–DA system. Our findings indicate that the hybrid approach outperforms individual traditional approaches. Its potential benefits have been highlighted and should be explored further within this framework.
Vincent Huijnen, Philippe Le Sager, Marcus O. Köhler, Glenn Carver, Samuel Rémy, Johannes Flemming, Simon Chabrillat, Quentin Errera, and Twan van Noije
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 6221–6241,Short summary
We report on the first implementation of atmospheric chemistry and aerosol as part of the OpenIFS model, based on the CAMS global model. We give an overview of the model and evaluate two reference model configurations, with and without the stratospheric chemistry extension, against a variety of observational datasets. This OpenIFS version with atmospheric composition components is open to the scientific user community under a standard OpenIFS license.
Danny McCulloch, Denis Sergeev, Nathan Mayne, Matthew Bate, James Manners, Ian Boutle, Benjamin Drummond, and Kristzian Kohary
We present results from the Met Office Unified Model (UM) to study the dry Martian climate. We describe our model setup conditions and run two scenarios, one with dust that interacts with the environment and it does not. We compare both scenarios to results from an existing Mars climate model, the Planetary Climate Model. We find good agreement in winds and air temperatures, but dust amounts differ between models. This study highlights the importance of using the UM for future Mars research.
Xueyin Ruan, Chun Zhao, Rahul A. Zaveri, Pengzhen He, Xinming Wang, Jingyuan Shao, and Lei Geng
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 6143–6164,Short summary
Accurate prediction of aerosol pH in chemical transport models is essential to aerosol modeling. This study examines the performance of the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) on aerosol pH predictions and the sensitivities to emissions of nonvolatile cations and NH3, aerosol-phase state assumption, and heterogeneous sulfate production. Temporal evolution of aerosol pH during haze cycles in Beijing and the driving factors are also presented and discussed.
Ping Wang, Kebiao Mao, Fei Meng, Zhihao Qin, Shu Fang, and Sayed M. Bateni
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 6059–6083,Short summary
In order to obtain the key parameters of high-temperature spatial–temporal variation analysis, this study proposed a daily highest air temperature (Tmax) estimation frame to build a Tmax dataset in China from 1979 to 2018. We found that the annual and seasonal mean Tmax in most areas of China showed an increasing trend. The abnormal temperature changes mainly occurred in El Nin~o years or La Nin~a years. IOBW had a stronger influence on China's warming events than other factors.
Vanessa Simone Rieger and Volker Grewe
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 5883–5903,Short summary
Road traffic emissions of nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds and carbon monoxide produce ozone in the troposphere and thus influence Earth's climate. To assess the ozone response to a broad range of mitigation strategies for road traffic, we developed a new chemistry–climate response model called TransClim. It is based on lookup tables containing climate–response relations and thus is able to quickly determine the climate response of a mitigation option.
Josué Bock, Jan Kaiser, Max Thomas, Andreas Bott, and Roland von Glasow
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 5807–5828,Short summary
MISTRA-v9.0 is an atmospheric boundary layer chemistry model. The model includes a detailed particle description with regards to the microphysics, gas–particle interactions, and liquid phase chemistry within particles. Version 9.0 is the first release of MISTRA as an open-source community model. This paper presents a thorough description of the model characteristics and components. We show some examples of simulations reproducing previous studies with MISTRA with good consistency.
Daniel J. Varon, Daniel J. Jacob, Melissa Sulprizio, Lucas A. Estrada, William B. Downs, Lu Shen, Sarah E. Hancock, Hannah Nesser, Zhen Qu, Elise Penn, Zichong Chen, Xiao Lu, Alba Lorente, Ashutosh Tewari, and Cynthia A. Randles
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 5787–5805,Short summary
Reducing atmospheric methane emissions is critical to slow near-term climate change. Globally surveying satellite instruments like the TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) have unique capabilities for monitoring atmospheric methane around the world. Here we present a user-friendly cloud-computing tool that enables researchers and stakeholders to quantify methane emissions across user-selected regions of interest using TROPOMI satellite observations.
Taewon Cho, Julianne Chung, Scot M. Miller, and Arvind K. Saibaba
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 5547–5565,Short summary
Atmospheric inverse modeling describes the process of estimating greenhouse gas fluxes or air pollution emissions at the Earth's surface using observations of these gases collected in the atmosphere. The launch of new satellites, the expansion of surface observation networks, and a desire for more detailed maps of surface fluxes have yielded numerous computational and statistical challenges. This article describes computationally efficient methods for large-scale atmospheric inverse modeling.
Zhiqiang Liu, Ning Zeng, Yun Liu, Eugenia Kalnay, Ghassem Asrar, Bo Wu, Qixiang Cai, Di Liu, and Pengfei Han
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 5511–5528,Short summary
We described the application of a constrained ensemble Kalman filter (CEnKF) in a joint CO2 and surface carbon fluxes estimation study. By assimilating the pseudo-surface and OCO-2 observations, the annual global flux estimation is significantly biased without mass conservation. With the additional CEnKF process, the CO2 mass is strictly constrained, and the estimation of annual fluxes is significantly improved.
Bianca Adler, James M. Wilczak, Jaymes Kenyon, Laura Bianco, Irina V. Djalalova, Joseph B. Olson, and David D. Turner
Rapid changes in wind speed make the integration of wind energy produced during persistent orographic cold pools difficult to integrate into the electrical grid. By evaluating three different versions of NOAA’s High-Resolution-Rapid Refresh model, we demonstrate how model developments targeted during the Second Wind Forecast Improvement Project improve the forecast of a persistent cold pool event.
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Quantifying dynamical and thermodynamical components of regional precipitation change is a key challenge in climate science. We introduce a novel statistical model (Latent Linear Adjustment Autoencoder) that combines the flexibility of deep neural networks with the robustness advantages of linear regression. The method enables estimation of the contribution of a coarse-scale atmospheric circulation proxy to daily precipitation at high resolution and in a spatially coherent manner.
Quantifying dynamical and thermodynamical components of regional precipitation change is a key...