Articles | Volume 8, issue 7
Model description paper 07 Jul 2015
Model description paper | 07 Jul 2015
System for Automated Geoscientific Analyses (SAGA) v. 2.1.4
O. Conrad et al.
Michael Bock, Olaf Conrad, Andreas Günther, Ernst Gehrt, Rainer Baritz, and Jürgen Böhner
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 1641–1652,Short summary
We introduce the Soil and Landscape Evolution Model (SaLEM) for the prediction of soil parent material evolution following a lithologically differentiated approach. The GIS tool is working within the software framework SAGA GIS. Weathering, erosion and transport functions are calibrated using extrinsic and intrinsic parameter data. First results indicate that our approach shows evidence for the spatiotemporal prediction of soil parental material properties.
M. Bremer, V. Wichmann, M. Rutzinger, T. Zieher, and J. Pfeiffer
Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., XLII-2-W13, 943–950,
J. Pfeiffer, T. Zieher, M. Rutzinger, M. Bremer, and V. Wichmann
ISPRS Ann. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., IV-2-W5, 421–428,
T. Zieher, M. Bremer, M. Rutzinger, J. Pfeiffer, P. Fritzmann, and V. Wichmann
ISPRS Ann. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., IV-2-W5, 461–467,
Eva Steirou, Lars Gerlitz, Heiko Apel, Xun Sun, and Bruno Merz
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 1305–1322,Short summary
We investigate whether flood probabilities in Europe vary for different large-scale atmospheric circulation conditions. Maximum seasonal river flows from 600 gauges in Europe and five synchronous atmospheric circulation indices are analyzed. We find that a high percentage of stations is influenced by at least one of the climate indices, especially during winter. These results can be useful for preparedness and damage planning by (re-)insurance companies.
Michael Bock, Olaf Conrad, Andreas Günther, Ernst Gehrt, Rainer Baritz, and Jürgen Böhner
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 1641–1652,Short summary
We introduce the Soil and Landscape Evolution Model (SaLEM) for the prediction of soil parent material evolution following a lithologically differentiated approach. The GIS tool is working within the software framework SAGA GIS. Weathering, erosion and transport functions are calibrated using extrinsic and intrinsic parameter data. First results indicate that our approach shows evidence for the spatiotemporal prediction of soil parental material properties.
Heiko Apel, Zharkinay Abdykerimova, Marina Agalhanova, Azamat Baimaganbetov, Nadejda Gavrilenko, Lars Gerlitz, Olga Kalashnikova, Katy Unger-Shayesteh, Sergiy Vorogushyn, and Abror Gafurov
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 2225–2254,Short summary
Central Asia crucially depends on water resources supplied by snow melt in the mountains during summer. To support water resources management we propose a generic tool for statistical forecasts of seasonal discharge based on multiple linear regressions. The predictors are observed precipitation and temperature, snow coverage, and discharge. The automatically derived models for 13 different catchments provided very skilful forecasts in April, and acceptable forecasts in January.
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 3309–3327,Short summary
The GPP model can be used to simulate the process path and run-out area of gravitational processes based on a digital terrain model. By providing several modelling approaches, the tool can be configured for different processes such as rockfall, debris flows or snow avalanches. The tool can be applied to regional-scale studies such as natural hazard susceptibility mapping. It is implemented as tool for SAGA GIS and has been released as open source.
Ramchandra Karki, Shabeh ul Hasson, Lars Gerlitz, Udo Schickhoff, Thomas Scholten, and Jürgen Böhner
Earth Syst. Dynam., 8, 507–528,Short summary
Dynamical downscaling of climate fields at very high resolutions (convection- and topography-resolving scales) over the complex Himalayan terrain of the Nepalese Himalayas shows promising results. It clearly demonstrates the potential of mesoscale models to accurately simulate present and future climate information at very high resolutions over remote, data-scarce mountainous regions for the development of adaptation strategies and impact assessments in the context of changing climate.
Shabeh Hasson, Jürgen Böhner, and Valerio Lucarini
Earth Syst. Dynam., 8, 337–355,Short summary
A first comprehensive and systematic hydroclimatic trend analysis for the upper Indus Basin suggests warming and drying of spring and rising early melt-season discharge over 1995–2012 period. In contrast, cooling and falling or weakly rising discharge is found within summer monsoon period that coincides well with main glacier melt season. Such seasonally distinct changes, indicating dominance of snow but suppression of glacial melt regime, address hydroclimatic explanation of
Lars Gerlitz, Sergiy Vorogushyn, Heiko Apel, Abror Gafurov, Katy Unger-Shayesteh, and Bruno Merz
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 4605–4623,Short summary
Most statistically based seasonal precipitation forecast models utilize a small set of well-known climate indices as potential predictor variables. However, for many target regions, these indices do not lead to sufficient results and customized predictors are required for an accurate prediction. This study presents a statistically based routine, which automatically identifies suitable predictors from globally gridded SST and climate variables by means of an extensive data mining procedure.
B. Bechtel, M. Pesaresi, L. See, G. Mills, J. Ching, P. J. Alexander, J. J. Feddema, A. J. Florczyk, and I. Stewart
Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., XLI-B8, 1371–1378,
Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., XLI-B8, 243–250,
M. Klinge, J. Böhner, and S. Erasmi
Biogeosciences, 12, 2893–2905,
U. Schickhoff, M. Bobrowski, J. Böhner, B. Bürzle, R. P. Chaudhary, L. Gerlitz, H. Heyken, J. Lange, M. Müller, T. Scholten, N. Schwab, and R. Wedegärtner
Earth Syst. Dynam., 6, 245–265,Short summary
Near-natural Himalayan treelines are usually krummholz treelines, which are relatively unresponsive to climate change. Intense recruitment of treeline trees suggests a great potential for future treeline advance. Competitive abilities of tree seedlings within krummholz thickets and dwarf scrub heaths will be a major source of variation in treeline dynamics. Tree growth-climate relationships show mature treeline trees to be responsive in particular to high pre-monsoon temperature trends.
L. Gerlitz, O. Conrad, and J. Böhner
Earth Syst. Dynam., 6, 61–81,Short summary
In order to assess high-resolution precipitation fields for the Tibetan Plateau and the Himalayan Arc, a novel downscaling approach is presented which integrates traditional statistical downscaling and GIS-based terrain parameterization techniques. The approach enables a detailed analysis of the precipitation heterogeinity over the complex target area.
S. Hasson, V. Lucarini, S. Pascale, and J. Böhner
Earth Syst. Dynam., 5, 67–87,
Y. Wang, U. Herzschuh, L. S. Shumilovskikh, S. Mischke, H. J. B. Birks, J. Wischnewski, J. Böhner, F. Schlütz, F. Lehmkuhl, B. Diekmann, B. Wünnemann, and C. Zhang
Clim. Past, 10, 21–39,
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Temperature is a controller of metabolic processes and therefore also a controller of the ocean's biological carbon pump (BCP). We calibrate a temperature-dependent version of the BCP in the cGENIE Earth system model. Since the pre-industrial period, warming has intensified near-surface nutrient recycling, supporting production and largely offsetting stratification-induced surface nutrient limitation. But at the same time less carbon that sinks out of the surface then reaches the deep ocean.
Jane P. Mulcahy, Colin Johnson, Colin G. Jones, Adam C. Povey, Catherine E. Scott, Alistair Sellar, Steven T. Turnock, Matthew T. Woodhouse, Nathan Luke Abraham, Martin B. Andrews, Nicolas Bellouin, Jo Browse, Ken S. Carslaw, Mohit Dalvi, Gerd A. Folberth, Matthew Glover, Daniel P. Grosvenor, Catherine Hardacre, Richard Hill, Ben Johnson, Andy Jones, Zak Kipling, Graham Mann, James Mollard, Fiona M. O'Connor, Julien Palmiéri, Carly Reddington, Steven T. Rumbold, Mark Richardson, Nick A. J. Schutgens, Philip Stier, Marc Stringer, Yongming Tang, Jeremy Walton, Stephanie Woodward, and Andrew Yool
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Aerosols are an important component of the Earth system. Here, we comprehensively document and evaluate the aerosol schemes as implemented in the physical and Earth system models, HadGEM3-GC3.1 and UKESM1. This study provides a useful characterisation of the aerosol climatology in both models, facilitating the understanding of the numerous aerosol–climate interaction studies that will be conducted for CMIP6 and beyond.
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Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 6253–6263,Short summary
Routing network generation is a major step for initializing the data transfer functionality for model coupling. The distributed implementation for routing network generation (DiRong1.0) proposed in this paper can significantly improve the global implementation of routing network generation used in some existing coupling software, because it does not introduce any gather–broadcast communications and achieves much lower complexity in terms of time, memory, and communication.
Øyvind Seland, Mats Bentsen, Dirk Olivié, Thomas Toniazzo, Ada Gjermundsen, Lise Seland Graff, Jens Boldingh Debernard, Alok Kumar Gupta, Yan-Chun He, Alf Kirkevåg, Jörg Schwinger, Jerry Tjiputra, Kjetil Schanke Aas, Ingo Bethke, Yuanchao Fan, Jan Griesfeller, Alf Grini, Chuncheng Guo, Mehmet Ilicak, Inger Helene Hafsahl Karset, Oskar Landgren, Johan Liakka, Kine Onsum Moseid, Aleksi Nummelin, Clemens Spensberger, Hui Tang, Zhongshi Zhang, Christoph Heinze, Trond Iversen, and Michael Schulz
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 6165–6200,Short summary
The second version of the coupled Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM2) is presented and evaluated. The temperature and precipitation patterns has improved compared to NorESM1. The model reaches present-day warming levels to within 0.2 °C of observed temperature but with a delayed warming during the late 20th century. Under the four scenarios (SSP1-2.6, SSP2-4.5, SSP3-7.0, and SSP5-8.5), the warming in the period of 2090–2099 compared to 1850–1879 reaches 1.3, 2.2, 3.1, and 3.9 K.
Wieke Heldens, Cornelia Burmeister, Farah Kanani-Sühring, Björn Maronga, Dirk Pavlik, Matthias Sühring, Julian Zeidler, and Thomas Esch
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 5833–5873,Short summary
For realistic microclimate simulations in urban areas with PALM 6.0, detailed description of surface types, buildings and vegetation is required. This paper shows how such input data sets can be derived with the example of three German cities. Various data sources are used, including remote sensing, municipal data collections and open data such as OpenStreetMap. The collection and preparation of input data sets is tedious. Future research aims therefore at semi-automated tools to support users.
Emmanuele Russo, Silje Lund Sørland, Ingo Kirchner, Martijn Schaap, Christoph C. Raible, and Ulrich Cubasch
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 5779–5797,Short summary
The parameter space of the COSMO-CLM RCM is investigated for the Central Asia CORDEX domain using a perturbed physics ensemble (PPE) with different parameter values. Results show that only a subset of model parameters presents relevant changes in model performance and these changes depend on the considered region and variable: objective calibration methods are highly necessary in this case. Additionally, the results suggest the need for calibrating an RCM when targeting different domains.
Carley E. Iles, Robert Vautard, Jane Strachan, Sylvie Joussaume, Bernd R. Eggen, and Chris D. Hewitt
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 5583–5607,Short summary
We investigate how increased resolution affects the simulation of European climate extremes for global and regional climate models to inform modelling strategies. Precipitation extremes become heavier with higher resolution, especially over mountains, wind extremes become somewhat stronger, and for temperature extremes warm biases are reduced over mountains. Differences with resolution for the global model appear to come from downscaling effects rather than improved large-scale circulation.
Marie-Estelle Demory, Ségolène Berthou, Jesús Fernández, Silje L. Sørland, Roman Brogli, Malcolm J. Roberts, Urs Beyerle, Jon Seddon, Rein Haarsma, Christoph Schär, Erasmo Buonomo, Ole B. Christensen, James M. Ciarlo ̀, Rowan Fealy, Grigory Nikulin, Daniele Peano, Dian Putrasahan, Christopher D. Roberts, Retish Senan, Christian Steger, Claas Teichmann, and Robert Vautard
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 5485–5506,Short summary
Now that global climate models (GCMs) can run at similar resolutions to regional climate models (RCMs), one may wonder whether GCMs and RCMs provide similar regional climate information. We perform an evaluation for daily precipitation distribution in PRIMAVERA GCMs (25–50 km resolution) and CORDEX RCMs (12–50 km resolution) over Europe. We show that PRIMAVERA and CORDEX simulate similar distributions. Considering both datasets at such a resolution results in large benefits for impact studies.
George C. Hurtt, Louise Chini, Ritvik Sahajpal, Steve Frolking, Benjamin L. Bodirsky, Katherine Calvin, Jonathan C. Doelman, Justin Fisk, Shinichiro Fujimori, Kees Klein Goldewijk, Tomoko Hasegawa, Peter Havlik, Andreas Heinimann, Florian Humpenöder, Johan Jungclaus, Jed O. Kaplan, Jennifer Kennedy, Tamás Krisztin, David Lawrence, Peter Lawrence, Lei Ma, Ole Mertz, Julia Pongratz, Alexander Popp, Benjamin Poulter, Keywan Riahi, Elena Shevliakova, Elke Stehfest, Peter Thornton, Francesco N. Tubiello, Detlef P. van Vuuren, and Xin Zhang
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 5425–5464,Short summary
To estimate the effects of human land use activities on the carbon–climate system, a new set of global gridded land use forcing datasets was developed to link historical land use data to eight future scenarios in a standard format required by climate models. This new generation of land use harmonization (LUH2) includes updated inputs, higher spatial resolution, more detailed land use transitions, and the addition of important agricultural management layers; it will be used for CMIP6 simulations.
Philip Goodwin, Martin Leduc, Antti-Ilari Partanen, H. Damon Matthews, and Alex Rogers
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 5389–5399,Short summary
Numerical climate models are used to make projections of future surface warming for different pathways of future greenhouse gas emissions, where future surface warming will vary from place to place. However, it is so expensive to run complex models using supercomputers that future projections can only be produced for a small number of possible future emissions pathways. This study presents an efficient climate model to make projections of local surface warming using a desktop computer.
Mathieu Vrac and Soulivanh Thao
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 5367–5387,Short summary
We propose a multivariate bias correction (MBC) method to adjust the spatial and/or inter-variable properties of climate simulations, while also accounting for their temporal dependences (e.g., autocorrelations). It consists on a method reordering the ranks of the time series according to their multivariate distance to a reference time series. Results show that temporal correlations are improved while spatial and inter-variable correlations are still satisfactorily corrected.
Hella Garny, Roland Walz, Matthias Nützel, and Thomas Birner
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 5229–5257,Short summary
Numerical models of Earth's climate system have been gaining more and more complexity over the last decades. Therefore, it is important to establish simplified models to improve process understanding. In our study, we present and document the development of a new simplified model setup within the framework of a complex climate model system that uses the same routines to calculate atmospheric dynamics as the complex model but is simplified in the representation of clouds and radiation.
Yingxia Gao, Nicholas P. Klingaman, Charlotte A. DeMott, and Pang-Chi Hsu
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 5191–5209,Short summary
Both the air–sea coupling and ocean mean state affect the fidelity of simulated boreal summer intraseasonal oscillation (BSISO). To elucidate their relative effects on the simulated BSISO, a set of experiments was conducted using a superparameterized AGCM and its coupled version. Both air–sea coupling and cold ocean mean state improve the BSISO amplitude due to the suppression of the overestimated variance, while the former (latter) could further upgrade (degrade) the BSISO propagation.
Zebedee R. J. Nicholls, Malte Meinshausen, Jared Lewis, Robert Gieseke, Dietmar Dommenget, Kalyn Dorheim, Chen-Shuo Fan, Jan S. Fuglestvedt, Thomas Gasser, Ulrich Golüke, Philip Goodwin, Corinne Hartin, Austin P. Hope, Elmar Kriegler, Nicholas J. Leach, Davide Marchegiani, Laura A. McBride, Yann Quilcaille, Joeri Rogelj, Ross J. Salawitch, Bjørn H. Samset, Marit Sandstad, Alexey N. Shiklomanov, Ragnhild B. Skeie, Christopher J. Smith, Steve Smith, Katsumasa Tanaka, Junichi Tsutsui, and Zhiang Xie
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 5175–5190,Short summary
Computational limits mean that we cannot run our most comprehensive climate models for all applications of interest. In such cases, reduced complexity models (RCMs) are used. Here, researchers working on 15 different models present the first systematic community effort to evaluate and compare RCMs: the Reduced Complexity Model Intercomparison Project (RCMIP). Our research ensures that users of RCMs can more easily evaluate the strengths, weaknesses and limitations of their tools.
Jaeyoung Song, Gretchen R. Miller, Anthony T. Cahill, Luiza Maria T. Aparecido, and Georgianne W. Moore
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 5147–5173,Short summary
The performance of a land surface model (CLM4.5 and 5.0) was examined against a suite of measurements from a tropical montane rainforest in Costa Rica. Both versions failed to capture the effects of frequent rainfall events and mountainous terrain on temperature, leaf wetness, photosynthesis, and transpiration. While the new model version eliminated some errors, it still cannot precisely simulate a number of processes. This suggests that two key components of the model need modification.
Patricio Velasquez, Martina Messmer, and Christoph C. Raible
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 5007–5027,Short summary
This work presents a new bias-correction method for precipitation that considers orographic characteristics, which can be used in studies where the latter strongly changes. The three-step correction method consists of a separation into orographic features, correction of low-intensity precipitation, and application of empirical quantile mapping. Seasonal bias induced by the global climate model is fully corrected. Rigorous cross-validations illustrate the method's applicability and robustness.
Eric Larour, Lambert Caron, Mathieu Morlighem, Surendra Adhikari, Thomas Frederikse, Nicole-Jeanne Schlegel, Erik Ivins, Benjamin Hamlington, Robert Kopp, and Sophie Nowicki
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 4925–4941,Short summary
ISSM-SLPS is a new projection system for future sea level that increases the resolution and accuracy of current projection systems and improves the way uncertainty is treated in such projections. This will pave the way for better inclusion of state-of-the-art results from existing intercomparison efforts carried out by the scientific community, such as GlacierMIP2 or ISMIP6, into sea-level projections.
Hiroshi Yamashita, Feijia Yin, Volker Grewe, Patrick Jöckel, Sigrun Matthes, Bastian Kern, Katrin Dahlmann, and Christine Frömming
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 4869–4890,Short summary
This paper describes the updated submodel AirTraf 2.0 which simulates global air traffic in the ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC) model. Nine aircraft routing options have been integrated, including contrail avoidance, minimum economic costs, and minimum climate impact. Example simulations reveal characteristics of different routing options on air traffic performances. The consistency of the AirTraf simulations is verified with literature data.
Landon A. Rieger, Jason N. S. Cole, John C. Fyfe, Stephen Po-Chedley, Philip J. Cameron-Smith, Paul J. Durack, Nathan P. Gillett, and Qi Tang
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 4831–4843,Short summary
Recently, the stratospheric aerosol forcing dataset used as an input to the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 6 was updated. This work explores the impact of those changes on the modelled historical climates in the CanESM5 and EAMv1 models. Temperature differences in the stratosphere shortly after the Pinatubo eruption are found to be significant, but surface temperatures and precipitation do not show a significant change.
Shaoqing Zhang, Haohuan Fu, Lixin Wu, Yuxuan Li, Hong Wang, Yunhui Zeng, Xiaohui Duan, Wubing Wan, Li Wang, Yuan Zhuang, Hongsong Meng, Kai Xu, Ping Xu, Lin Gan, Zhao Liu, Sihai Wu, Yuhu Chen, Haining Yu, Shupeng Shi, Lanning Wang, Shiming Xu, Wei Xue, Weiguo Liu, Qiang Guo, Jie Zhang, Guanghui Zhu, Yang Tu, Jim Edwards, Allison Baker, Jianlin Yong, Man Yuan, Yangyang Yu, Qiuying Zhang, Zedong Liu, Mingkui Li, Dongning Jia, Guangwen Yang, Zhiqiang Wei, Jingshan Pan, Ping Chang, Gokhan Danabasoglu, Stephen Yeager, Nan Rosenbloom, and Ying Guo
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 4809–4829,Short summary
Science advancement and societal needs require Earth system modelling with higher resolutions that demand tremendous computing power. We successfully scale the 10 km ocean and 25 km atmosphere high-resolution Earth system model to a new leading-edge heterogeneous supercomputer using state-of-the-art optimizing methods, promising the solution of high spatial resolution and time-varying frequency. Corresponding technical breakthroughs are of significance in modelling and HPC design communities.
Gill M. Martin, Richard C. Levine, José M. Rodriguez, and Michael Vellinga
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for GMDShort summary
Our study highlights a number of different techniques that can be employed to investigate the sources of model error. We demonstrate how this methodology can be used to identify the regions and model components responsible for the development of long-standing errors in the Asian Summer Monsoon. Once these are known, further work can be done to explore the local processes contributing to this behaviour and their sensitivity to changes in physical parameterizations and/or model resolution.
Tokuta Yokohata, Tsuguki Kinoshita, Gen Sakurai, Yadu Pokhrel, Akihiko Ito, Masashi Okada, Yusuke Satoh, Etsushi Kato, Tomoko Nitta, Shinichiro Fujimori, Farshid Felfelani, Yoshimitsu Masaki, Toshichika Iizumi, Motoki Nishimori, Naota Hanasaki, Kiyoshi Takahashi, Yoshiki Yamagata, and Seita Emori
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 4713–4747,Short summary
The most significant feature of MIROC-INTEG-LAND is that the land surface model that describes the processes of the energy and water balances, human water management, and crop growth incorporates a land-use decision-making model based on economic activities. The future simulations indicate that changes in climate have significant impacts on crop yields, land use, and irrigation water demand.
Chia-Te Chien, Markus Pahlow, Markus Schartau, and Andreas Oschlies
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 4691–4712,Short summary
We demonstrate sensitivities of tracers to parameters of a new optimality-based plankton–ecosystem model (OPEM) in the UVic-ESCM. We find that changes in phytoplankton subsistence nitrogen quota strongly impact the nitrogen inventory, nitrogen fixation, and elemental stoichiometry of ordinary phytoplankton and diazotrophs. We introduce a new likelihood-based metric for model calibration, and it shows the capability of constraining globally averaged oxygen, nitrate, and DIC concentrations.
Markus Pahlow, Chia-Te Chien, Lionel A. Arteaga, and Andreas Oschlies
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 4663–4690,Short summary
The stoichiometry of marine biotic processes is important for the regulation of atmospheric CO2 and hence the global climate. We replace a simplistic, fixed-stoichiometry plankton module in an Earth system model with an optimal-regulation model with variable stoichiometry. Our model compares better to the observed carbon transfer from the surface to depth and surface nutrient distributions. This work could aid our ability to describe and project the role of marine ecosystems in the Earth system.
Peter A. Bogenschutz, Shuaiqi Tang, Peter M. Caldwell, Shaocheng Xie, Wuyin Lin, and Yao-Sheng Chen
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 4443–4458,Short summary
This paper documents a tool that has been developed that can be used to accelerate the development and understanding of climate models. This version of the model, known as a the single-column model, is much faster to run than the full climate model, and we demonstrate that this tool can be used to quickly exploit model biases that arise due to physical processes. We show examples of how this single-column model can directly benefit the field.
Ying Liu, Rodrigo Caballero, and Joy Merwin Monteiro
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 4399–4412,Short summary
The calculation of atmospheric radiative transfer is the most computationally expensive part of climate models. Reducing this computational burden could potentially improve our ability to simulate the earth's climate at finer scales. We propose using a statistical model – a deep neural network – to compute approximate radiative transfer in the earth's atmosphere. We demonstrate a significant reduction in computational burden as compared to a traditional scheme, especially when using GPUs.
Lars Nerger, Qi Tang, and Longjiang Mu
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 4305–4321,Short summary
Data assimilation combines observations with numerical models to get an improved estimate of the model state. This work discusses the technical aspects of how a coupled model that simulates the ocean and the atmosphere can be augmented by data assimilation functionality provided in generic form by the open-source software PDAF (Parallel Data Assimilation Framework). A very efficient program is obtained that can be executed on high-performance computers.
Christof G. Beer, Johannes Hendricks, Mattia Righi, Bernd Heinold, Ina Tegen, Silke Groß, Daniel Sauer, Adrian Walser, and Bernadett Weinzierl
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 4287–4303,Short summary
Mineral dust aerosol plays an important role in the climate system. Previously, dust emissions have often been represented in global models by prescribed monthly-mean emission fields representative of a specific year. We now apply an online calculation of wind-driven dust emissions. This results in an improved agreement with observations, due to a better representation of the highly variable dust emissions. Increasing the model resolution led to an additional performance gain.
Nadine Mengis, David P. Keller, Andrew H. MacDougall, Michael Eby, Nesha Wright, Katrin J. Meissner, Andreas Oschlies, Andreas Schmittner, Alexander J. MacIsaac, H. Damon Matthews, and Kirsten Zickfeld
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 4183–4204,Short summary
In this paper, we evaluate the newest version of the University of Victoria Earth System Climate Model (UVic ESCM 2.10). Combining recent model developments as a joint effort, this version is to be used in the next phase of model intercomparison and climate change studies. The UVic ESCM 2.10 is capable of reproducing changes in historical temperature and carbon fluxes well. Additionally, the model is able to reproduce the three-dimensional distribution of many ocean tracers.
Axel Lauer, Veronika Eyring, Omar Bellprat, Lisa Bock, Bettina K. Gier, Alasdair Hunter, Ruth Lorenz, Núria Pérez-Zanón, Mattia Righi, Manuel Schlund, Daniel Senftleben, Katja Weigel, and Sabrina Zechlau
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 4205–4228,Short summary
The Earth System Model Evaluation Tool is a community software tool designed for evaluation and analysis of climate models. New features of version 2.0 include analysis scripts for important large-scale features in climate models, diagnostics for extreme events, regional model and impact evaluation. In this paper, newly implemented climate metrics, emergent constraints for climate-relevant feedbacks and diagnostics for future model projections are described and illustrated with examples.
Brecht Martens, Dominik L. Schumacher, Hendrik Wouters, Joaquín Muñoz-Sabater, Niko E. C. Verhoest, and Diego G. Miralles
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 4159–4181,Short summary
Climate reanalyses are widely used in different fields and an in-depth evaluation of the different variables provided by reanalyses is a necessary means to provide feedback on the quality to their users and the operational centres producing these data sets. In this study, we show the improvements of ECMWF's latest climate reanalysis (ERA5) upon its predecessor (ERA-Interim) in partitioning the available energy at the land surface.
Arthur P. K. Argles, Jonathan R. Moore, Chris Huntingford, Andrew J. Wiltshire, Anna B. Harper, Chris D. Jones, and Peter M. Cox
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 4067–4089,Short summary
The Robust Ecosystem Demography (RED) model simulates cohorts of vegetation through mass classes. RED establishes a framework for representing demographic changes through competition, growth, and mortality across the size distribution of a forest. The steady state of the model can be solved analytically, enabling initialization. When driven by mean growth rates from a land-surface model, RED is able to fit the observed global vegetation map, giving a map of implicit mortality rates.
James A. Franke, Christoph Müller, Joshua Elliott, Alex C. Ruane, Jonas Jägermeyr, Abigail Snyder, Marie Dury, Pete D. Falloon, Christian Folberth, Louis François, Tobias Hank, R. Cesar Izaurralde, Ingrid Jacquemin, Curtis Jones, Michelle Li, Wenfeng Liu, Stefan Olin, Meridel Phillips, Thomas A. M. Pugh, Ashwan Reddy, Karina Williams, Ziwei Wang, Florian Zabel, and Elisabeth J. Moyer
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 3995–4018,Short summary
Improving our understanding of the impacts of climate change on crop yields will be critical for global food security in the next century. The models often used to study the how climate change may impact agriculture are complex and costly to run. In this work, we describe a set of global crop model emulators (simplified models) developed under the Agricultural Model Intercomparison Project. Crop model emulators make agricultural simulations more accessible to policy or decision makers.
Miguel Nogueira, Clément Albergel, Souhail Boussetta, Frederico Johannsen, Isabel F. Trigo, Sofia L. Ermida, João P. A. Martins, and Emanuel Dutra
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 3975–3993,Short summary
We used earth observations to evaluate and improve the representation of land surface temperature (LST) and vegetation coverage over Iberia in CHTESSEL and SURFEX land surface models. We demonstrate the added value of updating the vegetation types and fractions together with the representation of vegetation coverage seasonality. Results show a large reduction in daily maximum LST systematic error during warm months, with neutral impacts in other seasons.
Qiong Zhang, Qiang Li, Qiang Zhang, Ellen Berntell, Josefine Axelsson, Jie Chen, Zixuan Han, Wesley de Nooijer, Zhengyao Lu, Klaus Wyser, and Shuting Yang
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for GMDShort summary
Paleoclimate modelling has long been regarded as a strong out-of-sample test-bed of the climate models that are used for the projection of future climate changes. Here, we document the model experiments setup for the three past warm periods with EC-Earth3-LR and present the results on the large-scale features from the completed production simulations. The simulations demonstrate the good performance of the model to capture the climate response under different climate forcings.
Wei-Liang Lee, Yi-Chi Wang, Chein-Jung Shiu, I-chun Tsai, Chia-Ying Tu, Yung-Yao Lan, Jen-Ping Chen, Hua-Lu Pan, and Huang-Hsiung Hsu
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 3887–3904,Short summary
The Taiwan Earth System Model (TaiESM) is a new climate model developed in Taiwan. It includes several new features, and therefore it can better simulate the occurrence of convective rainfall, solar energy received by mountainous surfaces, and more detail chemical processes in aerosols. TaiESM can capture the trend of global warming after 1950 well, and its overall performance in most meteorological quantities is better than the average of global models used in IPCC AR5.
Yaqiong Lu and Xianyu Yang
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for GMDShort summary
Crop growth in land surface models normally requires high temporal resolution climate data, but such high temporal resolution climate data are not provided by many climate model simulations due to expensive storage, which limits modeling choice if there is an interest in a particular climate simulation that only saved monthly outputs. Our work provides an alternative way to use the monthly climate for crop yield projections. Such approach could be easily adopted by other crop models.
John T. Fasullo
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 3627–3642,Short summary
The fidelity of climate model simulations included in the WCRP Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Versions 3 through 6 is evaluated using best estimates of fields considered by the community to be critical for climate change projections. The analysis benchmarks patterns of the mean state and variability (seasonal/interannual) both within and across model generations, highlighting progress and quantifying persisting biases across models.
Yongjun Zheng, Clément Albergel, Simon Munier, Bertrand Bonan, and Jean-Christophe Calvet
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 3607–3625,Short summary
This study proposes a sophisticated dynamically running job scheme as well as an innovative parallel IO algorithm to reduce the time to solution of an offline framework for high-dimensional ensemble Kalman filters. The offline and online modes of ensemble Kalman filters are built to comprehensively assess their time to solution efficiencies. The offline mode is substantially faster than the online mode in terms of time to solution, especially for large-scale assimilation problems.
Malte Meinshausen, Zebedee R. J. Nicholls, Jared Lewis, Matthew J. Gidden, Elisabeth Vogel, Mandy Freund, Urs Beyerle, Claudia Gessner, Alexander Nauels, Nico Bauer, Josep G. Canadell, John S. Daniel, Andrew John, Paul B. Krummel, Gunnar Luderer, Nicolai Meinshausen, Stephen A. Montzka, Peter J. Rayner, Stefan Reimann, Steven J. Smith, Marten van den Berg, Guus J. M. Velders, Martin K. Vollmer, and Ray H. J. Wang
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 3571–3605,Short summary
This study provides the future greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations under the new set of so-called SSP scenarios (the successors of the IPCC SRES and previous representative concentration pathway (RCP) scenarios). The projected CO2 concentrations range from 350 ppm for low-emission scenarios by 2150 to more than 2000 ppm under the high-emission scenarios. We also provide concentrations, latitudinal gradients, and seasonality for most of the other 42 considered GHGs.
Rein Haarsma, Mario Acosta, Rena Bakhshi, Pierre-Antoine Bretonnière, Louis-Philippe Caron, Miguel Castrillo, Susanna Corti, Paolo Davini, Eleftheria Exarchou, Federico Fabiano, Uwe Fladrich, Ramon Fuentes Franco, Javier García-Serrano, Jost von Hardenberg, Torben Koenigk, Xavier Levine, Virna Loana Meccia, Twan van Noije, Gijs van den Oord, Froila M. Palmeiro, Mario Rodrigo, Yohan Ruprich-Robert, Philippe Le Sager, Etienne Tourigny, Shiyu Wang, Michiel van Weele, and Klaus Wyser
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 3507–3527,Short summary
HighResMIP is an international coordinated CMIP6 effort to investigate the improvement in climate modeling caused by an increase in horizontal resolution. This paper describes EC-Earth3P-(HR), which has been developed for HighResMIP. First analyses reveal that increasing resolution does improve certain aspects of the simulated climate but that many other biases still continue, possibly related to phenomena that are still not yet resolved and need to be parameterized.
Maksim Iakunin, Victor Stepanenko, Rui Salgado, Miguel Potes, Alexandra Penha, Maria Helena Novais, and Gonçalo Rodrigues
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 3475–3488,Short summary
The Alqueva reservoir, located in the southeast of Portugal, is the largest artificial reservoir in western Europe. It was established in 2002 to provide water and electrical resources to meet regional needs. Complex research of this reservoir is an essential scientific task in the scope of meteorology, hydrology, biology, and ecology. Two numerical models (namely, LAKE 2.0 and FLake) were used to assess the thermodynamic and biogeochemical regimes of the reservoir over 2 years of observations.
Aichner, B., Herzschuh, U., Wilkes, H., Vieth, A., and Böhner, J.: δD values of n-alkanes in Tibetan lake sediments and aquatic macrophytes – A surface sediment study and application to a 16 ka record from Lake Koucha, Org. Geochem., 41, 779–790, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.orggeochem.2010.05.010, 2010.
Asmussen, P., Conrad, O., Günther, A., Kirsch, M., and Riller, U.: Semi-automatic segmentation of petrographic thin section images using a "seeded-region growing algorithm" with an application to characterize wheathered subarkose sandstone, Comput. Geosci., https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cageo.2015.05.001, in press, 2015.
Bechtel, B.: Multitemporal Landsat data for urban heat island assessment and classification of local climate zones, in: Urban Remote Sensing Event (JURSE), 2011 Joint, Presented at the Urban Remote Sensing Event (JURSE), 2011 Joint, IEEE, 129–132, https://doi.org/10.1109/JURSE.2011.5764736, 2011a.
Bechtel, B.: Multisensorale Fernerkundungsdaten zur mikroklimatischen Beschreibung und Klassifikation urbaner Strukturen, Photogramm.-Fernerkund.-Geoinformation, 2011, 325–338, 2011b.
Bechtel, B.: Robustness of Annual Cycle Parameters to Characterize the Urban Thermal Landscapes, IEEE Geosci. Remote Sens. Lett., 9, 876–880, https://doi.org/10.1109/LGRS.2012.2185034, 2012.
Bechtel, B.: A New Global Climatology of Annual Land Surface Temperature, Remote Sens., 7, 2850–2870, https://doi.org/10.3390/rs70302850, 2015.
Bechtel, B. and Daneke, C.: Classification of Local Climate Zones Based on Multiple Earth Observation Data, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Appl. Earth Obs. Remote Sens., 5, 1191–1202, https://doi.org/10.1109/JSTARS.2012.2189873, 2012.
Bechtel, B. and Schmidt, K. J.: Floristic mapping data as a proxy for the mean urban heat island, Clim. Res., 49, 45–58, https://doi.org/10.3354/cr01009, 2011.
Bechtel, B., Ringeler, A., and Böhner, J.: Segmentation for Object Extraction of Trees using MATLAB and SAGA, in: SAGA – Seconds Out, Hamburger Beiträge Zur Physischen Geographie Und Landschaftsökologie. Univ. Hamburg, Inst. für Geographie, 1–12, 2008.
Bechtel, B., Langkamp, T., Ament, F., Böhner, J., Daneke, C., Günzkofer, R., Leitl, B., Ossenbrügge, J., and Ringeler, A.: Towards an urban roughness parameterisation using interferometric SAR data taking the Metropolitan Region of Hamburg as an example, Meteorol. Z., 20, 29–37, https://doi.org/10.1127/0941-2948/2011/0496, 2011.
Bechtel, B., Daneke, C., Langkamp, T., Oßenbrügge, J., and Böhner, J.: Classification of Local Climate Zones from multitemporal remote sensing data, in: Proceedings ICUC8 – 8th International Conference on Urban Climates. Presented at the 8th International Conference on Urban Climates, 06–10 August 2012, UCD, Dublin Ireland, 2012a.
Bechtel, B., Langkamp, T., Böhner, J., Daneke, C., Oßenbrügge, J., and Schempp, S.: Classification and modelling of urban micro-climates using multitemporal remote sensing data, ISPRS – Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spat. Inf. Sci. XXXIX-B8, 463–468, https://doi.org/10.5194/isprsarchives-XXXIX-B8-463-2012, 2012b.
Bechtel, B., Zakšek, K., and Hoshyaripour, G.: Downscaling Land Surface Temperature in an Urban Area: A Case Study for Hamburg, Germany, Remote Sens., 4, 3184–3200, https://doi.org/10.3390/rs4103184, 2012c.
Bechtel, B., Böhner, J., Zakšek, K., and Wiesner, S.: Downscaling of diurnal land surface temperature cycles for urban heat island monitoring, in: Urban Remote Sensing Event (JURSE), 2013 Joint, Presented at the Urban Remote Sensing Event (JURSE), 2013 Joint, IEEE, 2013.
Bechtel, B., Wiesner, S., and Zaksek, K.: Estimation of Dense Time Series of Urban Air Temperatures from Multitemporal Geostationary Satellite Data, J. Sel. Top. Appl. Earth Obs. Remote Sens., 7, 4129–4137, https://doi.org/10.1109/JSTARS.2014.2322449, 2014.
Bechtel, B., Alexander, P. J., Böhner, J., Ching, J., Conrad, O., Feddema, J., Mills, G., See, L., and Stewart, I.: Mapping Local Climate Zones for a Worldwide Database of the Form and Function of Cities, ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf., 4, 199–219, https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi4010199, 2015.
Behrens, T. and Scholten, T.: Digital soil mapping in Germany – a review, J. Plant Nutr. Soil Sci., 169, 434–443, 2006.
Bernardini, F., Sgambati, A., Montagnari Kokelj, M., Zaccaria, C., Micheli, R., Fragiacomo, A., Tiussi, C., Dreossi, D., Tuniz, C., and De Min, A.: Airborne LiDAR application to karstic areas: the example of Trieste province (north-eastern Italy) from prehistoric sites to Roman forts, J. Archaeol. Sci., 40, 2152–2160, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2012.12.029, 2013.
Bivand, R. S.: 14 GeoComputation and Open-Source Software, in: GeoComputation, CRC Press, 329 pp., 2014.
Blaschke, T.: Object based image analysis for remote sensing, ISPRS J. Photogramm. Remote Sens., 65, 2–16, 2010.
Bock, M. and Köthe, R.: Predicting the Depth of Hydromorphic Soil Characteristics Influenced by Ground Water, 2008.
Bock, M., Böhner, J., Conrad, O., Köthe, R., and Ringeler, A.: Methods for creating Functional Soil Databases and applying Digital Soil Mapping with SAGA GIS, JRC Sci. Tech. Rep. EUR 22646 EN, 2007a.
Bock, M., Conrad, O., Köthe, R., and Ringeler, A.: Methods for creating functional soil databases and applying digital soil mapping with SAGA GIS, in: Status and Prospect of Soil Information in South-Eastern Europe: Soil Databases, Projects and Applications, European Communities, Luxembourg, 149–162, 2007b.
Bock, M., Böhner, J., Conrad, O., Köthe, R., and Ringeler, A.: Methods for creating Functional Soil Databases and applying Digital Soil Mapping with SAGA GIS, 2007c.
Bock, M., Günther, A., Ringeler, A., Baritz, R., and Böhner, J.: Assessment of soil parent material formation in periglacial environments through medium scale landscape evolution modelling, Geophys. Res. Abstr., p. 8796, EGU2012-8796, EGU General Assembly 2012, Vienna, Austria, 2012.
Böhner, J.: Regionalisierung bodenrelevanter Klimaparameter für das Niedersächsische Landes-amt für Bodenforschung (NLfB) und die Bundesanstalt für Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR), Arbeitshefte Boden, 4, 17–66, 2004.
Böhner, J.: Advancements and new approaches in climate spatial prediction and environmental modelling, Arbeitsberichte Geogr. Inst. HU Zu Berl., 109, 49–90, 2005.
Böhner, J.: General climatic controls and topoclimatic variations in Central and High Asia, Boreas, 35, 279–295, https://doi.org/10.1080/03009480500456073, 2006.
Böhner, J. and Antonic, O.: Land surface parameters specific to topo-climatology, Geomorphometry-Concepts Softw. Appl., 195–226, 2009.
Böhner, J. and Kickner, S.: Woher der Wind weht, GeoBit, 5, 22–25, 2006.
Böhner, J. and Köthe, R.: Bodenregionalisierung und Prozeßmodellierung: Instrumente für den Bodenschutz, Petermann. Geogr. Mitt., 147, 72–82, 2003.
Böhner, J. and Langkamp, T.: Klimawandel und Landschaft – Regionalisierung, Rekonstruktion und Projektion des Klima- und Landschaftswandels Zentral- und Hochasiens, Hambg. Symp. Geogr., 2, 27–49, 2010.
Böhner, J. and Lehmkuhl, F.: Climate and Environmental Change Modelling in Central and High Asia, Boreas, 34, 220–231, 2005.
Böhner, J. and Selige, T.: Spatial prediction of soil attributes using terrain analysis and climate regionalisation, in: SAGA – Analysis and Modelling Applications, Göttinger Geographische Abhandlungen, Göttingen, 13–28, 2006.
Böhner, J., Köthe, R., Conrad, O., Gross, J., Ringeler, A., and Selige, T.: Soil regionalisation by means of terrain analysis and process parameterisation, Soil Classif., European Soil Bureau, Research Report 7, 213–222, 2002.
Böhner, J., Schäfer, W., Conrad, O., Gross, J., and Ringeler, A.: The WEELS model: methods, results and limitations, Catena, 52, 289–308, 2003.
Böhner, J., Dietrich, H., Fraedrich, K., Kawohl, T., Kilian, M., Lucarini, V., and Lunkeit, F.: Development and Implementation of a Hierarchical Model Chain for Modelling Regional Climate Variability and Climate Change over Southern Amazonia, in: Interdisciplinary Analysis and Modeling of Carbon-Optimized Land Management Strategies for Southern Amazonia, edite by: Gerold, G., Jungkunst, H. F., Wantzen, K. M., Schönenberg, R., Amorim, R. S. S., Couto, E. G., Madari, B., and Hohnwald, S., Universitätsdrucke Göttingen, Göttingen, 174 pp., 2014.
Bolch, T.: GIS- und fernerkundungsgestützte Analyse und Visualisierung von Klima- und Gletscheränderungen im nördlichen Tien Shan (Kasachstan/Kyrgyzstan): mit einem Vergleich zur Bernina-Gruppe, Alpen, Dissertation, Faculty of Science of the Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nuernberg, Germany, 210 pp., 2006.
Bolch, T.: Climate change and glacier retreat in northern Tien Shan (Kazakhstan/Kyrgyzstan) using remote sensing data, Glob. Planet. Change, 56, 1–12, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloplacha.2006.07.009, 2007.
Bolch, T. and Kamp, U.: Glacier Mapping in High Mountains Using DEMs, Landsat and ASTER Data, Grazer Schriften Geogr. Raumforsch., Grazer Schriften der Geographie und Raumforschung 41, 37–48, 2006.
Boettinger, J. L.: Digital Soil Mapping: Bridging Research, Environmental Application, and Operation, Springer Science & Business Media, 2010.
Brenning, A.: Statistical geocomputing combining R and SAGA: The example of landslide susceptibility analysis with generalized additive models, SAGA–Seconds Hambg, Beitr. Zur Phys. Geogr. Landschaftsökologie 19, 23–32, 2008.
Brenning, A.: Benchmarking classifiers to optimally integrate terrain analysis and multispectral remote sensing in automatic rock glacier detection, Remote Sens. Environ., 113, 239–247, 2009.
Brenning, A., Long, S., and Fieguth, P.: Detecting rock glacier flow structures using Gabor filters and IKONOS imagery, Remote Sens. Environ., 125, 227–237, 2012.
Chang, C.-C. and Lin, C.-J.: LIBSVM: a library for support vector machines, ACM Transa. Int. Sys. Technol. (ACM TIST), 2, 1–27, 2011.
Conrad, O.: SAGA – Entwurf, Funktionsumfang und Anwendung eines Systems für Automatisierte Geowissenschaftliche Analysen, Dissertation, Faculties Natural Sciences, Mathematics and Informatics, Faculty of Geosciences and Geography, 221 pp., 2007.
Conrad, O., Jens-Peter, K., Michael, B., Gerhard, G., and Bohner, J.: Soil degradation risk assessment integrating terrain analysis and soil spatial prediction methods, GEOOKO-Bensh., 27, 165–174, 2006.
Czech, A.: GIS-gestützte morphometrische Analyse von Okklusalflächen mit SAGA GIS, Unpublished BSc thesis, University of Hamburg, Faculty of Earth Sciences, Institute of Geographie, Sect. Physical Geography, Hamburg, 2010.
Czegka, W. and Junge, F. W.: The use of SAGA as a mobile Field-Tool in the environmental Geochemistry, in: SAGA – Seconds Out, Hamburger Beiträge Zur Physischen Geographie Und Landschaftsökologie, Univ. Hamburg, Inst. für Geographie, Hamburg, 33–36, 2008.
Dietrich, H. and Böhner, J.: Cold Air Production and Flow in a Low Mountain Range Landscape in Hessia (Germany), in: SAGA – Seconds Out, Hamburger Beiträge Zur Physischen Geographie Und Landschaftsökologie, Univ. Hamburg, Inst. für Geographie, Hamburg, 37–48, 2008.
Enea, A., Romanescu, G., and Stoleriu, C.: Quantitative considerations concerning the source-areas for the silting of the red lake (Romania) lacustrine basin, in: Water Resources and Wetlands, Tulcea, Romania, 14–16, 2012.
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Fader, M., Böhner, J., and Gerold, G.: Precipitation Variability and Landscape Degradation in Rio Negro (Argentina), Geo-Öko, 33, 5–33, 2012.
Fenoy, G., Bozon, N., and Raghavan, V.: ZOO-Project: the open WPS platform, Appl. Geomat., 5, 19–24, 2013.
Fey, C., Zangerl, C., Wichmann, V., and Prager, C.: Back-Calculation of Medium-Scale Rockfalls Using an Empirical GIS Model, Int. Symp. Rock Slope Stab. Open Pit Min. Civ. Eng. Vancover Can, 2011.
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Gerlitz, L.: Using fuzzified regression trees for statistical downscaling and regionalization of near surface temperatures in complex terrain, Theor. Appl. Climatol., 118, 1–16, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00704-014-1285-x, 2014.
Gerlitz, L., Conrad, O., Thomas, A., and Böhner, J.: Assessment of Warming Patterns for the Tibetan Plateau and its adjacent Lowlands based on an elevation- and bias corrected ERA-Interim Data Set, Clim. Res., 58, 235–246, https://doi.org/10.3354/cr01193, 2014.
Gerlitz, L., Conrad, O., and Böhner, J.: Large-scale atmospheric forcing and topographic modification of precipitation rates over High Asia – a neural-network-based approach, Earth Syst. Dynam., 6, 61–81, https://doi.org/10.5194/esd-6-61-2015, 2015.
Goetz, J. N., Guthrie, R. H., and Brenning, A.: Integrating physical and empirical landslide susceptibility models using generalized additive models, Geomorphology, 129, 376–386, 2011.
Grabs, T. J., Jencso, K. G., McGlynn, B. L., and Seibert, J.: Calculating terrain indices along streams: A new method for separating stream sides, Water Resour. Res., 46, W12536, https://doi.org/10.1029/2010WR009296, 2010.
Günther, A.: SLOPEMAP: programs for automated mapping of geometrical and kinematical properties of hard rock hill slopes, Comput. Geosci., 29, 865–875, 2003.
Günther, A., Carstensen, A., and Pohl, W.: Automated sliding susceptibility mapping of rock slopes, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 4, 95–102, https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-4-95-2004, 2004.
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The System for Automated Geoscientific Analyses (SAGA) is a comprehensive and globally established open source geographic information system (GIS) for scientific analysis and modeling. The current version 2.1.4 offers more than 700 tools that represent the broad scopes of SAGA in numerous fields of geoscientific endeavor. In this paper, we inform about the system’s architecture and functionality and highlight the wide spectrum of scientific applications of SAGA in a review of published studies.
The System for Automated Geoscientific Analyses (SAGA) is a comprehensive and globally...