Articles | Volume 14, issue 7
© Author(s) 2021. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
© Author(s) 2021. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
APFoam 1.0: integrated computational fluid dynamics simulation of O3–NOx–volatile organic compound chemistry and pollutant dispersion in a typical street canyon
School of Atmospheric Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
School of Atmospheric Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
Institute for Environmental and Climate Research, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632, China
Institute for Environmental and Climate Research, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632, China
China Aerodynamics Research and Development Center, Mianyang 621000, China
Luolin Wu, Ming Chang, Xuemei Wang, Jian Hang, Jinpu Zhang, Liqing Wu, and Min Shao
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 23–40,Short summary
We developed the Real-time On-road Emission (ROE v1.0) model to obtain the street-scale on-road hot emissions by using real-time big data for traffic provided by the Gaode Map navigation application. The results are close to other emission inventories. Meanwhile, we applied our results to a street-level air quality model for studying the impact of the national holiday traffic volume change on air quality. The model can be further extended to more districts in China or other countries.
Yixin Hao, Jun Zhou, Jie-Ping Zhou, Yan Wang, Suxia Yang, Yibo Huangfu, Xiao-Bing Li, Chunsheng Zhang, Aiming Liu, Yanfeng Wu, Yaqing Zhou, Shuchun Yang, Yuwen Peng, Jipeng Qi, Xianjun He, Xin Song, Yubin Chen, Bin Yuan, and Min Shao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 9891–9910,Short summary
By employing an improved net photochemical ozone production rate (NPOPR) detection system based on the dual-channel reaction chamber technique, we measured the net photochemical ozone production rate in the Pearl River Delta in China. The photochemical ozone formation mechanisms in the reaction and reference chambers were investigated using the observation-data-constrained box model, which helped us to validate the NPOPR detection system and understand photochemical ozone formation mechanism.
Yiyu Cai, Chenshuo Ye, Wei Chen, Weiwei Hu, Wei Song, Yuwen Peng, Shan Huang, Jipeng Qi, Sihang Wang, Chaomin Wang, Caihong Wu, Zelong Wang, Baolin Wang, Xiaofeng Huang, Lingyan He, Sasho Gligorovski, Bin Yuan, Min Shao, and Xinming Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 8855–8877,Short summary
We studied the variability and molecular composition of ambient oxidized organic nitrogen (OON) in both gas and particle phases using a state-of-the-art online mass spectrometer in urban air. Biomass burning and secondary formation were found to be the two major sources of OON. Daytime nitrate radical chemistry for OON formation was more important than previously thought. Our results improved the understanding of the sources and molecular composition of OON in the polluted urban atmosphere.
Tingting Feng, Yingkun Wang, Weiwei Hu, Ming Zhu, Wei Song, Wei Chen, Yanyan Sang, Zheng Fang, Wei Deng, Hua Fang, Xu Yu, Cheng Wu, Bin Yuan, Shan Huang, Min Shao, Xiaofeng Huang, Lingyan He, Young Ro Lee, Lewis Gregory Huey, Francesco Canonaco, Andre S. H. Prevot, and Xinming Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 611–636,Short summary
To investigate the impact of aging processes on organic aerosols (OA), we conducted a comprehensive field study at a continental remote site using an on-line mass spectrometer. The results show that OA in the Chinese outflows were strongly influenced by upwind anthropogenic emissions. The aging processes can significantly decrease the OA volatility and result in a varied viscosity of OA under different circumstances, signifying the complex physiochemical properties of OA in aged plumes.
Yongkang Wu, Weihua Chen, Yingchang You, Qianqian Xie, Shiguo Jia, and Xuemei Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 453–469,Short summary
Relying on observed and simulated data, we determine the spatiotemporal characteristics of nocturnal O3 increase (NOI) events in the Pearl River Delta region during 2006–2019. Low-level jets and convective storms are the main meteorological processes causing NOI. Daytime O3 is another essential influencing factor. More importantly, a more prominent role of meteorological processes in NOI has been demonstrated. Our study highlights the important role of meteorology in nocturnal O3 pollution.
Yubin Chen, Bin Yuan, Chaomin Wang, Sihang Wang, Xianjun He, Caihong Wu, Xin Song, Yibo Huangfu, Xiao-Bing Li, Yijia Liao, and Min Shao
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 6935–6947,Short summary
In this study, we demonstrate that selective online measurements of cycloalkanes can be achieved using proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry with NO+ chemical ionization (NO+ PTR-ToF-MS), with fast response and low detection limits. Applications of this method in both urban air and emission sources will be shown.
Haichao Wang, Bin Yuan, E Zheng, Xiaoxiao Zhang, Jie Wang, Keding Lu, Chenshuo Ye, Lei Yang, Shan Huang, Weiwei Hu, Suxia Yang, Yuwen Peng, Jipeng Qi, Sihang Wang, Xianjun He, Yubin Chen, Tiange Li, Wenjie Wang, Yibo Huangfu, Xiaobing Li, Mingfu Cai, Xuemei Wang, and Min Shao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14837–14858,Short summary
We present intensive field measurement of ClNO2 in the Pearl River Delta in 2019. Large variation in the level, formation, and atmospheric impacts of ClNO2 was found in different air masses. ClNO2 formation was limited by the particulate chloride (Cl−) and aerosol surface area. Our results reveal that Cl− originated from various anthropogenic emissions rather than sea sources and show minor contribution to the O3 pollution and photochemistry.
Biao Luo, Ye Kuang, Shan Huang, Qicong Song, Weiwei Hu, Wei Li, Yuwen Peng, Duohong Chen, Dingli Yue, Bin Yuan, and Min Shao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 12401–12415,Short summary
We performed comprehensive analysis on biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA) size distributions, as well as mass scattering and absorption efficiencies, with an improved method of on-line quantification of brown carbon absorptions. Both BBOA volume size distribution and retrieved refractive index depend highly on combustion conditions represented by the black carbon content, which has significant implications for BBOA climate effect simulations.
Xiao-Bing Li, Bin Yuan, Sihang Wang, Chunlin Wang, Jing Lan, Zhijie Liu, Yongxin Song, Xianjun He, Yibo Huangfu, Chenglei Pei, Peng Cheng, Suxia Yang, Jipeng Qi, Caihong Wu, Shan Huang, Yingchang You, Ming Chang, Huadan Zheng, Wenda Yang, Xuemei Wang, and Min Shao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10567–10587,Short summary
High-time-resolution measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were made using an online mass spectrometer at a 600 m tall tower in urban region. Compositions, temporal variations, and sources of VOCs were quantitatively investigated in this study. We find that VOC measurements in urban regions aloft could better characterize source characteristics of anthropogenic emissions. Our results could provide important implications in making future strategies for control of VOCs.
Sihang Wang, Bin Yuan, Caihong Wu, Chaomin Wang, Tiange Li, Xianjun He, Yibo Huangfu, Jipeng Qi, Xiao-Bing Li, Qing'e Sha, Manni Zhu, Shengrong Lou, Hongli Wang, Thomas Karl, Martin Graus, Zibing Yuan, and Min Shao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9703–9720,Short summary
Volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from vehicles are measured using online mass spectrometers. Differences between gasoline and diesel vehicles are observed with higher emission factors of most oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs) and heavier aromatics from diesel vehicles. A higher aromatics / toluene ratio could provide good indicators to distinguish emissions from both vehicle types. We show that OVOCs account for significant contributions to VOC emissions from vehicles, especially diesel vehicles.
Yihang Yu, Peng Cheng, Huirong Li, Wenda Yang, Baobin Han, Wei Song, Weiwei Hu, Xinming Wang, Bin Yuan, Min Shao, Zhijiong Huang, Zhen Li, Junyu Zheng, Haichao Wang, and Xiaofang Yu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8951–8971,Short summary
We have investigated the budget of HONO at an urban site in Guangzhou. Budget and comprehensive uncertainty analysis suggest that at such locations as ours, HONO direct emissions and NO + OH can become comparable or even surpass other HONO sources that typically receive greater attention and interest, such as the NO2 heterogeneous source and the unknown daytime photolytic source. Our findings emphasize the need to reduce the uncertainties of both conventional and novel HONO sources and sinks.
Qi Zhang, Shiguo Jia, Weihua Chen, Jingying Mao, Liming Yang, Padmaja Krishnan, Sayantan Sarkar, Min Shao, and Xuemei Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
We use satellite data in the establishment of methylamines marine biological emission (MBE) inventory for the first time, which considers effects of actual marine environment on methylamines emission fluxes. MBE fluxes of monomethylamine and trimethylamines can be comparable with or even higher than that of terrestrial anthropogenic emissions , while for dimethylamines, the ocean acts as a sink. Wind and Chlorophyll-a were potentially the most important factors affecting MBE fluxes.
Mingfu Cai, Shan Huang, Baoling Liang, Qibin Sun, Li Liu, Bin Yuan, Min Shao, Weiwei Hu, Wei Chen, Qicong Song, Wei Li, Yuwen Peng, Zelong Wang, Duohong Chen, Haobo Tan, Hanbin Xu, Fei Li, Xuejiao Deng, Tao Deng, Jiaren Sun, and Jun Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8117–8136,Short summary
This study investigated the size dependence and diurnal variation in organic aerosol hygroscopicity, volatility, and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity. We found that the physical properties of OA could vary in a large range at different particle sizes and affected the number concentration of CCN (NCCN) at all supersaturations. Our results highlight the importance of evaluating the atmospheric evolution processes of OA at different size ranges and their impact on climate effects.
Li Liu, Ye Kuang, Miaomiao Zhai, Biao Xue, Yao He, Jun Tao, Biao Luo, Wanyun Xu, Jiangchuan Tao, Changqin Yin, Fei Li, Hanbing Xu, Tao Deng, Xuejiao Deng, Haobo Tan, and Min Shao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7713–7726,Short summary
Using simultaneous measurements of a humidified nephelometer system and an aerosol chemical speciation monitor in winter in Guangzhou, the strongest scattering ability of more oxidized oxygenated organic aerosol (MOOA) among aerosol components considering their dry-state scattering ability and water uptake ability was revealed, leading to large impacts of MOOA on visibility degradation. This has important implications for visibility improvement in China and aerosol radiative effect simulation.
Suxia Yang, Bin Yuan, Yuwen Peng, Shan Huang, Wei Chen, Weiwei Hu, Chenglei Pei, Jun Zhou, David D. Parrish, Wenjie Wang, Xianjun He, Chunlei Cheng, Xiao-Bing Li, Xiaoyun Yang, Yu Song, Haichao Wang, Jipeng Qi, Baolin Wang, Chen Wang, Chaomin Wang, Zelong Wang, Tiange Li, E Zheng, Sihang Wang, Caihong Wu, Mingfu Cai, Chenshuo Ye, Wei Song, Peng Cheng, Duohong Chen, Xinming Wang, Zhanyi Zhang, Xuemei Wang, Junyu Zheng, and Min Shao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 4539–4556,Short summary
We use a model constrained using observations to study the formation of nitrate aerosol in and downwind of a representative megacity. We found different contributions of various chemical reactions to ground-level nitrate concentrations between urban and suburban regions. We also show that controlling VOC emissions are effective for decreasing nitrate formation in both urban and regional environments, although VOCs are not direct precursors of nitrate aerosol.
Wenjie Wang, Bin Yuan, Yuwen Peng, Hang Su, Yafang Cheng, Suxia Yang, Caihong Wu, Jipeng Qi, Fengxia Bao, Yibo Huangfu, Chaomin Wang, Chenshuo Ye, Zelong Wang, Baolin Wang, Xinming Wang, Wei Song, Weiwei Hu, Peng Cheng, Manni Zhu, Junyu Zheng, and Min Shao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 4117–4128,Short summary
From thorough measurements of numerous oxygenated volatile organic compounds, we show that their photodissociation can be important for radical production and ozone formation in the atmosphere. This effect was underestimated in previous studies, as measurements of them were lacking.
Ming Chang, Jiachen Cao, Qi Zhang, Weihua Chen, Guotong Wu, Liping Wu, Weiwen Wang, and Xuemei Wang
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 787–801,Short summary
Despite the importance of nitrogen deposition, its simulation is still insufficiently represented in current atmospheric chemistry models. In this study, the improvement of the canopy stomatal resistance mechanism and the nitrogen-limiting schemes in Noah-MP-WDDM v1.42 give new options for simulating nitrogen dry deposition velocity. This study finds that the combined BN-23 mechanism agrees better with the observed NO2 dry deposition velocity, with the mean bias reduced by 50.1 %.
Ziwei Mo, Ru Cui, Bin Yuan, Huihua Cai, Brian C. McDonald, Meng Li, Junyu Zheng, and Min Shao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13655–13666,Short summary
There is a lack of detailed understanding of NMVOC emissions from the use of volatile chemical products (VCPs) in China. This study used a mass balance method to compile a long-term emission inventory for solvent use (including coatings, adhesives, inks, pesticides, cleaners and personal care products) in China during 2000–2017. The striking growth and recent trend of solvent use NMVOC emissions can give important implications for air quality modeling and NMVOC control strategies in China.
Zhiyong Wu, Leiming Zhang, John T. Walker, Paul A. Makar, Judith A. Perlinger, and Xuemei Wang
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 5093–5105,Short summary
A community dry deposition algorithm for modeling the gaseous dry deposition process in chemistry transport models was extended to include an additional 12 oxidized volatile organic compounds and hydrogen cyanide based on their physicochemical properties and was then evaluated using field flux measurements over a mixed forest. This study provides a useful tool that is needed in chemistry transport models with increasing complexity for simulating an important atmospheric process.
Benjamin A. Nault, Duseong S. Jo, Brian C. McDonald, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Douglas A. Day, Weiwei Hu, Jason C. Schroder, James Allan, Donald R. Blake, Manjula R. Canagaratna, Hugh Coe, Matthew M. Coggon, Peter F. DeCarlo, Glenn S. Diskin, Rachel Dunmore, Frank Flocke, Alan Fried, Jessica B. Gilman, Georgios Gkatzelis, Jacqui F. Hamilton, Thomas F. Hanisco, Patrick L. Hayes, Daven K. Henze, Alma Hodzic, James Hopkins, Min Hu, L. Greggory Huey, B. Thomas Jobson, William C. Kuster, Alastair Lewis, Meng Li, Jin Liao, M. Omar Nawaz, Ilana B. Pollack, Jeffrey Peischl, Bernhard Rappenglück, Claire E. Reeves, Dirk Richter, James M. Roberts, Thomas B. Ryerson, Min Shao, Jacob M. Sommers, James Walega, Carsten Warneke, Petter Weibring, Glenn M. Wolfe, Dominique E. Young, Bin Yuan, Qiang Zhang, Joost A. de Gouw, and Jose L. Jimenez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11201–11224,Short summary
Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is an important aspect of poor air quality for urban regions around the world, where a large fraction of the population lives. However, there is still large uncertainty in predicting SOA in urban regions. Here, we used data from 11 urban campaigns and show that the variability in SOA production in these regions is predictable and is explained by key emissions. These results are used to estimate the premature mortality associated with SOA in urban regions.
Ye Kuang, Shan Huang, Biao Xue, Biao Luo, Qicong Song, Wei Chen, Weiwei Hu, Wei Li, Pusheng Zhao, Mingfu Cai, Yuwen Peng, Jipeng Qi, Tiange Li, Sihang Wang, Duohong Chen, Dingli Yue, Bin Yuan, and Min Shao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10375–10391,Short summary
We found that organic aerosol factors with identified sources perform much better than oxidation level parameters in characterizing variations in organic aerosol hygroscopicity, and secondary aerosol formations associated with different sources have distinct effects on organic aerosol hygroscopicity. It reveals that source-oriented organic aerosol hygroscopicity investigations might result in more appropriate parameterization approaches in chemical and climate models.
Syuichi Itahashi, Baozhu Ge, Keiichi Sato, Zhe Wang, Junichi Kurokawa, Jiani Tan, Kan Huang, Joshua S. Fu, Xuemei Wang, Kazuyo Yamaji, Tatsuya Nagashima, Jie Li, Mizuo Kajino, Gregory R. Carmichael, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8709–8734,Short summary
This study presents the detailed analysis of acid deposition over southeast Asia based on the Model Inter-Comparison Study for Asia (MICS-Asia) phase III. Simulated wet deposition is evaluated with observation data from the Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia (EANET). The difficulties of models to capture observations are related to the model performance on precipitation. The precipitation-adjusted approach was applied, and the distribution of wet deposition was successfully revised.
Mingfu Cai, Baoling Liang, Qibin Sun, Li Liu, Bin Yuan, Min Shao, Shan Huang, Yuwen Peng, Zelong Wang, Haobo Tan, Fei Li, Hanbin Xu, Duohong Chen, and Jun Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8575–8592,Short summary
This study investigated the contribution of new particle formation (NPF) events to the number concentration of cloud condensation nuclei (NCCN) and its controlling factors in the Pearl River Delta region. The results show that the surfactant effect can decrease the critical diameter and significantly increase the NCCN during the NPF event. In addition, the growth rate is founded to be the most important controlling factor that affects NCCN for growth of newly-formed particles to the CCN sizes.
Chenshuo Ye, Bin Yuan, Yi Lin, Zelong Wang, Weiwei Hu, Tiange Li, Wei Chen, Caihong Wu, Chaomin Wang, Shan Huang, Jipeng Qi, Baolin Wang, Chen Wang, Wei Song, Xinming Wang, E Zheng, Jordan E. Krechmer, Penglin Ye, Zhanyi Zhang, Xuemei Wang, Douglas R. Worsnop, and Min Shao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8455–8478,Short summary
We performed measurements of gaseous and particulate organic compounds using a state-of-the-art online mass spectrometer in urban air. Using the dataset, we provide a holistic chemical characterization of oxygenated organic compounds in the polluted urban atmosphere, which can serve as a reference for the future field measurements of organic compounds in cities.
Wenjie Wang, Jipeng Qi, Jun Zhou, Bin Yuan, Yuwen Peng, Sihang Wang, Suxia Yang, Jonathan Williams, Vinayak Sinha, and Min Shao
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2285–2298,Short summary
We designed a new reactor for measurements of OH reactivity (i.e., OH radical loss frequency) based on the comparative reactivity method under high-NOx conditions, such as in cities. We performed a series of laboratory tests to evaluate the new reactor. The new reactor was used in the field and performed well in measuring OH reactivity in air influenced by upwind cities.
Wenjie Wang, David D. Parrish, Xin Li, Min Shao, Ying Liu, Ziwei Mo, Sihua Lu, Min Hu, Xin Fang, Yusheng Wu, Limin Zeng, and Yuanhang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15617–15633,Short summary
During the past decade, China has devoted very substantial resources to improving the environment. These efforts have improved atmospheric particulate matter loading, but ambient ozone levels have continued to increase. In this paper we investigate the causes of the increasing ozone concentrations through analysis of a data set that is, to our knowledge, unique: a 12-year data set including ground-level O3, NOx, and VOC precursors collected at an urban site in Beijing.
Caihong Wu, Chaomin Wang, Sihang Wang, Wenjie Wang, Bin Yuan, Jipeng Qi, Baolin Wang, Hongli Wang, Chen Wang, Wei Song, Xinming Wang, Weiwei Hu, Shengrong Lou, Chenshuo Ye, Yuwen Peng, Zelong Wang, Yibo Huangfu, Yan Xie, Manni Zhu, Junyu Zheng, Xuemei Wang, Bin Jiang, Zhanyi Zhang, and Min Shao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14769–14785,Short summary
Based on measurements from an online mass spectrometer, we quantify volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations from numerous ions of the mass spectrometer, using information from laboratory-obtained calibration results. We find that most VOC concentrations are from oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs). We further show that these OVOCs also contribute significantly to OH reactivity. Our results suggest the important role of OVOCs in VOC emissions and chemistry in urban air.
Sarah E. Benish, Hao He, Xinrong Ren, Sandra J. Roberts, Ross J. Salawitch, Zhanqing Li, Fei Wang, Yuying Wang, Fang Zhang, Min Shao, Sihua Lu, and Russell R. Dickerson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14523–14545,Short summary
Airborne observations of ozone and related pollutants show smog was pervasive in spring 2016 over Hebei Province, China. We find high amounts of ozone precursors throughout and even above the PBL, continuing to generate ozone at high rates to be potentially transported downwind. Concentrations even in the rural areas of this highly industrialized province promote widespread ozone production, and we show that to improve air quality over Hebei both NOx and VOCs should be targeted.
Chaomin Wang, Bin Yuan, Caihong Wu, Sihang Wang, Jipeng Qi, Baolin Wang, Zelong Wang, Weiwei Hu, Wei Chen, Chenshuo Ye, Wenjie Wang, Yele Sun, Chen Wang, Shan Huang, Wei Song, Xinming Wang, Suxia Yang, Shenyang Zhang, Wanyun Xu, Nan Ma, Zhanyi Zhang, Bin Jiang, Hang Su, Yafang Cheng, Xuemei Wang, and Min Shao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14123–14138,Short summary
We utilized a novel online mass spectrometry method to measure the total concentration of higher alkanes at each carbon number at two different sites in China, allowing us to take into account SOA contributions from all isomers for higher alkanes. We found that higher alkanes account for significant fractions of SOA formation at the two sites. The contributions are comparable to or even higher than single-ring aromatics, the most-recognized SOA precursors in urban air.
Zhenhao Ling, Qianqian Xie, Min Shao, Zhe Wang, Tao Wang, Hai Guo, and Xuemei Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11451–11467,Short summary
The observation data from a receptor site in the Pearl River Delta region were analyzed by a photochemical box model with near-explicit chemical mechanisms (i.e., the Master Chemical Mechanism, MCM), improvements with reversible and irreversible heterogeneous processes of glyoxal and methylglyoxal, and the gas-particle partitioning of oxidation products in the present study.
Baozhu Ge, Syuichi Itahashi, Keiichi Sato, Danhui Xu, Junhua Wang, Fan Fan, Qixin Tan, Joshua S. Fu, Xuemei Wang, Kazuyo Yamaji, Tatsuya Nagashima, Jie Li, Mizuo Kajino, Hong Liao, Meigen Zhang, Zhe Wang, Meng Li, Jung-Hun Woo, Junichi Kurokawa, Yuepeng Pan, Qizhong Wu, Xuejun Liu, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10587–10610,Short summary
Performances of the simulated deposition for different reduced N (Nr) species in China were conducted with the Model Inter-Comparison Study for Asia. Results showed that simulated wet deposition of oxidized N was overestimated in northeastern China and underestimated in south China, but Nr was underpredicted in all regions by all models. Oxidized N has larger uncertainties than Nr, indicating that the chemical reaction process is one of the most importance factors affecting model performance.
Mingfu Cai, Baoling Liang, Qibin Sun, Shengzhen Zhou, Xiaoyang Chen, Bin Yuan, Min Shao, Haobo Tan, and Jun Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9153–9167,Short summary
Cloud condensation nuclei activity in marine atmosphere affects cloud formation and the solar radiation balance over ocean. We employed advanced instruments to measure aerosol hygroscopicity and chemical composition in the northern South China Sea. Our results show that marine aerosols can be affected by local emissions or pollutants from long-range transport. Our study highlights dynamical variations in particle properties and the impact of long-range transport on this region during summertime.
Junchen Guo, Shengzhen Zhou, Mingfu Cai, Jun Zhao, Wei Song, Weixiong Zhao, Weiwei Hu, Yele Sun, Yao He, Chengqiang Yang, Xuezhe Xu, Zhisheng Zhang, Peng Cheng, Qi Fan, Jian Hang, Shaojia Fan, Xinming Wang, and Xuemei Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 7595–7615,Short summary
We characterized non-refractory submicron particulate matter (PM1.0) during winter in Guangzhou, south China. Chemical composition and key sources of ambient PM1.0 are revealed, highlighting the significant role of SOA. The relationship with SOA and peroxy radicals indicated gas-phase oxidation contributed predominantly to SOA formation during non-pollution periods, while heterogeneous/multiphase reactions played more important roles in SOA formation during pollution periods.
Jiani Tan, Joshua S. Fu, Gregory R. Carmichael, Syuichi Itahashi, Zhining Tao, Kan Huang, Xinyi Dong, Kazuyo Yamaji, Tatsuya Nagashima, Xuemei Wang, Yiming Liu, Hyo-Jung Lee, Chuan-Yao Lin, Baozhu Ge, Mizuo Kajino, Jia Zhu, Meigen Zhang, Hong Liao, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 7393–7410,Short summary
This study evaluated the performance of 12 chemical transport models from MICS-Asia III for predicting the particulate matter (PM) over East Asia. Four model processes were investigated as the possible reasons for model bias with measurements and the factors causing inconsistent predictions of PM from different models: (1) model inputs, (2) gas–particle conversion, (3) dust emission modules and (4) removal mechanisms (wet and dry depositions). The influence of each process was discussed.
Shengzhen Zhou, Luolin Wu, Junchen Guo, Weihua Chen, Xuemei Wang, Jun Zhao, Yafang Cheng, Zuzhao Huang, Jinpu Zhang, Yele Sun, Pingqing Fu, Shiguo Jia, Jun Tao, Yanning Chen, and Junxia Kuang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 6435–6453,Short summary
In this work, measurements of size-segregated aerosols were conducted at three altitudes (ground level, 118 m, and 488 m) on the 610 m high Canton Tower in southern China. Vertical variations of PM and size-segregated chemical compositions were investigated. The results indicated that meteorological parameters and atmospheric aqueous and heterogeneous reactions together led to aerosol formation and haze episodes in the Pearl River Delta region during the measurement periods.
Syuichi Itahashi, Baozhu Ge, Keiichi Sato, Joshua S. Fu, Xuemei Wang, Kazuyo Yamaji, Tatsuya Nagashima, Jie Li, Mizuo Kajino, Hong Liao, Meigen Zhang, Zhe Wang, Meng Li, Junichi Kurokawa, Gregory R. Carmichael, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2667–2693,Short summary
This study gives an overview of acid deposition from the Model Inter-Comparison Study for Asia (MICS-Asia) phase III. Wet deposition simulated by a total of nine models is evaluated with observation data from the Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia (EANET). The total deposition maps comparing to emissions over Asia are presented. To seek a way to improve the model performance, ensemble approaches and the precipitation-adjusted method are discussed.
Lei Kong, Xiao Tang, Jiang Zhu, Zifa Wang, Joshua S. Fu, Xuemei Wang, Syuichi Itahashi, Kazuyo Yamaji, Tatsuya Nagashima, Hyo-Jung Lee, Cheol-Hee Kim, Chuan-Yao Lin, Lei Chen, Meigen Zhang, Zhining Tao, Jie Li, Mizuo Kajino, Hong Liao, Zhe Wang, Kengo Sudo, Yuesi Wang, Yuepeng Pan, Guiqian Tang, Meng Li, Qizhong Wu, Baozhu Ge, and Gregory R. Carmichael
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 181–202,Short summary
Evaluation and uncertainty investigation of NO2, CO and NH3 modeling over China were conducted in this study using 14 chemical transport model results from MICS-Asia III. All models largely underestimated CO concentrations and showed very poor performance in reproducing the observed monthly variations of NH3 concentrations. Potential factors related to such deficiencies are investigated and discussed in this paper.
Luolin Wu, Ming Chang, Xuemei Wang, Jian Hang, Jinpu Zhang, Liqing Wu, and Min Shao
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 23–40,Short summary
We developed the Real-time On-road Emission (ROE v1.0) model to obtain the street-scale on-road hot emissions by using real-time big data for traffic provided by the Gaode Map navigation application. The results are close to other emission inventories. Meanwhile, we applied our results to a street-level air quality model for studying the impact of the national holiday traffic volume change on air quality. The model can be further extended to more districts in China or other countries.
Jie Li, Tatsuya Nagashima, Lei Kong, Baozhu Ge, Kazuyo Yamaji, Joshua S. Fu, Xuemei Wang, Qi Fan, Syuichi Itahashi, Hyo-Jung Lee, Cheol-Hee Kim, Chuan-Yao Lin, Meigen Zhang, Zhining Tao, Mizuo Kajino, Hong Liao, Meng Li, Jung-Hun Woo, Jun-ichi Kurokawa, Zhe Wang, Qizhong Wu, Hajime Akimoto, Gregory R. Carmichael, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12993–13015,Short summary
This study evaluated and intercompared 14 CTMs with ozone observations in East Asia, within the framework of the Model Inter-Comparison Study for ASIA Phase III (MICS-Asia III). Potential causes of the discrepancies between model results and observation were investigated by assessing the planetary boundary layer heights, emission fluxes, dry deposition, chemistry and vertical transport among models. Finally, a multi-model estimate of pollution distributions was provided.
Lei Chen, Yi Gao, Meigen Zhang, Joshua S. Fu, Jia Zhu, Hong Liao, Jialin Li, Kan Huang, Baozhu Ge, Xuemei Wang, Yun Fat Lam, Chuan-Yao Lin, Syuichi Itahashi, Tatsuya Nagashima, Mizuo Kajino, Kazuyo Yamaji, Zifa Wang, and Jun-ichi Kurokawa
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 11911–11937,Short summary
Simulated aerosol concentrations from 14 CTMs within the framework of MICS-Asia III are detailedly evaluated with an extensive set of measurements in East Asia. Similarities and differences among model performances are also analyzed. Although more considerable capacities for reproducing the aerosol concentrations and their variations are shown in current CTMs than those in MICS-Asia II, more efforts are needed to reduce diversities of simulated aerosol concentrations among air quality models.
Yahui Bian, Zhijiong Huang, Jiamin Ou, Zhuangmin Zhong, Yuanqian Xu, Zhiwei Zhang, Xiao Xiao, Xiao Ye, Yuqi Wu, Xiaohong Yin, Cheng Li, Liangfu Chen, Min Shao, and Junyu Zheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 11701–11719,Short summary
During 2006–2015, emissions of SO2, NOx, PM2.5 and PM10 saw an obvious downtrend. However, most emissions still have large reduction potential. On-road mobile sources and solvent use are the two key sources that should receive more effective control measures in GD. Also, controls measures on VOC and NH3 should be weighted since they still increased in 2006–2015. Since most control measures focused on PRD rather than non-PRD in GD, emissions in non-PRD were increasingly important.
Wenjie Wang, Xin Li, Min Shao, Min Hu, Limin Zeng, Yusheng Wu, and Tianyi Tan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 9413–9429,Short summary
We quantitatively evaluated the relationship between photolysis frequencies and AOD based on 4 years of observational data in Beijing. This study concludes that the influence of aerosol on photolysis frequencies and thus on the rate of oxidation of VOCs and NOx to ozone is important for determining the atmospheric effects of controlling the precursor emissions of these two important air pollutants (aerosols and ozone).
Zhuoran He, Xuemei Wang, Zhenhao Ling, Jun Zhao, Hai Guo, Min Shao, and Zhe Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 8801–8816,Short summary
In this study, source apportionment of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and their contributions to photochemical O3 formation were analyzed by the positive matrix factorization model and an observation-based model using data collected at a receptor site in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region. Furthermore, the policies for controlling VOCs are briefly reviewed. The findings could provide quantitative information for devising appropriate measures against VOCs, NOx and O3 pollution in the PRD.
Liqing Wu, Xuemei Wang, Sihua Lu, Min Shao, and Zhenhao Ling
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 8141–8161,Short summary
Semi-volatile and intermediate-volatility organic compounds (S–IVOCs) are considered critical precursors of secondary organic aerosol (SOA), which is an important component of fine particulate matter (PM2.5). In this study, an emission inventory of S–IVOCs in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region was developed for the first time for the year 2010, while the contributions of S–IVOCs to SOA formation was evaluated by the WRF-Chem model.
Zhaofeng Tan, Keding Lu, Andreas Hofzumahaus, Hendrik Fuchs, Birger Bohn, Frank Holland, Yuhan Liu, Franz Rohrer, Min Shao, Kang Sun, Yusheng Wu, Limin Zeng, Yinsong Zhang, Qi Zou, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Andreas Wahner, and Yuanhang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 7129–7150,Short summary
Atmospheric OH, HO2, and RO2 radicals; OH reactivity; and trace gases measured in the Pearl River Delta in autumn 2014 are used for radical budget analyses. The RO2 budget suggests that unexplained OH reactivity is due to unmeasured volatile organic compounds. The OH budget points to a missing OH source and that of RO2 to a missing RO2 sink at low NO. This could indicate a common, unknown process that converts RO2 to OH without the involvement of NO, which would reduce ozone production by 30 %.
Guo Li, Yafang Cheng, Uwe Kuhn, Rongjuan Xu, Yudong Yang, Hannah Meusel, Zhibin Wang, Nan Ma, Yusheng Wu, Meng Li, Jonathan Williams, Thorsten Hoffmann, Markus Ammann, Ulrich Pöschl, Min Shao, and Hang Su
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2209–2232,Short summary
VOCs play a key role in atmospheric chemistry. Emission and deposition on soil have been suggested as important sources and sinks of atmospheric trace gases. The exchange characteristics and heterogeneous chemistry of VOCs on soil, however, are not well understood. We used a newly designed differential coated-wall flow tube system to investigate the long-term variability of bidirectional air–soil exchange of 13 VOCs at ambient air conditions of an urban background site in Beijing.
Daocheng Gong, Hao Wang, Shenyang Zhang, Yu Wang, Shaw Chen Liu, Hai Guo, Min Shao, Congrong He, Duohong Chen, Lingyan He, Lei Zhou, Lidia Morawska, Yuanhang Zhang, and Boguang Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 14417–14432,Short summary
The complex air pollution in the air-polluted Pearl River Delta (PRD) region in southern China has significantly elevated the background atmospheric oxidative capacity of the adjacent forests and subsequently lowered the levels of important biogenic volatile organic compounds, such as isoprene, which probably affect the regional air quality and ecological environment in the long term.
Weiqiang Yang, Yanli Zhang, Xinming Wang, Sheng Li, Ming Zhu, Qingqing Yu, Guanghui Li, Zhonghui Huang, Huina Zhang, Zhenfeng Wu, Wei Song, Jihua Tan, and Min Shao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 12663–12682,Short summary
We present observation-based evaluations of the reduction of ambient VOCs under intervention control measures during APEC China 2014 in Beijing and the contributions of emissions from domestic solid fuel burning to ambient VOCs during winter heating. Controlling vehicle exhaust and solvent use was found to be effective in reducing ambient VOCs in non-heating periods, and controlling emissions from residential burning of solid fuels became much more important during winter heating.
Zhaofeng Tan, Franz Rohrer, Keding Lu, Xuefei Ma, Birger Bohn, Sebastian Broch, Huabin Dong, Hendrik Fuchs, Georgios I. Gkatzelis, Andreas Hofzumahaus, Frank Holland, Xin Li, Ying Liu, Yuhan Liu, Anna Novelli, Min Shao, Haichao Wang, Yusheng Wu, Limin Zeng, Min Hu, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Andreas Wahner, and Yuanhang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 12391–12411,Short summary
We present the first wintertime OH, HO2, and RO2 measurements in Beijing, China. OH concentrations are nearly 2-fold larger than those observed in foreign cities during wintertime. The high OH and large OH reactivities indicate photochemical processes can be effective even during wintertime. A box model largely underestimated HO2 and RO2 concentrations during pollution episodes correlated with high NOx, indicating a deficit current chemistry in the high NOx regime.
Shiguo Jia, Xuemei Wang, Qi Zhang, Sayantan Sarkar, Luolin Wu, Minjuan Huang, Jinpu Zhang, and Liming Yang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11125–11133,Short summary
Aerosol pH are often directly compared across studies while ignoring the inconsistency in standard states. This study attempts to address this issue by comparing aerosol pH with different standard states on the basis of theoretical considerations followed with a set of field data as an example. Application of a pH standardization protocol including a precise statement of thermodynamic model parameters is recommended to avoid biases in cross-comparison.
Zhuofei Du, Min Hu, Jianfei Peng, Wenbin Zhang, Jing Zheng, Fangting Gu, Yanhong Qin, Yudong Yang, Mengren Li, Yusheng Wu, Min Shao, and Shijin Shuai
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 9011–9023,Short summary
By combining approaches involving chassis dynamometer measurements and environmental chamber simulations, we find that gasoline direct injection (GDI) vehicles contribute more primary aerosol and secondary organic aerosol than port fuel injection (PFI) vehicles. Our results highlight the considerable potential contribution of GDI vehicles to urban air pollution, since the market share of GDI vehicles will dominate over that of PFI vehicles in the future.
Guo Li, Hang Su, Uwe Kuhn, Hannah Meusel, Markus Ammann, Min Shao, Ulrich Pöschl, and Yafang Cheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2669–2686,Short summary
Coated-wall flow tube reactors are frequently used to investigate gas uptake and heterogeneous or multiphase reaction kinetics under laminar flow conditions. In previous applications, the effects of coating surface roughness on flow conditions were not well quantified. In this study, a criterion is proposed to eliminate/minimize the potential effects of coating surface roughness on laminar flow in coated-wall flow tube experiments and validate the applications of diffusion correction methods.
Shengzhen Zhou, Perry K. Davy, Minjuan Huang, Jingbo Duan, Xuemei Wang, Qi Fan, Ming Chang, Yiming Liu, Weihua Chen, Shanju Xie, Travis Ancelet, and William J. Trompetter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2049–2064,Short summary
We collected hourly samples of PM2.5 and PM2.5–10 at an industrial city in the PRD, China. The samples were analyzed for black carbon and elemental compositions. Receptor modeling of the dataset by positive matrix factorization was used to identify PM sources. Human health exposure risks to the selected trace elements in PM released from the specific sources were estimated. The source–risk apportionment method helps decision makers to manage air quality more effectively.
Jianfei Peng, Min Hu, Song Guo, Zhuofei Du, Dongjie Shang, Jing Zheng, Jun Zheng, Limin Zeng, Min Shao, Yusheng Wu, Don Collins, and Renyi Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 10333–10348,Short summary
Rapid growth of BC particles was observed in Beijing using a new outdoor chamber, with an average growth rate of 26 ± 11 nm h−1. Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) accounted for more than 90 % of the coating mass. The hygroscopic growth factor of BC particles increased to 1.06–1.08 upon ageing. The κ (kappa) values for BC particles were calculated as only 0.035, indicating that initial photochemical ageing of BC particles does not appreciably alter the particle hygroscopicity in Beijing.
Yudong Yang, Min Shao, Stephan Keßel, Yue Li, Keding Lu, Sihua Lu, Jonathan Williams, Yuanhang Zhang, Liming Zeng, Anke C. Nölscher, Yusheng Wu, Xuemei Wang, and Junyu Zheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 7127–7142,Short summary
Total OH reactivity is an important parameter to evaluate understanding of atmospheric chemistry, especially the VOC contribution to air pollution. Measured by comparative reactivity methods, total OH reactivity in Beijing and Heshan revealed significant differences between measured and calculated results, such as missing reactivity, which were related to unmeasured primary or secondary species. This missing reactivity would introduce a 21–30 % underestimation for ozone production efficiency.
Zhaofeng Tan, Hendrik Fuchs, Keding Lu, Andreas Hofzumahaus, Birger Bohn, Sebastian Broch, Huabin Dong, Sebastian Gomm, Rolf Häseler, Lingyan He, Frank Holland, Xin Li, Ying Liu, Sihua Lu, Franz Rohrer, Min Shao, Baolin Wang, Ming Wang, Yusheng Wu, Limin Zeng, Yinsong Zhang, Andreas Wahner, and Yuanhang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 663–690,Short summary
In this study, we performed accurate OH measurements as well as selective HO2 and RO2 measurements at a rural site in North China Plain with state-of-the-art instruments newly developed. We confirmed the previous discovery on the enhancement of the OH in low NOx with which little O3 production was associated, and we found a missing RO2 source in high NOx which promoted higher O3 production. Our results are of vital importance for ozone abatement strategies currently under discussion for China.
Hendrik Fuchs, Zhaofeng Tan, Keding Lu, Birger Bohn, Sebastian Broch, Steven S. Brown, Huabin Dong, Sebastian Gomm, Rolf Häseler, Lingyan He, Andreas Hofzumahaus, Frank Holland, Xin Li, Ying Liu, Sihua Lu, Kyung-Eun Min, Franz Rohrer, Min Shao, Baolin Wang, Ming Wang, Yusheng Wu, Limin Zeng, Yinson Zhang, Andreas Wahner, and Yuanhang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 645–661,Short summary
OH reactivity was measured during a 1-month long campaign at a rural site in the North China Plain in 2014. OH reactivity measurements are compared to calculations using OH reactant measurements. Good agreement is found indicating that all important OH reactants were measured. In addition, the chemical OH budget is analyzed. In contrast to previous campaigns in China in 2006, no significant imbalance between OH production and destruction is found.
Yee Jun Tham, Zhe Wang, Qinyi Li, Hui Yun, Weihao Wang, Xinfeng Wang, Likun Xue, Keding Lu, Nan Ma, Birger Bohn, Xin Li, Simonas Kecorius, Johannes Größ, Min Shao, Alfred Wiedensohler, Yuanhang Zhang, and Tao Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14959–14977,Short summary
This work addresses the unclear global significance of chlorine activation processes in the troposphere. The first high-quality measurement data set of ClNO2 in northern China revealed strong ClNO2 production in the residual layers, and demonstrated its significant effects on radical budget and ozone production. Our findings imply the widespread effects of ClNO2 over the polluted regions of northern China, which may increase photochemical and haze pollution.
Weihua Chen, Xuemei Wang, Jason Blake Cohen, Shengzhen Zhou, Zhisheng Zhang, Ming Chang, and Chuen-Yu Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 13271–13289,Short summary
Measurements of size-resolved aerosols (0.25–18 μm) were conducted at three sites (urban, suburban and background sites) in southern China during monsoon season (May–June) in 2010 aqueous-phase reaction was the main formation pathway of droplet mode sulfate. New particle formation, chemical aging, and long-range transport from upwind urban or biomass burning regions were also found to be important in at least some of the sights on some of the sampling days.
Wei Hu, Min Hu, Wei-Wei Hu, Hongya Niu, Jing Zheng, Yusheng Wu, Wentai Chen, Chen Chen, Lingyu Li, Min Shao, Shaodong Xie, and Yuanhang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 13213–13230,Short summary
An Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight AMS was deployed at a suburban site in the Sichuan Basin, southwestern China, under high emission intensity, and unique geographical and adverse meteorological conditions. OA was the most abundant component (36 %) in PM1, characterized by a relatively high oxidation state. The contributions of BBOA and BC to PM1 were high in primary emission episodes, highlighting the critical influence of biomass burning.
Guo Li, Hang Su, Xin Li, Uwe Kuhn, Hannah Meusel, Thorsten Hoffmann, Markus Ammann, Ulrich Pöschl, Min Shao, and Yafang Cheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 10299–10311,Short summary
Indoor and outdoor formaldehyde (HCHO) are both of considerable concern because of its health effects and its role in atmospheric chemistry. The heterogeneous reactions between gaseous HCHO with soils can pose important impact on both HCHO budget and soil ecosystem. Our results confirms that HCHO uptake by soil is a complex process involving both adsorption/desorption and chemical reactions. Soil and soil-derived airborne particles can either act as a source or a sink for HCHO.
Xuekun Fang, Min Shao, Andreas Stohl, Qiang Zhang, Junyu Zheng, Hai Guo, Chen Wang, Ming Wang, Jiamin Ou, Rona L. Thompson, and Ronald G. Prinn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 3369–3382,Short summary
This is the first study reporting top-down estimates of benzene and toluene emissions in southern China using atmospheric measurement data from a rural site in the area, an atmospheric transport model and an inverse modeling method. This study shows in detail the temporal and spatial differences between the inversion estimate and four different bottom-up emission inventories (RCP, REAS, MEIC; Yin et al., 2015). We propose that more observations are urgently needed in future.
Yaning Kang, Mingxu Liu, Yu Song, Xin Huang, Huan Yao, Xuhui Cai, Hongsheng Zhang, Ling Kang, Xuejun Liu, Xiaoyuan Yan, Hong He, Qiang Zhang, Min Shao, and Tong Zhu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2043–2058,Short summary
The multi-year (1980–2012) comprehensive ammonia emissions inventories were compiled for China on 1 km × 1 km grid. Various realistic parameters (ambient temperature, wind speed, soil acidity, synthetic fertilizer types, etc.) were considered in these inventories to synthetically refine the emission factors of ammonia volatilization according to local agricultural practice. This paper shows the interannual trend and spatial distribution of ammonia emissions in details over recent decades.
Z. Y. Wu, L. Zhang, X. M. Wang, and J. W. Munger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 7487–7496,Short summary
In this study, we have developed a modified micrometeorological gradient method (MGM), although based on existing micrometeorological theory, to estimate O3 dry deposition fluxes over a forest canopy using concentration gradients between a level above and a level below the canopy top. The new method provides an alternative approach in monitoring/estimating long-term deposition fluxes of similar pollutants over tall canopies and is expected to be useful for the scientific community.
Y. Liu, B. Yuan, X. Li, M. Shao, S. Lu, Y. Li, C.-C. Chang, Z. Wang, W. Hu, X. Huang, L. He, L. Zeng, M. Hu, and T. Zhu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3045–3062,
M. Wang, M. Shao, W. Chen, S. Lu, Y. Liu, B. Yuan, Q. Zhang, Q. Zhang, C.-C. Chang, B. Wang, L. Zeng, M. Hu, Y. Yang, and Y. Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 1489–1502,
X. Li, F. Rohrer, T. Brauers, A. Hofzumahaus, K. Lu, M. Shao, Y. H. Zhang, and A. Wahner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 12291–12305,
Q. Zhang, B. Yuan, M. Shao, X. Wang, S. Lu, K. Lu, M. Wang, L. Chen, C.-C. Chang, and S. C. Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 6089–6101,
M. Wang, M. Shao, W. Chen, B. Yuan, S. Lu, Q. Zhang, L. Zeng, and Q. Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 5871–5891,
M. Li, Q. Zhang, D. G. Streets, K. B. He, Y. F. Cheng, L. K. Emmons, H. Huo, S. C. Kang, Z. Lu, M. Shao, H. Su, X. Yu, and Y. Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 5617–5638,
K. D. Lu, F. Rohrer, F. Holland, H. Fuchs, T. Brauers, A. Oebel, R. Dlugi, M. Hu, X. Li, S. R. Lou, M. Shao, T. Zhu, A. Wahner, Y. H. Zhang, and A. Hofzumahaus
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 4979–4999,
W. T. Chen, M. Shao, S. H. Lu, M. Wang, L. M. Zeng, B. Yuan, and Y. Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 3047–3062,
H. Liu, X. M. Wang, J. M. Pang, and K. B. He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 12013–12027,
S. Situ, A. Guenther, X. Wang, X. Jiang, A. Turnipseed, Z. Wu, J. Bai, and X. Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 11803–11817,
Z. B. Wang, M. Hu, D. Mogensen, D. L. Yue, J. Zheng, R. Y. Zhang, Y. Liu, B. Yuan, X. Li, M. Shao, L. Zhou, Z. J. Wu, A. Wiedensohler, and M. Boy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 11157–11167,
W. W. Hu, M. Hu, B. Yuan, J. L. Jimenez, Q. Tang, J. F. Peng, W. Hu, M. Shao, M. Wang, L. M. Zeng, Y. S. Wu, Z. H. Gong, X. F. Huang, and L. Y. He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 10095–10112,
C.-C. Chang, M. Shao, C. C. K. Chou, S.-C. Liu, J.-L. Wang, K.-Z. Lee, C.-H. Lai, T. Zhu, and P.-H. Lin
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
B. Yuan, W. W. Hu, M. Shao, M. Wang, W. T. Chen, S. H. Lu, L. M. Zeng, and M. Hu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 8815–8832,
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Bernhard M. Enz, Jan P. Engelmann, and Ulrike Lohmann
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 5093–5112,Short summary
An algorithm to track tropical cyclones in model simulation data has been developed. The algorithm uses many combinations of varying parameter thresholds to detect weaker phases of tropical cyclones while still being resilient to false positives. It is shown that the algorithm performs well and adequately represents the tropical cyclone activity of the underlying simulation data. The impact of false positives on overall tropical cyclone activity is shown to be insignificant.
Sepehr Fathi, Mark Gordon, and Yongsheng Chen
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 5069–5091,Short summary
We have combined various capabilities within a WRF model to generate simulations of atmospheric pollutant dispersion at 50 m resolution. The study objective was to resolve transport processes at the scale of measurements to assess and optimize aircraft-based emission rate retrievals. Model performance evaluation resulted in agreement within 5 % of observed meteorological and within 1–2 standard deviations of observed wind fields. Mass was conserved in the model within 5 % of input emissions.
Dylan Reynolds, Ethan Gutmann, Bert Kruyt, Michael Haugeneder, Tobias Jonas, Franziska Gerber, Michael Lehning, and Rebecca Mott
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 5049–5068,Short summary
The challenge of running geophysical models is often compounded by the question of where to obtain appropriate data to give as input to a model. Here we present the HICAR model, a simplified atmospheric model capable of running at spatial resolutions of hectometers for long time series or over large domains. This makes physically consistent atmospheric data available at the spatial and temporal scales needed for some terrestrial modeling applications, for example seasonal snow forecasting.
Li Fang, Jianbing Jin, Arjo Segers, Hong Liao, Ke Li, Bufan Xu, Wei Han, Mijie Pang, and Hai Xiang Lin
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 4867–4882,Short summary
Machine learning models have gained great popularity in air quality prediction. However, they are only available at air quality monitoring stations. In contrast, chemical transport models (CTM) provide predictions that are continuous in the 3D field. Owing to complex error sources, they are typically biased. In this study, we proposed a gridded prediction with high accuracy by fusing predictions from our regional feature selection machine learning prediction (RFSML v1.0) and a CTM prediction.
Manu Goudar, Juliëtte C. S. Anema, Rajesh Kumar, Tobias Borsdorff, and Jochen Landgraf
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 4835–4852,Short summary
A framework was developed to automatically detect plumes and compute emission estimates with cross-sectional flux method (CFM) for biomass burning events in TROPOMI CO datasets using Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite active fire data. The emissions were more reliable when changing plume height in downwind direction was used instead of constant injection height. The CFM had uncertainty even when the meteorological conditions were accurate; thus there is a need for better inversion models.
Drew C. Pendergrass, Daniel J. Jacob, Hannah Nesser, Daniel J. Varon, Melissa Sulprizio, Kazuyuki Miyazaki, and Kevin W. Bowman
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 4793–4810,Short summary
We have built a tool called CHEEREIO that allows scientists to use observations of pollutants or gases in the atmosphere, such as from satellites or surface stations, to update supercomputer models that simulate the Earth. CHEEREIO uses the difference between the model simulations of the atmosphere and real-world observations to come up with a good guess for the actual composition of our atmosphere, the true emissions of various pollutants, and whatever else they may want to study.
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 4749–4766,Short summary
The Earth's atmosphere can support various types of global-scale waves. Some waves propagate eastward and others westward, and they can have different zonal wavenumbers. The Fourier–wavelet analysis is a useful technique for identifying different components of global-scale waves and their temporal variability. This paper introduces an easy-to-implement method to derive Fourier–wavelet spectra from 2-D space–time data. Application examples are presented using atmospheric models.
Bok H. Baek, Carlie Coats, Siqi Ma, Chi-Tsan Wang, Yunyao Li, Jia Xing, Daniel Tong, Soontae Kim, and Jung-Hun Woo
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 4659–4676,Short summary
To enable the direct feedback effects of aerosols and local meteorology in an air quality modeling system without any computational bottleneck, we have developed an inline meteorology-induced emissions coupler module within the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Community Multiscale Air Quality modeling system to dynamically model the complex MOtor Vehicle Emission Simulator (MOVES) on-road mobile emissions inline without a separate dedicated emissions processing model like SMOKE.
Christoph Neuhauser, Maicon Hieronymus, Michael Kern, Marc Rautenhaus, Annika Oertel, and Rüdiger Westermann
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 4617–4638,Short summary
Numerical weather prediction models rely on parameterizations for sub-grid-scale processes, which are a source of uncertainty. We present novel visual analytics solutions to analyze interactively the sensitivities of a selected prognostic variable to multiple model parameters along trajectories regarding similarities in temporal development and spatiotemporal relationships. The proposed workflow is applied to cloud microphysical sensitivities along coherent strongly ascending trajectories.
Yingqi Zheng, Minttu Havu, Huizhi Liu, Xueling Cheng, Yifan Wen, Hei Shing Lee, Joyson Ahongshangbam, and Leena Järvi
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 4551–4579,Short summary
The performance of the Surface Urban Energy and Water Balance Scheme (SUEWS) is evaluated against the observed surface exchanges (fluxes) of heat and carbon dioxide in a densely built neighborhood in Beijing. The heat flux modeling is noticeably improved by using the observed maximum conductance and by optimizing the vegetation phenology modeling. SUEWS also performs well in simulating carbon dioxide flux.
Simone Dietmüller, Sigrun Matthes, Katrin Dahlmann, Hiroshi Yamashita, Abolfazl Simorgh, Manuel Soler, Florian Linke, Benjamin Lührs, Maximilian M. Meuser, Christian Weder, Volker Grewe, Feijia Yin, and Federica Castino
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 4405–4425,Short summary
Climate-optimized aircraft trajectories avoid atmospheric regions with a large climate impact due to aviation emissions. This requires spatially and temporally resolved information on aviation's climate impact. We propose using algorithmic climate change functions (aCCFs) for CO2 and non-CO2 effects (ozone, methane, water vapor, contrail cirrus). Merged aCCFs combine individual aCCFs by assuming aircraft-specific parameters and climate metrics. Technically this is done with a Python library.
Andreas A. Beckert, Lea Eisenstein, Annika Oertel, Tim Hewson, George C. Craig, and Marc Rautenhaus
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 4427–4450,Short summary
We investigate the benefit of objective 3-D front detection with modern interactive visual analysis techniques for case studies of extra-tropical cyclones and comparisons of frontal structures between different numerical weather prediction models. The 3-D frontal structures show agreement with 2-D fronts from surface analysis charts and augment them in the vertical dimension. We see great potential for more complex studies of atmospheric dynamics and for operational weather forecasting.
Zhenxin Liu, Yuanhao Chen, Yuhang Wang, Cheng Liu, Shuhua Liu, and Hong Liao
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 4385–4403,Short summary
The heterogeneous layout of urban buildings leads to the complex wind field in and over the urban canopy. Large discrepancies between the observations and the current simulations result from misunderstanding the character of the wind field. The Inhomogeneous Wind Scheme in Urban Street (IWSUS) was developed to simulate the heterogeneity of the wind speed in a typical street and then improve the simulated energy budget in the lower atmospheric layer over the urban canopy.
Kai Cao, Qizhong Wu, Lingling Wang, Nan Wang, Huaqiong Cheng, Xiao Tang, Dongqing Li, and Lanning Wang
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 4367–4383,Short summary
Offline performance experiment results show that the GPU-HADVPPM on a V100 GPU can achieve up to 1113.6 × speedups to its original version on an E5-2682 v4 CPU. A series of optimization measures are taken, and the CAMx-CUDA model improves the computing efficiency by 128.4 × on a single V100 GPU card. A parallel architecture with an MPI plus CUDA hybrid paradigm is presented, and it can achieve up to 4.5 × speedup when launching eight CPU cores and eight GPU cards.
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 4265–4281,Short summary
This study analyzes forecasts that were made in 2021 to help trigger measurements during the CADDIWA experiment. The WRF and CHIMERE models were run each day, and the first goal is to quantify the variability of the forecast as a function of forecast leads and forecast location. The possibility of using the different leads as an ensemble is also tested. For some locations, the correlation scores are better with this approach. This could be tested on operational forecast chains in the future.
Emily de Jong, John Ben Mackay, Oleksii Bulenok, Anna Jaruga, and Sylwester Arabas
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 4193–4211,Short summary
In clouds, collisional breakup occurs when two colliding droplets splinter into new, smaller fragments. Particle-based modeling approaches often do not represent breakup because of the computational demands of creating new droplets. We present a particle-based breakup method that preserves the computational efficiency of these methods. In a series of simple demonstrations, we show that this representation alters cloud processes in reasonable and expected ways.
Caiyi Jin, Qiangqiang Yuan, Tongwen Li, Yuan Wang, and Liangpei Zhang
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 4137–4154,Short summary
The semi-empirical physical approach derives PM2.5 with strong physical significance. However, due to the complex optical characteristic, the physical parameters are difficult to express accurately. Thus, combining the atmospheric physical mechanism and machine learning, we propose an optimized model. It creatively embeds the random forest model into the physical PM2.5 remote sensing approach to simulate a physical parameter. Our method shows great optimized performance in the validations.
Cyril Caram, Sophie Szopa, Anne Cozic, Slimane Bekki, Carlos A. Cuevas, and Alfonso Saiz-Lopez
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 4041–4062,Short summary
We studied the role of halogenated compounds (containing chlorine, bromine and iodine), emitted by natural processes (mainly above the oceans), in the chemistry of the lower layers of the atmosphere. We introduced this relatively new chemistry in a three-dimensional climate–chemistry model and looked at how this chemistry will disrupt the ozone. We showed that the concentration of ozone decreases by 22 % worldwide and that of the atmospheric detergent, OH, by 8 %.
Joffrey Dumont Le Brazidec, Pierre Vanderbecken, Alban Farchi, Marc Bocquet, Jinghui Lian, Grégoire Broquet, Gerrit Kuhlmann, Alexandre Danjou, and Thomas Lauvaux
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 3997–4016,Short summary
Monitoring of CO2 emissions is key to the development of reduction policies. Local emissions, from cities or power plants, may be estimated from CO2 plumes detected in satellite images. CO2 plumes generally have a weak signal and are partially concealed by highly variable background concentrations and instrument errors, which hampers their detection. To address this problem, we propose and apply deep learning methods to detect the contour of a plume in simulated CO2 satellite images.
Min-Seop Ahn, Paul A. Ullrich, Peter J. Gleckler, Jiwoo Lee, Ana C. Ordonez, and Angeline G. Pendergrass
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 3927–3951,Short summary
We introduce a framework for regional-scale evaluation of simulated precipitation distributions with 62 climate reference regions and 10 metrics and apply it to evaluate CMIP5 and CMIP6 models against multiple satellite-based precipitation products. The common model biases identified in this study are mainly associated with the overestimated light precipitation and underestimated heavy precipitation. These biases persist from earlier-generation models and have been slightly improved in CMIP6.
Christine Wiedinmyer, Yosuke Kimura, Elena C. McDonald-Buller, Louisa K. Emmons, Rebecca R. Buchholz, Wenfu Tang, Keenan Seto, Maxwell B. Joseph, Kelley C. Barsanti, Annmarie G. Carlton, and Robert Yokelson
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 3873–3891,Short summary
The Fire INventory from NCAR (FINN) provides daily global estimates of emissions from open fires based on satellite detections of hot spots. This version has been updated to apply MODIS and VIIRS satellite fire detection and better represents both large and small fires. FINNv2.5 generates more emissions than FINNv1 and is in general agreement with other fire emissions inventories. The new estimates are consistent with satellite observations, but uncertainties remain regionally and by pollutant.
Lichao Yang, Wansuo Duan, and Zifa Wang
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 3827–3848,Short summary
An approach is proposed to refine a ground meteorological observation network to improve the PM2.5 forecasts in the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei region. A cost-effective observation network is obtained and makes the relevant PM2.5 forecasts assimilate fewer observations but achieve the forecasting skill comparable to or higher than that obtained by assimilating all ground station observations, suggesting that many of the current ground stations can be greatly scattered to avoid much unnecessary work.
Abhishekh Kumar Srivastava, Paul Aaron Ullrich, Deeksha Rastogi, Pouya Vahmani, Andrew Jones, and Richard Grotjahn
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 3699–3722,Short summary
Stakeholders need high-resolution regional climate data for applications such as assessing water availability and mountain snowpack. This study examines 3 h and 24 h historical precipitation over the contiguous United States in the 12 km WRF version 4.2.1-based dynamical downscaling of the ERA5 reanalysis. WRF improves precipitation characteristics such as the annual cycle and distribution of the precipitation maxima, but it also displays regionally and seasonally varying precipitation biases.
Haixia Xiao, Yaqiang Wang, Yu Zheng, Yuanyuan Zheng, Xiaoran Zhuang, Hongyan Wang, and Mei Gao
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 3611–3628,Short summary
Due to the small-scale and nonstationary nature of convective wind gusts (CGs), reliable CG nowcasting has remained unattainable. Here, we developed a deep learning model — namely CGsNet — for 0—2 h of quantitative CG nowcasting, first achieving minute—kilometer-level forecasts. Based on the CGsNet model, the average surface wind speed (ASWS) and peak wind gust speed (PWGS) predictions are obtained. Experiments indicate that CGsNet exhibits higher accuracy than the traditional method.
Maria Krutova, Mostafa Bakhoday-Paskyabi, Joachim Reuder, and Finn Gunnar Nielsen
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 3553–3564,Short summary
Local refinement of the grid is a powerful method allowing us to reduce the computational time while preserving the accuracy in the area of interest. Depending on the implementation, the local refinement may introduce unwanted numerical effects into the results. We study the wind speed common to the wind turbine operational speeds and confirm strong alteration of the result when the heat fluxes are present, except for the specific refinement scheme used.
Sylvia Sullivan, Behrooz Keshtgar, Nicole Albern, Elzina Bala, Christoph Braun, Anubhav Choudhary, Johannes Hörner, Hilke Lentink, Georgios Papavasileiou, and Aiko Voigt
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 3535–3551,Short summary
Clouds absorb and re-emit infrared radiation from Earth's surface and absorb and reflect incoming solar radiation. As a result, they change atmospheric temperature gradients that drive large-scale circulation. To better simulate this circulation, we study how the radiative heating and cooling from clouds depends on model settings like grid spacing; whether we describe convection approximately or exactly; and the level of detail used to describe small-scale processes, or microphysics, in clouds.
Denis E. Sergeev, Nathan J. Mayne, Thomas Bendall, Ian A. Boutle, Alex Brown, Iva Kavcic, James Kent, Krisztian Kohary, James Manners, Thomas Melvin, Enrico Olivier, Lokesh K. Ragta, Ben J. Shipway, Jon Wakelin, Nigel Wood, and Mohamed Zerroukat
3D climate models are one of the best tools we have to study planetary atmospheres. Here, we apply LFRic-Atmosphere, a new model developed by the Met Office, to seven different scenarios for terrestrial planetary climates, including four for the exoplanet TRAPPIST-1e, a primary target for future observations. LFRic-Atmosphere reproduces these scenarios within the spread of the existing models across a range of key climatic variables, justifying its use in future exoplanet studies.
James Weber, James A. King, Katerina Sindelarova, and Maria Val Martin
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 3083–3101,Short summary
The emissions of volatile organic compounds from vegetation (BVOCs) influence atmospheric composition and contribute to certain gases and aerosols (tiny airborne particles) which play a role in climate change. BVOC emissions are likely to change in the future due to changes in climate and land use. Therefore, accurate simulation of BVOC emission is important, and this study describes an update to the simulation of BVOC emissions in the United Kingdom Earth System Model (UKESM).
Koichi Sakaguchi, L. Ruby Leung, Colin M. Zarzycki, Jihyeon Jang, Seth McGinnis, Bryce E. Harrop, William C. Skamarock, Andrew Gettelman, Chun Zhao, William J. Gutowski, Stephen Leak, and Linda Mearns
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 3029–3081,Short summary
We document details of the regional climate downscaling dataset produced by a global variable-resolution model. The experiment is unique in that it follows a standard protocol designed for coordinated experiments of regional models. We found negligible influence of post-processing on statistical analysis, importance of simulation quality outside of the target region, and computational challenges that our model code faced due to rapidly changing super computer systems.
Xueying Liu, Yuxuan Wang, Shailaja Wasti, Wei Li, Ehsan Soleimanian, James Flynn, Travis Griggs, Sergio Alvarez, John T. Sullivan, Maurice Roots, Laurence Twigg, Guillaume Gronoff, Timothy Berkoff, Paul Walter, Mark Estes, Johnathan W. Hair, Taylor Shingler, Amy Jo Scarino, Marta Fenn, and Laura Judd
With a comprehensive suite of ground-based and airborne remote sensing measurements during the 2021 Tracking Aerosol Convection Experiment Air Quality (TRACER-AQ) campaign in Houston, this study evaluates the simulation of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) height and the ozone vertical profile by a high-resolution (1.33 km) 3-D photochemical model Weather Research and Forecasting-driven GEOS-Chem (WRF-GC).
Xiaohan Li, Yi Zhang, Xindong Peng, Baiquan Zhou, Jian Li, and Yiming Wang
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 2975–2993,Short summary
The weather and climate physics suites used in GRIST-A22.7.28 are compared using single-column modeling. The source of their discrepancies in terms of modeling cloud and precipitation is explored. Convective parameterization is found to be a key factor responsible for the differences. The two suites also have intrinsic differences in the interaction between microphysics and other processes, resulting in different cloud features and time step sensitivities.
Virginie Marécal, Ronan Voisin-Plessis, Tjarda Jane Roberts, Alessandro Aiuppa, Herizo Narivelo, Paul David Hamer, Béatrice Josse, Jonathan Guth, Luke Surl, and Lisa Grellier
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 2873–2898,Short summary
We implemented a halogen volcanic chemistry scheme in a one-dimensional modelling framework preparing for further use in a three-dimensional global chemistry-transport model. The results of the simulations for an eruption of Mt Etna in 2008, including various sensitivity tests, show a good consistency with previous modelling studies.
Zhe Feng, Joseph Hardin, Hannah C. Barnes, Jianfeng Li, L. Ruby Leung, Adam Varble, and Zhixiao Zhang
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 2753–2776,Short summary
PyFLEXTRKR is a flexible atmospheric feature tracking framework with specific capabilities to track convective clouds from a variety of observations and model simulations. The package has a collection of multi-object identification algorithms and has been optimized for large datasets. This paper describes the algorithms and demonstrates applications for tracking deep convective cells and mesoscale convective systems from observations and model simulations at a wide range of scales.
Yan Ji, Bing Gong, Michael Langguth, Amirpasha Mozaffari, and Xiefei Zhi
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 2737–2752,Short summary
Formulating short-term precipitation forecasting as a video prediction task, a novel deep learning architecture (convolutional long short-term memory generative adversarial network, CLGAN) is proposed. A benchmark dataset is built on minute-level precipitation measurements. Results show that with the GAN component the model generates predictions sharing statistical properties with observations, resulting in it outperforming the baseline in dichotomous and spatial scores for heavy precipitation.
Aleksander Lacima, Hervé Petetin, Albert Soret, Dene Bowdalo, Oriol Jorba, Zhaoyue Chen, Raúl F. Méndez Turrubiates, Hicham Achebak, Joan Ballester, and Carlos Pérez García-Pando
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 2689–2718,Short summary
Understanding how air pollution varies across space and time is of key importance for the safeguarding of human health. This work arose in the context of the project EARLY-ADAPT, for which the Barcelona Supercomputing Center developed an air pollution database covering all of Europe. Through different statistical methods, we compared two global pollution models against measurements from ground stations and found significant discrepancies between the observed and the modeled surface pollution.
Dien Wu, Joshua L. Laughner, Junjie Liu, Paul I. Palmer, John C. Lin, and Paul O. Wennberg
To balance computational expenses and chemical complexity in extracting emission signals from tropospheric NO2 columns, we propose a simplified non-linear Lagrangian chemistry transport model and evaluate modeled results against TROPOMI v2 over multiple power plants and cities. Using this model, we then discuss how NOx chemistry affects the relationship between NOx and CO2 emissions and how studying NO2 columns helps quantify modeled biases in wind direction and prior emissions.
William Rudisill, Alejandro Flores, and Rosemary Carroll
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for GMDShort summary
It's important to know how well atmospheric models do in the mountains, but there aren't very many weather stations. We evaluate rain and snow from a model from 1987–2020 in the Upper Colorado river basin against the data that's available. The model works pretty well but, there are still some uncertainties in remote locations. We then use snow maps collected by aircraft, streamflow measurements, and some advanced statistics to help identify how well the model works in ways we couldn't before.
Andrew Geiss, Po-Lun Ma, Balwinder Singh, and Joseph C. Hardin
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 2355–2370,Short summary
Atmospheric aerosols play a critical role in Earth's climate, but it is too computationally expensive to directly model their interaction with radiation in climate simulations. This work develops a new neural-network-based parameterization of aerosol optical properties for use in the Energy Exascale Earth System Model that is much more accurate than the current one; it also introduces a unique model optimization method that involves randomly generating neural network architectures.
Joey C. Y. Lam, Amos P. K. Tai, Jason A. Ducker, and Christopher D. Holmes
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 2323–2342,Short summary
We developed a new component within an atmospheric chemistry model to better simulate plant ecophysiological processes relevant for ozone air quality. We showed that it reduces simulated biases in plant uptake of ozone in prior models. The new model enables us to explore how future climatic changes affect air quality via affecting plants, examine ozone–vegetation interactions and feedbacks, and evaluate the impacts of changing atmospheric chemistry and climate on vegetation productivity.
Qian Shu, Sergey L. Napelenok, William T. Hutzell, Kirk R. Baker, Barron H. Henderson, Benjamin N. Murphy, and Christian Hogrefe
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 2303–2322,Short summary
Source attribution methods are generally used to determine culpability of precursor emission sources to ambient pollutant concentrations. However, source attribution of secondarily formed pollutants such as ozone and its precursors cannot be explicitly measured, making evaluation of source apportionment methods challenging. In this study, multiple apportionment approach comparisons show common features but still reveal wide variations in predicted sector contribution and species dependency.
Rüdiger Brecht, Lucie Bakels, Alex Bihlo, and Andreas Stohl
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 2181–2192,Short summary
We use neural-network-based single-image super-resolution to improve the upscaling of meteorological wind fields to be used for particle dispersion models. This deep-learning-based methodology improves the standard linear interpolation typically used in particle dispersion models. The improvement of wind fields leads to substantial improvement in the computed trajectories of the particles.
Alvaro Criado, Jan Mateu Armengol, Hervé Petetin, Daniel Rodriguez-Rey, Jaime Benavides, Marc Guevara, Carlos Pérez García-Pando, Albert Soret, and Oriol Jorba
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 2193–2213,Short summary
This work aims to derive and evaluate a general statistical post-processing tool specifically designed for the street scale that can be applied to any urban air quality system. Our data fusion methodology corrects NO2 fields based on continuous hourly observations and experimental campaigns. This study enables us to obtain exceedance probability maps of air quality standards. In 2019, 13 % of the Barcelona area had a 70 % or higher probability of exceeding the annual legal NO2 limit of 40 µg/m3.
Liang Wang, Bingcheng Wan, Shaohui Zhou, Haofei Sun, and Zhiqiu Gao
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 2167–2179,Short summary
The past 24 h TC trajectories and meteorological field data were used to forecast TC tracks in the northwestern Pacific from hours 6–72 based on GRU_CNN, which we proposed in this paper and which has better prediction results than traditional single deep-learning methods. The historical steering flow of cyclones has a significant effect on improving the accuracy of short-term forecasting, while, in long-term forecasting, the SST and geopotential height will have a particular impact.
Roland Eichinger, Sebastian Rhode, Hella Garny, Peter Preusse, Petr Pisoft, Aleš Kuchar, Patrick Jöckel, Astrid Kerkweg, and Bastian Kern
Dynamical model biases result from the columnar approach of gravity wave (GW) schemes, but parallel decomposition makes horizontal GW propagation computationally unfeasible. In the global model EMAC, we approximate it by GW redistribution at one altitude using tailor-made redistribution maps generated with a ray-tracer. More spread-out GW drag helps reconciling the model with observations and closing the 60S GW gap. Polar vortex dynamics are improved, enhancing climate model credibility.
Thibaud Sarica, Alice Maison, Yelva Roustan, Matthias Ketzel, Steen Solvang Jensen, Youngseob Kim, Christophe Chaillou, and Karine Sartelet
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for GMDShort summary
A new version of the Model of Urban Network of Intersecting Canyons and Highways (MUNICH) is developed to represent heterogeneities of concentrations in streets. The street volume is discretized vertically and horizontally to limit the artificial dilution of emissions and concentrations. This new version is applied to street networks in Copenhagen and Paris. The comparisons to observations are improved, with higher concentrations of pollutants emitted by traffic at the bottom of the street.
Thomas Berkemeier, Matteo Krüger, Aryeh Feinberg, Marcel Müller, Ulrich Pöschl, and Ulrich K. Krieger
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 2037–2054,Short summary
Kinetic multi-layer models (KMs) successfully describe heterogeneous and multiphase atmospheric chemistry. In applications requiring repeated execution, however, these models can be too expensive. We trained machine learning surrogate models on output of the model KM-SUB and achieved high correlations. The surrogate models run orders of magnitude faster, which suggests potential applicability in global optimization tasks and as sub-modules in large-scale atmospheric models.
Elena Fillola, Raul Santos-Rodriguez, Alistair Manning, Simon O'Doherty, and Matt Rigby
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 1997–2009,Short summary
Lagrangian particle dispersion models are used extensively for the estimation of greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes using atmospheric observations. However, these models do not scale well as data volumes increase. Here, we develop a proof-of-concept machine learning emulator that can produce outputs similar to those of the dispersion model, but 50 000 times faster, using only meteorological inputs. This works demonstrates the potential of machine learning to accelerate GHG estimations across the globe.
Stijn Van Leuven, Pieter De Meutter, Johan Camps, Piet Termonia, and Andy Delcloo
Precipitation collects airborne particles and deposits these on the ground. This process is called wet deposition and greatly determines how airborne radioactive particles (released routinely or accidental) contaminate the surface. In this work we present a new method to improve the calculation of wet deposition in computer models. We apply this method to the existing model FLEXPART by simulating the Fukushima nuclear accident (2011), and show that it improves the simulation of wet deposition.
Maria J. Chinita, Mikael Witte, Marcin J. Kurowski, Joao Teixeira, Kay Suselj, Georgios Matheou, and Peter Bogenschutz
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 1909–1924,Short summary
Low clouds are one of the largest sources of uncertainty in climate prediction. In this paper, we introduce the first version of the unified turbulence and shallow convection parameterization named SHOC+MF developed to improve the representation of shallow cumulus clouds in the Simple Cloud-Resolving E3SM Atmosphere Model (SCREAM). Here, we also show promising preliminary results in a single-column model framework for two benchmark cases of shallow cumulus convection.
Kun Wang, Chao Gao, Kai Wu, Kaiyun Liu, Haofan Wang, Mo Dan, Xiaohui Ji, and Qingqing Tong
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 1961–1973,Short summary
This study establishes an easy-to-use and integrated framework for a model-ready emission inventory for the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF)–Air Quality Numerical Model (AQM). A free tool called the ISAT (Inventory Spatial Allocation Tool) was developed based on this framework. ISAT helps users complete the workflow from the WRF nested-domain configuration to a model-ready emission inventory for AQM with a regional emission inventory and a shapefile for the target region.
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Chatzimichailidis, A. E., Argyropoulos, C. D., Assael, M. J., and Kakosimos, K. E.: Qualitative and quantitative investigation of multiple large eddy simulation aspects for pollutant dispersion in street canyons using OpenFOAM, Atmosphere (Basel), 10, 17, https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10010017, 2019.
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In order to investigate street-scale flow and air quality, this study has developed APFoam 1.0 to examine the reactive pollutant formation and dispersion in the urban area. The model has been validated and shows good agreement with wind tunnel experimental data. Model sensitivity cases reveal that vehicle emissions, background concentrations, and wind conditions are the key factors affecting the photochemical reaction process.
In order to investigate street-scale flow and air quality, this study has developed APFoam 1.0...