Articles | Volume 6, issue 4
Geosci. Model Dev., 6, 875–882, 2013
© Author(s) 2013. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Model evaluation paper 03 Jul 2013
Model evaluation paper | 03 Jul 2013
Forecasts covering one month using a cut-cell model
J. Steppeler et al.
No articles found.
Erika Médus, Emma D. Thomassen, Danijel Belušić, Petter Lind, Peter Berg, Jens H. Christensen, Ole B. Christensen, Andreas Dobler, Erik Kjellström, Jonas Olsson, and Wei Yang
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 693–711,Short summary
We evaluate the skill of a regional climate model, HARMONIE-Climate, to capture the present-day characteristics of heavy precipitation in the Nordic region and investigate the added value provided by a convection-permitting model version. The higher model resolution improves the representation of hourly heavy- and extreme-precipitation events and their diurnal cycle. The results indicate the benefits of convection-permitting models for constructing climate change projections over the region.
Danijel Belušić, Hylke de Vries, Andreas Dobler, Oskar Landgren, Petter Lind, David Lindstedt, Rasmus A. Pedersen, Juan Carlos Sánchez-Perrino, Erika Toivonen, Bert van Ulft, Fuxing Wang, Ulf Andrae, Yurii Batrak, Erik Kjellström, Geert Lenderink, Grigory Nikulin, Joni-Pekka Pietikäinen, Ernesto Rodríguez-Camino, Patrick Samuelsson, Erik van Meijgaard, and Minchao Wu
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 1311–1333,Short summary
A new regional climate modelling system, HCLIM38, is presented and shown to be applicable in different regions ranging from the tropics to the Arctic. The main focus is on climate simulations at horizontal resolutions between 1 and 4 km, the so-called convection-permitting scales, even though the model can also be used at coarser resolutions. The benefits of simulating climate at convection-permitting scales are shown and are particularly evident for climate extremes.
Cristian Lussana, Ole Einar Tveito, Andreas Dobler, and Ketil Tunheim
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 1531–1551,Short summary
seNorge_2018 is a collection of observational gridded datasets for daily total precipitation and daily mean, minimum, and maximum temperature for the Norwegian mainland covering the time period from 1957 to the present day. The fields have 1 km of grid spacing. The data are used for applications in climatology, hydrology, and meteorology. seNorge_2018 provides a "gridded truth", especially in data-dense regions. The uncertainty increases with decreasing data density.
Stefan Liersch, Julia Tecklenburg, Henning Rust, Andreas Dobler, Madlen Fischer, Tim Kruschke, Hagen Koch, and Fred Fokko Hattermann
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 2163–2185,Short summary
Application-oriented regional impact studies require accurate simulations of future climate variables and water availability. We analyse the quality of global and regional climate projections and discuss potentials of correction methods that partly overcome this quality issue. The model ensemble used in this study projects increasing average annual discharges and a shift in seasonal patterns, with decreasing discharges in June and July and increasing discharges from August to November.
Abdelkader Mezghani, Andreas Dobler, Jan Erik Haugen, Rasmus E. Benestad, Kajsa M. Parding, Mikołaj Piniewski, Ignacy Kardel, and Zbigniew W. Kundzewicz
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 9, 905–925,Short summary
Projected changes estimated from an ensemble of nine model simulations showed that annual means of temperature are expected to increase steadily by 1 °C until 2021–2050 and by 2 °C until 2071–2100 assuming the RCP4.5, which is accelerating assuming the RCP8.5 scenario and can reach up to almost 4 °C by 2071–2100. Similarly to temperature, projected changes in regional annual means of precipitation are expected to increase by 6 to 10 % and by 8 to 16 % for the two future horizons and RCPs.
Andreas Dobler, Jan Erik Haugen, and Rasmus Emil Benestad
Earth Syst. Dynam. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript has not been submitted
Young-Ha Kim, Hye-Yeong Chun, Sang-Hun Park, In-Sun Song, and Hyun-Joo Choi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 4799–4815,Short summary
We investigated the characteristics of atmospheric gravity waves that are generated in a baroclinic life cycle simulation using a high-resolution global model. We analysed the spatiotemporal scales, vertical-propagation aspects, and sources of the gravity waves as well as their phase-velocity spectrum. The wave characteristics investigated in this study are crucial information for parameterizing gravity waves in large-scale models.
N. Akhtar, J. Brauch, A. Dobler, K. Béranger, and B. Ahrens
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 14, 2189–2201,
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Jessica Keune, Dominik L. Schumacher, and Diego G. Miralles
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 1875–1898,Short summary
Air transports moisture and heat, shaping the weather we experience. When and where was this air moistened and warmed by the surface? To address this question, atmospheric models trace the history of air parcels in space and time. However, their uncertainties remain unexplored, which hinders their utility and application. Here, we present a framework that sheds light on these uncertainties. Our approach sets a new standard in the assessment of atmospheric moisture and heat trajectories.
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 1769–1788,Short summary
In an effort to improve air quality forecasting, the WRFDA 3D-Var system is newly extended for the assimilation of surface PM2.5 and PM10 using the RACM/MADE-VBS chemistry in the WRF-Chem model. Through a case study during the Korea–United States Air Quality (KORUS-AQ) period, it is demonstrated that the analysis can lead to improving the prediction of surface PM concentrations up to 26 % for 24 h, diminishing most bias errors.
Michael T. Kiefer, Warren E. Heilman, Shiyuan Zhong, Joseph J. Charney, Xindi Bian, Nicholas S. Skowronski, Kenneth L. Clark, Michael R. Gallagher, John L. Hom, and Matthew Patterson
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 1713–1734,Short summary
We examine methods used to represent wildland fire sensible heat release in atmospheric models. A set of simulations are evaluated using observations from a low-intensity prescribed fire in the New Jersey Pine Barrens. The comparison is motivated by the need for guidance regarding the representation of low-intensity fire sensible heating in atmospheric models. Such fires are prevalent during prescribed fire operations and can impact the health and safety of fire personnel and the public.
Lu Shen, Daniel J. Jacob, Mauricio Santillana, Kelvin Bates, Jiawei Zhuang, and Wei Chen
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 1677–1687,Short summary
The high computational cost of chemical integration is a long-standing limitation in global atmospheric chemistry models. Here we present an adaptive and efficient algorithm that can reduce the computational time of atmospheric chemistry by 50 % and maintain the error below 2 % for important species, inspired by machine learning clustering techniques and traditional asymptotic analysis ideas.
Baolei Lyu, Ran Huang, Xinlu Wang, Weiguo Wang, and Yongtao Hu
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 1583–1594,Short summary
Data fusion is used to estimate spatially completed and smooth reanalysis fields from multiple data sources of observations and model simulations. We developed a well-designed deep-learning model framework to embed spatial correlation principles of atmospheric physics and chemical models. The deep-learning model has very high accuracy to predict reanalysis data fields from isolated observation data points. It is also feasible for operational applications due to computational efficiency.
Wim C. de Rooy, Pier Siebesma, Peter Baas, Geert Lenderink, Stephan R. de Roode, Hylke de Vries, Erik van Meijgaard, Jan Fokke Meirink, Sander Tijm, and Bram van 't Veen
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 1513–1543,Short summary
This paper describes a comprehensive model update to the boundary layer schemes. Because the involved parameterisations are all built on widely applied frameworks, the here-described modifications are applicable to many NWP and climate models. The model update contains substantial modifications to the cloud, turbulence, and convection schemes and leads to a substantial improvement of several aspects of the model, especially low cloud forecasts.
Francisco J. Pérez-Invernón, Heidi Huntrieser, Patrick Jöckel, and Francisco J. Gordillo-Vázquez
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 1545–1565,Short summary
This study reports the first parameterization of long-continuing-current lightning in a climate model. Long-continuing-current lightning is proposed to be the main precursor of lightning-ignited wildfires and sprites, a type of transient luminous event taking place in the mesosphere. This parameterization can significantly contribute to improving the implementation of wildfires in climate models.
Augustin Colette, Laurence Rouïl, Frédérik Meleux, Vincent Lemaire, and Blandine Raux
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 1441–1465,Short summary
We introduce the first toolbox that allows exploration of the benefits of air pollution mitigation scenarios in the every-day air quality forecasts through a web interface. The toolbox relies on the joint use of chemistry-transport models (CTMs) and surrogate modelling techniques.
Cheng-Hsuan Lu, Quanhua Liu, Shih-Wei Wei, Benjamin T. Johnson, Cheng Dang, Patrick G. Stegmann, Dustin Grogan, Guoqing Ge, Ming Hu, and Michael Lueken
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 1317–1329,Short summary
This article is a technical note on the aerosol absorption and scattering calculations of the Community Radiative Transfer Model (CRTM) v2.2 and v2.3. It also provides guidance for prospective users of the CRTM aerosol option and Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) aerosol-aware radiance assimilation. Scientific aspects of aerosol-affected BT in atmospheric data assimilation are also briefly discussed.
Penelope Maher and Paul Earnshaw
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 1177–1194,Short summary
Climate models do a pretty good job. But they are far from perfect. Fixing these imperfections is really hard because the models are complicated. One way to make progress is to create simpler models: think impressionism rather than realism in the art world. We changed the Met Office model to be intentionally simple and it still does a pretty good job. This will help to identify sources of model imperfections, develop new methods and improve our understanding of how the climate works.
Lukas Bösiger, Michael Sprenger, Maxi Boettcher, Hanna Joos, and Tobias Günther
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 1079–1096,Short summary
Jet streams are coherent air flows that interact with atmospheric structures such as warm conveyor belts (WCBs) and the tropopause. Individually, these structures have a significant impact on the weather evolution. A first step towards a deeper understanding of the meteorological processes is to extract jet stream core lines, for which we develop a novel feature extraction algorithm. Based on the line geometry, we automatically detect and visualize potential interactions between WCBs and jets.
Philipp Franke, Anne Caroline Lange, and Hendrik Elbern
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 1037–1060,Short summary
The paper proposes an ensemble-based analysis framework (ESIAS-chem) for time- and altitude-resolved volcanic ash emission fluxes and their uncertainty. The core of the algorithm is an ensemble Nelder–Mead optimization algorithm accompanied by a particle filter update. The performed notional experiments demonstrate the high accuracy of ESIAS-chem in analyzing the vertically resolved volcanic ash in the atmosphere. Further, the system is in general able to estimate the emission fluxes properly.
Antje Inness, Melanie Ades, Dimitris Balis, Dmitry Efremenko, Johannes Flemming, Pascal Hedelt, Maria-Elissavet Koukouli, Diego Loyola, and Roberto Ribas
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 971–994,Short summary
This paper describes the way that the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS) produces forecasts of volcanic SO2. These forecasts are provided routinely every day. They are created by blending SO2 data from satellite instruments (TROPOMI and GOME-2) with the CAMS model. We show that the quality of the CAMS SO2 forecasts can be improved if additional information about the height of volcanic plumes is provided in the satellite data.
Ming Chang, Jiachen Cao, Qi Zhang, Weihua Chen, Guotong Wu, Liping Wu, Weiwen Wang, and Xuemei Wang
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 787–801,Short summary
Despite the importance of nitrogen deposition, its simulation is still insufficiently represented in current atmospheric chemistry models. In this study, the improvement of the canopy stomatal resistance mechanism and the nitrogen-limiting schemes in Noah-MP-WDDM v1.42 give new options for simulating nitrogen dry deposition velocity. This study finds that the combined BN-23 mechanism agrees better with the observed NO2 dry deposition velocity, with the mean bias reduced by 50.1 %.
Jinfang Yin, Xudong Liang, Hong Wang, and Haile Xue
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 771–786,Short summary
An ensemble (EN) approach was designed to improve autoconversion (ATC) from cloud water to rainwater in cloud microphysics schemes. One unique feature of the EN approach is that the ATC rate is a mean value based on the calculations from several widely used ATC schemes. The ensemble approach proposed herein appears to help improve the representation of cloud and precipitation processes in weather and climate models.
Julian F. Quinting and Christian M. Grams
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 715–730,Short summary
Physical processes in weather systems importantly affect the midlatitude large-scale circulation. This study introduces an artificial-intelligence-based framework which allows the identification of an important weather system – the so-called warm conveyor belt (WCB) – at comparably low computational costs and from data at low spatial and temporal resolution. The framework thus newly enables the systematic investigation of WCBs in large data sets such as climate model projections.
Julian F. Quinting, Christian M. Grams, Annika Oertel, and Moritz Pickl
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 731–744,Short summary
This study applies novel artificial-intelligence-based models that allow the identification of one specific weather system which affects the midlatitude circulation. We show that the models yield similar results as their trajectory-based counterpart, which requires data at higher spatiotemporal resolution and is computationally more expensive. Overall, we aim to show how deep learning methods can be used efficiently to support process understanding of biases in weather prediction models.
David F. Baker, Emily Bell, Kenneth J. Davis, Joel F. Campbell, Bing Lin, and Jeremy Dobler
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 649–668,Short summary
The OCO-2 satellite measures many closely spaced column-averaged CO2 values around its orbit. To give these data proper weight in flux inversions, their error correlations must be accounted for. Here we lay out a 1-D error model with correlations that die out exponentially along-track to do so. A correlation length scale of ∼20 km is derived from column CO2 measurements from an airborne lidar flown underneath OCO-2 for use in this model. The model's performance is compared to previous ones.
Matthias Göbel, Stefano Serafin, and Mathias W. Rotach
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 669–681,Short summary
We present WRFlux, an open-source software that allows numerically consistent, time-averaged budget evaluation of prognostic variables for the numerical weather prediction model WRF as well as the transformation of the budget equations from the terrain-following grid of the model to the Cartesian coordinate system. We demonstrate the performance and a possible application of WRFlux and illustrate the detrimental effects of approximations that are inconsistent with the model numerics.
Jingmin Li, Johannes Hendricks, Mattia Righi, and Christof G. Beer
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 509–533,Short summary
The growing complexity of global aerosol models results in a large number of parameters that describe the aerosol number, size, and composition. This makes the analysis, evaluation, and interpretation of the model results a challenge. To overcome this difficulty, we apply a machine learning classification method to identify clusters of specific aerosol types in global aerosol simulations. Our results demonstrate the spatial distributions and characteristics of these identified aerosol clusters.
Camilo Fernando Rodríguez Genó and Léster Alfonso
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 493–507,Short summary
The representation of the collision–coalescence process in models of different scales has been a great source of uncertainty for many years. The aim of this paper is to show that machine learning techniques can be a useful tool in order to incorporate this process by emulating the explicit treatment of microphysics. Our results show that the machine learning parameterization mimics the evolution of actual droplet size distributions very well.
Li Zhang, Georg A. Grell, Stuart A. McKeen, Ravan Ahmadov, Karl D. Froyd, and Daniel Murphy
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 467–491,Short summary
Applying the chemistry package from WRF-Chem into the Flow-following finite-volume Icosahedra Model, we essentially make it possible to explore the importance of different levels of complexity in gas and aerosol chemistry, as well as in physics parameterizations, for the interaction processes in global modeling systems. The model performance validated by the Atmospheric Tomography Mission aircraft measurements in summer 2016 shows good performance in capturing the aerosol and gas-phase tracers.
Qing Mu, Bruce Rolstad Denby, Eivind Grøtting Wærsted, and Hilde Fagerli
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 449–465,Short summary
Our study has achieved air quality modelling down to 100 m for all of Europe. This solves the current problem that street-level air quality modelling is usually limited to individual cities. With publicly available downscaling proxy data, even regions without their own high-resolution proxy data can obtain air quality maps at 100 m. The work is of significance for air quality mitigation strategies and human health exposure studies.
Almudena García-García, Francisco José Cuesta-Valero, Hugo Beltrami, J. Fidel González-Rouco, and Elena García-Bustamante
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 413–428,Short summary
We study the sensitivity of a regional climate model to resolution and soil scheme changes. Our results show that the use of finer resolutions mainly affects precipitation outputs, particularly in summer due to changes in convective processes. Finer resolutions are associated with larger biases compared with observations. Changing the land surface model scheme affects the simulation of near-surface temperatures, yielding the lowest biases in mean temperature with the most complex soil scheme.
Prabhakar Shrestha, Jana Mendrok, Velibor Pejcic, Silke Trömel, Ulrich Blahak, and Jacob T. Carlin
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 291–313,Short summary
The article focuses on the exploitation of radar polarimetry for model evaluation of stratiform precipitation. The model exhibited a low bias in simulated polarimetric moments at lower levels above the melting layer where snow was found to dominate. This necessitates further research into the missing microphysical processes in these lower levels (e.g. fragmentation due to ice–ice collisions) and use of more reliable snow-scattering models in the forward operator to draw valid conclusions.
Mahtab Majdzadeh, Craig A. Stroud, Christopher Sioris, Paul A. Makar, Ayodeji Akingunola, Chris McLinden, Xiaoyi Zhao, Michael D. Moran, Ihab Abboud, and Jack Chen
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 219–249,Short summary
A new lookup table for aerosol optical properties based on a Mie scattering code was calculated and adopted within an improved version of the photolysis module in the GEM-MACH in-line chemical transport model. The modified version of the photolysis module makes use of online interactive aerosol feedback and applies core-shell parameterizations to the black carbon absorption efficiency based on Bond et al. (2006) to the size bins with black carbon mass fraction of less than 40 %.
Xiaodong Wang, Chun Zhao, Mingyue Xu, Qiuyan Du, Jianqiu Zheng, Yun Bi, Shengfu Lin, and Yali Luo
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 199–218,Short summary
Regional models are widely used to investigate aerosol climatic impacts. However, there are few studies examining the sensitivities of modeling results to regional domain size. In this study, the regional model is used to study the aerosol impacts on the East Asian summer monsoon system and focus on the modeling sensitivities to domain size. This study highlights the important impacts of domain size on regional modeling results of aerosol climatic impacts, which may not be limited to East Asia.
Andrew Zammit-Mangion, Michael Bertolacci, Jenny Fisher, Ann Stavert, Matthew Rigby, Yi Cao, and Noel Cressie
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 45–73,Short summary
We present a framework for estimating the sources and sinks (flux) of carbon dioxide from satellite data. The framework is statistical and yields measures of uncertainty alongside all estimates of flux and other parameters in the underlying model. It also allows us to generate other insights, such as the size of errors and biases in the data. The primary aim of this research was to develop a fully statistical flux inversion framework for use by atmospheric scientists.
Galina Wind, Arlindo M. da Silva, Kerry G. Meyer, Steven Platnick, and Peter M. Norris
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 1–14,Short summary
This is the third paper in series about the Multi-sensor Cloud and Aerosol Retrieval Simulator (MCARS). In this paper we use MCARS to create a set of constraints that might be used to assimilate a new above-cloud aerosol retrieval product developed for the MODIS instrument into a general circulation model. We executed the above-cloud aerosol retrieval over a series of synthetic MODIS granules and found the product to be of excellent quality.
Xueying Yu, Dylan B. Millet, and Daven K. Henze
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 7775–7793,Short summary
We conduct observing system simulation experiments to test how well inverse analyses of high-resolution satellite data from sensors such as TROPOMI can quantify methane emissions. Inversions can improve monthly flux estimates at 25 km even with a spatially biased prior or model transport errors, but results are strongly degraded when both are present. We further evaluate a set of alternate formalisms to overcome limitations of the widely used scale factor approach that arise for missing sources.
Ruili Wu, Christopher W. Tessum, Yang Zhang, Chaopeng Hong, Yixuan Zheng, Xinyin Qin, Shigan Liu, and Qiang Zhang
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 7621–7638,Short summary
Reduced-complexity air quality models are less computationally intensive and easier to use. We developed a reduced-complexity air quality Intervention Model for Air Pollution over China (InMAP-China) to rapidly predict the air quality and estimate the health impacts of emission sources in China. We believe that this work will be of great interest to a broad audience, including environmentalists in China and scientists in relevant fields at both national and local institutes.
Qian Ye, Jie Li, Xueshun Chen, Huansheng Chen, Wenyi Yang, Huiyun Du, Xiaole Pan, Xiao Tang, Wei Wang, Lili Zhu, Jianjun Li, Zhe Wang, and Zifa Wang
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 7573–7604,Short summary
We developed a global tropospheric atmospheric chemistry source–receptor model. This model can quantify the contributions of multiple air pollutants from various source regions in one simulation without introducing the nonlinear error of atmospheric chemistry. The S-R relationships of PM2.5 and O3 from a global high-resolution (0.5° × 0.5°) simulation were given and compared with previous studies. This model will be useful for creating a link between the scientific community and policymakers.
Alan J. Geer, Peter Bauer, Katrin Lonitz, Vasileios Barlakas, Patrick Eriksson, Jana Mendrok, Amy Doherty, James Hocking, and Philippe Chambon
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 7497–7526,Short summary
Satellite observations of radiation from the earth can have strong sensitivity to cloud and precipitation in the atmosphere, with applications in weather forecasting and the development of models. Computing the radiation received at the satellite sensor using radiative transfer theory requires a simulation of the optical properties of a volume containing a large number of cloud and precipitation particles. This article describes the physics used to generate these
Yalda Fatahi, Rostislav Kouznetsov, and Mikhail Sofiev
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 7459–7475,Short summary
Incorporating information on public holidays into anthropogenic sector emissions results in substantial short-term improvement of the chemistry transport model SILAM scores. The largest impact was found for NOx, which is controlled by the changes in the traffic intensity. Certain improvements were also found for other species, but the signal was weaker than that for NOx.
Mohammad Reza Heidari, Zhaoyang Song, Enrico Degregori, Jörg Behrens, and Hendryk Bockelmann
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 7439–7457,Short summary
To improve our understanding of climate system dynamics and their variability, the numerical atmospheric model ECHAM6 is used to simulate a complete glacial cycle over the past 120 000 years. However, performing such simulations takes a long time even on state-of-the-art supercomputers. To accelerate the model simulation, we propose calculating radiative transfer processes in parallel with adiabatic processes in the atmosphere, which reduces the simulation time by nearly half.
Kai Wang, Yang Zhang, Shaocai Yu, David C. Wong, Jonathan Pleim, Rohit Mathur, James T. Kelly, and Michelle Bell
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 7189–7221,Short summary
The two-way coupled WRF-CMAQ model accounting for complex chemistry–meteorology feedbacks has been applied to the long-term predictions of regional meteorology and air quality over the US. The model results show superior performance and importance of chemistry–meteorology feedbacks when compared to the offline coupled WRF and CMAQ simulations, which suggests that feedbacks should be considered along with other factors in developing future model applications to inform policy making.
Santos J. González-Rojí, Martina Messmer, Christoph C. Raible, and Thomas F. Stocker
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for GMDShort summary
Different configurations of physics parameterizations of a regional climate model are tested over southern Peru at fine resolution. The most challenging regions compared to observational data are the slopes of the Andes. Model configurations for Europe and East Africa are not perfectly suitable for southern Peru. The experiment with the Stony-Brook University microphysics scheme and the Grell-Freitas cumulus parameterization is the one providing the most accurate results over Madre de Dios.
Lya Lugon, Jérémy Vigneron, Christophe Debert, Olivier Chrétien, and Karine Sartelet
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 7001–7019,Short summary
The multiscale Street-in-Grid model is used to simulate black carbon (BC) concentrations in streets. To respect street-surface mass balance, particle resuspension is estimated with a new approach based on deposited mass. The contribution of resuspension is low, but non-exhaust emissions from tyre wear may largely contribute to BC concentrations. The impact of the two-way dynamic coupling between scales on BC concentrations varies depending on the street geometry and traffic emission intensity.
Yao Ge, Mathew R. Heal, David S. Stevenson, Peter Wind, and Massimo Vieno
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 7021–7046,Short summary
This study reports the first evaluation of the global EMEP MSC-W ACTM driven by WRF meteorology, with a focus on surface concentrations and wet deposition of reactive N and S species. The model–measurement comparison is conducted both spatially and temporally, covering 10 monitoring networks worldwide. The statistics from the comprehensive evaluations presented in this study support the application of this model framework for global analysis of the budgets and fluxes of reactive N and SIA.
Stelios Myriokefalitakis, Elisa Bergas-Massó, María Gonçalves-Ageitos, Carlos Pérez García-Pando, Twan van Noije, Philippe Le Sager, Akinori Ito, Eleni Athanasopoulou, Athanasios Nenes, Maria Kanakidou, Maarten C. Krol, and Evangelos Gerasopoulos
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for GMDShort summary
We here describe the implementation of atmospheric multiphase processes in the EC-Earth Earth system model. We provide global budgets of oxalate, sulfate, and iron-containing aerosols along with an analysis of the links among atmospheric composition, aqueous-phase processes, and aerosol dissolution, supported by comparison to observations. This work is a first step towards an interactive calculation of the deposition of bioavailable atmospheric iron coupled to the model’s ocean component.
Laurent Menut, Bertrand Bessagnet, Régis Briant, Arineh Cholakian, Florian Couvidat, Sylvain Mailler, Romain Pennel, Guillaume Siour, Paolo Tuccella, Solène Turquety, and Myrto Valari
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 6781–6811,Short summary
The CHIMERE chemistry-transport model is presented in its new version, V2020r1. Many changes are proposed compared to the previous version. These include online modeling, new parameterizations for aerosols, new emissions schemes, a new parameter file format, the subgrid-scale variability of urban concentrations and new transport schemes.
Sebastian Buschow and Petra Friederichs
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 6765–6780,Short summary
When insects fill the lower kilometers of the atmosphere, they get caught in the convergent parts of the wind field. Their concentration visualizes the otherwise invisible circulation on radar images. This study shows how clear-air radar data can be compared to simulated wind fields in terms of scale, anisotropy, and direction. Despite known difficulties with simulating these near-surface wind systems, we find decent agreement between a long-term simulation and the German radar mosaic.
Soon-Young Park, Uzzal Kumar Dash, Jinhyeok Yu, Keiya Yumimoto, Itsushi Uno, and Chul Han Song
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for GMDShort summary
An EnKF was applied to CMAQ for assimilating ground PM2.5 observations from China and South Korea. The EnKF performed better than that without assimilation, and even superior to 3DVAR. The reduced MBs in 24-hour predictions were 48 % and 27 % by improving I.C.s and B.C.s, respectively.
Timothy H. Raupach, Andrey Martynov, Luca Nisi, Alessandro Hering, Yannick Barton, and Olivia Martius
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 6495–6514,Short summary
When simulated thunderstorms are compared to observations or other simulations, a match between overall storm properties is often more important than exact matches to individual storms. We tested a comparison method that uses a thunderstorm tracking algorithm to characterise simulated storms. For May 2018 in Switzerland, the method produced reasonable matches to independent observations for most storm properties, showing its feasibility for summarising simulated storms over mountainous terrain.
Martina Klose, Oriol Jorba, María Gonçalves Ageitos, Jeronimo Escribano, Matthew L. Dawson, Vincenzo Obiso, Enza Di Tomaso, Sara Basart, Gilbert Montané Pinto, Francesca Macchia, Paul Ginoux, Juan Guerschman, Catherine Prigent, Yue Huang, Jasper F. Kok, Ron L. Miller, and Carlos Pérez García-Pando
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 6403–6444,Short summary
Mineral soil dust is a major atmospheric airborne particle type. We present and evaluate MONARCH, a model used for regional and global dust-weather prediction. An important feature of the model is that it allows different approximations to represent dust, ranging from more simplified to more complex treatments. Using these different treatments, MONARCH can help us better understand impacts of dust in the Earth system, such as its interactions with radiation.
Dandan Wei, Hariprasad D. Alwe, Dylan B. Millet, Brandon Bottorff, Michelle Lew, Philip S. Stevens, Joshua D. Shutter, Joshua L. Cox, Frank N. Keutsch, Qianwen Shi, Sarah C. Kavassalis, Jennifer G. Murphy, Krystal T. Vasquez, Hannah M. Allen, Eric Praske, John D. Crounse, Paul O. Wennberg, Paul B. Shepson, Alexander A. T. Bui, Henry W. Wallace, Robert J. Griffin, Nathaniel W. May, Megan Connor, Jonathan H. Slade, Kerri A. Pratt, Ezra C. Wood, Mathew Rollings, Benjamin L. Deming, Daniel C. Anderson, and Allison L. Steiner
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 6309–6329,Short summary
Over the past decade, understanding of isoprene oxidation has improved, and proper representation of isoprene oxidation and isoprene-derived SOA (iSOA) formation in canopy–chemistry models is now recognized to be important for an accurate understanding of forest–atmosphere exchange. The updated FORCAsT version 2.0 improves the estimation of some isoprene oxidation products and is one of the few canopy models currently capable of simulating SOA formation from monoterpenes and isoprene.
Emanuele Emili and Mohammad El Aabaribaoune
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 6291–6308,Short summary
This study presents the latest version of the global ozone reanalysis product developed at Cerfacs. The reanalysis is based on the assimilation of satellite data from the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) in the Météo-France chemical transport model. The results show that the quality of the ozone fields is comparable to current state-of-the-art systems and suggest that IASI provides useful information for ozone reanalyses, especially in the upper troposphere.
Mingshuai Zhang, Chun Zhao, Yuhan Yang, Qiuyan Du, Yonglin Shen, Shengfu Lin, Dasa Gu, Wenjing Su, and Cheng Liu
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 6155–6175,Short summary
Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) can influence atmospheric chemistry and secondary pollutant formation. This study examines the performance of different versions of the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN) in modeling BVOCs and ozone and their sensitivities to vegetation distributions over eastern China. The results suggest more accurate vegetation distribution and measurements of BVOC emission fluxes are needed to reduce the uncertainties.
Hongyi Ding, Le Cao, Haimei Jiang, Wenxing Jia, Yong Chen, and Junling An
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 6135–6153,Short summary
We performed a WRF model study to figure out the mechanism of how the change in minimum eddy diffusivity (Kzmin) in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) closure scheme (ACM2) affects the simulated near-surface temperature in Beijing, China. Moreover, the influence of changing Kzmin on the temperature prediction in areas with different land-use categories was studied. The model performance using a functional-type Kzmin for capturing the temperature change in this area was also clarified.
Andrea Pozzer, Simon Reifenberg, Vinod Kumar, Bruno Franco, Domenico Taraborrelli, Sergy Gromov, Sebastian Ehrhart, Patrick Jöckel, Rolf Sander, Veronica Fall, Simon Rosanka, Vlassis Karydis, Dimitris Akritidis, Tamara Emmerichs, Monica Crippa, Diego Guizzardi, Johannes W. Kaiser, Lieven Clarisse, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Holger Tost, and Alexandra Tsimpidi
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for GMDShort summary
A newly developed set-up of the chemistry general circulation model EMAC (ECHAM5/MESSy for Atmospheric Chemistry) is here evaluated; a comprehensive organic degradation mechanism is used and coupled with a volatility base model. The results show that the model is reproducing most of the tracer and aerosols satisfactorily, although with discrepancies for oxygenated organic gases and that this model configuration can be used for further research in atmospheric chemistry.
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