Evaluation of an operational ocean model configuration at 1/12° spatial resolution for the Indonesian seas (NEMO2.3/INDO12) – Part 2: Biogeochemistry
- 1Mercator Océan, 8-10 rue Hermès, 31520 Ramonville, France
- 2LSCE, UMR CEA-CNRS-UVSQ, Saclay, L'Orme des Merisiers, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, France
- 3Institute for Marine Research and Observation, Jl. Baru Perancak, Negara-Jembrana, Bali 82251, Republic of Indonesia
- 4CLS, 8-10 rue Hermès, 31520 Ramonville, France
Abstract. In the framework of the INDESO (Infrastructure Development of Space Oceanography) project, an operational ocean forecasting system was developed to monitor the state of the Indonesian seas in terms of circulation, biogeochemistry and fisheries. This forecasting system combines a suite of numerical models connecting physical and biogeochemical variables to population dynamics of large marine predators (tunas). The physical–biogeochemical coupled component (the INDO12BIO configuration) covers a large region extending from the western Pacific Ocean to the eastern Indian Ocean at 1/12° horizontal resolution. The NEMO-OPA (Nucleus for European Model of the Ocean) physical ocean model and the PISCES (Pelagic Interactions Scheme for Carbon and Ecosystem Studies) biogeochemical model are running simultaneously ("online" coupling), at the same resolution. The operational global ocean forecasting system (1/4°) operated by Mercator Océan provides the physical forcing, while climatological open boundary conditions are prescribed for the biogeochemistry.
This paper describes the skill assessment of the INDO12BIO configuration. Model skill is assessed by evaluating a reference hindcast simulation covering the last 8 years (2007–2014). Model results are compared to satellite, climatological and in situ observations. Diagnostics are performed on nutrients, oxygen, chlorophyll a, net primary production and mesozooplankton.
The model reproduces large-scale distributions of nutrients, oxygen, chlorophyll a, net primary production and mesozooplankton biomasses. Modelled vertical distributions of nutrients and oxygen are comparable to in situ data sets although gradients are slightly smoothed. The model simulates realistic biogeochemical characteristics of North Pacific tropical waters entering in the archipelago. Hydrodynamic transformation of water masses across the Indonesian archipelago allows for conserving nitrate and oxygen vertical distribution close to observations, in the Banda Sea and at the exit of the archipelago. While the model overestimates the mean surface chlorophyll a, the seasonal cycle is in phase with satellite estimations, with higher chlorophyll a concentrations in the southern part of the archipelago during the SE monsoon and in the northern part during the NW monsoon. The time series of chlorophyll a anomalies suggests that meteorological and ocean physical processes that drive the interannual variability of biogeochemical properties in the Indonesian region are reproduced by the model.