Articles | Volume 6, issue 3
Geosci. Model Dev., 6, 687–720, 2013

Special issue: The Norwegian Earth System Model: NorESM; basic development,...

Geosci. Model Dev., 6, 687–720, 2013

Model evaluation paper 24 May 2013

Model evaluation paper | 24 May 2013

The Norwegian Earth System Model, NorESM1-M – Part 1: Description and basic evaluation of the physical climate

M. Bentsen1,2, I. Bethke1,2, J. B. Debernard3, T. Iversen3,4,*, A. Kirkevåg3, Ø. Seland3, H. Drange2,5, C. Roelandt1,2, I. A. Seierstad3, C. Hoose4,**, and J. E. Kristjánsson4 M. Bentsen et al.
  • 1Uni Climate, Uni Research Ltd, P.O. Box 7810, 5020 Bergen, Norway
  • 2Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, P.O. Box 7810, 5020 Bergen, Norway
  • 3Norwegian Meteorological Institute, P.O. Box 43, Blindern, 0313 Oslo, Norway
  • 4Dept. of Geosciences, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1047 Blindern, 0315 Oslo, Norway
  • 5Geophysical Institute, University of Bergen, P.O. Box 7803, 5020 Bergen, Norway
  • *now at: ECMWF, Shinfield Park, Reading, RG2 9AX, UK
  • **now at: Institute for Meteorology and Climate Research, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe, Germany

Abstract. The core version of the Norwegian Climate Center's Earth System Model, named NorESM1-M, is presented. The NorESM family of models are based on the Community Climate System Model version 4 (CCSM4) of the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research, but differs from the latter by, in particular, an isopycnic coordinate ocean model and advanced chemistry–aerosol–cloud–radiation interaction schemes. NorESM1-M has a horizontal resolution of approximately 2° for the atmosphere and land components and 1° for the ocean and ice components. NorESM is also available in a lower resolution version (NorESM1-L) and a version that includes prognostic biogeochemical cycling (NorESM1-ME). The latter two model configurations are not part of this paper. Here, a first-order assessment of the model stability, the mean model state and the internal variability based on the model experiments made available to CMIP5 are presented. Further analysis of the model performance is provided in an accompanying paper (Iversen et al., 2013), presenting the corresponding climate response and scenario projections made with NorESM1-M.